Note: This page contains sample records for the topic food hygiene from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: November 12, 2013.
This study examines issues related to foodhygiene and non-hygiene attributes of the foodservice industry, food safety knowledge of diners, and their satisfaction with a foodhygiene disclosure system. Using data collected at four food courts and four hawker centers in Singapore, the results of this study indicate that foodhygiene attributes are a key driver when dining out. Significant
Hwansuk Chris Choi; Tanya MacLaurin; Ju-Eun Cho; Sung-Pil Hahm
Education of food industry personnel in hygiene matters has been recommended as a means of improving food handling practices and thus the safety of food. Provision has been made within the Food Safety Act 1990 for the making of regulations to specify the nature and extent of such training. There is, however, a lack of documentary evidence of improvements in
A PROBLEM THAT IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED OR SIMPLY NOT GIVEN ENOUGH ATTENTION: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient's room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of foodhygiene must be observed on the wards:Maintenance of the cold-hot chainNot only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitorsCleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktopsCleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too. PMID:20200664
The incidence of gastroenteritis on a passenger ship is reviewed and discussed in relation to the agents of infection from stool specimens, the bacteriological condition of food samples, and the practice of galley hygiene.
Studies have shown that domestic knowledge and practices relating to the prevention of food-borne disease may be inadequate and that family outbreaks of food poisoning are numerically very important. The use of the mass media can be beneficial in health education and it could provide “cues to action” helping to improve domestic foodhygiene. Members of the public were questioned
Veterinary services and veterinary education and training must keep pace with the constantly changing patterns of agriculture and food processing. Changes in methods of animal production are associated with many problems of food processing and food quality. Veterinary supervision of the animal feed industry and of meat and distribution is essential. Quality testing of meat, milk, and eggs requires the introduction of suitable routine sampling systems, laboratory procedures, and complex evaluation procedures. Foodhygiene problems have changed in recent years not only as a result of new methods of animal production, but also because of changes in food processing technology and in the presentation of food to the consumer, increased environmental pollution, increased international trade, and increased tourist travel. Food hygienists must adopt an active and progressive policy and change the scope of food control from a purely negative measure into a positive force working towards improved food quality and the avoidance of losses during production. A modern foodhygiene programme should cover all stages of production, processing, and distribution of food and also other ingredients, additives and the water used for production and processing. Veterinarians should also be involved in the registration and licensing of enterprises and this should take into account the premises, the procedures to be used, new techniques in animal husbandry, machines and equipment, etc. In order to facilitate the microbiological analysis of foodstuffs, new mechanized or automated laboratory methods are required, and consideration must be given to adequate sampling techniques.
To identify factors related to food worker hand hygiene practices, we collected (i) observational data on food worker (n 321) hand hygiene practices (hand washing and glove use) and (ii) observational and interview data on factors related to hygiene behavior, such as worker activity, restaurant characteristics, worker food safety training, and the physical and social environment. Results indicated that hand
LAURA R. GREEN; VINCENT RADKE; RYAN MASON; LISA BUSHNELL; DAVID W. REIMANN; JAMES C. MACK; MICHELLE D. MOTSINGER; TAMMI STIGGER; CAROL A. SELMAN
This paper reports the findings of a study which investigated the effectiveness of a foodhygiene training course in Scotland, and discusses the implications these may have for food safety control in the UK and elsewhere. One hundred and eighty-eight individuals who undertook the elementary foodhygiene training course of the Royal Environmental Health Institute of Scotland (REHIS), and a
... A test for the assessment of "hygienic" hand disinfection using rotavirus. J Hosp. Infect. ... Hepatitis A virus: a test method for virucidal activity. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection
To identify factors related to food worker hand hygiene practices, we collected (i) observational data on food worker (n = 321) hand hygiene practices (hand washing and glove use) and (ii) observational and interview data on factors related to hygiene behavior, such as worker activity, restaurant characteristics, worker food safety training, and the physical and social environment. Results indicated that hand washing and glove use were more likely to occur in conjunction with food preparation than with other activities (e.g., handling dirty equipment) and when workers were not busy. Hand washing was more likely to occur in restaurants whose food workers received food safety training, with more than one hand sink, and with a hand sink in the observed worker's sight. Glove use was more likely to occur in chain restaurants and in restaurants with glove supplies in food preparation areas. Hand washing and glove use were also related to each other--hand washing was less likely to occur with activities in which gloves were worn. These findings indicate that a number of factors are related to hand hygiene practices and support suggestions that food worker hand hygiene improvement requires more than food safety education. Instead, improvement programs must be multidimensional and address factors such as those examined in this study. PMID:17388056
Green, Laura R; Radke, Vincent; Mason, Ryan; Bushnell, Lisa; Reimann, David W; Mack, James C; Motsinger, Michelle D; Stigger, Tammi; Selman, Carol A
A foodhygiene training course was offered to 25 members of the public catering committees of seven corporate restaurants. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the course and identify critical topics, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after completing the training course. Results are presented in this article and underscore the importance of training members of public catering committees in addition to food handlers. PMID:17912276
|Objective: A nationwide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of foodhygiene in UK secondary schools. Previous studies have focused on effective strategies in consumer foodhygiene training but there is little research focusing on school-based education. Design: The questionnaire was developed based on the results of in-depth interviews…
Egan, M. B.; Bielby, G.; Eves, A.; Lumbers, M. L.; Raats, M. M.; Adams, M. R.
The hygienic status of stainless steels used for food equipment was investigated by means of the number of residual adhering Bacillus cereus spores after a complete run of soiling and cleaning in place procedure. The 14 materials tested (304, 316 and 430 grades; pickling (2B), bright annealed (2R), and electropolished finishes) were shown to be highly hygienic with slight differences
C Jullien; T Bénézech; B Carpentier; V Lebret; C Faille
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to show how a nation-wide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of foodhygiene in primary schools. The survey determined which information sources were known and used by those responsible for teaching foodhygiene. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Postal questionnaires were distributed to 3,806 primary schools throughout the UK (response rate 23 per cent).
Gill Bielby; Bernadette Egan; Anita Eves; Margaret Lumbers; Monique Raats; Martin Adams
This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the role of foodhygiene training in a strategy to manage food safety.Traditional assumptions that the provision of knowledge alone will lead to changes in attitudes and thus performance has been shown to be ill founded. A multitude of factors relating to the course itself, and events pre- and post-training have been shown
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months-5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11-7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam. PMID:19902795
Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio=2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11–7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam.
Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C.
The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene practices of food handlers in municipal schools of Natal, Brazil, where 27 public schools were evaluated, using a checklist and microbiological analysis of hands. It was found that 74.1% of the handlers did not receive periodic training, 51.9% did not undergo annual health examinations and 100% did not practice proper
Ana Karina Couto Campos; Ângela Maria Soares Cardonha; Liana Bacurau Galvão Pinheiro; Neide Rocha Ferreira; Paulo Roberto Medeiros de Azevedo; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford
Describes a survey of food safety training for staff in the retail, care and catering industry. Training provisions were evaluated against the guidance in the relevant industry guides. Additional information was collected on the managers’ perceptions of and attitudes towards hygiene training. The extent and level of training of the retail butchers, who had to comply with the licensing regulations,
To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety. PMID:22866582
There is a growing recognition of the involvement of the home in several public health and hygiene issues and of the need to promote effective hygiene practices for the home. Hygiene practice in the home includes the categories of personal hygiene, foodhygiene, environmental or surface hygiene, and home health care. This article reviews some of the hygiene risks in
Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio) from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared foodhygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities. Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants.
Background Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12–59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child’s defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother’s and child’s hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child’s bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Results Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged?2 years (adjusted OR 4.55, 95% CI?=?1.08-19.1). Conclusions Overall poor mother’s food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children?2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea.
Fourteen food residues, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel surfaces were detected using a combined assay with adenylate kinase as a cellular marker and ATP bioluminescence. The limit of sensitivity ranged from 0.02 to 708 microg for minced meat and broccoli, respectively. Both methods gave the same detection limit (105 cfu) for E. coli and Staph. aureus on stainless steel surfaces. The combined adenylate kinase-ATP assay is applicable to monitor the hygiene of work surfaces, especially those prone to contamination by meat and vegetable residues. PMID:10849273
The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water management) are evident and should be carefully discussed once more. PMID:19798915
Objective: To evaluate hygiene and dietary habits with respect to the consumption of iodine-rich foods by pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Material and method: A cross-sectional, descriptive, observational, multicenter study was carried out. In 2006, we studied the women in the first trimester of pregnancy who came to the clinics for pregnancy management pertaining to the sexual
Lidia Francés; Teresa Torres; Gemma Falguera; Gemma Prieto de Lamo; Vicenta Gallardo; Rosa Forn
A big challenge for veterinary educators is to stimulate interest in public health medicine and make the curriculum interesting, and relevant, to veterinary students. Veterinary public health encompasses many areas, including zoonosis control, food safety, animal health and biosecurity, animals as sentinels of environmental hazards and the contribution of animal waste to pollution of food and water, so there is no shortage of ammunition for the veterinary educator in the competition for students' attention. Veterinary educators, not the students, will have failed if graduates complete their studies without being convinced of the importance and relevance of veterinary public health. PMID:20128456
Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. PMID:22980014
Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M
An outbreak of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) food poisoning affected 17 of 44 (38·6%) patients interviewed on two hospital wards. A case-control study showed a statistically significant association between the consumption of roast pork and illness (P < 0·01). C. perfringens type A, untypable serotype, was isolated from samples of pre-cooked vacuum sealed pork supplied by a local meat producer.
For the purpose of justification of the hygienic standard for tetracycline-group antibiotics in the food production established in the Russian Federation at more rigid level, than maximum and admissible levels (MAL) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the analysis of data of literature on negative nature of impact of low concentration of these antibiotics on an organism and the environmental conditions and risk for health has been performed. Inadequacy of the accepted admissible daily dose (ADD) accepted by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) on action on selection of resistant E. coli in intestines, for the wide contingent of consumers in connection with ignoring of obvious factors of uncertainty (gastrointestinal dysbiosis, age and individual variations in the microbiota of people synergy with other antibiotics residues in food and indirect impact on an organism through microflora from the natural habitat (resistance genes, modified causative organisms with altered properties).. By the analysis of information received with the use of modern molecular and genetic methods, the role of Subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of tetracyclines as biologically active substances, signaling molecules which, without causing obvious negative consequences in a macroorganism, serve as a major factor of regulation of a transcription in microorganisms and activation of a horizontal gene transfer coding resistance, transferred on conjugative transposons of Tn916-Tn1545 family. Reasonable scientific data on a dominating contribution of minor levels of tetracyclines in globalization in the nature of the most adverse transmissive type of the antibiotic resistance interfaced to formation new bacterial pathotypes, as consequences of irrationally high scales of application in agriculture and strengthened impact on microbic ecosystems of live organisms and objects of habitat are presented. For minimization of this mediated risk for health the need of preservation of operating level of the tetracyclines residues (by < or = 0,01 mg/kg of a product), MAL which were unlike Codex MAL (< or = 0,1-1,2 mg/kg) in a zone of concentrations below 0,1 Misc not capable to initiation of the above described changes has been proved, till up to receipt of new scientific data on influence on macro - or microorganisms of the doses equal or below this value on macro - or microorganisms. PMID:23457984
Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A
There is a growing recognition of the involvement of the home in several public health and hygiene issues and of the need to promote effective hygiene practices for the home. Hygiene practice in the home includes the categories of personal hygiene, foodhygiene, environmental or surface hygiene, and home health care. This article reviews some of the hygiene risks in the home, including the role of cross-contamination via inanimate surfaces and outlines hygiene strategies and guidelines for the home as a means of breaking the chain of cross-contamination. PMID:10586142
The hand hygiene behavior of 400 middle school students (grades 1-3) in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do was studied to determine how stages of change were affected by food safety education, focusing on hand hygiene and general food safety. Subjects were 51.3% male and 44.3% of study subjects were first graders of middle school. Approximately 40% of subjects were at the stage of action, 42.7% were at the stage of contemplation, and 16.4% were at pre-contemplation. The most important factor that influenced proper hand washing was self efficacy (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing was also correlated significantly with positive belief (P < 0.01) and stages of change (P < 0.01). After food safety education by high-school mentors, middle-school students who were in the stages of pre-contemplation (11.1%) and contemplation (88.9%) showed significant progression toward the action stage (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing (P < 0.01) and food safety knowledge (P < 0.05) were also significantly increased after educational intervention. PMID:22586507
Kim, Eun Joo; Pai, Andrew J; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Soon; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Ha, Ae Wha
The hand hygiene behavior of 400 middle school students (grades 1-3) in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do was studied to determine how stages of change were affected by food safety education, focusing on hand hygiene and general food safety. Subjects were 51.3% male and 44.3% of study subjects were first graders of middle school. Approximately 40% of subjects were at the stage of action, 42.7% were at the stage of contemplation, and 16.4% were at pre-contemplation. The most important factor that influenced proper hand washing was self efficacy (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing was also correlated significantly with positive belief (P < 0.01) and stages of change (P < 0.01). After food safety education by high-school mentors, middle-school students who were in the stages of pre-contemplation (11.1%) and contemplation (88.9%) showed significant progression toward the action stage (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing (P < 0.01) and food safety knowledge (P < 0.05) were also significantly increased after educational intervention.
Kim, Eun Joo; Pai, Andrew J.; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Soon; Moon, Hyun-Kyung
... Hygiene Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and Spas Hygiene Etiquette ... Patient Admission Video Division of Oral Health Water Fluoridation Leadership Advocacy, Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water ...
Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 micrograms/dL in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's eating habits and related hygiene behaviors are major hand-to-mouth activities that have been largely overlooked in the study of activities contributing to lead ingestion. To examine this subject, a survey questionnaire for caretakers of young children was developed. The objective of the questionnaire was to characterize food-related activities of young children and to identify behavioral indicators of lead exposure. The association between food- and hygiene-related behaviors and blood lead levels among 60 children between 13 and 36 months old with low-to-moderate blood lead levels was examined in homes that had been identified as containing lead in paint and house dust. The participants were enrolled in the Children's Lead Exposure and Reduction Study in Jersey City, New Jersey. Blood lead levels of children 13-24 months old did not differ significantly from those of children 25-36 months of age (10.1 and 11.3 micrograms/dL, respectively). Differences in eating habits and hygiene behaviors were found for the two age groups. Bivariate analyses found that the primary behavioral indicators of blood lead levels were determined by whether the child prepared his/her own food and whether the child ate food that had been on the floor. This factor was dependent on age. Children 13-24 months old had significantly elevated blood lead levels if these behaviors exhibited. No significant differences were found, however, for children 25-36 months old. Several food-related habits were also associated with blood lead levels. Eating hamburgers, doughnuts, peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, and cold cuts were associated with elevated blood lead levels in 13-24-month-old children, while eating vitamins, raw vegetables, and yogurt were associated with lower blood lead levels in this age group. For children 25-36 months old, eating hamburgers and peanut butter and jelly sandwiches was associated with elevated blood lead levels, while yogurt consumption was associated with lower blood lead levels. PMID:9076612
Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved attitude toward food safety. Employees from four food processing facilities (n
Ginger D. Fenton; Luke F. LaBorde; Rama B. Radhakrishna; J. Lynne Brown; Catherine N. Cutter
In May 2007, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi suddenly banned cooking street foods, with Supreme Court endorsement. Public health concerns overrode implications for the livelihoods of food sellers or Delhi's food culture. This article interprets the ban through an analysis of municipal policy against a backdrop of economic reforms, restructuring retail systems, emerging food safety awareness and growing middle-class claims
During August 2001 a microbiological study of ready-to-eat cooked rice from take-aways and of chicken sandwiches made on the premises from sandwich bars was undertaken. The intention was to identify risk factors in the production, storage and handling of cooked rice and sandwiches, and to establish their effect on microbiological quality. Examination of cooked rice revealed that the majority of samples (87%; 442 of 508) were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality; 50 (10%) were unsatisfactory, and 16 (3%) were of unacceptable quality due to Bacillus cereus and/or other Bacillus spp in excess of 10(5) cfu/g. The microbiological quality of cooked rice was associated with cuisine type (p < 0.00001), rice type (p < 0.01), cooking (p < 0.01), serving methods (p < 0.00001), and management foodhygiene training (p < 0.01). Examination of chicken sandwiches found that most (75%; 335 of 449) were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality and 114 (25%) were unsatisfactory. Acceptable microbiological quality of sandwiches was associated with sandwich bars that had hazard analysis in place (p < 0.05). Smaller businesses, as indicated by Local Authority Inspectors' Consumer at Risk scores, were more likely to have samples classified as unsatisfactory or unacceptable compared to larger businesses (p < 0.001). The majority (90%) of premises had hand-washing facilities accessible and available for use, although only over half (55%) were correctly used as judged by the sampling officer. Where the manager of the premises had received some form of foodhygiene training, food safety procedures such as the hazard analysis system were more likely to be in place (p < 0.0001). PMID:12564243
It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires
A total of 1280 banknotes were obtained from food outlets in 10 different countries (Australia, Burkina Faso, China, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States), and their bacterial content was enumerated. The presence of bacteria on banknotes was found to be influenced by the material of the notes, and there was a strong correlation between the number of bacteria per square centimeter and a series of indicators of economic prosperity of the various countries. The strongest correlation was found with the "index of economic freedom," indicating that the lower the index value, the higher the typical bacterial content on the banknotes in circulation. Other factors that appear to influence the number of bacteria on banknotes were the age of the banknotes and the material used to produce the notes (polymer-based vs. cotton-based). The banknotes were also screened for the presence of a range of pathogens. It was found that pathogens could only be isolated after enrichment and their mere presence does not appear to be alarming. In light of our international findings, it is recommended that current guidelines as they apply in most countries with regard to the concurrent hygienic handling of foods and money should be universally adopted. This includes that, in some instances, the handling of food and money have to be physically separated by employing separate individuals to carry out one task each; whereas in other instances, it could be advantageous to handle food only with a gloved hand and money with the other hand. If neither of these precautions can be effectively implemented, it is highly recommended that food service personnel practice proper hand washing procedures after handling money and before handling food. PMID:20704502
Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…
|Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban…
Researchers explored 48 fast-food restaurant and coffee shop restrooms for factors that influence hand hygiene and the spread of disease. Using a naturalistic-observation approach, a catalogue of restroom design features requiring a hand touch were tabulated. Restroom data provided the basis for a conceptual framework for modeling pathogen risk, as defined by the number of hand touches to operate a
Thomas D. Berry; Angela K. Fournier; Bryan E. Porter
Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…
Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.
|Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…
Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.
The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose. PMID:23035396
The Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), are sponsoring a public meeting on October 23, 2013. The objective of the public meeting is to provide information and receive public comments on agenda items and draft United States positions that will be......
...available on the FSIS Web page. In addition, FSIS...access to selected food safety news and information...themselves, and have the option to password...discrimination in all its programs...programs.) Persons with disabilities...Karen Stuck, U.S. Manager...
There are limited data on the emission of cooking fumes into work atmospheres although it is known that these fumes may contain irritants or other harmful substances. Field measurements were carried out at eight workplaces (two bakeries, a food factory, and five restaurant kitchens). Air samples were collected during frying\\/grilling of meat or fish or during deep-frying, at stationary sampling
Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754
Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John
This is the first in a series of challenge or "devils advocacy" articles in Foodborne Pathogens and Disease designed to bring issues to the attention of the scientific community for further discussion and routes for potential future research. The hygiene hypothesis states that as our environment ha...
The need to place "prevention through hygiene" at the core of strategies for infection prevention has been emphasised by recent events. Indications are that re-evaluation of current practice and the promotion of improved hygiene in the domestic setting could have a significant impact in reducing infectious disease. If the public are to play a part however they must be properly informed. Encouraging the concept of the home as a setting in which the whole range of activities occur, including foodhygiene, personal hygiene and hygiene related to medical care, provides the opportunity for a rational approach to home hygiene based on risk assessment. In the home surfaces (including hand surfaces) and other sites play an important part in the transmission of infection, especially food-borne infections. From an assessment of the frequency of occurrence of pathogens and potential pathogens at reservoirs, disseminators and hand and food contact sites together with the potential for transfer within the home, the risks of exposure can be assessed. This can be used to develop a rational approach in which effective hygiene procedures involving cleaning and disinfection as appropriate are targeted at these sites to reduce risks of cross contamination. This approach is consistent with the view that good home hygiene is not about "getting rid of household germs" but about targeting hygiene measures appropriately to reduce exposure to germs and thereby prevent cross infection. In motivating change, education programmes must take account of concerns related to antimicrobial resistance, the environment and the "health" of the immune system. PMID:12621897
... Hygiene Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and Spas Hygiene Etiquette ... Patient Admission Video Division of Oral Health Water Fluoridation Leadership Advocacy, Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water ...
A group of 20 students, harbouring >10(4) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva, was enrolled into the study. Models for sampling, reproducibly, the dental plaque present in specific sites (fissure and smooth surface) on the dentition were developed and validated. Withdrawal of normal oral hygiene procedures for only 1 day resulted in approximately 10-fold increases in the number of micro-organisms recovered from both sites. The effect of supplementing the subjects' diets with particular food items given 5 times per day [lemonade (5.8% w/v sugars, 250 ml), biscuits (digestive biscuits, 67.6% w/w carbohydrate of which 22% w/w was sugars and 45.6% w/w was starch), caramel toffees and sugar lumps] on the number of micro-organisms recovered and on the composition of the flora at both sites was determined. Dental plaque samples were taken after 5 days and it was found that supplementation of the diet with toffee and sugar lumps resulted in significantly more micro-organisms at both sampling sites. The supplementation of the diets with lemonade or biscuits did not significantly alter the numbers of micro-organisms recovered from either site. The percentage composition of the plaque samples from both dental sites remained relatively unaffected by oral hygiene although there were lower levels of mutans streptococci which might be related to the use of an antimicrobial toothpaste containing fluoride, triclosan and zinc citrate. This study suggests that the cariogenicity of certain sucrose-containing foods may, in part, be due to the enhancement of plaque accumulation in addition to other effects on the percentage composition of the plaque which may become manifest on prolonged usage of these dietary foodstuffs. These observations are consistent with dietary survey findings which often find consumption of confectionery related to caries experience or incidence. PMID:10460958
Beighton, D; Brailsford, S R; Lynch, E; Chen, H Y; Clark, D T
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. HACCP is widely accepted to be the most effective means of ensuring food safety, and HACCP principles are currently being incorporated within all commercial sectors of the food supply chain and most associated legislation. A number of potential benefits have also been
This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli,
Hygiene is a permanent concern for food industries since they must commercialize high quality products in order to comply with the legislation and the expectations of the consumers. The hygienic state of a surface is thus a critical parameter with respect to the performances of the production process and to the final quality of the product. For this reason, cleaning
... Hygiene Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and Spas Hygiene Etiquette ... Patient Admission Video Division of Oral Health Water Fluoridation Leadership Advocacy, Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water ...
... Hygiene Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and Spas Hygiene Etiquette ... Patient Admission Video Division of Oral Health Water Fluoridation Leadership Advocacy, Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water ...
A group of 20 students, harbouring >104 mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva, was enrolled into the study. Models for sampling, reproducibly, the dental plaque present in specific sites (fissure and smooth surface) on the dentition were developed and validated. Withdrawal of normal oral hygiene procedures for only 1 day resulted in approximately 10–fold increases in the number of micro–organisms
D. Beighton; S. R. Brailsford; E. Lynch; H. Yuan Chen; D. T. Clark
Retail Food Protection: Employee Health and Personal Hygiene Handbook. ... back to top. Employee Health and the Food Establishment. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection
The Sleep Hygiene Index was developed to assess the practice of sleep hygiene behaviors. The Sleep Hygiene Index was delivered to 632 subjects and a subset of the subjects participated in a readministration of the instrument. Test–retest reliability analyses suggested that sleep hygiene behaviors are relatively stable over time for a nonclinical population. Results confirmed that sleep hygiene is strongly
Introduction: Hand hygiene is universally recognized as one of the most effective ways to reduce the cross-transmission of hospital acquired infections. Successful strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance require a baseline knowledge of hand hygiene practices. Methodology: A direct observational method was used to collect data about hand hygiene practices amongst medical doctors by a group of trained medical students
Sarah Chetcuti; Maxine Montefort; Elizabeth Scicluna; Michael Borg
Clean food contact surfaces are important in reducing the likelihood of foodborne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to assess and compare baseline cleanliness of food contact and environmental surfaces in retail food establishments by using ATP bioluminescence (ATP-B), visual assessment, and surface contact plates. Four hundred eighty-nine surface samples were collected from three food service establishments at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (Minneapolis) and analyzed for either ATP (252) or total aerobic plate count bacteria (237). ATP levels ranged from a minimum of 4 relative light units (RLU; 0.60 log RLU) on a clean slicer to a maximum of 506,618 RLU (5.77 log RLU) on a dirty cutting board. The overall mean was 1,950 RLU (3.29 log RLU). Cutting boards had the highest ATP levels (mean, 5,495 RLU or 3.74 log RLU; median, 6,761 RLU or 3.83 log RLU). Of the 128 samples judged visually clean at the time of sampling, 70.3 % failed ATP-B testing. Sixty-one (26 % ) of the 237 total aerobic plate count samples yielded counts of over 125 CFU/50 cm(2) (failed), and of those that failed, 40 % were assessed as visually clean before sampling. The highest average counts in CFU/50 cm(2) were found on slicers (104) and cutting boards (87). The results of this study suggest that the current practice of evaluating food contact surface cleanliness by sight and touch to meet regulatory requirements might be inadequate. ATP-B testing may be an efficient tool to facilitate creation, implementation, and validation of more effective food contact surface cleaning in food establishments. PMID:21477489
Cunningham, Annette E; Rajagopal, Raj; Lauer, Jim; Allwood, Paul
Successful hygiene promotion programs in developing countries require identification of local risk practices and messages most likely to have a real impact on disease incidence. This process was applied in a diarrhea prevention program in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Field workers observed and recorded events such as child defecation and met with mothers to develop feasible alternative practices. Key was prevention of feces from getting into the environment, either through better stool control or adequate hand washing after stool contact, preferably with soap. It was determined that the most effective means for stopping fecal material from getting into the child's environment is to ensure that feces are disposed of safely and to ensure that hands that have come into contact with feces are thoroughly washed. Prevention of fecal materials from entering the domestic environment substantially reduces the risk of secondary transmission through uncovered food, unwashed plates. Interventions that make water more accessible facilitate hand washing and other domestic hygiene measures. The need for costly fly control measures can be reduced by steps to abolish breeding sites in animal dung. PMID:12321392
A study to determine differences between graduating and withdrawing students in the University of Minnesota Dental Hygiene program is discussed. The identification of differences may prove useful in the selection process for future classes through identification of students likely to complete their education. (MLW)
Filters used in industrial hygiene are of two basic types, corresponding with the two basic airborne hazards: particulate and vapor. They are as different in their construction as they are in their purpose, and each gives negligible protection against the other hazard. By use of the correct type, adequate filtration efficiency can usually be achieved. Most particulate filters are made
Military doctrine requires a soldier to take a shower at least once every seven days to maintain certain health standards. The objective of the PHBW is to provide the soldier with a temporary means of maintaining personal hygiene and sanitation when water...
Incidence of intramammary infection is highly correlated to the number of mastitis pathogens on the teat end at milking. The objective of premilking teat sanitation is to reduce the microbial population in order to minimize the probability of mastitis. Milking time hygiene is extremely important due to the potential interaction between milking machine functions and microflora of teat skin. Current recommended procedures for premilking udder preparation range from water hose wash, manual drying, wet paper towel wash plus paper towel dry, to predipping alone plus paper towel dry. Regardless of udder cleaning procedure, manual drying of teats is a significant factor in reduction of total bacteria counts. Predipping with iodine-based sanitizers, .1 to .25% iodine concentration, reduced intramammary infection with environmental pathogens 51% compared with good udder preparation in a field trial on four commercial dairy farms. Infections by coagulase-negative staphylococci were not reduced by predipping. Effective premilking udder hygiene is essential for the production of high quality milk. Bacteria, preincubation and pasteurized milk counts are reduced. Sediment is minimized. Incidence of mastitis is reduced. Proper udder hygiene procedures should be practiced at every milking. PMID:2745833
Reviews the continued rise and cost implications of food-borne disease. Discusses strategies for containing and reducing the problem. To date, in spite of considerable effort and attention, the legislative approach does not appear to be affecting the reported incidence of food poisoning. Hygiene education, especially of the consumer, has received far less attention. Advocates the use of hygiene education is
Current legislation requires food businesses to identify and control food hazards by focussing on critical factors which directly affect the safety of food. This study, commissioned by the Food Standards Agency (FSA) compares the standards of foodhygiene in seventy food premises operating either documented or undocumented hazard analysis systems within the Derby City Council boundary.Foodhygiene standards were evaluated
In unpacking the Pandora's box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease.
Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…
|This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…
Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.
Current United States military chemical protective ensembles do not provide for feeding, removing body wastes, or ensuring the hygiene of troops operating in a contaminated environment. As part of a nuclear-biological-chemical life support demonstration program, systems were developed to provide these capabilities. The nutrient system consisted of foods packaged in tube dispensers and a delivery system compatible with North Atlantic Treaty Organization respirators. The waste management/hygiene systems consisted of waste collection and hygiene items incorporated into a retractable-arm suit design with integrated airlock. A field demonstration of the systems resulted in successful use by armored vehicle personnel, high, positive user feedback, and only minor functional problems. PMID:2057069
Cardello, A V; Darsch, G; Fitzgerald, C; Gleason, S D; Teixeira, R
|Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…
Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…
Evaluation of the infection potential in the home suggests that improved hygiene practice could significantly reduce the impact of infectious diseases. Fundamental to developing infection prevention policy for the home is the need to recognise that people live in an environment where all human activities occur, including food and water hygiene, hand hygiene, and hygiene related to care of vulnerable groups. In all these situations, reducing infection risks is based on the same underlying microbiological principles. In developing countries, disposal of human and animal excreta and other waste is often also the responsibility of the family and community. Adopting a holistic approach provides the opportunity for a rational approach to home hygiene based on risk assessment. The International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH) believes that to deliver hygiene policy with real health benefits, a risk-based approach must be developed and promoted for the home. A risk-based approach starts from the principle that pathogens are introduced continually into homes on people, food and water, pets, insects and air. Inadequate disposal of human and animal excreta serves to increase this risk. Additionally, sites where stagnant water accumulates, such as sinks, toilets and cleaning cloths can support microbial growth and become a source of infection. By assessing the frequency occurrence of pathogens and potential pathogens on hands, hand and food contact surfaces, laundry, reservoir and reservoir/disseminator sites, together with the potential for transfer in the home, the exposure risk can be assessed. PMID:12775380
DesignA patient-randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a cluster RCT of the same intervention were conducted independently of each other.InterventionThe evidence-based intervention (a powered toothbrush and behavioural advice on timing, method and duration of toothbrushing) was framed to target oral hygiene self-efficacy (Social Cognitive Theory) and action plans (Implementation Intention Theory) to influence oral hygiene behaviour and therefore clinical outcomes. The
The present article examines the work of contemporary hygiene practitioners. Discussion converges from a broad examination of hygiene at work in our society serving the common good to occupational hygiene in the workplace. The article considers the expanding role of hygiene today, juxtaposed against the lack of awareness and perceptions of hygiene. It considers some of the current social challenges facing hygiene, perceptions of risk and problems specifically encountered by occupational hygienists.
... FDA Broadcast Shows Food Industry Personnel and Consumers How Proper Health and Hygiene Helps to Prevent Foodborne Illness Outbreaks. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates
Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175
The control of infection through hygiene has a long erratic history. Personal hygiene and handwashing was less appreciated in the past, since it was not known that invisible organisms could spread from apparently clean hands and surfaces. The role of a hygienic home environment received little attention until the 19th century. Since then, the modern tradition of hygiene has served us well, with improved water and drainage developing alongside vaccination, antibiotics, water purification, improved food production and hygienicfood preparation and storage. Two major epidemiological trends are relevant to hygiene perspectives: the decline in the morbidity and mortality from infection, and the transition towards higher levels of chronic or debilitating disease. While mortality from some infections has decreased, communicable disease is no less prevalent. Infectious intestinal disease is still unacceptably high in both developed and developing countries. The control of infection within the home needs to take account of changing epidemiological trends, emphasis on evidence-based approaches and loss of public awareness of the role of hygiene. In earlier eras lack of research on the home environment prevented sufficient attention to infection transmission in the domestic setting. Recent research has demonstrated how microbial contamination can be transmitted by activities in the home. Application of this knowledge could significantly reduce the continuing impact of infectious diseases in our communities. PMID:12775375
The hygiene hypothesis offers an explanation for the correlation, well-established in the industrialized nations of North and West, between increased hygiene and sanitation, and increased rates of asthma and allergies. Recent studies have added to the scope of the hypothesis, showing a link between decreased exposure to certain bacteria and parasitic worms, and increased rates of depression and intestinal auto-immune disorders, respectively. What remains less often discussed in the research on these links is that women have higher rates than men of asthma and allergies, as well as many auto-immune disorders, and also depression. The current paper introduces a feminist understanding of gender socialization to the epidemiological and immunological picture. That standards of cleanliness are generally higher for girls than boys, especially under the age of five when children are more likely to be under close adult supervision, is a robust phenomenon in industrialized nations, and some research points to a cross-cultural pattern. I conclude that, insofar as the hygiene hypothesis successfully identifies standards of hygiene and sanitation as mediators of immune health, then attention to the relevant patterns of gender socialization is important. The review also makes clear that adding a feminist analysis of gender socialization to the hygiene hypothesis helps explain variation in morbidity rates not addressed by other sources and responds to a number of outstanding puzzles in current research. Alternative explanations for the sex differences in the relevant morbidity rates are also discussed (e.g., the effects of estrogens). Finally, new sources of evidence for the hygiene hypothesis are suggested in the form of cross-cultural and other natural experiments. PMID:21195519
... Hygiene Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and Spas Hygiene Etiquette ... Patient Admission Video Division of Oral Health Water Fluoridation Leadership Advocacy, Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water ...
As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…
Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay
The early history of educational hygiene was largely the history of "school hygiene." The name was accurately indicative of character--the hygiene of the school as an environment rather than as a "community of children" learning under the leadership of teachers to know and live health. Environment bulked large; the education of individuals for…
The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the growing epidemic of atopic eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma is related to reduced exposure to microbes at an early age as a result of environmental changes in the industrialized world. These include improved sanitation and living conditions, vaccinations and antimicrobial therapy, together with declining family size and changes in dietary intake. Recent scientific advances
Erika Isolauri; Marko Kalliomäki; Samuli Rautava; Seppo Salminen; Kirsi Laitinen
|The second in a series on parenting education for American Indians, the booklet offers information on health and hygiene for the mother-to-be and the newborn baby. Chapters include care during pregnancy, mother's weight, mother's health, feeding newborns, washing the baby, baby's early diet, and baby's health care. (ERB)|
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
|Development of programs of instruction in industrial hygiene include first the establishment of criteria for technical content of programs, competency of faculty, adequacy of resources, equipment and environment, and institutional administrative support. Secondly, these criteria need to be validated at selected institutions representing several…
Dental hygiene in Canada has experienced significant growth. It has shifted from an emerging occupation to a regulated health profession in several jurisdictions. Many achievements may be attributed to this growth, including self-regulation and a national code of ethics. However, the majority of Canadian dental hygienists are relying on traditional, outdated and ineffective quality assurance mechanisms, such as mandatory continuing
A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for dentists and dental hygienists, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct,…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…
|Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School with input from employees--both workplace literacy students and nonstudents--this guide contains activities for teaching health and hygiene on the job. Flowing from a perspective of respecting cultural diversity and guided by a common thread of good work practices, the activities…
Development of programs of instruction in industrial hygiene include first the establishment of criteria for technical content of programs, competency of faculty, adequacy of resources, equipment and environment, and institutional administrative support. Secondly, these criteria need to be validated at selected institutions representing several…
To conduct a retrospective exposure assessment for a study of silica, silicosis, and lung cancer, current exposure measurements and techniques were compared with industrial hygiene data that had been systematically collected in Chinese industries over the past three decades. Historically, sampling was usually confined to total dust evaluation and bulk silica determinations. For comparison, from 1988 through 1989, several special
Zhien Wu; Frank J. Heart; Kailiang Peng; Michael A. McCawley; Anluo Chen; John Palassis; Mustafa Dosemeci; Jingqiong Chen; Joseph K. McLaughlin; Suzanne H. Rexing; William J. Blot
In the area of hand hygiene, European Norms exist, or are under development, with regard to protective gloves and for assessing the antimicrobial efficacy of hand disinfectants. Important norms for gloves are EN 420 (General requirements), EN 374 (Protective gloves against chemicals and microorganisms) and EN 455 (Medical gloves for single use). A suspension test for the demonstration of bactericidal
The high rate of hand problems associated with the hand hygiene of medical professions is due to a combination of damaging factors: (1) the removal of barrier lipids by detergent cleaning and alchohol antisepsis followed by a loss of moisturizers and stratum corneum water and (2) the overhydration of the stratum corneum by sweat trapped within gloves. Together the facilitate
The prevalence of food allergy continues to rise, particularly in ‘westernized’ societies; it has been linked to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ and the increased diversity of food consumption worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms and Th1\\/Th2 paradigm are being closely examined with respect to the occurrence of inflammatory and injury\\/repair responses at different mucosal sites. Genetically modified plants as potential food sources and
Thermoluminescence of irradiated foodstuffs such as herbs and spices, is mostly due to attached dust or soil particles. Different brands of the same foodstuff sometimes give thermoluminescent signals of different intensities, apparently due to different degrees of dust contamination. It is of obvious importance to choose brands of foodstuffs that appear to have less dust contamination, i.e. of better hygienic quality. Several food items were investigated with respect to their thermoluminescent (TL) emission in order to assess TL usefulness as an indicator of hygienic quality for foods prone to contamination by dust. In this regard some foodstuffs were artificially contaminated with a soil sample and their thermoluminescent emission was obtained.
Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514
... Advice on SARS and Potential for Food Transmission. ... Strict hand-hygiene, includes washing hands with soap and water after using the restroom ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection
Enteric and respiratory viruses are among the most frequent causes of human infections, and hands play an important role in the spread of these and many other viral diseases. Regular and proper hand hygiene by caregivers and food handlers in particular is essential to decontaminate hands and potentially interrupt such spread. What would be considered a proper decontamination of hands?
Syed A. Sattar; V. Susan Springthorpe; Jason Tetro; Robert Vashon; Bruce Keswick
Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research
The increasing incidence of food-borne diseases emphasises the importance of improving and maintaining a high standard of food safety in food service establishments. Currently, a proposal to develop an Australian national foodhygiene standard based on the HACCP principles, is being discussed by major stakeholders with a view to improving the standard of food safety. This article reports on the
Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation. PMID:11525045
The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.
Aim: This article reports on the practice of dental hygiene in Australia from a global perspective. The aim is to examine how access to qualified dental hygiene care could be improved and how current professional challenges might be met. Method: Secondary source data were obtained from a survey questionnaire presented to members of the House of Delegates of the IFDH
Inherent in the meaning of baccalaureate dental hygiene education is the offering of upper-division courses in the theory and practice of dental hygiene itself. Restructuring the associate programs as strictly two-year, lower-division programs would require standardization of baccalaureate programs as strictly upper-division curricula. (MLW)
Transmission of pathogens from the hands of health care workers (HCWs) is the main cause of nosocomial infections, and hand hygiene is the single most important procedure to prevent it. At present, little is known about the adherence of HCWs to hand hygiene procedures in hematology units, where the patients are at high risk for acquiring hospital infections. In a
Rabin Saba; Dilara Inan; Derya Seyman; Gülcan Gül; Özge Turhan
Hand hygiene is still considered the simplest and paramount measure to prevent nosocomial infections. These infections complicate between 6 and 14 percent of admissions in pediatric institutions. The objective of hand hygiene, either by regular handwashing with soap and water or by using an alcohol-based handrub, is to decrease hand colonization with transient flora and, in turn, reduce the risk
The increasing incidence of food-borne diseases emphasises the importance of improving and maintaining a high standard of food safety in food service establishments. Currently, a proposal to develop an Australian national foodhygiene standard based on the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP), principles, is being discussed by major stakeholders with a view to improving the standard of food
This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. The most advanced apparel cannot shield a cleanroom from human contaminants unless employees embrace proper personal hygiene and work habits. This module conveys the attitudes and behaviors that help to keep the cleanroom clean. Your learners will learn why 'clean behaviors' are even more critical in some work zones than others, and how particles generated or carried by humans can cause killer defects. Most important, perhaps, with MATEC instruction learners learn that cleanroom habits directly affect a company's success. Mastery is demonstrated in a simulated walk-through of three cleanroom work zones.
\\u000a Abstract Novel non-thermal food processing technologies aim to provide safe, high quality foods with desirable nutritional, physico-chemical\\u000a and sensorical properties. More recently with the use of minimal processing treatment concepts have been added to the already\\u000a existing food processing requirements. Some of them might be beneficial for the improvement of hygiene and the extension of\\u000a shelf life. This presentation will focus
An effective industrial hygiene program must comply with a variety of guidelines, regulations, and good practice procedures. New and changing regulations in the areas of toxic substances control, noise and hearing conservation, hazardous waste management,...
Physical Limitations Can Affect Oral Hygiene Difficulty With Hearing Visual Impairments Orthopedic Problems Chewing and Swallowing Difficulties Changes in ... your mouth and teeth despite pain or movement limitations. These include: Toothbrushes with enlarged handles Electric toothbrushes ...
The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)
The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) is a society of professionals dedicated to the health and safety of workers and community. With more than 10,000 members, the AIHA is the largest international association serving occupational and environ...
The personal hygiene volume was developed to provide handbook data for use by space systems planners, designers, system engineers and habitability system engineers. This handbook provides a technology base which includes recognition of requirements, and p...
This article focuses on implementing the revised AORN "Recommended practices for hand hygiene in the perioperative setting." The content of the document has been expanded and reorganized from the previous iteration and now includes specific activity statements about water temperature, water and soap dispensing controls, the type of dispensers to use, paper towel dispenser requirements, placement of soap and rub dispensers, and regulatory requirements for products and recommendations for hand hygiene practices. A successful hand hygiene program allows end users to have input into the selection and evaluation of products and should include educating personnel about proper hand hygiene, product composition and safety, and how and when to use specific products. Measures for competency evaluation and compliance monitoring include observations, quizzes, skills labs, electronic monitoring systems, handheld device applications, and data collection forms. PMID:22464622
Nowadays, besides the food quality characteristics – the nutritional content, hygienic standards of foods, food additives, agrochemicals – that continue to attract the interest of the consumers, additional ethical factors like animal welfare, animal rearing and origin, and environmentally friendly production are playing an important and determinant role in consumers' food choices.Thus, the main aim of this paper is to
Efthimia Tsakiridou; Helen Tsakiridou; Konstadinos Mattas; Evdoxia Arvaniti
In article there are presented data on hypersensibility of children to the action of contaminants and caused by it the increased requirements to hygienic safety of products of baby food. Data on the main indices of safety, of such products, regulated by hygiene legislative requirements are provided. The system of hygienic expertise of baby food products, including the offered screening methods of studying of indices of quality and safety is considered. PMID:23805691
|This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to…
Objectives: Attitudes and practices concerning genital hygiene may influence topical microbicide use by men. This study examines knowledge and behaviours related to hygiene, genital hygiene, circumcision and hygiene, and to genital hygiene before and after sex among men in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: We conducted 463 interviews of men recruited by respondent driven sampling techniques and 10 focus group discussions with a subsample of 100 volunteers from this group. Men were asked individual quantitative survey and qualitative group discussion questions about general hygiene behaviours, genital hygiene, and the temporal relation of genital hygiene behaviours to sexual encounters. Results: Bathing once daily was associated with education, income, and inside tap water. Genital washing aside from regular bathing and washing before sex ever were negatively associated with bathroom crowding. Genital hygiene before the most recent sexual encounter was uncommon and negatively associated with HIV risk perception, bathroom crowding, and ethnicity. Men believed genital hygiene before sex would arouse suspicions of infidelity or cool sexual ardour. Genital hygiene after sex was associated with education, religion, and having inside tap water. Genital hygiene after the most recent sexual encounter was associated with age, income, and with men having at least one child. Conclusions: Genital hygiene behaviours were associated with resource access factors and group discussions suggest that they are modulated by interactions in sexual partnerships. Topical microbicides may improve hygiene before and after sex.
Steele, M; Bukusi, E; Cohen, C; Shell-Duncan, B; Holmes, K
The process of educating and motivating patients presents interesting challenges to dental hygienists in clinical practice today. The recent technological advances in preventive and restorative dentistry, coupled with a high level of consumer interest in prevention of dental disease, have resulted in a unique opportunity for patients to attain high levels of oral health throughout their lifetimes. These challenges can also mean an expanded and more interesting role for dental hygienists that incorporates theories of motivation and change in conjunction with oral hygiene instruction as an integral component of dental hygiene care. Disease prevention and oral health promotion remain the essential components of dental hygiene treatment with patients. It is through the examination and application of existing theories in the behavioral and social sciences that dental hygiene care can be improved and revitalized. Both patients and dental hygienists benefit from activities that reexamine and analyze basic assumptions in oral hygiene instruction and motivation. It is a welcome and positive trend that preventive health care and motivation are important areas of concern to dental hygienists in clinical practice today. PMID:1820073
The Chemical Hygiene Officer's (CHO) role is absolutely critical in fostering and ensuring both chemical hygiene practices and the chemical hygiene plan. OSHA defines the Chemical Hygiene Officer as an "employee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan." The CHO position is also essential in helping to facilitate the safeguards put in place as part of the chemical hygiene plan to protect both the teacher and students.
Hand hygiene is considered as the pillar of infection control and prevention. Healthcare-associated infections have a great impact on morbidity, length of hospital stay, and treatment costs. Hand disinfection is considered to be the single most effective tool to prevent healthcare-associated infections and cross-transmission of multi-drug resistant bacteria. The WHO defined "5 moments" for hand hygiene and highlighted the need for new strategies to improve everyday hand hygiene practices on the basis of the current low compliance. Reasons for non-compliance are multifaceted and behavioural, religious, and sociocultural aspects have to be considered when designing intervention programs. Despite all these barriers it is worth the effort to aim at quality of care improvement. PMID:21713717
Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonké sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested hygienic measures and medication in improved housing. The effect of the two treatments and
S. Y. Doko; G. O. Edoun; E. J. Gbedonou; P. Degla; R. H. Bosma
|This self-assessment instrument for family day care providers is designed to help caregivers provide safe food to children. The eight sections of the instrument, presented in checklist format, concern: (1) personal hygiene; (2) purchasing and inspecting of food; (3) food storage; (4) kitchen equipment; (5) food preparation; (6) infant food…
Background: Khat chewing is popular among Yemenis. This study was performed to investigate the effects of khat chewing on periodontal tissue and oral hygiene status. Methods: A total of 730 subjects (336 chewers and 394 non-chewers with a mean age of 31.5 ± 0.8 and 29.4 ± 0.9 years, respectively) were involved. Clinical data on periodontal tissues, oral hygiene sta-tus, gingival bleeding, burning sensation in the soft tissues, halitosis, ulcers in the oral cavity, difficulty in opening the mouth and swallowing solid food were collected to evaluate periodontal condition. Lo-gistic regression analysis, student t test and chi-squared test were employed according to which hypo-theses were being tested. Results: The oral hygiene status of non-chewers was significantly better than that of chewers. The mean oral hygiene index of chewers was 2.12 ± 0.86 while that of non-chewers was 1.54 ± 1.12, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.001). The incidence of gingival bleeding was signifi-cantly higher in khat-chewers. About 23% of chewers complained of difficulty in mouth-opening, as compared with only about 1% of non-chewers. Furthermore, 10% of chewers had difficulty in swal-lowing solid food. A burning sensation in the soft tissues was also found in a higher proportion of khat-chewers. Similarly, ulcers on the oral mucosa were present in about 7% of chewers, as com-pared to 0.5% of non-chewers. Gingival recession was present in about 51% and 26% of chewers and non-chewers, respectively. Conclusion: There does appear to be a relationship between the effect of chewing khat on peri-odontal tissue and oral hygiene status.
Diseases in farm raised nutria (Myocastor coypus) often depend on hygienic fatalities in the different housing systems of the farms. The principle ways of accomodation for nutria are briefly described with reference to the specific hygienic problems. PMID:4024068
The University of Arizona graduate training program in Industrial Hygiene for the period July 1, 1990 through June 30, 1995 was described. During this reporting period a total of 26 Industrial Hygiene students were graduated from the program. Fourteen of ...
Data from numerous experiments and hardware inventories were scanned for Skylab personal hygiene use. A computer program was formulated for predicting the degree of man's involvement with personal hygiene needs. A tabulation was kept for such events as wa...
Mercury hygiene is a concern in both military and civilian dental facilities. The purpose of this report was to determine the adequacy of the mercury hygiene practiced in USAF dental facilities. The data was derived from mercury vapor surveys accomplished...
T. C. Almquist D. A. Kaiser A. C. Jerman J. M. Young
This study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of acute care hospitals in California to describe staff hand hygiene compliance and related predictors, and explore the relationship between hand hygiene adherence to health care-associated infections. Although there was a relatively small sample size, institutions with morning huddles reported a significantly higher proportion of ?95% hand hygiene compliance. Huddles are an organizational tool to improve teamwork and communication and may offer promise to influence hand hygiene adherence.
Studies have been carried out developing the major issues of hygienic monitoring of nitrates in food-stuffs in the UkSSR: a unified republican system of hygienic control of nitrates content in food-stuffs with computer processing of the data has been proposed. Republican regulations of the allowed content of these substances in agricultural products are presented. Biomonitoring of nitrates in women's breast milk has been considered as a criterion of the system's functioning. PMID:2292406
Tsyganenko, O I; Emchenko, N L; Lapchenko, V S; Rymar'-Shcherbina, N B; Slobodianik, O Ia
|Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…
The Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (AEHA) recently celebrated 38 years of continuous service in support of occupational health programs of the Army. This report briefly reviews its historical development, examine some of its current occupational and industrial hygiene programs, and touches on future program efforts. The Army Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, conducts surveys and investigations concerning occupational health hazards in Army-owned
College students are known for their variable sleep schedules. Such schedules, along with other common student practices (e.g., alcohol and caffeine consumption), are associated with poor sleep hygiene. Researchers have demonstrated in clinical populations that improving sleep hygiene knowledge and practices is an effective treatment for insomnia. However, researchers who have examined relationships between sleep hygiene and practices in nonclinical samples and overall sleep quality have produced inconsistent findings, perhaps because of questionable measures. In this study, the authors used psychometrically sound instruments to examine these variables and to counter the shortcomings in previous investigations. Their findings suggest that knowledge of sleep hygiene is related to sleep practices, which, in turn, is related to overall sleep quality. The data from their regression modeling indicated that variable sleep schedules, going to bed thirsty, environmental noise, and worrying while falling asleep contribute to poor sleep quality. PMID:12244643
Brown, Franklin C; Buboltz, Walter C; Soper, Barlow
Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Over the study period, 24 new cases of elevated SCC were detected. No associations existed for the risk of experiencing an elevated SCC with alley scraping frequency or cow behavior patterns. However, increased odds of occurrence of elevated SCC were noted for cows of lower milk yield as well as for multiparous cows. In summary, these results show that cow hygiene is affected by the standing and lying behavior of cows and by the cleanliness of the cow's environment. These findings emphasize the need for cows to be provided clean standing and lying environments. The results also show that frequent cleaning of barn alley floors will help improve cow hygiene. PMID:22884345
Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G
The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…
|A project revised the existing Occupational Safety Program at Joliet Junior College (JJC) to indicate an AAS degree option in Industrial Hygiene Technology (IHT). Its objectives were to (1) utilize, where possible, existing courses within the college's curricula; (2) align the structure of the proposed curriculum with accreditation/certification…
A survey of 169 dental hygiene training programs investigated the curriculum content and instruction concerning medical emergency treatment, related clinical practice, and program policy. Several trends are noted: increased curriculum hours devoted to emergency care; shift in course content to more than life-support care; and increased emergency…
A study to assess the impact of an inquiry-oriented curriculum in a dental hygiene program is described. Two instruments, designed to measure student perception of personal and faculty inquiry and disinquiry behavior, were administered. The implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/MLW)
A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…
American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.
Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…
The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
A survey of 22 dental-hygiene-program directors found that programs routinely and effectively assess student outcomes and use the information for program improvements and to demonstrate accountability. Both policy and faculty/administrative support were deemed important to implementation. Time constraints were a major barrier. Outcomes-assessment…
A survey of 138 dental hygiene program directors found dissatisfaction with program assessment practices and use of assessment data. Most use alumni/employer surveys and curriculum evaluations by students, but share results mostly with faculty. They use the data for curriculum revision but not for adding assessment measures, student remediation,…
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of five learning modules to instruct dental patients and the general public in the fundamental principles of dental hygiene. The first module, "Identify the Responsibilities for Your Oral Health" by Floyd R. Tanner, discusses the respective roles of the dentist and the patient in…
This program guide is intended for the implementation of a dental hygiene program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, describes jobs under the program, and includes a curriculum framework and student performance standards for dental hygienist…
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.
This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…
|One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Looking Good: Hygiene. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…
|The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…
Describes a method for covering the issue of personal hygiene in a health education class. Emphasizes the sensitive approach required to tackle this subject with young people who may be embarrassed by severe acne, for example, or who do not have a bath or hot water at home. Provides a lesson outline and a true\\/false quiz on various aspects of
A project revised the existing Occupational Safety Program at Joliet Junior College (JJC) to indicate an AAS degree option in Industrial Hygiene Technology (IHT). Its objectives were to (1) utilize, where possible, existing courses within the college's curricula; (2) align the structure of the proposed curriculum with accreditation/certification…
This paper presents a detailed approach that can be used to evaluate the food safety behaviour of consumers. The preparation of a chicken and mushroom meal is used as a model. Hazard analyses were conducted and an audit hazard check-list compiled. A standard measure of hygienicfood handling behaviour, a food operation risk (FOR) score, was devised, tested and refined.
Biofilms have been of considerable interest in the context of foodhygiene. Of special significance is the ability of microorganisms to attach and grow on food and food-contact surfaces under favourable conditions. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process and different mechanisms are involved in their attachment and growth. Extracellular polymeric substances play an important role in the attachment and colonization
This is a systematic review conducted to identify and assess the methodological strategies used in training programmes designed to enhance food safety in food services. Fourteen original articles were selected from the Scopus, Scielo and Medline digital databases. The topics most dealt with in the educational programmes were personal hygiene, food safety and best practices. The resources most widely used
This fascinating collection of social hygiene posters (designed to inculcate certain social practices regarding hygiene, friendship, prostitution, and mental health) is culled from the fine holdings of the Social Welfare History Archives at the University of Minnesota Libraries. Interestingly enough, the Archives were established in 1964 by the historian Clarke Chambers, who in his own work on voluntary associations discovered that most manuscript repositories had collected very few social welfare records. Visitors will appreciate the online search engine which features options such as a time period search, a keyword search, and the opportunity to search by the subject or theme of each poster. Each record contains an image of the original poster, information about the poster's provenance, its creation date, and the organization responsible for creating the poster. For those interested in the social history of the United States during this period, this small collection will be quite appealing.
This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders. PMID:15702513
Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M
Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...
Handwashing is a fundamental principle and practice in the prevention, control, and reduction of healthcare-acquired infection. Advocated by Semmelweiss (Nursing, The Finest Art: An Illustrated History. St Louis: Mosby; 1985:204) from the 1800s to resolve an obstetric morbidity and mortality occurrence, the simple act of hand cleansing portrays the intuitive benefits to basic hygiene, health continuum, and, most important, disease prevention. According to recently published guidance (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. October 25, 2002;51:32-34), the term handwashing is replaced by the new term hand hygiene, which includes hand cleansing, hand disinfecting, and surgical hand scrub. This article focuses on the published guidance, blending the salient aspects of hand hygiene practices from noted champions, reinforcing the aesthetics of meticulous cleansing, to guidance on its practice in healthcare settings. In healthcare, the principle of "clean hands are healing hands" bears value and demands compliance in order to prevent and control infectious processes while protecting the person from acquiring infectious diseases. PMID:15291052
National and international organizations have paid particular attention to the use of food irradiation as a method to reduce postharvest food losses, to ensure hygienic quality of foods-especially those of animal origin, and to overcome certain non-tariff barriers to trade for the following reasons: (1) The increasingly strict standards for quality and quarantine in food trade. (2) The increasingly restrictions
The object of investigations was soda industry waste. Slimes are formed at slimes storage which occupy considerable areas and are considered to be the source of permanent impact on the hydrosphere objects. Slimes storage placement within settlement boundaries and water protection zone of large watercourses leads to the deterioration of sanitary, hygienic and environmental situation and to the rising of risks to health of communities. Waste processing with getting new materials on the base of soda industry waste with wide application is seems to be one of the way for problem solving. It is essential to take into account sanitary and hygienic characteristics of slimes within justifying possible directions of its use. Thus, researches concerning assessment of physical, chemical and toxicological waste characteristics are considered to be actual. The aim of researches is to examine physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of soda production slimes for justifying directions of its use including delivery of new materials respondent to the all regulatory sanitary and hygienic requirements. Experimental investigations of assessment physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of slimes were carried out according to standard methods. Within assessment of toxicological slimes characteristics the following test-objects were used: Ceriodaphnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum. As a result of investigations watered slime samples were determined to be referred to the 4th hazard level (low-hazard) waste; samples with preliminary mechanical dehydration are referred to the 5th hazard level (practically nonhazardous) waste for environment. These are correspond to the 3rd and 4th hazard level according to sanitary regulations, respectively. PMID:24003694
Samutin, N M; Vaisman, Y I; Rudakova, L V; Kalinina, E V; Glushankova, I S; Batrakova, G M
A survey of 161 dental-hygiene-program directors investigated perceived future needs for faculty, preferences for type of faculty degree for selection and promotion, the extent to which master's programs are meeting those needs in both numbers and skills, and how the programs can better prepare graduates for the millennium. (MSE)
Based on prior industrial hygiene monitoring experiences at the Houston Plant and knowledge of Plant operations, industrial hygiene monitoring of representative job classifications was conducted during 1979 and 1980. The industrial hygiene data summarized...
Food handling facilities are under increased consumer and regulatory pressures to improve the micro-biological safety of perishable raw and ready-to-eat commodities. In this study workers from a deboning room of a high throughput abattoir were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire to ascertain the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices regarding personal and general hygiene applied specifically in the deboning
Whilst the electromagnetic nature of the built environment has changed considerably over the past century, little thought is at present given to the possible advantages of creating electromagnetic microenvironments that more closely resemble those found in nature and/or developing biologically-friendly technology aligned more closely to its operating principles. This review paper examines how more natural exposures to a variety of electromagnetic phenomena could be re-introduced into the built environment, possible benefits that might arise, and discusses the extent to which there may be tangible benefits obtainable from introducing more rigorous properly considered electromagnetic hygiene measures. Amongst the matters discussed are: the effects of different materials, finishes and electrical items on charge generation (and the effects of excess charge on contaminant deposition); the possible benefits of suitably grounding conductive objects (including humans) in order to reduce excess charge and contaminant deposition; how the presence of vertical electric field regimes, similar to those found in nature, may enhance biological performance; and possible pitfalls to avoid when seeking to introduce appropriate electromagnetic hygiene regimes.
Jamieson, Isaac A.; Holdstock, Paul; ApSimon, Helen M.; Bell, J. Nigel B.
Purpose – This paper seeks to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study applies multivariate statistical tools to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. In addition, the authors analysed the consumption patterns, impact of hygiene and nutritional
Nowadays quality control is essential in the food industry, and efficient quality assurance has become increasingly important. Instrumentation and food safety practices are of central importance, with particular emphasis on very high sanitary and hygienic operating standards. In this context, labelling can help con- sumers take up their political responsibility. As citizens, consumers have certain sensible cares that can reasonable
GIULIANA VINCI; GIUSEPPE ANELLI; SARA LETIZIA MARIA; DONATELLA RESTUCCIA
This study evaluates the relationship of children's hygiene habits and food handling behaviors on lead levels on hands and handled foods for toddlers living in lead contaminated homes. Forty eight inner city toddlers who had previously been identified as having elevated blood le...
The purpose of this investigation was to improve the understanding of the public's perception of hygiene standards in eating places and their knowledge of the inspection system. A telephone survey found that despite many claiming experience of food poisoning, and a widely held belief that using eating places may result in illness, people continue to eat out or purchase takeaways
|Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…
|A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…
Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.
|Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…
National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.
Three studies were carried out to explore the effects of a liquid 'tube-type' diet on gingival status and plaque accumulation when subjects employed (1) their usual oral hygiene procedures without a dentifrice, and (2) various proposed oral hygiene proced...
The holistic principles of hygiene and public health have contributed substantially to an increase in life expectancy by more than 30 years and in life quality since the beginning of the 20th century. Frank, Pettenkofer, Nightingale, Pasteur, Lister, and Koch have been pioneering protagonists of the holistic approach to hygiene and public health. Socioeconomic development and related factors such as
Martin Exner; Philippe Hartemann; Thomas Kistemann
|The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…
BACKGROUND: Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU
Varvara A. Mouchtouri; Sandra Westacott; Gordon Nichols; Tobias Riemer; Mel Skipp; Christopher LR Bartlett; Jenny Kremastinou; Christos Hadjichristodoulou
A study compared the characteristics of dental hygiene students in two programs (bachelor's degree and two-year professional dental hygiene training) in 1978 and 1987 to assess changes over time. Results are presented and the implications for enrollment management are discussed. (MSE)
Six trends affecting dental hygiene practice are discussed: demographic changes; disease pattern changes; higher societal expectations; financing and delivery system changes; technological advancement; and regulatory and legislative trends. It is argued that, though the trends reflect positively on dental hygiene, practitioners need to increase…
Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)
The establishment of the baccalaureate degree as the minimum entry level for dental hygiene practice centers around three main concerns: changes in health care delivery, awarding of a degree commensurate with students' educational background, and the credibility of dental hygiene as a profession. A curriculum model is discussed. (MLW)
A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…
Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.
The purpose of this report is to serve as a guide for dental hygiene education program development, and to serve as a stimulus for improving established programs. The first section of the report discusses the function of the Council on Dental Education and the trends in hygiene program development. In section II the requirements for an accredited…
American Dental Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Dental Education.
There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice. PMID:21368255
Hand hygiene compliance remains suboptimal among physicians despite quality improvement efforts. We observed hand hygiene compliance among 29 medicine interns at 2 large academic institutions. Overall compliance was 75%. Although 4 interns averaged <40% compliance, 14 averaged at least 80%. Given variability observed among individuals in the same training programs, targeting those with poor performance may be important in improving overall compliance. PMID:24176771
... 2010-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices...Requirements Â§ 850.27 Hygiene facilities and practices...contamination on their bodies or their personal clothing. (b) Change rooms...to change into, and store, personal clothing, and clean...
... 2009-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices...Requirements Â§ 850.27 Hygiene facilities and practices...contamination on their bodies or their personal clothing. (b) Change rooms...to change into, and store, personal clothing, and clean...
This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…
Little is known of the extent of use of industrial hygiene prevention and control strategies in actual workplaces. The recent occupational safety and health literature was identified as a potential source for identifying which strategies are being utilized and evaluated as a means of controlling or preventing chemical hazards. Using preestablished selection criteria, the peer-reviewed industrial hygiene literature 1994–1999 was
Cora R. Roelofs; Elizabeth M. Barbeau; Michael J. Ellenbecker; Rafael Moure-Eraso
Disease is one of the main factors driving both natural and artificial selection. It is a particularly important and increasing threat to the managed honeybee colonies, which are vital in crop pollination. Artificial selection for disease-resistant honeybee genotypes has previously only been carried out at the colony-level, that is, by using queens or males reared from colonies that show resistance. However, honeybee queens mate with many males and so each colony consists of multiple patrilines that will vary in heritable traits, such as disease resistance. Here, we investigate whether response to artificial selection for a key resistance mechanism, hygienic behaviour, can be improved using multi-level selection, that is, by selecting not only among colonies as normal but also among patrilines within colonies. Highly hygienic colonies were identified (between-colony selection), and the specific patrilines within them responsible for most hygienic behaviour were determined using observation hives. Queens reared from these hygienic patrilines (within-colony selection) were identified using DNA microsatellite analysis of a wing-tip tissue sample and then mated to drones from a third highly hygienic colony. The resulting colonies headed by queens from hygienic patrilines showed approximately double the level of hygienic behaviour of colonies headed by sister queens from non-hygienic patrilines. The results show that multi-level selection can significantly improve the success of honeybee breeding programs. PMID:19259116
Pérez-Sato, J A; Châline, N; Martin, S J; Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W
Monitoring hand hygiene compliance and providing healthcare workers with feedback regarding their performance are considered integral parts of a successful hand hygiene promotion program. Direct observation of care providers by trained personnel is currently considered the gold standard. Advantages include the ability to determine if hand hygiene is being performed at the correct times, establish compliance rates by healthcare worker type, and assess hand hygiene technique. However, observation surveys are time-consuming, permit observation of only a small fraction of all hand hygiene opportunities, and can be influenced by inter-rater reliability. Comparison of compliance rates obtained through observation surveys is problematic due to lack of standardization of criteria for compliance and observation techniques. Self-reporting of compliance is not sufficiently reliable to be useful. Monitoring the usage of hand hygiene products requires much less time and can be performed on an ongoing basis, and is less complicated. However, it does not provide information about the appropriateness and quality of hand hygiene practices or compliance rates by health-care worker type. Furthermore, it is not clear how product usage correlates with compliance established by observational surveys. Electronic methods for monitoring compliance require further evaluation before they can be routinely recommended. Clearly, further research is needed to develop efficient, reliable, and reproducible methods for monitoring hand hygiene compliance. PMID:18994674
In many countries occupational hygiene has become an indispensable discipline in managing long-term risks to the health of workers. The international collaboration on education and training started with a workshop in Luxembourg in 1986 (sponsored by the EC and WHO). This meeting provided useful groundwork in defining the scope and function of training and education in occupational hygiene. Subsequent meetings
The relatively low rate of adherence to the indications for hand hygiene, despite various efforts in hospitals, is puzzling. Lack of time is frequently cited as a reason not to perform hand hygiene. Another reason is the unavailability of hand disinfectant solution at the bedside of the patient. These issues have been addressed by promoting the use of alcoholic hand
Hand hygiene of healthcare workers is frequently poor despite the efforts of infection control teams to promote hand decontamination as the most important method to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. In this case study, we describe how principles of societal marketing were applied to improve hand hygiene. Pre-marketing analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to implementation; attention to product,
G. Gopal Rao; A. Jeanes; M. Osman; C. Aylott; J. Green
Background: There is currently no general self-report measure for assessing hygiene behavior. This article details the development and testing of such a measure. Methods: In studies 1 to 4, a total of 855 participants were used for scale and subscale development and for reliability and validity testing. The latter involved establishing the relationships between self-reported hygiene behavior and existing measures,
Richard J. Stevenson; Trevor I. Case; Deborah Hodgson; Renata Porzig-Drummond; Javad Barouei; Megan J. Oaten
The research of actual nutrition and food behaviour of 500 Kuzbass miners has been conducted. Impartial findings concerning the chemical composition, food set of organized and nonorganized underground feeding of miners were obtained. The peculiarities of miners'food behaviour in modern social-economic conditions were analyzed. The necessity and the directions of elaboration of steps concerning the improvement of nutrition of the given group accounting regional and professional features were demonstrated. PMID:18030813
Petting zoos are popular attractions, but can also be associated with zoonotic disease outbreaks. Hand hygiene is critical to reducing disease risks; however, compliance can be poor. Video observation of petting zoo visitors was used to assess animal and environmental contact and hand hygiene compliance. Compliance was also compared over five hand hygiene intervention periods. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used for analysis. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 58% (340/583). Two interventions had a significant positive association with hand hygiene compliance [improved signage with offering hand sanitizer, odds ratio (OR) 3·38, P<0·001; verbal hand hygiene reminders, OR 1·73, P=0·037]. There is clearly a need to improve hand hygiene compliance at this and other animal exhibits. This preliminary study was the first to demonstrate a positive impact of a hand hygiene intervention at a petting zoo. The findings suggest that active, rather than passive, interventions are more effective for increasing compliance. PMID:21371366
...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and...practices while on duty to prevent adulteration of product and the creation...often as necessary to prevent adulteration of product and the...
EC Directive 93\\/43\\/EEC of 14 June 1993 on the hygiene of foodstuffs has been implemented in the Netherlands through the Food and Commodity Act (Warenwet) of 14 December 1995. This Directive requires food companies to identify steps in their activities that are critical to ensuring food safety, and to ensure that adequate safety procedures are identified, implemented, maintained and reviewed
E. H. G. Bovee; N. de Kruijf; J. Jetten; A. W. Barendsz
... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...
Since the mid-1970s, the dental hygiene profession has experienced a decline in the number of applicants. Reasons cited for this decline are fewer traditional college-age students, an increase in the career opportunities available to women, and a decrease in student financial aid. Four-year dental hygiene programs have experienced applicant decline faster than two-year programs. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influenced university freshmen to designate dental hygiene as a career choice. Factors examined included reasons for choosing or not choosing a career in dental hygiene, and retention in the college major chosen. A questionnaire was mailed to three groups of students who entered the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill as freshmen from 1985 through 1987: (1) all students who designated dental hygiene as a major on their entrance application; (2) a random sample who did not; and (3) all the freshman during that time period who subsequently matriculated into the dental hygiene program. The overall response rate was 78% (n = 80). Subjects began to explore career opportunities at a mean age of 16. Having a family member/friend in the selected field was found to be the most influential factor in career selection. Among dental hygiene students, contact with a dental hygienist was perceived to be influential in their career choice. Entering college freshmen exhibited a lack of knowledge about the dental hygiene profession, and most had not received any information about dental hygiene in high school. These findings can be used to develop recruitment strategies. PMID:1624997
In years following to the second world war the convention organisator was faced with major technical difficulties due to universal shortage of resources. During the 50's, two conventions of health workers with topics related to preventive medicine were held in Opatija. On both occasion Sanitary Bureau of Rijeka (Institute of Hygiene) was the main organisator. Reviewing the correspondance in Institute of Hygiene archive, one can monitor the preparations for the congress. In order to meet the participant's expectation, director of Institute of Hygiene, requested from the local entrepreneur adequate supply of postcard and cigarettes. PMID:23607176
An industrial study was performed at the Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Mine and Retorting Facility near Rifle, Colorado. This study considered the potential industrial hygiene problems associated with the Paraho direct combustion retorting process and the related mining, crushing, disposal, and auxiliary operations. Air samples did not indicate any personal exposures in excess of existing industrial hygiene standards. However, area sampling did show that some operations would present significant exposures to some employees should such employees work full time in these areas. Commercial scale operations will require industrial hygiene control measures to control these potentially hazardous situations.
The aim of this article is to update the reader on oral hygiene products and techniques. The evidence relating to the range of toothbrushing, interdental cleaning products and chemotherapeutic agents currently on the market will be discussed. It will be seen that choice of many of the oral hygiene products currently on the market is still largely a matter of personal preference. Clinical Relevance: An inadequate oral hygiene regime may lead to caries and periodontal disease. It is important for clinicians to be able to recommend a preventive programme for dental and periodontal health that is supported by high quality, evidence-based clinical research. PMID:18557504
More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776
The control of infection through hygiene has a long erratic history. Personal hygiene and handwashing was less appreciated in the past, since it was not known that invisible organisms could spread from apparently clean hands and surfaces. The role of a hygienic home environment received little attention until the 19th century. Since then, the modern tradition of hygiene has served
Ethnic food consumption is a quickly growing reality within Chinese communities, which have a well-organized “internal” food\\u000a market for both Asian and ethnic foods produced in the European Union. The main problems associated with these markets are\\u000a related to hygienic conditions, certifications of accomplishment, and personnel management. Moreover, controls and identification\\u000a of the products are difficult because of cultural and
A. Guidi; A. Armani; L. Castigliego; X. N. Li; F. Fanzone; S. Fusco; E. Facibeni; D. Gianfaldoni
A questionnaire was composed to assess the educational value of small-group motivational techniques utilized to stimulate individuals to practice effective oral hygiene. Fifteen hundred junior high school students were tested during a two-year period for ...
Survey responses from 136 of 216 dental hygiene programs indicated that 31% included interdisciplinary activities in the curriculum; only 15% included both clinical and instructional interdisciplinary coursework. However, 74% felt that students would benefit from interdisciplinary experiences. (SK)
The background, origins, functions, and recommendations of the American Association of Dental Schools' task force investigating improvement of access to dental hygiene training programs and of curriculum and program design are presented. (MSE)
Surveyed dental hygiene programs to determine the prevalence of distance education use. Found that 22 percent have distance education, and that most were satisfied with it as an adequate alternative to traditional approaches. (EV)
Instructor manual for a one week 'Industrial Hygiene Chemistry' course, designed to give program graduates expertise in environmental sampling and analysis. Lesson 6 encompasses uses, conditions, and sampling constraints for visible light, ultraviolet, in...
Instructor manual for a one week 'Industrial Hygiene Chemistry' course designed to give program graduates expertise in environmental sampling and analysis. Lesson 12 is titled an introduction to chromatography, including variety, conditions, and sampling ...
An industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Agricultural Operations Division, IMC, Bartow, Florida, on July 19-22, 1976, as part of the industry-wide study of the phosphate fertilizer industry. The phosphate ore mining operations, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. The beneficiation plant was surveyed to determine the 8-hour time weighted averages of cadmium,
To determine the potential need in medical technologies based on Novosibirsk regional clinical diagnostic center data, the social hygienic evaluation of the population pathology detection during medical consulting care was organized. It is established that the detection of diseases of thyroid gland, bronchial asthma, hypertension, urolithiasis, duodenal ulcer chronic hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis, and allergic rhinitis is the most important issue in the social hygienic evaluation of prevalence of pathologic affection. PMID:22279799
Abstract: Faculty development,courses related to acquiring clinical teaching skills in the health professions are limited. Conse- quently, the Department of Dental Hygiene at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio conducted a series of clinical teaching workshops,to address clinical teaching methodology. The goal of these workshops,was to promote a problem- solving learning atmosphere for dental hygiene faculty
The aim of this study was to investigate the oral hygiene practices and denture status of elderly people living in a residential\\u000a home. One hundred one elderly people living in Gurcesme Zubeyde Hanim Residential Home, Izmir—52 women (mean age 75.5?±?7.8)\\u000a and 49 men (mean age 75.3?±?8.8)—participated in an interview. Their oral hygiene practices, self-perceived oral health, denture\\u000a status, and needs
Brief biweekly home visits, made as part of a cohort study of diarrhea in young children under age 5 years that was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, in 1998-1999, were used as a low-cost way to collect structured observation data on domestic hygiene behavior. Field-workers were trained to check a list of 23 forms of hygienic or unhygienic behavior by
A. Strina; S. Cairncross; M. L. Barreto; C. Larrea; M. S. Prado
The paper describes sanitary-hygienic and technological investigations aimed at development of the sorption method of water reclamation for personal hygiene needs of cosmonauts from wash water. Catamine-AB was used as a detergent with bactericidal properties. Manned experiments helped to identify the conditions that provided an adequate cleaning of skin and simultaneous sterilization of wash water. The technology of wash water purification was developed, proper sorbents were selected and recommended values of their use were established. PMID:2804
Ga?dadymov, V A; Prishchep, A G; Zarubina, K V; Balashova, L E; Tsareva, S P
Skin hygiene, particularly of the hands, is a primary mechanism for reducing contact and fecal-oral transmission of infectious agents. Widespread use of antimicrobial products has prompted concern about emergence of resistance to antiseptics and damage to the skin barrier associated with frequent washing. This article reviews evidence for the relationship between skin hygiene and infection, the effects of washing on skin integrity, and recommendations for skin care practices.
SummaryThe Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. This report reviews studies published since the 1985 CDC guideline (Garner
Purpose Viral gastroenteritis is common on pediatric wards, increasing the need for adherence with hand hygiene recommendations in\\u000a order to prevent cross-transmission. Therefore, we investigated hand hygiene reflecting complete work-day activities on pediatric\\u000a wards and focused on the influence of viral gastroenteritis. There are, so far, no studies representing complete working days\\u000a on pediatric wards or addressing the influence of viral
S. Scheithauer; J. Oude-Aost; C. Stollbrink-Peschgens; H. Haefner; B. Waitschies; N. Wagner; S. W. Lemmen
Although certain odors, such as lemon, are commonly associated with cleanliness and positive hygiene, empirical assessment of such associations for other odors and attributes is generally lacking. Moreover, differences between men and women in such associations have not been established. In this study of lemon, onion, pine, and smoke odors, ratings were obtained from 142 men and 336 women (M age= 30.1 yr., SD = 12.3) for odor intensity, gender association (masculine/feminine), and the success, sociability, intelligence, cleanliness, and attractiveness of a hypothetical person whose clothes smell like the odor in question. Ratings of the pleasantness or unpleasantness one would attribute to each odor in various rooms of the home were obtained, as well as a specification of whether such ratings are influenced by laundry habits, e.g., whether laundry is smelled before or after washing. Numerous associations were found. For example, a hypothetical person whose clothes smell of pine was rated as relatively more successful, intelligent, sociable, sanitary, and attractive than one whose clothes smelled of lemon, onion, or smoke. Sex differences, as well as differences between people who reported smelling their own laundry, were also found. PMID:15773704
Kerr, Kara-Lynne; Rosero, Stephanie Joyce; Doty, Richard L
The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441
The hygiene hypothesis, which was put forward more than 20 years ago by Strachan, proposes that the recent increase in allergic and autoimmune diseases is due to increasing hygiene standards. Since then, numerous epidemiologic and animal studies have provided support for this hypothesis and showed that certain microorganisms, helminths in particular, have immunomodulatory effects. More recently, studies have led to the identification of some of the mechanisms underlying these immunomodulatory effects. Substances, or crude extracts, produced by worms and responsible for these effects have been analyzed. Clinical trials have been performed mainly with pig whipworm, which was chosen because it is likely to be nonpathogenic in human subjects. Eggs of the pig whipworm (Trichuris suis ova) have been shown to be safe in multiple studies. Efficacy has been demonstrated in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and in 1 case of pecan allergy. Altogether, this information supports further investigation of T suis ova in patients with immune-mediated diseases, particularly in areas in which there is currently no therapy, such as food allergy. PMID:22742834
... Department of Agriculture. Food Allergy Educational Materials - WIC Works Resource System; Food Allergies and Intolerances - Nutrition.gov. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodallergens
Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease throughout history. Purification ritual, miasma, contagion, zymotic and germ theories of disease are ideas that spread through society because they are intuitively attractive, because they are supported by evidence either from direct experience or from authoritative report and because they are consistent with existing beliefs. In contrast to much historical and anthropological assertion, I argue that hygiene behaviour and disgust predate culture and so cannot fully be explained as its product. The history of ideas about disease thus is neither entirely socially constructed nor an “heroic progress” of scientists leading the ignorant into the light. As an animal behaviour the proper domain of hygiene is biology, and without this perspective attempts at explanation are incomplete. The approaches of biological anthropology have much to offer the practice of cultural history.
Hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures for preventing infections. The annual NHS staff survey in England provides national and local data on how staff feel about working in the NHS. It also provides staff with the opportunity to give their views on the availability of hand-washing materials. The infection prevention and control team at an NHS trust decided a review was required on this issue. This review assessed the availability of hand-washing materials and alcohol handrub on wards and at ward entrances. Three community buildings and 31 wards were reviewed. The audit results showed the availability of hand-washing materials was good in 30 out of 34 areas. Staff on both wards and in the community buildings highlighted what other materials were required for hand hygiene, and steps were made to provide these. The audit allowed hand-hygiene practices to be benchmarked across the trust and increased staff awareness of improving hand hygiene. As a result of this audit, the hand-hygiene compliance score increased from 80% to 95%. PMID:23905226
The results of epidemiological investigations justifies the assumption that increasing health defects, especially enteritis infectiosa, are caused inter alia by inadequate hygienic conditions in households. The number of such diseases ranges between 100,000 and more than 1,000,000 cases per year in the FRG. Responsible for this development is a lack of information about the behaviour of microorganisms in the environment and its pathways of distribution. In addition risks are growing with the recommendation of cleansing methods, which had been adequate for the kitchen techniques in former centuries, but must fall under the conditions of the modern supply, processing and conservation. The described investigations are directed at the determination of the distribution of germs by working in normal household kitchens and at the effectiveness of surface-decontamination-cleansers (so-called FD-preparations). Test principle was the production of a complete dinner by each of 79 housewives with use of minced meat, which was contaminated with micrococcus luteus. After final cleaning of the kitchen we determined the degree of contamination of surfaces, machines and of the components of the meal with use of rodacplates, swabs and quantitative cultures respectively. The experiments are completed by interviews with the housewives. The results let conclude that the use of household cleansers with germicidal properties even in the hand of housewives will reduce the distribution of unwanted microorganisms in the kitchens. In this respect surfaces, on which components of the meal are prepared, and the machines, like cutting machines, waring blenders a.o., are of utmost importance. Disinfections of other parts of the flats including toilets are unnecessary (exception: severe infectious diseases). Therefore the use of FD-preparations outside of the kitchens is not required, but acceptable (it is not necessary to use a cleanser in the kitchen, another one in the toilet and a third one for the bath tube etc.). We do not recommend adapting cleaning and disinfective methods of the hospitals to the normal households. Instead of medical disinfections one should use detergents with nontoxic germicidal additives (e.g. H2O2) in this area, which do not require changing the traditional cleaning techniques. They also should guarantee that cleanliness, absence of odor and minimization of germs are achieved. In addition normal kitchen soaps should be replaced by HD-preparations. PMID:2500806
The potential for legal liabilities exists in all aspects of dental hygiene practice. Contemporary malpractice law demands the highest standards for oral healthcare. Formal educational credentials of dental hygiene practitioners contribute to the provision of quality healthcare, an environment that elicits societal trust, and the prevention of legal risks. The purpose of this paper is to explore an alternative to formal dental hygiene education--preceptorship training--as it relates to current theories and practices in risk management. Key issues explored include expectations and rights of society, responsibility of the professional and the profession to society, risk management in the practice setting, and how preceptorship and formal education compare, relative to these key issues. The paper also analyzes whether the preceptorship concept is counterproductive for society, the profession, and the employer; and explains how the malpractice crisis in America is challenging oral health providers to rise to higher levels of education and professional competence. PMID:2090779
Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed.
Arcury, Thomas A.; Weir, Maria M.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F.; Bischoff, Werner E.; Quandt, Sara A.
The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among demographics, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. As hypothesized, medical students’ sleep quality was significantly worse than a healthy adult normative sample (t = 5.13, p < .001). Poor sleep quality in medical students was predicted by several demographic and sleep hygiene variables, and future research directions are proposed.
Brick, Cameron A.; Seely, Darbi L.; Palermo, Tonya M.
Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few are substantiated by clinical data. This review focuses on the impact of oral hygiene, tracheal suctioning, bronchoscopy, mucus-controlling agents, and kinetic therapy on the incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory infections, length of stay in the hospital and the ICU, and mortality in critically ill patients. Available data are distilled into recommendations for the maintenance of airway hygiene in ICU patients.
Jelic, Sanja; Cunningham, Jennifer A; Factor, Phillip
Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed. PMID:22776578
Arcury, Thomas A; Weir, Maria M; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F; Bischoff, Werner E; Quandt, Sara A
The purpose of this paper is to describe the quantity and quality of oral hygiene content in a representative sample of before-licensure nursing fundamentals textbooks. Seven textbooks were examined. Quantity was operationalized as the actual page count and percentage of content devoted to oral health and hygiene. Quality of content was operationalized as congruency with best mouth care practices. Best mouth care practices included evidence-based and consensus-based practices as published primarily by the American Dental Association and supported by both published nursing research and review articles specific to mouth care and published dental research and review articles specific to mouth care. Content devoted to oral health and hygiene averaged 0.6%. Although the quality of the content was highly variable, nearly every textbook contained some erroneous or outdated information. The most common areas for inaccuracy included the use of foam sponges for mouth care in dentate persons instead of soft toothbrushes and improper denture removal.
Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made.
Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data. PMID:23924823
Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R
... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...
... food additives have to do with man-made ingredients that are added to foods, including: Antibiotics given to food producing animals Antioxidants in oily or fatty foods Artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, saccharine, and sodium cyclamate ...
Choose a Food Group MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...
It is widely recognized that the human noroviruses (HuNoV) are responsible for a large proportion of the world's foodborne disease burden. These viruses are transmitted by human fecal contamination and frequently make their way into foods because of poor personal hygiene of infected food handlers. This paper describes a probabilistic exposure assessment which models the dynamics of the transmission of
SuMMary In this work we evaluate the microbiological quality and the hygiene degree of meat foods consumed in the city of San Luis. A total of 515 meat food samples (315 from fresh sausages, 100 from hamburgers and 100 from ground beef) were processed, being the most of them non-industrial products. The microbiological quality was determined by counts of total
Patricia V. Stagnitta; Blas Micalizzi; M. Stefanini de Guzmán
This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.
The focus on hygiene in the food industry has resulted in an increasing use of chemical disinfection and it has been speculated that this will impose a selective pressure and contribute to the emergence of disinfectant-resistant microorganisms. The frequency of strains with a low-level resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) is relatively high for Listeria monocytogenes (10%), Staphylococcus spp. (13%)
Solveig Langsrud; Maan Singh Sidhu; Even Heir; Askild L. Holck
|This book for primary school teachers provides a practical collection of facts, advice, projects, games, stories, and sample questions for use in teaching children the importance of healthy habits. Food, personal hygiene, and the home environment are areas of particular concern. Details range from advice on ways to start a school garden or design…
Poor oral hygiene and sugar/pop consumption practices are detrimental to one's overall health. College women were hypothesized to have better oral hygiene habits and to consume less sugar/pop than men and that the students' habits would be different from those the students had before college. These habits of students at a Midwestern university were evaluated by sex. The volunteers included 105 men and 91 women. Three quarters of the students reported brushing their teeth at least the recommended twice daily, with women brushing their teeth more often. About a third of the students flossed at least the recommended once daily. Not quite a third of the students reported brushing and flossing their teeth more often than they did before college. More than a third reported using mouth rinses 4 or more times weekly, with 13% reporting using a fluoride-containing mouth rinse. More than 60% reported using fluoride-containing toothpaste. Slightly more than a third reported drinking fluoridated water in their younger years. A larger percentage of women than men reported that diet pop was their pop of choice. More than two thirds of the students that drank pop indicated that regular pop was their favorite. Most of the students reported consuming sugary foods more than once daily, but they indicated that most of these sugars were not sticky. Few differences were observed in oral hygiene and sugar/pop consumption habits of these college students by sex. Nutritionists and other health professionals should work cooperatively in helping individuals improve their oral hygiene and sugar/pop consumption habits. PMID:20116657
This instructor's manual presented the first module in an eight module series designed for students at an advanced stage of training in the field of industrial hygiene. The first module, introduction to industrial hygiene engineering and control, discusse...
Certification requirements for industrial hygiene technicians and safety professional technicians are outlined. Criteria of the American Board of Industrial Hygiene are included along with job tasks and activities divided into five categories. Data on edu...
R. J. Vernon B. B. Byers R. B. Konzen J. R. Duncan
Good manufacturing practice, personal hygiene and cleanliness are very important in the fish industries and retailing, so that consumers can buy fish products of good quality. During the retailing, good hygiene can be ensured by packaging. This handbook d...
Conclusions Hand hygiene is a crucial component of risk management for both health care workers and their patients. It is important that hand hygiene practice is based on the best current evidence. As a result of a systematic review, evidence-based recommendations for hand hygiene for health care workers are proposed. Ever since we were toddlers our parents have taught us
Peter J Larmer; Trish M Tillson; Faye M Scown; Philippa M Grant; Jamie Exton
Despite the role of hand hygiene in preventing infectious disease, compliance remains low. Education and training are often cited as essential to developing and maintaining hand-hygiene compliance, but generally have not produced sustained improvements. Consequently, this literature review was conducted to identify alternative interventions for compelling change in hand-hygiene behavior. Of those, interventions employing social pressures have demonstrated varying influence
This study was designed and the field work carried out by a non-governmental organisation ( NGO) responsible for implementing hygiene promotion. The sustainability of changed hygiene behaviour was studied at various periods up to nine years after the conclusion of a multifaceted hygiene promotion intervention in Kerala, India. Various methods including a questionnaire to assess knowledge, spot observation, demonstration of
This study was designed and the field work carried out by a non-governmental organisation ( NGO) responsible for implementing hygiene promotion. The sustainability of changed hygiene behaviour was studied at various periods up to nine years after the conclusion of a multifaceted hygiene promotion intervention in Kerala, India. Various methods including a questionnaire to assess knowledge, spot observation, demonstration of
Effective teaching behaviors have been studied in various arenas in higher education. However, there is limited research documenting effective teaching behaviors in dentistry and dental hygiene. Our qualitative study attempts to define effective teaching in both the classroom and clinic for dentistry and dental hygiene students. A total of 175 dental and dental hygiene undergraduate students nominated a total of
Dieter J. Schönwetter; Salme Lavigne; Randy Mazurat; Orla Nazarko
The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the…
...Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices...Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed...
...Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices...Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed...
...Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices...Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed...
Increasing evidence shows strong statistical correlations between improved oral hygiene and reduction in the incidence, and mortality, from health care-associated pneumonia among elderly. Therefore, it is important that nursing staff are well educated in oral hygiene. The objective was to describe the design of a new oral hygiene educational program for nursing staff, where the theoretical parts of the education
The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization
|The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the…
Background: Most health care workers (HCWs) are aware of the rationale for hand hygiene procedures, yet failure to adhere to guidelines is common. Little is known about factors that motivate HCWs to practice hand hygiene. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to (1) estimate adherence to hand hygiene recommendations; (2) describe relationships among motivational factors, adherence, and intensity of
Aim To survey hand hygiene practices of the New Zealand public. Method Hand hygiene practices of subjects after they had used the toilet were observed in the washrooms of shopping malls in the cities of Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, and Christchurch. The frequency and duration of hand hygiene were recorded by gender-appropriate observers. Results A total of 1200 subjects were observed.
Claire Garbutt; Greg Simmons; Daniel Patrick; Thomas Miller
|Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)|
The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality
Cameron A. Brick; Darbi L. Seely; Tonya M. Palermo
A study is reported from Nigeria on the training of field workers in the making of structured observations on hygiene-related behaviour with a view to improving the control of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme led to a high degree of consistency in the perception and description of such behaviour by the participants. PMID:1821119
A methodology was developed for the evaluation of the benefit/cost ratio of water hygiene programs. The methodology is based upon regressions models. This methodology has been used to evaluate the benefit/cost ratio for water quality improvements that eff...
J. E. Singley A. W. Hoadley H. E. Hudson E. T. Loehman
Honey bees bred for “suppression of mite reproduction” resist the growth of Varroa destructor through the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped brood. This is varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH), and the bees are called VSH bees. VSH is a multi-step process that involves detection, uncapping of th...
|The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…
|This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…
ISSUE: Clean hands are the single most important factor in preventing the spread of dangerous germs and antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings, according to Julie Gerberding, M.D., director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Yet studies indicate that only about 40% of healthcare workers use appropriate hand hygiene. Our hospital staff's compliance was better than 40%, but we
All 159 dental hygiene programs responding to a survey include ethics in the curriculum, most as part of a larger course, or separately with jurisprudence. Great variation was found in teaching method and amount of time devoted to ethics. Respondents were satisfied with the curriculum, but questioned their competence to teach ethics. (Author/MSE)
An on site visit was made to Dubarry Cleaners, Detroit, Michigan, as part of an industrywide mortality and industrial hygiene study of dry cleaning workers exposed to perchloroethylene (127184) (PCE). Air samples were taken at the facility and the time we...
|This curriculum resource guide, one of seven developed by the State of Illinois to present information on new and emerging curricula existing in the nation, can be used as a basis for local educators to determine the resources needed to offer industrial hygiene technician curricula and to initiate curriculum development at the local level.…
The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for dental hygiene curriculum cover the scope and definitions of care for the handicapped, interrelationships between disciplines and courses, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, and…
Dental and dental hygiene faculty should maintain their clinical skills through regular practice, to improve their ability to relate to students through instruction, provide an additional source of income, and improve their image in the community. Institutional policies fostering and regulating faculty practice plans are suggested. (Author/MSE)
The aim of this report is to provide basic information about the historical development, current status and future needs of education and training of dental hygienists in Japan. The first formal training of dental hygienists in Japan started at Tokyo in 1949. Restructure and modification of the dental hygiene education system has been reiterated over the years in order to
Evaluated the effectiveness of gaming to create an interactive, stimulating learning environment as a review format for the Dental Hygiene National Board examination. Students (n=28) participated in either the gaming or a lecture review format. The gaming group scored higher on the exam on eight of 12 topics as well as on the case-based learning…
Peterson, Charlotte A.; Mauriello, Sally M.; Caplan, Daniel J.
This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of dental hygiene students' attitudes toward AIDS and homosexuals. Each respondent received a 500-word patient case vignette and two scales for recording impressions of the person described in the vignette. There were four vignettes, identical except that the portrayed individual's illness was identified as either AIDS or leukemia, and sexual preference
Leonard A. Cohen; Elaine Romberg; Debra A. Dixon; Edward G. Grace
Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)
Dental hygiene programs should operate on a nonprofit basis as departments, divisions, schools, or colleges of a parent institution of higher learning approved or eligible for approval by agencies recognized by the National Commission on Accreditation. Provision should be made for liaison with the dental profession. The physical plant should meet…
American Dental Association, Washington, DC. Council on Dental Education.
A study compared the effectiveness of two methods of teaching psychomotor skills (simulation feedback and guided discovery) to 55 dental hygiene students. The students receiving simulated feedback obtained slightly higher midterm and final grades and showed less variation, suggesting this as a better method for teaching instrumentation skills.…
An industrial hygiene survey at the Olin Corporation (SIC-2869), Moundsville, West Virginia was conducted in August 1983 to determine if a health hazard existed from 4,4'-methylenedianiline (101779) (MDA). The facility employed 300 workers, most of whom w...
As the first article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Jamie Bartram and Sandy Cairncross argue that the massive burden of ill health associated with poor hygiene, sanitation, and water supply demands more attention from health professionals and policymakers.
Much infectious intestinal disease (IID) arises in the home environment. If programmes to prevent infection are to be effective it is essential to both identify the particular practices that risk disease transmission, and to understand the reasons for these practices. An in-depth, multidisciplinary study of carer and child hygiene in the domestic environment in the Wirral, UK, employed structured observation,
Val Curtis; Adam Biran; Katie Deverell; Clarissa Hughes; Kate Bellamy; Bo Drasar
|Children, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to several infectious diseases as a result of contact with child care centers. This pilot program, implemented in a rural county in a southeastern state, was designed to enhance knowledge and skills related to improved hygiene practices in a child care setting. The target audience for the…
Petri, Cynthia J.; Winnail, Scott D.; Geiger, Brian F.; Artz, Lynn M.; Mason, J. W.
|A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…
Discusses a study designed to determine if successful completion of a community hygiene course by sanitarians resulted in measurable changes in acquired knowledge and behavior and skills related to job performance. Results indicated that both knowledge and skills improved significantly and that both participants and supervisors perceived an…
This curriculum resource guide, one of seven developed by the State of Illinois to present information on new and emerging curricula existing in the nation, can be used as a basis for local educators to determine the resources needed to offer industrial hygiene technician curricula and to initiate curriculum development at the local level.…
A suspicion of an excess cancer risk in automotive model shops prompted the Industrywide Studies Branch, NIOSH, to conduct a proportionate mortality study and an industrial hygiene characterization of operations in these shops. The mortality study showed a statistically significant excess proportion of deaths due to colon cancer and leukemia (for woodshops only). The materials used in the model shops
CHARLES S. MCCAMMON; CYNTHIA ROBINSON; RICHARD J. WAXWEILER; ROBERT ROSCOE
Complex hygienic, clinical, sociologic and epidemiologic studies revealed reliable relationship between work conditions and arterial hypertension, locomotory system disorders, monocytosis in powder metallurgy production workers. Findings are more probable cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, digestive tract diseases due to influence of lifestyle factors. PMID:22288182
In this paper we report the results of a qualitative multimodal analysis of a corpus of Spanish and British TV ads featuring female hygiene products such as tampons, liners and sanitary towels\\/pads. We contend that advertisers of menstruation-related products employ a wide range of strategies to convey both overt information about the products advertised, as well as to – and
Vaginal douching is widely practised by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women and none has included the perspective of
Diane McKee; María Baquero; Matthew Anderson; Alison Karasz
|A study examined the impact of the Centers for Disease Control's home study course in community hygiene on the job performance of 45 sanitarians in 30 districts throughout North Carolina. Data were collected from: (1) pre- and post-tests that evaluated the sanitarians' mastery of knowledge in such areas as water supply, sewage disposal, solid…
The basic aims of hygienic standardization of the long-term round-the-clock action of ship noise on the sailors include protection of health, prolonged professional activity, prevention of interference and provision of comfort conditions of rest. Neuro-emotional stress in the work of sailors aboard a ship has been another reason for starting the ship noise standardization. As a result of long-term hygienic, clinical, physiological, experimental and natural studies, there were established the hygienic significance of noise and vibration parameters, a combined increased effect of noise and work strain, as well as that of pitching and rolling, and also the potent combined effect of vibration and noise. During a 3-month voyage the cumulative effect of noise was identified and the physiological significance of acoustic comfort of post-watch rest was ascertained. The relation of sailors' health to ship acoustic conditions was determined. The obtained results served as a scientific motivation for a number of Soviet legislative documents. Unification of physiological and hygienic criteria and methods of assessment of noise and vibration effects meets the interests of protection of seamen's health in CMEA countries. PMID:6681359
Sten'ko, Y M; Varenikov, I I; Volkov, A A; Radzievsky, S A
Analysis of causes for sea accidents proves importance of human factor in a system "human--environment--transport". The authors consider possibility that such physical factors as noise, vibration, direct and alternate magnetic fields harm sailing staff's functional state. A universal water transport system of hygienic control over physical factors on ships is considered expedient. PMID:11965741
There is a strong perception that hand drying is an important step in hand washing and in particular, the sanitization process. The next generation of manual, semi automatic and automatic hand drying systems will be heavily influenced by their capability to enhance personal hygiene. The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the historical and current research
Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and\\/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few
Sanja Jelic; Jennifer A Cunningham; Phillip Factor
A five-session group oral hygiene intervention program was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 107 older periodontal patients, ages 50 to 70, over a 30-month follow-up period. Measures included pocket depth and attachment level using a Florida Pr...
J. F. Hollis V. J. Stevens S. J. Little J. Mullooly B. Johnson
Background. Because our hands are the most common mode of transmission for bacteria causing hospital acquired infections, hand hygiene practices are the most effective method of preventing the spread of these pathogens, limiting the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections and reducing transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms. Yet, compliance rates are below 40% on the average. ^ Objective. This culminating experience project
Hospital acquired infection severely affects patients, prolongs hospital stays and presents a major challenge for quality of patients' care (Emmerson et al, 1996; Hand washing Liaison Group, 1999). Improvement in hand hygiene can help in reduction of hospital acquired infection (Hand washing Liaison Group, 1999; Kilpatrick et al, 2007; Whitby et al, 2007; Duerink et al, 2006; Sohn et al,
This review of the literature discusses the scientific evidence behind using different hand hygiene agents on the surgical ward, and in theatre for preoperative disinfection. It considers the mechanism of action of the agents and their effectiveness against different pathogens, as well as possible future agents, and how they are tested. It addresses problems such as the poor compliance with
FTA (fault tree analysis) of the handwashing process was performed to investigate the causes for faults in hygiene management. The causes were deductively identified as the events causing every possible hazard by constructing a fault tree. The fault tree was constructed in a hierarchical structure with a single top event (occurrence of faults in hand washing), seven intermediate events, and
ISSUE: Improved adherence to hand hygiene has been shown to terminate outbreaks in healthcare facilities, reduce transmission of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, and reduce overall infection rates. In addition to handwashing with soap and water, the CDC now recommends that healthcare personnel also use alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs). ABHRs address some of the obstacles that healthcare personnel face when taking care of
K. Petersen; K. Crossno; D. Brudon; A. Herman; C. Friedman; C. Chenoweth
The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place. PMID:22488059
Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M
Text Version... a food establishment that serves a population that meets the Food Code definition of a highly susceptible population such as a day care center with ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
Food adulteration is as old as the marketing of food. Discusses the work of the Ministry of Food working party on food authenticity who are working to develop tests to enable some modern food frauds being perpetrated to be detected. Comments too on recent reports on detecting fraud in fish products, emanating from the Steering Group on Chemical Aspects of
While establishing 2004 department goals, the new JCAHO Safety Goal of improving compliance with CDC hand washing recommendations was an appropriate department initiative for a hospital Wound Care Center. The purpose of the project was to improve physician compliance with hand hygiene. Nursing staff monitored physician hand washing and provided a compliance report to each physician. Informative articles pertaining to hand hygiene were provided to each physician. Follow-up monitoring demonstrated a significant increase in physician compliance with an additional benefit of patients showing interest in hand hygiene. Continuous oversight of hand hygiene may ultimately reduce the incidence of infection transmission. PMID:17356453
Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high.
Herbert, Verena G.; Schlumm, Paul; Kessler, Harald H.; Frings, Andreas
Studies report that students in health care professions do not retain knowledge of infection control and demonstrate poor hand hygiene compliance. This study describes the effect of a multifaceted approach (education, skills training, and monitoring) on nursing students' knowledge of infection control principles, opinions, hand hygiene practices, and value of nursing research in evidence-based practice. Students participated in hand hygiene monitoring of health care workers with 900 observations. Students demonstrated strong knowledge of hand hygiene principles: 63% reported that hand hygiene monitoring positively influenced their own compliance. Although posters have been identified as effective prompts, students did not perceive poster reminders as effective in prompting handwashing. Students reported that hand hygiene activities helped them value the role of the nurse in research and evidence-based practice. This study may help educators clarify misconceptions that result in student noncompliance in hand hygiene practices. PMID:21366164
Waltman, Patricia A; Schenk, Laura K; Martin, Tina M; Walker, Jean
... Shell Egg Producer Registration; Reportable Food Registry for Industry; Acidified and Low-Acid Canned Foods. -. -. Items of Interest. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/industry
Text Version... radiation to food) is a technology that improves the safety and extends the ... Sterilized foods are useful in hospitals for patients with severely impaired ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling
Text Version... FDA guidance for the food industry states that food allergen advisory statements, eg, “may contain [allergen]” or “produced in a facility that also uses ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling
Background The current study aimed to examine the changes following a sleep hygiene intervention on sleep hygiene practices, sleep quality, and daytime symptoms in youth. Methods Participants aged 10–18 years with self-identified sleep problems completed our age-appropriate F.E.R.R.E.T (an acronym for the categories of Food, Emotions, Routine, Restrict, Environment and Timing) sleep hygiene programme; each category has three simple rules to encourage good sleep. Participants (and parents as appropriate) completed the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), and wore Actical® monitors twice before (1 and 2 weeks) and three times after (6, 12 and 20 weeks) the intervention. Anthropometric data were collected two weeks before and 20 weeks post-intervention. Results Thirty-three youths (mean age 12.9 years; M/F?=?0.8) enrolled, and retention was 100%. ASHS scores significantly improved (p?=?0.005) from a baseline mean (SD) of 4.70 (0.41) to 4.95 (0.31) post-intervention, as did PSQI scores [7.47 (2.43) to 4.47 (2.37); p?0.001] and SDSC scores [53.4 (9.0) to 39.2 (9.2); p?0.001]. PDSS scores improved from a baseline of 16.5 (6.0) to 11.3 (6.0) post- intervention (p?0.001). BMI z-scores with a baseline of 0.79 (1.18) decreased significantly (p?=?0.001) post-intervention to 0.66 (1.19). Despite these improvements, sleep duration as estimated by Actical accelerometry did not change. There was however a significant decrease in daytime sedentary/light energy expenditure. Conclusions Our findings suggest the F.E.R.R.E.T sleep hygiene education programme might be effective in improving sleep in children and adolescents. However because this was a before and after study and a pilot study with several limitations, the findings need to be addressed with caution, and would need to be replicated within a randomised controlled trial to prove efficacy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000649819
The clinical expression of food hypersensitivity or food allergy is usually the end-result of a series of complex interactions among ingested food antigens, the digestive tract, tissue mast cells and circulating basophils, and food antigen-specific IgE. In some well-defined, food-induced diseases, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, additional immunologic mechanisms are involved. An understanding of the nature of antigens in foods capable
OBJECTIVES: To explore the long-term effects of the implementation of an oral hygiene protocol in nursing homes. METHODS: Out of 14 nursing homes (Flanders) seven nursing homes were randomly allocated to the intervention group and confirmed to implement an 'oral hygiene protocol'. The remaining nursing homes (the control group) continued to perform oral hygiene as usual. Oral hygiene levels were
L. de Visschere; C. de Baat; J. M. Schols; E. Deschepper; J. Vanobbergen
Background: Hand hygiene is a fundamental measure for the control of nosocomial infection. However, sustained compliance with hand hygiene in health care workers is poor. We attempted to enhance compliance with hand hygiene by implementing education, training, and performance feedback. We measured nosocomial infections in parallel. Methods: We monitored the overall compliance with hand hygiene during routine patient care in
OBJECTIVE. To determine the impact of known observers on hand hygiene performance in inpatient care units with differing baseline levels of hand hygiene compliance. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Three inpatient care units, selected on the basis of past hand hygiene performance, in a hospital where hand hygiene observation and feedback are routine. PARTICIPANTS: Three infection control practitioners (ICPs) and a
Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.
The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the “hygiene hypothesis” low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions. Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells. Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.
The urban development and the problems it raises at present, are in direct relation with the conditions, which affect considerably the health of the population. The territorial and settlement system, the urban planning on ecological basis, the new methods of building in applying polymeric materials, the conditions of the environment in health establishments, the regulations of the physical factors, noise and electromagnetic energy are subject to the hygienic studies, in which the Institute of Hygiene and Occupational Health is engaged. The connective unit in the variety of the mentioned fields of investigation is the health of the inhabitants and finding the right way in its protection and keeping. The attitudes of prophylaxis, the creation and establishing of urban environment, corresponding to the conflict-free existence and potentiation of the health development of the inhabitants, are clarified, as they are related to the basic trends of the world Health Organization, whose targets are "Health for All by the year 2000". PMID:3241801
Efremov, E; Chuchkova, M; Lozanov, L; Iotov, L; Toshkov, S
Despite anti-discriminatory legislation, academic women in the 1980s have not achieved equality, and continue to face diverse problems advancing in an academic system based on a patriarchal paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to provide dental hygiene faculty with insight, awareness, and understanding into four major problem areas that influence women's academic success: values and attitudes learned through socialization; blocks to administrative positions; the male locus of decision making; and double standards of performance evaluation. Additionally, examples of solutions to these problems are discussed in three categories: individual, internal to the university, and external to the university; in an effort to better prepare women in dental hygiene education to succeed in academia despite discriminatory practices. PMID:2600639
Data SourcesSearches were made using Medline, the Cochrane Library, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation database and, by hand, of relevant articles' reference lists.Study selectionThe search was limited to studies conducted in humans only. The predetermined inclusion criteria were: clinical studies and randomised controlled trials (RCT) that linked oral hygiene with healthcare-associated pneumonia or respiratory tract infection in elderly people.
The chair-side work posture of dental hygienists has long been a concern because of health-related problems potentially caused or exacerbated by poor posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate if using magnification loupes improved dental hygiene students' posture during provision of treatment. The treatment chosen was hand-scaling, and the effect of the timing of introduction of the loupes
J. Peggy Maillet; A. Michele Millar; Jillian M. Burke; Michelle A. Maillet; Wayne A. Maillet; Nancy R. Neish
A survey of accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States revealed little standardization of requirements for dental radiology. However, most programs satisfied suggested minimum guidelines for didactic instruction in radiology. Six programs had no preclinical laboratory requirements, and seven had no clinical requirements. An area of concern was the high percentage of programs in which classmates exposed one another to ionizing radiation for training purposes. PMID:3862050
Much infectious intestinal disease (IID) arises in the home environment. If programmes to prevent infection are to be effective it is essential to both identify the particular practices that risk disease transmission, and to understand the reasons for these practices. An in-depth, multidisciplinary study of carer and child hygiene in the domestic environment in the Wirral, UK, employed structured observation, surface swabbing for polio vaccine virus and enteric marker organisms, semi-structured interviews, projective interviews and focus group discussions. Observations revealed that child carers washed hands with soap after changing a dirty nappy on 42% of occasions, and that one in five toilet users did not wash hands with soap afterwards. Microbiological samples were taken from household surfaces at sites thought likely to be involved in the transfer of faecal material. 15% of bathroom samples showed contamination with polio vaccine virus. Nappy changing took place mainly in living rooms. Contact with living room surfaces and objects during nappy changing was frequent and evidence of faecal contamination was found in 12% of living room samples. Evidence of faecal contamination was also found in kitchens, again on surfaces thought likely to be involved in the transmission of faeces (taps and soap dispensers). Key factors motivating hygiene were the desire to give a good impression to others, protection of the child and aesthetics. In this setting, the particular risk practices to be addressed included washing hands with soap after stool and nappy contact and preventing the transfer of pathogenic organisms to the kitchen. The occasion of the birth of a child may be a privileged moment for the promotion of safer home hygiene practices. Using polio vaccine virus as an indicator of faecal contamination produces results that could be used in large-scale studies of household disease transmission. A better understanding of the household transmission of the agents of IID using multidisciplinary methods is needed if effective hygiene promotion programmes are to be designed. PMID:12821014
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall where both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute\\u000a to disease initiation and progression. The hygiene hypothesis implies that dysregulation of the immune response has led to\\u000a increased susceptibility to immuno-inflammatory diseases. Recent studies established that subtypes of T cells, regulatory\\u000a T cells, actively involved in the maintenance of immunological tolerance,
The high prevalence of the major behavioral factors of a risk to health: violation of the study leisure regimen, violation of dietary pattern and quality, low motor activity, smoking, frequent alcohol abuse, drug taste, and deteriorated family microclimate, was revealed in middle and senior schoolchildren from Moscow, Kaliningrad, and Murmansk. Proposals are given to mold healthy lifestyle in adolescents and to optimize their hygienic education at general educational establishments. PMID:19642563
While placements in external locations are being increasingly used in dental education globally, few studies have explored the student learning experience at such placements. The purpose of this study was to investigate student experiences while on external placement in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to final-year dental hygiene students (n=77) at the University of Newcastle, Australia, in 2010. The questionnaire included questions regarding the type of placement, experiences offered, supervision, resources available, and lasting impressions. Responding students were generally positive about their external placement experience and indicated that the majority of facilities provided them with the opportunity to provide direct patient care and perform clinical tasks typical of a practicing hygienist. However, there was a statistically significant difference in their opinions about discipline-focused and community placements. Students indicated that their external placement experience provided opportunities to learn more about time and patient management, including hands-on experience with specific clinical tasks. Ongoing evaluations are necessary to ensure that external placements meet both student needs and intended learning outcomes within dental hygiene programs. PMID:22550111
The provision of mouth care on the general surgical ward and intensive care setting has recently gained momentum as an important aspect of patient care. Oropharyngeal morbidity can cause pain and disordered swallowing leading to reluctance in commencing or maintaining an adequate dietary intake. On the intensive care unit, aside from patient discomfort and general well-being, oral hygiene is integral to the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) is widely used to decrease oral bacterial loading, dental bacterial plaque and gingivitis. Pineapple juice has gained favour as a salivary stimulant in those with a dry mouth or coated tongue. Tooth brushing is the ideal method of promoting oral hygiene. Brushing is feasible in the vast majority, although access is problematic in ventilated patients. Surgical patients undergoing palliative treatment are particularly prone to oral morbidity that may require specific but simple remedies. Neglect of basic aspects of patient care, typified by poor oral hygiene, can be detrimental to surgical outcome. PMID:18947816
The purpose of this paper is to describe the quantity and quality of oral hygiene content in a representative sample of before-licensure nursing fundamentals textbooks. Seven textbooks were examined. Quantity was operationalized as the actual page count and percentage of content devoted to oral health and hygiene. Quality of content was operationalized as congruency with best mouth care practices. Best mouth care practices included evidence-based and consensus-based practices as published primarily by the American Dental Association and supported by both published nursing research and review articles specific to mouth care and published dental research and review articles specific to mouth care. Content devoted to oral health and hygiene averaged 0.6%. Although the quality of the content was highly variable, nearly every textbook contained some erroneous or outdated information. The most common areas for inaccuracy included the use of foam sponges for mouth care in dentate persons instead of soft toothbrushes and improper denture removal. PMID:22567224
Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)
In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\
Background: Improved hygiene in Westernised regions of the world may be partly responsible for the increased prevalence of diseases of the immune system, such as asthma and atopy. There is a paucity of data on cleanliness norms in young children in the UK and there has been no attempt to identify factors that influence the adoption of particular hygiene practices in the home. Aims: To examine levels of hygiene in a contemporary cohort of children and identify social and lifestyle factors influencing hygiene practices in the home. Methods: The sample under study are participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Parental self completion questionnaires provided data on hygiene levels in children at 15 months of age, and a hygiene score was derived from these responses. Multivariable logistic regression models investigated associations between high hygiene scores (top quintile) and a number of perinatal, maternal, social, and environmental factors. Results: Maternal smoking during pregnancy, low maternal educational achievement, and living in local authority housing were factors independently associated with high hygiene scores, as was increased use of chemical household products. High hygiene scores were inversely related to living in damp housing and attendance at day care. There were no gender or ethnic differences in hygiene score. Conclusion: Important data on cleanliness norms for infants have been presented. The adoption of hygiene practices is influenced to some degree by social, lifestyle, and environmental factors—with higher hygiene scores occurring in more socially disadvantaged groups. Increased use of chemical household products in the more socially disadvantaged groups within ALSPAC has emerged as an important confounder in any study of hygiene and ill health.
School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half (“intervention schools”). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention.
Patel, Minal K.; Harris, Julie R.; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert
Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food\\u000a proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies,\\u000a implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young\\u000a children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in
Most research on hygienic behavior has recorded the time taken by the colony to remove an experimental amount of dead brood, usually after one or two days. We evaluated the time that hygienic (H) and non-hygienic (NH) honey bees take to uncap and remove dead brood in observation hives after the brood was killed using the pin-killing assay. Four experimental colonies were selected as the extreme cases among 108 original colonies. Thirty brood cells were perforated with a pin in two H and two NH colonies and observations were made after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 24 h. Different stages of uncapping and removing were recorded. Differences in uncapping and removal between H and NH colonies were significant for all comparisons made at the different times after perforation. Using observation hives one obtains a better and faster discrimination between H and NH colonies than in full size colonies. It is possible to differentiate H and NH within a few hours after perforating the cells. PMID:15841442
Palacio, Maria Alejandra; Flores, Jose Manuel; Figini, Emilio; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Escande, Alberto; Bedascarrasbure, Enrique; Rodriguez, Edgardo; Gonçalves, Lionel Segui
Released online by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on September 7, this 59-page report "establishes a baseline to measure how effective industry and regulatory efforts are in changing behaviors and practices that directly relate to food-borne illness in the retail food industry." Based on data collected from close to 900 institutional food service establishments, restaurants, and retail food stores, the report finds that three areas deserve special attention: improper holding times and temperatures, contaminated equipment, and poor personal hygiene. The full text of the report is available in HTML and .pdf formats.
Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044
Hygienic behavior in honey bees is a behavioral mechanism of disease resistance. Bees bred for hygienic behavior exhibit an increased olfactory sensitivity to odors of diseased brood, which is most likely differentially enhanced in the hygienic line by the modulatory effects of octopamine (OA), a noradrenaline-like neuromodulator. Here, we addressed whether the hygienic behavioral state is linked to other behavioral activities known to be modulated by OA. We specifically asked if, during learning trials, bees from hygienic colonies discriminate better between odors of diseased and healthy brood because of differences in sucrose (reward) response thresholds. This determination had to be tested because sucrose response thresholds are susceptible to OA modulation and may have influenced the honey bee's association of the conditioned stimulus (odor) with the unconditioned stimulus (i.e., the sucrose reward). Because the onset of first foraging is also modulated by OA, we also examined whether bees from hygienic colonies differentially forage at an earlier age compared to bees from non-hygienic colonies. Our study revealed that 1-day- and 15- to 20-day-old bees from the hygienic line do not have lower sucrose response thresholds compared to bees from the non-hygienic lines. In addition, hygienic bees did not forage at an earlier age or forage preferentially for pollen as compared to non-hygienic bees. These results support the idea that OA does not function in honey bees simply to enhance the detection of all chemical cues non-selectively or control related behaviors regardless of their environmental milieu. Our results indicate that the behavioral profile of the hygienic bee is sculpted by multiple factors including genetic, neural, social and environmental systems. PMID:16225878
The objective of this study was to explore dental and dental hygiene students' educational experiences and knowledge concerning child abuse\\/neglect. Questionnaire data were collected from 233 dental (116 male\\/117 female; response rate=54.82 percent) and seventy-six dental hygiene students (all female; response rate=76.77 percent). Of those surveyed, 94.7 percent of the dental hygiene and 70.5 percent of the dental students reported
John E. Thomas; Lloyd Straffon; Marita Rohr Inglehart
To substantiate safety requirements in the use of effective larvicidal rotation schemes, the authors have attempted to make an environmental-and-hygienic assessment of the active ingredients of a number of larvicides. A comparative procedure is proposed for the hygienic assessment of risky/safe use of larvicides, which is based on the calculations of respective hygienic parameters for reservoir water and soil and on those of ecological parameters in combating insects that are carriers of transmissible infections. PMID:19514294
... Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...dressing rooms shall be adequate and meet State and local requirements for food processing plants. (b) Toilets and...
Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%-4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise. PMID:21364287
Food allergy is an important issue in the field of food safety because of the hazards for affected persons and the hygiene requirements and legal regulations imposed on the food industry. Consumer protection and law enforcement require suitable analytical techniques for the detection of allergens in foods. Immunological methods are currently preferred; however, confirmatory alternatives are needed. The determination of allergenic proteins by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry has greatly advanced in recent years, and gel-free allergenomics is becoming a routinely used approach for the identification and quantitation of food allergens. The present review provides a brief overview of the principles of proteomic procedures, various chromatographic set ups, and mass spectrometry instrumentation used in allergenomics. A compendium of published liquid chromatography methods, proteomic analyses, typical marker peptides, and quantitative assays for 14 main allergy-causing foods is also included. PMID:21333155
Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Christians, Uwe; Granum, Per Einar
The Industrial Hygiene Section of the Health Protection Department provides industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site. This report describes support operations and summarizes the industrial hygiene data collected from July 31, 1989 through June 30, 1991. Air quality data were collected by means of personnel sampling by active and passive techniques using various kinds of industrial hygiene instrumentation and through localized and general area monitoring. The data collected were used to evaluate underground air quality and quantity requirements; evaluate worker exposures to a variety of air contaminants; determine the applicability and effectiveness of personal protective equipment.
This article is based on conceptual and methodological understanding of hygienic modernity in the nineteenth-century Western countries: one is the concept of modern hygiene in the context of modern state and the other is methodological relation of modern hygiene to scientific theory of germ . While modern state calls for the institutionalization of medical police as an administrative tool for consolidating the governmentality what Michel Foucault calls, scientific 'invention' of germ may be considered as 'logical, philosophical and historiographical'. Furthermore, the Meiji medicine men preferred Koch's to Pasteur's laboratory framework, not because the former was scientific than the latter but because Koch's programs were more compatible with imperial needs. The objective of this paper is to investigate four ways in which hygienic modernity had been established in Meiji Japan; (i) how Meiji imperialists perceived and managed to control Japanese hygienic condition, (ii) how Meiji-leading doctors learned about the German modern system of hygiene to consolidate Meiji empire; (iii) how modern germ theory functioned as the formation of imperial bodies in Meiji period; and (iv) how modem military hygiene contributed to Japanese defeat of Russia. Although I try to contend that modern hygiene was adopted as one of the most significant strategies for intensifying and extending the Meiji empire, this paper has some limits in not identifying how Japanese perception of infectious diseases were culturally adaptive to science-based hygienic programs the Meiji administrators had installed. PMID:14565202
The problem of hygiene in the life-saving service has so far been a rarely discussed question. An ambulance used as a life-saving vehicle cannot be expected to measure up to the hygienic standards of an aseptic operating theatre. Keeping the level of pathogenic germs in ambulances low, is fundamental to the medical emergency service at large. The staff, including the physician, on emergency duty are most likely to come into contact with hospital germs. At any rate, care must be exercised so that pathogens are prevented from being transmitted from one patient to another. As far as cleaning is concerned, Figs. 3, 4 and 5 exemplifiy the problem of the so-called wet germs figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9 show the impression preparations from the hands of the physician on emergency duty, from the bed covering, from the medical apparatus and from the floor. The results yielded by 208 impression preparations from the staff and ambulance are supplemented by determining the air-borne germs and by 40 swabs taken from grooves, edges and dust accumulated in the ambulance. Further, the water containers were examined for clean and dirty water, as well as the damp areas as breeding places for "wet and puddle germs". This has already resulted in establishing several factors which justify the adoption of selective hygienic measures, but all those concerned are clear that the measures envisaged must also be practicable. Too little is ineffective, but too much detracts from the credibility of sanitary argumentation. In the near future, however, in order to be able to establish a generally valid set of measures, similar examinations must be carried out on a broad basis and under differing conditions in respect of physicians, medical staff, site and ambulance. Until this has been done, the examination results presented can only be regarded as provisional or as offering guidance data which need further supplementation. PMID:7257650
As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public–private partnerships.
Text Version... longevity. • Sterilization – irradiation can be used to sterilize foods, which can then be stored for years without refrigeration. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou
Text Version... and harvesting crops (washing, trimming outer leaves, and ... candy (including chewing gum) • Live food animals ... a US agent, who lives or maintains a ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
Text Version... The law applies to all foods whose labeling is regulated by FDA, both domestic and imported. (FDA regulates the labeling ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou
... in charge of domestic or foreign facilities that manufacture, process, pack, or hold food for consumption in the United States must register with FDA. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/fooddefense
Text Version... In today's world, we're all being more cautious as we go about our daily routines. ... Carefully examine all food product packaging. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense
In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...
Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized:(1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack;(2) to even out seasonal supplies;(3) to improve their eating quality;(4) to improve their nutritional value.The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives.
|The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A,…
Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.
With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed
The adoption of the law of the Russian Federation "On the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population" called for the creation of a tool "measurement" of the specified condition. This tool was the socio-hygienic monitoring (SHM)--a complex system of long-term monitoring changes in the state of health of the population and the surrounding environment. Goal, objectives and the technology of SHM have been formulated in the decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation No426 of 1 June 2000 and 3385 from 26.04.2005. Methodology of SHM provides for the forecasting and management of health of the population on the basis of the establishment of cause-and-effect relations in the system of "environment-health" and making managerial decisions, proceeding from the priority of primary prevention and the establishment of priority in the conduct of recreational activities at designated areas. Currently, the country has established a system of SHM designed to operate at the federal (Russian Federation), regional (republic, kray, oblast, okrug, the mega-cities), local (city, region) level with a vertical management structure. Some experience of SHM was gained and in the hygiene of children and adolescents. On the basis of this experience purpose is to identify opportunities of SHM to solve the priority (as required by the methodology) and other own problems of hygiene of children and adolescents, to give the characteristic used in SHM criteria for the evaluation of the health of students and the status of the school environment and offer a more informative, in our opinion, the criteria. PMID:23082671
Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (<4.2 or <3.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), respectively). No hygiene indicator bacteria were present in compost-fertilised potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment. PMID:20392787
Yesterday. School hygiene acted in a clear way. Physician, pediatrician, nurse and hygienist were employed at school and were responsible for carrying out periodic examination, vaccination of school children and youth. They also supervised groups of children with posture defects, obesity, underweight, circulatory system and respiratory tract (asthma, anaphylaxis), diseases nervous system disorders and also propagated health education at school. Inspector of Pediatrics and School Medicine was in charge of School Medical Care. Today. Reform of the Public Health System. Medical examination and services have their value in money. A school physician, some hygienists and school nurses have been dismissed to decrease the financial costs of school hygiene. All medical services must be bought by the National Health Service. Public and private medical services at doctors and nurses are organized at schools. Each service performs examinations, vaccinations bought by the National Health Service or parents. A pupil is a subject of buying medical services. He may be vaccinated by a nurse but a medical examination must be either bought or performed by home doctor. The supervision of school children with different illnesses is not conducted by a school doctor. At present all the threats of contemporary world such as alcohol, tobacco, drug addiction, nervous system illnesses and allergies which are destructive for youth start when they are teenagers. School is an important place for carrying out on a large scale prophylactic services with medical teams of paediatricians, rehabilitation specialists and psychologists. Tomorrow. School Hygiene at School. Not at home doctor's. Recommendations, Daily Hygiene: personal, oral, food mental.... Hygiene of studying, rest and daily effort. Struggle with mass media, alcohol, drug, Internet, Computer addiction, violence, stupidity and poverty. School Hygiene should be adjusted to youth's health needs in accordance with the recommendations of European Society for Social Pediatrics (ESSOP) and Committee on Public Education, American Academy of Pediatrics and reinforced, it should not be eliminated. PMID:15002312
A descriptive study was conducted to determine hygiene status of rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, using a purposive sample of 145 villagers: 71 male and 74 female. Participants were divided into 14 groups (by community) and group interviews were conducted with them. Communities neither had enough water (92.9%) nor treated drinking water (71.4%); sizeable numbers did not store drinking water safely; threw waste water away (92.9%) and solid waste in the rubbish pit (78.6%); where there are no toilets, they relieved themselves in the veld; children <12 years generally did not use toilets (71.4%). Communities washed hands after changing baby's nappy (78.6%), before handling food (57.1%), before eating (50.0%), after a visit to the toilet (92.9%), after touching animals (57.1%) and when they wake up (92.9%); and did not take a full body wash daily (71.4%). The results have implications for policy-makers, programme planners, academics and practitioners in the field. PMID:16854674
The rules of good laboratory practice have always been observed in the laboratories of National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) and the reliability of the results has been carefully cared after when performing tests for clients. In 2003 the laboratories performing analyses related to food safety were designated as the national reference laboratories. This, added to the necessity of compliance with work standards and requirements of EU legislation and to the need of confirmation of competence by an independent organisation, led to a decision to seek accreditation of Polish Centre of Accreditation (PCA). The following stages of building and implementation of management system were presented: training, modifications of Institute's organisational structure, elaboration of management system's documentation, renovation and refurbishment of laboratory facilities, implementation of measuring and test equipment's supervision, internal audits and management review. The importance of earlier experiences and achievements with regard to validation of analytical methods and guarding of the quality of the results through organisation and participation in proficiency tests was highlighted. Current status of accreditation of testing procedures used in NIH laboratories that perform analyses in the field of chemistry, microbiology, radiobiology and medical diagnostic tests was presented. PMID:19227248
A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data.
Construction hygiene in the bathing and recreation areas underwent many changes during the decades. In each case it was accomplished very intensively and defined by the actual needs of the population or by those responsible for the population. With regard to the development of bathing since the Romans, the bathing habits of the Roman times, during the Middle Ages, at the 18th century, at the beginning of the 19th century and of today are characterized broadly. The respective constructional as well as the hygienic measures are also shown and discussed in this context. Whereas the Roman thermals created prerequisites for physical activity as well as possibilities for spare time, and in the early Middle Ages, sexual excesses and the risk factors connected thereby led to the transfer of infectious diseases and consequently to the elimination of the public baths. At the beginning of the 18th century first the cleaning of the body and at the beginning of the 20th century physical activity became very important. With the help of the construction plans for baths and shower-baths and swimming pools of 1906 the aims and purposes of the baths are discussed and the respective constructional changes are shown the example of warm water baths (swimming pools) in Hamburg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1392278
Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.
Health care associated infections are drawing increasing attention from patients, insurers, governments and regulatory bodies. This is not only because of the magnitude of the problem in terms of the associated morbidity, mortality and cost of treatment, but also due to the growing recognition that most of these are preventable. The medical community is witnessing in tandem unprecedented advancements in the understanding of pathophysiology of infectious diseases and the global spread of multi-drug resistant infections in health care set-ups. These factors, compounded by the paucity of availability of new antimicrobials have necessitated a re-look into the role of basic practices of infection prevention in modern day health care. There is now undisputed evidence that strict adherence to hand hygiene reduces the risk of cross-transmission of infections. With “Clean Care is Safer Care” as a prime agenda of the global initiative of WHO on patient safety programmes, it is time for developing countries to formulate the much-needed policies for implementation of basic infection prevention practices in health care set-ups. This review focuses on one of the simplest, low cost but least accepted from infection prevention: hand hygiene.
Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768
Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and\\/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method
Product developers tend to make a distinction between different types of agglomerated powders depending on whether they are produced by the pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical or food industry. This is perfectly valid for the hygiene, quality, safety or economical aspects of processes and products. However, from a process engineering point of view a different classification is needed in order to identify
Cholera is an acute dehydrating diarrhoeal disease, traditionally caused by vibrio cholerae O1, and also more recently by V. cholerae O139 (Bengal). Traditionally, water was recognized as the primary vehicle for transmission of cholera, but in the past 30 years, outbreaks of cholera associated with eating contaminated food have demonstrated that food also plays an important role, although in many instances water is the source of contamination of foods. Most commonly associated with cholera is seafood, both molluscan shellfish and crustaceans. Seafood may be contaminated in its natural environment or during preparation. Other food items associated with outbreaks are fruit and vegetables, meat, cooked grains, etc. Vegetables are usually contaminated by contact with sewage in soil and fruits when injected with contaminated water to increase weight and turgor. Food items initially free from V. cholerae organism may become contaminated when mixed with water, or other contaminated food, or through handling by infected persons who have not observed proper hygiene. Refrigeration, freezing, alkaline pH, high concentration of carbohydrate, humidity and absence of competing flora enhance the survival of V. cholerae in food. Survival of V. cholerae is shorter in food with acidic pH. Foodborne cholera can be averted by the hygienic preparation of food and its consumption. However, since the vehicles of transmission vary markedly from place to place, being affected by local customs and practices, selected control and preventive measures that are most important locally must be implemented. To this end, application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system to food preparation is essential in order to identify the practices which may present a risk. Restrictions on importation of foods which do not present a risk of being contaminated from areas where cholera is endemic is not warranted. PMID:9282393
The new edition of Leitfaden für die Innenraumhygiene in Schulgebäuden (Guidebook on indoor air hygiene in school buildings) has been published. The Indoor Air Hygiene Commission of the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has reworked it and added new current topics. The 140- page guide offers tips and advice about particulate matter, carbon dioxide, as well as other chemical substances and
Martin Ittershagen; Dieter Leutert; Fotini Mavromati; Theresa Pfeifer
There has been considerable debate about manpower adequacy in industrial hygiene and safety, but little indication as to which industries make use of these professionals and to what extent. This paper presents the results of a survey of manufacturing industry in South Carolina, which suggest that plants not only make less use of the services of industrial hygiene and safety
Results: In the 24 hospitals that participated in the study the hand hygiene compliance was low. Hand hygiene was performed 19,5% (95% CI 18-21%) of the time. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference between the compliance levels of physicians or nurses. We did find a significant effect for unit type (lower compliance in the ICU compared to surgical
V. Erasmus; P. van Empelen; T. J. Daha; J. H. Richardus; E. W. Steyerberg; M. C. Vos; E. F. van Beeck
The purpose of this study was to establish criteria for the visual evaluation of oral hygiene by analyzing the relationship between status of oral hygiene and number of oral bacteria in saliva for use in predicting the development of pneumonia. A total of 145 Japanese people of advanced age living in nursing homes were enrolled in the study. We evaluated
Shu Abe; Kazuyuki Ishihara; Mieko Adachi; Katsuji Okuda
|This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.|
Honey bees, Apis mellifera, which perform hygienic behavior, quickly detect, uncap and remove diseased brood from the nest. This behavior, performed by bees 15-20 days old and prior to foraging, is likely mediated by olfactory cues. Because the neuro- modulator octopamine (OA) plays a pivotal role in ol- factory-based behaviors of honey bees, we examined whether bees bred for hygienic
Marla Spivak; Rebecca Masterman; Rocco Ross; Karen A. Mesce
The escape-maintained destructive behavior of a girl with mental retardation persisted during hygiene routines with directive prompting, differential reinforcement for compliance, and extinction as treatment. Using nondirective prompting and noncontingent reinforcement, destructive behavior was reduced to near-zero levels during the hygiene routine.
Piazza, C C; Contrucci, S A; Hanley, G P; Fisher, W W
The Andalusian Patient Safety Observatory (Spain) has developed a serious game to promote hand hygiene among health care professionals and citizens. We have used this new methodology, based on simulation and interaction, to create a non-risk environment, where users have to decide when and how must perform hand hygiene, with no adverse effect from their actions. Prior to the ludic
M. Vazquez-Vazquez; V. Santana-Lopez; M. Skodova; J. Ferrero-Alvarez-Rementeria; A. Torres-Olivera
Rapid hygiene testing systems employing the ATP Bioluminescence Technique are widely used to assess the hygiene status of various Control Points (CPs) in any Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. The measurement in Relative Light Units (RLU) is then used to give a Pass\\/Fail status to the CP tested. This paper highlights the potential benefits of applying appropriate Statistical
|Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for initial insomnia in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-seven stimulant-treated children (6-14 years of age) with ADHD and initial insomnia (greater than 60 minutes) received sleep hygiene intervention. Nonresponders were…
Weiss, Margaret D.; Wasdell, Michael B.; Bomben, Melissa M.; Rea, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Roger D.
Many efforts to automatically measure hand hygiene activity depend on radio-frequency identification equipment or similar technology that can be expensive to install. We have developed a method for automatically tracking the use of hand hygiene dispensers before healthcare workers enter (or after they exit) patient rooms that is easily and quickly deployed without permanent hardware.
Polgreen, Philip M.; Hlady, Christopher S.; Severson, Monica A.; Segre, Alberto M.; Herman, Ted
This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and
A study investigated the effect of an extramural rotation on dental-hygiene students' self-perceptions of competence in specific clinical areas. Results indicate student perceptions of competence improved significantly on six of 19 dimensions of dental-hygiene practice over the course of the rotation, suggesting that rotation is a valuable…
Notes that children with special needs often require specific considerations with regard to dental care. Discusses some of the physical disabilities and how they interfere with dental hygiene, and how child caregivers can modify daily routines and assist disabled children with areas of hygiene the children may find difficult. (HTH)
This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross?national Survey on Health Behaviors in School?aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males. Effective schools in promoting good dental hygiene have positive disciplinary climate,
|Background: Supporting men and boys with an intellectual disability (ID) to meet their penile hygiene needs is perhaps one of the least acknowledged but most confronting issues facing care staff. The delivery of intimate hygiene can be a challenging topic particularly as it has been drawn into the emerging sexuality discourse and the ongoing…
Wilson, N. J.; Cumella, S.; Parmenter, T. R.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Shuttleworth, R. P.
|The practicum reported here involved the design of a hygiene awareness unit to help 30 second-grade students in an inner-city school become aware of and improve their personal and oral hygiene, and to provide necessary knowledge concerning pediculosis. Surveys of students and faculty prior to the program demonstrated the need for such a program…
This international longitudinal study examines trends and changes in dental hygiene. In- formation was collected from national dental hygienists' associations through a series of five surveys conducted between 1987 and 2006; sample sizes increased from thirteen to twenty-five countries. As dental hygiene has evolved, it has remained remarkably consist- ent globally, in particular its scope of clinical practice. Regarding historical
If interventions promoting improved hygiene behaviour to prevent childhood diarrhoea are to be implemented and evaluated, valid methods for measuring this behaviour will be required. This paper presents findings from a study to investigate the use of structured observations to measure hygiene behaviour in Burkina Faso.Two hundred mothers with young children (2–36 months) were observed on several occasions, with particular
Simon Cousens; Bernadette Kanki; Seydou Toure; Ibrahim Diallo; Valerie Curtis
Improved adherence to hand hygiene (hand washing or use of alcohol-based hand rubs) can significantly reduce the transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms and prevent many healthcare associated infections. This paper describes a technological intervention with sensing and reminding mechanisms for hand hygiene adherence in a smart patient room.
The aims of the present study were to 1) investigate patient anxiety as it relates to dental hygiene procedures and 2) conduct validity and reliability testing of the Turkish version of the Dental Hygiene Fear Survey (DHFS) to test its psychometric properties in the Turkish culture. The study consisted of 200 periodontal patients. The patients completed the DHFS, the Modified
Intrauterine swabs were obtained from cows after calving on two commercial dairy herds with contrasting hygienic environments and incidence of leucorrhea, and cultured aerobically and anaerobically. Of 26 cows with a normal calving and puerperium, eight of 14 (57 per cent) were sterile on farm B where hygiene was poor, compared with five of 12 (42 per cent) on farm
One of the most significant issues in the dental hygiene profession is the recruitment of qualified applicants. Throughout the decade of the 80s, a dramatic decline in enrollment has occurred in dental hygiene programs across the nation. According to recent demographic reports, there are fewer individuals in the age group where dental hygiene students are traditionally recruited and no significant change is expected. Therefore, in order to maintain and improve the pool of students preparing for a career in dental hygiene, it is critical that an attempt be made to understand the forces which lead students to choose the health care profession. A study was conducted using baccalaureate alumni and three classes in the baccalaureate degree dental hygiene program at The Ohio State University in order to determine why they had chosen the career of dental hygiene. This study was subsequently expanded to include students enrolled in eight associate degree dental hygiene programs in Ohio. The results from the survey indicate that career decisions are made at varying points in the educational process. Dentists and dental hygienists account for half of the influence in the decision process with high school guidance counselors having negligible influence. Nearly all respondents chose working with people as the top career benefit. Those findings point to the importance of involving dental and dental hygiene professionals in the recruitment process and the necessity to provide appropriate information to others who may provide career counseling. PMID:9543841
The hygienic quality of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was investigated after different fertilizer treatments (fresh farmyard manure, composted farmyard manure, stinging nettle extract and calcium ammonium nitrate) in a 2-year field experiment with two trials per year, respectively. For assessment of the hygienic quality the total aerobic bacterial counts, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella were investigated in
Background: Although hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing healthcare-associated infections, hand hygiene practice falls short in many healthcare facilities. The compliance rate is mostly linked to system design and easily accessible hand hygiene products. System change, healthcare worker motivation, and complex behavioral considerations seem to play a significant role. Summary: This article discusses the application of behavioral theories in hand hygiene promotion in a theoretical manner. The program relies on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health behavior change, John Keller's (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Thus, the program links attitudes and behavior to hand hygiene promotion. Conclusions: The TTM of health behavior change helps to tailor interventions to predict and motivate individual movement across the pathway to change. A program could be based on this theory with multiple intercalations with John Keller's ARCS and the TPB. Such a program could be strengthened by linking attitudes and behavior to promote hand hygiene. The program could utilize different strategies such as organization cultural change that may increase the attention as well as fostering the movement in the ARCS stages. In addition, modeling TPB by creating peer pressure, ability to overcome obstacles, and increasing knowledge of the role of hand hygiene may lead to the desired outcome. The understanding and application of behavior change theories may result in an effective program to improve awareness and raise intention and thus may increase the potential for success of hand hygiene promotion programs. PMID:24112209
Objectives: To assess oral hygiene status, oral hygiene practices and periodontal status among 14-17-year-old visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled and physically challenged and normal teenagers in the district of Nalgonda, South India. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and fifty teenagers in the age group of 14-17 years, constituting visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled, physically challenged and normal teenagers, were studied. Oral hygiene status and periodontal status were assessed using clinical indices and compared. Results: Among the five groups chosen for the study, the intellectually disabled group had the highest plaque scores and poor oral hygiene. The visually impaired and deaf and dumb had better oral hygiene compared with other disability groups. Physically handicapped showed higher loss of attachment scores and deleterious and parafunctional habits. Normal teenagers had good oral hygiene and lower plaque scores. Oral health status relied basically on proper use of oral hygiene aids and training of the groups by their care takers. Conclusion: Disabled groups showed poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of periodontal disease, which may be attributed to the lack of coordination, understanding, physical disability or muscular limitations. Hence, more attention needs to be given to the dental needs of these individuals through ultimate, accurate and appropriate prevention, detection and treatment.
BACKGROUND: Interventions to increase hand washing in schools have been advocated as a means to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza and other infections. However, the feasibility and acceptability of effective school-based hygiene interventions is not clear. METHODS: A pilot study in four primary schools in East London was conducted to establish the current need for enhanced hand hygiene interventions,
Wolf-Peter Schmidt; Catherine Wloch; Adam Biran; Val Curtis; Punam Mangtani
Main trends in utilization of lignin wastes formed in complex wood processing are discussed. Toxicological and hygienic characteristics of lignins and products of their biotransformation and chlorination are presented. Ecology and hygiene of fertilizers, preserving agents, and construction materials based on lignins are evaluated. PMID:11899881
Hand hygiene is considered to be the pillar of infection control and prevention. Despite national and international recommendations on hand hygiene, compliance remains low. Basic requirements allowing adequate hand hygiene compliance, in theory at least, are well known. Why then is it so hard to achieve acceptable compliance despite sufficient access to hand disinfectant dispensers, repeated training, and participation in national campaigns? Could it be that hand hygiene is regarded as too laborious, and changes to the established work-flow are needed to increase compliance? Some practicable examples are presented and pitfalls in defining compliance are discussed. Ownership for compliance must come from within clinical teams, and not solely driven from the infection control team. Support from the hospital management is essential. Ideally, the concepts presented allow a simple and efficient implementation of hand hygiene as part of the clinical work-flow to achieve an increase in compliance in the longer term. PMID:23453171
The problem of oral hygiene in contemporary dental medicine is the problem of successful maintainance of oral health. Contemporary dental medicine recommends the methods for maintaining of total oral hygiene, as preventive action against dental ills. Hadith of Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s. is a note about what he has done, recommended or amended. Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s. recommended entire hygiene of teeth, gums, through tooth brushing and washing mouths by water three times. Actually, this was the first time in the available literature that someone recommended maintaining of oral hygiene. It can be said without reserve that Muhammad s.a.v.s. has established a preventive dental medicine. Muslims are recommended to maintain hygiene through Holly Qor'an: "There are the people that like washing themselves in it (mosque), and Allah loves those, who clean themselves very much." PMID:9324571
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a methodology which could easily be used in any test laboratory in a uniform and consistent way for determining the sensitivity and reproducibility of results obtained with three ATP hygiene-monitoring systems. The test protocol discussed here allows such comparison to be made, thereby establishing a method of benchmarking both new systems and developments of existing systems. The sensitivity of the LUMINOMETER K, PocketSwab (Charm Sciences) was found to be between 0.4 and 4.0 nmol of ATP with poor reproducibility at the 40.0 nmol level (CV, 35%). The sensitivity of the IDEXX LIGHTING system and the Biotrace UNILITE Xcel were both between 0.04 and 0.4 nmol with coefficients of variation (CVs) of between 9% at 0.04 nmol and 10% at 0.4 nmol for the IDEXX system and 17% at 0.04 nmol and 21% at 0.4 nmol for the Biotrace system. The three systems were tested with a range of dilutions of different food residues: orange juice, raw milk, and ground beef slurry. All three test systems allowed detection of orange juice and raw milk at dilutions of 1:1,000, although the CV of results from the Charm system (54 and 74% respectively) was poor at this dilution for both residues. The sensitivity of the test systems was poorer for ground beef slurry than it was for orange juice and raw milk. Both the Biotrace and IDEXX systems were able to detect a 1:100 dilution of beef slurry (with CVs of 17 and 10% respectively), whilst at this dilution results from the Charm system had a CV of 55%. It was possible by using the method described in this paper to rank in order of sensitivity and reproducibility the three single-shot ATP hygiene-monitoring systems investigated, with the IDEXX LIGHTNING being the best, followed by the Biotrace UNILITE Xcel, and then the charm LUMINOMETER K, PocketSwab. PMID:9709218
1. The Food and Veterinary Office (FVO) of the European Commission recently audited the UK with regard to the implementation of Regulations 178\\/2002, 852\\/2004 and 853\\/2004 as they apply to processing of milk and milk products. During the audit the FVO identified a number of practices which they considered to be in breach of foodhygiene legislation. One of these
The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.
Objective.?To evaluate the impact of an institutional hand hygiene accountability program on healthcare personnel hand hygiene adherence. Design.?Time-series design with correlation analysis. Setting.?Tertiary care academic medical center, including outpatient clinics and procedural areas. Participants.?Medical center healthcare personnel. Methods.?A comprehensive hand hygiene initiative was implemented in 2 major phases starting in July 2009. Key facets of the initiative included extensive project planning, leadership buy-in and goal setting, financial incentives linked to performance, and use of a system-wide shared accountability model. Adherence was measured by designated hand hygiene observers. Adherence rates were compared between baseline and implementation phases, and monthly hand hygiene adherence rates were correlated with monthly rates of device-associated infection. Results.?A total of 109,988 observations were completed during the study period, with a sustained increase in hand hygiene adherence throughout each implementation phase ([Formula: see text]) as well as from one phase to the next ([Formula: see text]), such that adherence greater than 85% has been achieved since January 2011. Medical center departments were able to reclaim some rebate dollars allocated through a self-insurance trust, but during the study period, departments did not achieve full reimbursement. Hand hygiene adherence rates were inversely correlated with device-associated standardized infection ratios ([Formula: see text]). Conclusions.?Implementation of this multifaceted, observational hand hygiene program was associated with sustained improvement in hand hygiene adherence. The principles of this program could be applied to other medical centers pursuing improved hand hygiene adherence among healthcare personnel. PMID:24113595
Talbot, Thomas R; Johnson, James G; Fergus, Claudette; Domenico, John Henry; Schaffner, William; Daniels, Titus L; Wilson, Greg; Slayton, Jennifer; Feistritzer, Nancye; Hickson, Gerald B
Background Interventions to increase hand washing in schools have been advocated as a means to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza and other infections. However, the feasibility and acceptability of effective school-based hygiene interventions is not clear. Methods A pilot study in four primary schools in East London was conducted to establish the current need for enhanced hand hygiene interventions, identify barriers to their implementation and to test their acceptability and feasibility. The pilot study included key informant interviews with teachers and school nurses, interviews, group discussions and essay questions with the children, and testing of organised classroom hand hygiene activities. Results In all schools, basic issues of personal hygiene were taught especially in the younger age groups. However, we identified many barriers to implementing intensive hygiene interventions, in particular time constraints and competing health issues. Teachers' motivation to teach hygiene and enforce hygienic behaviour was primarily educational rather than immediate infection control. Children of all age groups had good knowledge of hygiene practices and germ transmission. Conclusion The pilot study showed that intensive hand hygiene interventions are feasible and acceptable but only temporarily during a period of a particular health threat such as an influenza pandemic, and only if rinse-free hand sanitisers are used. However, in many settings there may be logistical issues in providing all schools with an adequate supply. In the absence of evidence on effectiveness, the scope for enhanced hygiene interventions in schools in high income countries aiming at infection control appears to be limited in the absence of a severe public health threat.
Mentoring of students to assist them in the transition to clinical practice has been utilized in a number of health professions but has only been recently introduced in dental and dental hygiene education. A survey was sent to all U.S. dental hygiene program directors to determine the prevalence of mentoring programs in the dental hygiene curriculum that utilize practicing dental
This study investigated student and faculty perceptions of their experiences with online learning in dental hygiene Bachelor of Science degree completion programs on the dimensions of: quality of learning, connectedness to the learning environment, technology factors and student satisfaction. The experiences of dental hygiene students who took their core BS dental hygiene (BSDH) courses completely online were compared and contrasted
The “hygiene hypothesis” suggests that a reduction in the exposure to infectious agents due to improved health conditions has contributed to the increased incidence of autoimmune disorders in developed countries. In keeping with the hygiene hypothesis, many autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are more frequently observed in developed countries. To identify the relevance of hygiene hypothesis in neuro-Behçet's
The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available
Disjunction between market surpluses of food and worldwide nutritional shortfalls appears to be symptomatic of underlying vulnerabilities, raising questions about the sustainability of agricultural production.
Text Version... ready-to-eat foods with bare hands, personal health ... A record of this training is kept on site. I understand that bare hand contact with ready-to-eat ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
The hygienic performance of biowaste composting plants to ensure the quality of compost is of high importance. Existing compost quality assurance systems reflect this importance through intensive testing of hygienic parameters. In many countries, compost quality assurance systems are under construction and it is necessary to check and to optimize the methods to state the hygienic performance of composting plants. A set of indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of normal operating biowaste composting plants was developed. The indicator methods were developed by investigating temperature measurements from indirect process tests from 23 composting plants belonging to 11 design types of the Hygiene Design Type Testing System of the German Compost Quality Association (BGK e.V.). The presented indicator methods are the grade of hygienization, the basic curve shape, and the hygienic risk area. The temperature courses of single plants are not distributed normally, but they were grouped by cluster analysis in normal distributed subgroups. That was a precondition to develop the mentioned indicator methods. For each plant the grade of hygienization was calculated through transformation into the standard normal distribution. It shows the part in percent of the entire data set which meet the legal temperature requirements. The hygienization grade differs widely within the design types and falls below 50% for about one fourth of the plants. The subgroups are divided visually into basic curve shapes which stand for different process courses. For each plant the composition of the entire data set out of the various basic curve shapes can be used as an indicator for the basic process conditions. Some basic curve shapes indicate abnormal process courses which can be emended through process optimization. A hygienic risk area concept using the 90% range of variation of the normal temperature courses was introduced. Comparing the design type range of variation with the legal temperature defaults showed hygienic risk areas over the temperature courses which could be minimized through process optimization. The hygienic risk area of four design types shows a suboptimal hygienic performance. PMID:15869987
Abstract. Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013-2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation. PMID:24106193
Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas
Risk management in Medical Biology Laboratory (MBL) which includes hygiene and waste management, is an integrated process to the whole MBL organisation. It is composed of three stages: risks factors identification, grading and prioritization, and their evaluation in the system. From the legislation and NF EN ISO 15189 standard's requirements viewpoint, prevention and protection actions to implement are described, at premises level, but also at work station environment's one (human resources and equipments) towards biological, chemical, linked to gas, to ionizing or non ionizing radiations and fire riks, in order not to compromise patients safety, employees safety, and quality results. Then, although NF EN 15189 standard only enacts requirements in terms of prevention, curative actions after established blood or chemical exposure accident are defined. PMID:23765027
The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.
The number of cremators is set to grow in Italy owing to current increasing demand for cremation, as a system of burial as well as a system of disposal of non-decomposed human remains resulting from operations of exhumation (as provided by the Circular No. 10 of 31 July of 1998 of the Ministry of Health). Some indications on how town planners need to size up the cremation plant with regard to its capacity to face cremation demand, in order to avoid any hygienic-sanitary inconveniences are given. As a matter of fact, for planning the demand for cremation from Circular No. 10 of 31 July of 1998 it is necessary to assess the decomposition time in burial sites. PMID:16353683
A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively.
This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911
Considering the importance of hands in the chain of transmission of microorganisms, this observational research investigated the material infrastructure and compliance of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit in the south of Brazil in 2010. The data was collected by direct non-participant observation and through the use of self-administered questionnaires to be completed by the 39 participants, which was analyzed with the assistance of the chi2 Test, descriptive statistics and quantitative discourse analysis. Although health professionals overestimate compliance rates, recognize the practice as relevant to the prevention of infection and refer there are no impeding factors, of the 1,277 opportunities observed, compliance was 26% and significantly lower before patient contact and the use of aseptic procedures than after patient contact: infrastructure was shown to be deficient. The results indicate risk to patient safety, and thus, the planning of corrective actions to promote hand washing is relevant. PMID:24015465
Bathke, Janaína; de Cunico, Priscila Almeida; Maziero, Eliane Cristina Sanches; Cauduro, Fernanda Leticia Frates; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; de Cruz, Elaine Drehmer Almeida
Radars operating in the frequency band above 300 MHz may represent a danger for the population. The applicability of the energy principle of standardization to regulation of electromagnetic fields in populated points is analyzed. Equations are derived for hygienic standardization of exposure to electromagnetic fields based on medical and biological research and the corresponding values of energy flux density created by weather systems. The equations confirm the correctness of the principle of differentiating electronic devices according to classes on the basis of the fields which they radiate. The energy approach to standardization in the millimeter decimeter waveband is generally incorrect, but can be useful in establishing the variation of maximum permissible level as a function of time for individual types of radars.
Dumanskiy, Y. D.; Ivanov, D. S.; Nikitina, N. G.; Tomashevskaya, L. A.
Background.?In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" (5MHH) to optimize hand hygiene (HH). Uptake of these recommendations by healthcare workers (HCWs) remains uncertain. Methods.?We prospectively observed HCW compliance to 5MHH. After observations, eligible HCWs who consented to interviews completed surveys on factors associated with HH compliance based on constructs from the transtheoretical model of behavioral change (TTM) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Survey results were compared with observed HCW behaviors. Results.?There were 968 observations among 123 HCWs, of whom 110 (89.4%) were female and 63 (51.3%) were nurses. The mean HH compliance for all 5MHH was 23.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.1%-28.3%) by direct observation versus 82.4% (95% CI, 79.9%-84.9%) by self report. The HCW 5MHH compliance was associated with critical care unit encounters ([Formula: see text]), medicine unit encounters ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), immunocompromised patient encounters ([Formula: see text]), and HCW prioritized patient advocacy ([Formula: see text]). Self-reported TTM stages of action or maintenance ([Formula: see text]) and the total TPB behavior score correlated with observed 5MHH ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and with self-reported 5MHH compliance ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Conclusion.?Observed HCW compliance to 5MHH was associated with the type of hospital unit, type of provider-patient encounter, and theory-based behavioral measures of 5MHH commitment. PMID:24113596
Eiamsitrakoon, Thanee; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Nuallaong, Winitra; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Mundy, Linda M
A discussion is presented on the present status of rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Predictions are also presented for development in the following areas: viable cell counts; real-time monitoring of hygiene; polymerase chain reaction, ribotyping, and genetic tests in food laboratories; automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunotests; rapid dipstick technology; biosensors for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs; instant detection of target pathogens by computer-generated matrix; effective separation and concentration for rapid identification of target cells; microbiological alert systems in food packages; and rapid alert kits for detecting pathogens at home. PMID:12180670
Weight Loss Food Choices The Best Food Choices Plan Your Meals Portion Distortion How Many Calories Do I Need? Tips ... Enroll today. Home > Food and Fitness > Fitness > Weight Loss > Food Choices > The Best Food Choices The Best Food ...
Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. \\u000aMain allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish,\\u000amilk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always\\u000aproteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy\\u000a(gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory). Severe and life threatening\\u000asituations can occur. The prevalence is about 2% of the population;
195 Hong Kong Chinese employees from a single company participated in a 10-month longitudinal study on the effects of various modes of delivery of oral hygiene messages on their gingival health. Subjects were allocated to one of the following modes of oral hygiene education: (1) personal instruction; (2) self-education manual; (3) video; (4) a combination of 2 or more of these modes of instruction. Scaling or any other form of periodontal treatment was not given throughout the study period. Full mouth clinical examinations were carried out using a Williams Periodontal probe to examine for the presence or absence of plaque and bleeding on probing from the gingival sulcus. At 2 weeks, 4 months and 10 months, results showed significant reductions in the mean % of plaque and bleeding when compared with baseline. No significant differences were found between the groups given the various modes of oral hygiene education. The study does confirm the effectiveness of oral hygiene alone in improving gingival health, but the lack of difference in the outcome of various oral hygiene education approaches indicates that the mode of instruction is not crucially important to the end result. However, it has to be acknowledged that improvement in oral hygiene may be related to factors other than the oral hygiene programme itself. The findings have significant implications in oral health promotion programmes to improve the periodontal status of the local community. PMID:8841903
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by bacteria in niches of the oral cavity play a major role in the etiology of bad breath, and can be easily detected by a portable sulfide monitor (Halimeter). To investigate the effect of an oral hygiene program on VSC levels, Halimeter readings were taken from 55 healthy dental students during a course in oral hygiene training, including instruction on brushing, flossing and professional tooth cleaning. Ten students who received no oral hygiene training served as a negative control. The oral hygiene status was measured using the papillary bleeding index (PBI). PBI and VSC values did not show significant changes during the study period of 10 weeks in the control group. In the test group, PBI values significantly decreased compared to baseline and the control, indicating that the oral hygiene program had a benefit on the oral hygiene status. The VSC values also decreased significantly during the study period compared to baseline and the control. It was concluded that in a group of dental students, a thorough oral hygiene training program was capable of reducing the oral level of VSC Halimeter readings. PMID:11507918
Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands. Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviors, it is important to highlight the personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that emphasized personal safety ("Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases") or patient safety ("Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases"). We assessed hand hygiene by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1) and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals' hand-hygiene behaviors (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated meaningful changes in behavior: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were reminded of the implications for themselves. PMID:22075239
In this publication an overview is made of both the fundamental and practical approaches laid down in the 'WHO Guidelines on the hygienic disposal and rendering of dead animals and animal wastes to protect human and animal health'. It describes methods that can be used both in developed and developing countries for the hygienic disposal and rendering of contaminated animal materials. In view of the various veterinary-hygienic measures that might be taken a distinction is made between low-risk materials (for instance slaughter offal of healthy animals) and high-risk materials (for instance animals that died because of infectious diseases). The hygienic disposal of low-risk materials is usually done by sterilisation in autoclaves or by cooking, so that proteins and fat may be re-used, mostly in the form of animal feed components. High-risk materials should at the least be sterilised or otherwise be burnt. Attention is also paid to the hygiene in rendering plants, particularly concerning the avoidance of cross-contamination from raw to decontaminated materials. Finally aspects of environmental hygiene are discussed and attention is paid to the protection of the personnel that is involved in the hygienic disposal and rendering of dead animals and animal wastes. PMID:3750305
The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...
“Organic” or “organically grown” foods are commonly represented as “food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; which has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics, etc.” The substitution of “organic” for
... dehydration may have made you weak and tired. Don't use anti-diarrheal medications. Drugs intended to treat diarrhea, ... are cooked to a safe temperature is to use a food thermometer. You can kill harmful organisms in most foods by cooking them to the right temperature. ...
This research paper investigated foodservice operators' food terrorism risk perception and the perceptional gap between importance and performance of food terrorism preventive measures. Cluster analysis was performed using 35 gap scores. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare clusters and address research questions. The largest discrepancy between importance and practice was found for practices related to communication. Smaller incongruities
Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050
Previous observational measures of healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour (HHB) fail to provide adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs), accounts of inter-rater agreement testing or evidence of sensitivity to change. This study reports the development of an observational tool in a way that addresses these deficiencies. Observational categories were developed systematically, guided by a clinical guideline, previous measures and pilot hand-hygiene behaviour observations (HHOs). The measure, a simpler version of the Geneva tool, consists of HHOs (before and after low-risk, high-risk or unobserved contact), HHBs (soap, alcohol hand rub, no action, unknown), and type of HCW. Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units. Raw agreement (%) and Kappa were 77% and 0.68 for HHB; 83% and 0.77 for HHO; and 90% and 0.77 for HCW. Inter-observer agreement for overall compliance of a group of HCWs was assessed by observation of 1191 HHOs and HHBs by two pairs of independent observers. Overall agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). Sensitivity to change was examined by autoregressive time-series modelling of longitudinal observations for 8 months on the intensive therapy unit during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak and subsequent strengthening of infection control measures. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated by a rise in compliance from 80 to 98% with an odds ratio of increased compliance of 7.00 (95% confidence interval: 4.02-12.2) P < 0.001. PMID:18478625
Lack of hand hygiene by health-care workers is the most significant cause of health care-associated infection. This programme was designed to make health-care workers want to wash their hands, to change their knowledge regarding hand hygiene and health care-associated infection, and influence practice. Improvement between pre- and post-test scores was statistically significant. Compliance is a multifactorial problem that involves knowledge and behaviour. Educational awareness and frequent reminders are critical to maintain high rates of hand hygiene compliance. PMID:21605267
Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Everett-Thomas, Ruth; Nevo, Igal; Shekhter, Ilya; Rosen, Lisa F; Scheinman, Stephen R; Arheart, Kristopher L; Birnbach, David J
Voronezh belongs to the areas that have a poor hygienic situation in the environmental pollution with heavy metal compounds. The subject of the studies was pupils from 2 Voronezh schools situated in the areas hygienically contrast in the ambient air and soil pollution with heavy compounds. Their intellectual development was studied. A total of 245 pupils from the 2nd, 7th, and 10th forms were examined. The best intellectual development indices were recorded among all age groups of children living in the hygienically favorable areas. The findings are in agreement with the data published by Russian and foreign investigators. PMID:18050703
This paper reports on an articulation model for dental radiography instruction developed by a task force composed of dental assisting and dental hygiene educators, with the assistance of various committees and groups. The task force participants determined that core courses in didactics, preclinical laboratory study, and clinical radiography should be identical for dental assistants and dental hygiene students. They also determined that an additional course was necessary for dental hygiene students to develop adequate skills in interpreting radiographs to meet the level presently required by national and regional examinations. PMID:2387429
To improve the compliance to hand hygiene in our health care workers, 3 hand hygiene awareness weeks have been conducted over the past one-and-a-half years in our hospital. This observational audit conducted from October 2011 to March 2012 was planned to assess the impact of the above awareness drives. Although overall compliance increased significantly in 7 intensive care units from 23.1% to 41.2% (P < .0001), several deficiencies were noticed both in technique used as well as during specific opportunities of hand hygiene. PMID:24176772
The demand for organic foods is constantly increasing mainly due to consumers' perception that they are healthier and safer than conventional foods. There is a need for information related to food safety to inform consumers of the health benefits and/or hazards of food products of both origins, in order to optimise the impact on health and minimise the risks. Several gaps and limitations in scientific knowledge with regard to food risk evaluation make it difficult to draw generalised conclusions. Still, some organic foods can be expected to contain fewer agrochemical residues and lower levels of nitrate than conventionally grown alternatives. On the other hand, environmental contaminants are equally present in foods of both origins. With regard to other food hazards, such as natural chemicals, microbial pathogens and mycotoxins, no clear conclusions can be drawn, although several interesting points can be highlighted. It is difficult, therefore, to weigh the risks, but what should be made clear to consumers is that 'organic' does not equal 'safe'. If producers adopt proper agricultural practices and consumers maintain hygienic conditions, risks associated with food contaminants can be minimised, regardless of the food's organic or conventional origin. PMID:19087390
Although certain commonalities exist between eating and drug use (mood effects, external cue-control of appetites, reinforcement, etc.), it is argued that the vast majority of cases of (self-reported) food craving and food “addiction” should not be viewed as addictive behavior. An explanation is proposed that instead gives a prominent role to the psychological processes of ambivalence and attribution, operating together
Text Version... to Norovirus, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella spp., Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) or Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), or Hepatitis A Virus ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
Text Version... YES / NO If so, how many days did you take the antibiotics? ... ii. E. coli O157:H7 infection (last exposure within the past 3 days) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI cannot always be ingested as a single dose on an empty stomach with impunity. PMID:277126
In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179
García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M
Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)
A walkthrough industrial hygiene survey of the Philtex facility of Phillips Chemical Company (SIC-2869), Borger, Texas, was performed to determine its suitability for inclusion in a 1,3-butadiene (106990) exposure survey. Of 212 employees, 33 were potenti...
Current hygiene problems in school hygiene are reported and compared with those a century ago. The main problems stated by teachers, parents and pupils are poor indoor air quality due to insufficient cleaning and ventilation, unsatisfactory cleaning of classrooms and sanitary tracts because of small financial budgets, broken and ruined lavatories due to poor service, incomplete routine maintenance and vandalism. All these topics have been well known for more than 100 years. Instead of building schools with sophisticated or expensive technical equipment, schools with friendly and robust equipment without complicated technology needing intensive maintenance are mandatory. However, all these measures will only be successful in obtaining good hygiene standards in schools, if basic rules of good hygiene practice are respected and followed (again), pupils and teachers take responsibility for their schools and prevent vandalism. Both are mandatory. PMID:19043758
Implementation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan at an R&D facility is accomplished in an integrated approach with other programs. While the laboratory standard specifies the requirements of a Chemical Hygiene Plan, implementation requires innovation and creativity to effectively comply with the standard and to support R&D activities. While the Chemical Hygiene Plan is a unique entity, it must be integrated with other programs (e.g., Hazard Communication Program, Hazardous Waste Management Program, and Waste Minimization Program) so that complementary activities can minimize duplication of effort. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has implemented a Chemical Hygiene Plan using an integrated approach. The overall plan is described, and decisions on key issues and the criteria used to determine the implementation approach are discussed.
|Examined the predictive reliability of incoming grade point average (GPA), incoming math/science GPA, and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores in predicting success in dental hygiene education. Found that GPA was the most significant predictor of success. (EV)|
Downey, Mary C.; Collins, Marie A.; Browning, William D.
Due to possible worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene (106990), a walkthrough industrial hygiene survey was conducted at Borg Warner Chemicals Woodmar Facility (SIC-2821), Washington, West Virginia. The primary products of the facility are ABS plastics, polybu...
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the subject matter being taught to students in professional Industrial Hygiene degree programs and to determine the uniformity of the training received. A questionnaire was developed and mailed to 35 college...
Examined over the course of five years whether learners who receive face-to-face instruction in a dental hygiene program performed statistically better on established benchmark assessments than learners at a distance. Found no significant differences. (EV)
A study measured the influence of treating disabled persons during the practical training period on the dental hygiene student's attitude toward the disabled, and studied whether attitude and self-confidence are related to certain student characteristics. (MSE)
An industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Papaya Packing/Shipping facilities (SIC-4581), Hilo, Hawaii to investigate worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (106934)(EDB) used for pest control in fruit packing plants.
Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313
Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric
Text Version... Many older adults have also been diagnosed with one or more chronic conditions, such as diabetes, arthritis, cancer, or cardiovascular disease ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants
... you eat give you some protein. Vitamins and Minerals It goes without saying that you want to ... are high in a variety of vitamins and minerals. The FDA requires food manufacturers to include information ...
BACKGROUND: Foodhygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common
Cecilia Buccheri; Alessandra Casuccio; Santo Giammanco; Marco Giammanco; Maurizio La Guardia; Caterina Mammina
Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P?=?0.002, P?0.001, respectively). This difference peaked during the influenza season (when intervention began) and declined in the following months. Teachers (n?=?23) agreed that hand hygiene is not performed properly among students and reported time constraints as a barrier to frequent hand washing. Conclusions Adding hand hygiene instruction to existing hand hygiene practices improved attendance at public elementary schools during the flu season. Standardized and brief repetitive instruction in hand hygiene holds potential to significantly reduce absenteeism.
Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases,\\u000a algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae,\\u000a such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of\\u000a the last century and
Andrea Borchers; Suzanne S. Teuber; Carl L. Keen; M. Eric Gershwin
Objective: The aims of this study were to examine self-reported oral hygiene habits and oral health problems of a sample of adult Kuwaitis. Materials and Methods: A self-administered, anonymous, structured questionnaire was distributed to 2,400 adult Kuwaiti nationals from all 6 governates of Kuwait assessing socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene habits, and oral health problems. Results: Of the 2,400 questionnaires, 1,925
Khalaf F. Al-Shammari; Jassem M. Al-Ansari; Areej K. Al-Khabbaz; Asmahan Dashti; Eino J. Honkala
OBJECTIVES:The “hygiene hypothesis” postulates that individuals raised in a sanitary environment are more likely to develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several studies previously demonstrated contradictory results in this regard. We performed for the first time a population-based study on the association of surrogate markers of childhood hygiene with the risk for IBD.METHODS:A cross-sectional population-based study was undertaken. Information on number
Eyal Klement; Joseph Lysy; Moshe Hoshen; Merav Avitan; Eran Goldin; Eran Israeli
Hygienic self-grooming is a behavioral adaptation for removing litter particles and pathogenic agents from animal fur and skin. We studied contribution of brain serotonin system into mechanisms regulating hygienic behavior in intact mice and mice with LPS(lipopolysaccharide)-induced sickness. A spot of fluorescent dye was applied on the back of a mouse, and the decrease in its fluorescence served as an
Maria A. Tikhonova; Victor A. Kulikov; Alexander V. Kulikov
The hygienic quality of commercial beef and beef-pork minced meat was examined using aerobic micro-organisms and Coliform\\u000a bacteria as indicator organisms. About 70% of the samples examined were of good quality and about 30% of tolerable quality.\\u000a Aerobic micro-organisms can be recommended as an initial means of monitoring the hygienic quality of minced meat, being better\\u000a for this purpose than
Results: The overall increase in hand-hygiene behavior and reduction in symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism between the product group and control group was statistically significant. Reductions in upper respiratory-illness symptoms ranged from 14.8% to 39.9%. Total improvement in illness rate was 20%. The product group had 43% less missed school\\/work days. Conclusion: Hand-hygiene practices were improved with increased frequency of
Cindy White; Rebecca Carlson; Natasha Lipson; Mike Dolan; Mike Dolar; Mojee Cline
The education of healthcare workers is essential to improve practices and is an integral part of hand hygiene promotional\\u000a strategies. According to the evidence reviewed here, healthcare worker education has a positive impact on improving hand hygiene\\u000a and reducing healthcare-associated infection. Detailed practical guidance on steps for the organization of education programmes\\u000a in healthcare facilities and teaching–learning strategies are provided
E. Mathai; B. Allegranzi; W. H. Seto; M.-N. Chraïti; H. Sax; E. Larson; D. Pittet
OBJECTIVES. Hand hygiene promotion interventions rarely result in sustained im- provement, and an assessment of their impact on individual infection risk has been lacking. We sought to measure the impact of hand hygiene promotion on health care worker compliance and health care-associated infection risk among neonates. METHODS. We conducted an intervention study with a 9-month follow-up among all of the
We assessed the effect of medical staff role models and the number of health-care worker sinks on hand-hygiene compli- ance before and after construction of a new hospital designed for increased access to handwashing sinks. We observed health-care worker hand hygiene in four nursing units that pro- vided similar patient care in both the old and new hospitals: medical and
Mary G. Lankford; Teresa R. Zembower; William E. Trick; Donna M. Hacek; Gary A. Noskin; Lance R. Peterson
On-site sanitation solutions have gained much interest in recent years. One such solution is the urine diverting vermicomposting toilet (UDVT). This study evaluated the hygienic quality of the composted material in six UDVTs in operation in France. Samples were taken from three sampling positions in each toilet, with increasing distance from the fresh material. The concentration of Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp., thermotolarent coliforms and coliphages were analysed and plotted against a number of variables. The variables found to have the greatest impact was the pH (for Enterococcus spp. and thermotolarent coliforms (TTC)) and time since last maintenance (coliphages). The pH was found to correlate with the material maturity. The current practise of maintenance can cause recontamination of the stabilised material and increase the risk of regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms. A modification in the maintenance procedure, in which a fourth maturation point is introduced, would eliminate this risk. UDVTs were found to be a good on-site sanitation option as the maintenance requirement is small and the system effectively reduced odour and concentration of pathogen and indicator organisms in human waste while keeping the accumulation of material down to a minimum. If the vermicompost is to be used for crops consumed raw, an additional sanitisation step is recommended. PMID:23932466
Lalander, Cecilia H; Hill, Geoffrey B; Vinnerås, Björn
Industrial hygiene and biomonitoring data were collected during a survey at the Parkway Products Inc. facility located in Cincinnati, Ohio, one of the largest users of 4,4'-methylenebis (2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA). Customized polyurethane products were manufactured for industry at this facility. Urinary concentrations of MBOCA were below the California standard of 100 micrograms/liter, with the exception of two samples taken from MBOCA mixers. The wipe samples taken showed a range of concentrations from 4 to 53 micrograms MBOCA per wipe which were collected near the MBOCA room where the chemical was stored as well as handled. Night-shift workers were exposed to higher concentrations, probably indicating that less care was taken during this shift in controlling the hazardous substance. There was no clear cut relationship established between environmental and biomonitoring results in this study, except for the workers in the MBOCA room. The author recommends frequent washing down of exposed areas, changing protective workclothes in specified facility locations, prohibition of eating or drinking or smoking in work areas, monthly urine monitoring, and continued education as to the hazards of the job.
William H. Welch and William T. Sedgwick, two of the founding fathers of American public health, were both early generation "Hopkins Men." Sedgwick was part of the first group of graduate students to attend Johns Hopkins University, and Welch was part of the initial faculty at the University's medical school. While they never worked together as colleagues at Hopkins, both became interested in the exciting new discoveries of the microbial nature of human disease and developed similar public health programs based on this information. Sedgwick expanded upon these investigations in the new sanitary science program at MIT, where academic public health first emerged in the United States following Sedgwick's appointment in 1883. Welch, who had been exposed to European research in microbiology, promoted microbial research in pathology in Baltimore in 1884. His laboratory-based investigations expanded until they led to the formation of the country's first school of public health in 1916. Thus, a "Hopkins Model" for hygiene and public health emerged from the efforts of both Welch and Sedgwick.
To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: continence, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use continence products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one. PMID:20862898
The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the impact of faculty calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability regarding calculus detection. After IRB approval, twelve dental hygiene faculty members were recruited from a pool of twenty-two for voluntary participation and randomized into two groups. All subjects provided two pre- and two posttest scorings of calculus deposits on each of three typodonts by recording yes or no indicating if they detected calculus. Accuracy and consistency of calculus detection were evaluated using an answer key. The experimental group received three two-hour training sessions to practice a prescribed exploring sequence and technique for calculus detection. Participants immediately corrected their answers, received feedback from the trainer, and reconciled missed areas. Intra- and interrater reliability (pre- and posttest) was determined using Cohen's Kappa and compared between groups using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA. The groups did not differ from pre- to posttraining (intrarater reliability p=0.64; interrater reliability p=0.20). Training had no effect on reliability levels for simulated calculus detection in this study. Recommendations for future studies of faculty calibration when evaluating students include using patients for assessing rater reliability, employing larger samples at multiple sites, and assessing the impact on students' attitudes and learning outcomes. PMID:19289727
Infection prevention and control nurses (IPCNs) have an extremely wide remit in relation to the facilitation of appropriate infection prevention and control practice within healthcare environments. In order to be effective IPCNs need to be involved at all stages of healthcare service delivery and need to form close working relationships with staff at all levels and in all departments within their organisation. The provision of the necessary facilities within the clinical environment, along with the ongoing training and support of staff are essential prerequisites to changing the behaviour of staff in order to consistently deliver effective hand hygiene and other infection prevention and control practices. Auditing of practice and the investigation of incidents enable the identification of areas of practice requiring improvement, which subsequently informs the continual development of training programmes and initiatives with a view to improving patient and staff safety. IPCNs need to be able to react swiftly to the emergence of new infectious organisms and/or evidence to identify what is required in order to ensure that staff are compliant with anticipated practice to maintain the safety of the patients in their care, themselves and their colleagues. PMID:24037392
This article compares the efficacy of a prototype integrated system (the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest) in the reduction of supragingival plaque to that of a manual toothbrush and conventional toothpaste. The integrated system was compared to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in a randomized, single-blinded, parallel, 4-week, controlled clinical trial with 100 subjects randomized to each treatment group. There was a low dropout rate, with 89 subjects in the manual toothbrush group (11% loss to follow-up) and 93 subjects in the integrated system group (7% loss to follow-up) completing the study. The Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index was used to assess full-mouth plaque scores for each subject. Prebrushing plaque scores were obtained at baseline and at 4 weeks after 14 to 20 hours of plaque accumulation. A survey also was conducted at the conclusion of the study to determine the attitude toward the two oral hygiene systems. The integrated system was found to significantly reduce overall and interproximal prebrushing plaque scores over 4 weeks, both by 8.6%, demonstrating statistically significant superiority in overall plaque reduction (P = .002) and interproximal plaque reduction (P < .001) compared to the manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste, which showed no significant reduction in either overall plaque or interproximal plaque. This study demonstrates that the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest is superior to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in reducing overall plaque and interproximal plaque over time. PMID:15637975
Nunn, Martha E; Ruhlman, C Douglas; Mallatt, Philip R; Rodriguez, Sally M; Ortblad, Katherine M
Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.
To investigate the extent to which a relationship may exist between nurses' own oral hygiene and their commitment and capability of following instructions for tooth brushing with conventional and triple-headed toothbrushes, to cerebral palsy (CP) children. The study included 43 individuals with CP and their 44 nurses. A structured questionnaire was designed to assess I. Demographic characteristics of the nurses II. Nurses' knowledge and maintenance of their own oral-hygiene and that of their CP patients. Nurses' ability to follow instruction for tooth-brushing was evaluated and scored using the TB-PS-I/Ashkenazi index following the first brushing, as well as on a recall visit one month later. More nurses (72.7%) reported routine tooth-brushing in the morning than in the evening (40.9%). Most nurses (73%) reported not flossing their teeth at all, and more than half reported visiting their dentist only when they suffer pain. A positive correlation was found between the nurses' knowledge of preventive oral measures and their compliance with their own oral hygiene and with that of their CP patients. Similarly, a positive correlation was found between nurses' receiving previous instruction for correct oral hygiene and their maintenance of their patients' oral hygiene. Institutions for CP patients should disseminate information on oral hygiene to staff, as a means of increasing their maintenance of their patients' oral health. PMID:24164226
Ashkenazi, Malka; Yaish, Yaniv; Yitzhak, Moran; Sarnat, Haim; Rakocz, Meir
Oral hygiene significantly affects children's well being. It is an integral part of intensive and critical care nursing because intubated and ventilated children in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) are dependent on the health care team to tend to their everyday basic needs. Fourteen articles were identified as being relevant to pediatric oral care in the PICU. These articles were subsequently appraised, and an oral hygiene in the PICU guideline was developed. Research highlighted the relationship between poor oral hygiene in the intensive care unit (ICU) and an increase in dental plaque accumulation, bacterial colonization of the oropharynx, and higher nosocomial infection rates, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia. Research and a local, informal audit found the provision of oral hygiene care to PICU children varied widely and was often inadequate. Children in the PICU need their mouths regularly assessed and cleaned. Maintaining consistent, regular, and standardized oral hygiene practices in the PICU will also set an example for children and their families, encouraging and teaching them about the life-long importance of oral hygiene. PMID:20476510
Johnstone, Lisa; Spence, Deb; Koziol-McClain, Jane
Background This study was conducted to evaluate perceptions of healthcare workers (HCW) and parents regarding hand-hygiene and effectiveness of measures for increasing hand-hygiene adherence, in a children's hospital in Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from 5 to 13 July 2010, using two self-administered anonymous questionnaires (one for HCWs and one for parents/caregivers). The questionnaires included information regarding individual perceptions associated with hand hygiene. Results We collected 139 questionnaires from HCWs and 236 questionnaires from parents. Alcohol-based handrub was reported to be available at the point of care by 95.0% of the HCWs and in the child's room by 97.0% of the parents. For both HCWs and parents, availability of alcohol-based handrub was perceived as the most useful action for improving adherence to hand hygiene (scores ? 6 on a 7-point Likert-type scale: 84.8% [CI95%78.0-90.1] for HCWs and 87.9% [CI95% 83.3-91.7] for parents). Parents' reminding HCWs to perform hand hygiene was perceived as the least useful action (scores ? 6: 48.9% [CI95% 40.5-57.3] for HCWs and 55.7% [CI95% 49.2-62.1] for parents). Factors that affected HCWs' perceptions of the effectiveness of actions for improving adherence to hand hygiene included years of practice, type of ward and previous formal training on hand hygiene. For parents, factors affecting perceptions included previous information on hand hygiene and previous hospitalizations for their child. Conclusions Investigating HCWs' and parents' perceptions of measures for improving adherence can provide useful information for implementing actions for hand-hygiene promotion in children's hospitals. In this study, HCWs' and parents' perceptions were similar; alcohol-based hand-rub availability was perceived as the most useful tool, confirming its crucial role in multimodal interventions. Poor perception of inviting parents to remind HCWs to perform hand-hygiene has been previously observed, and deserves further investigation. Information and education activities were associated with more positive perceptions regarding various improvement measures. Though the relationship between perceptions and behaviours remains to be fully determined, HCWs should participate in formal training and families should be properly informed, not only to increase knowledge but also to improve perceptions on effectiveness of actions to be implemented.
The significance of respiratory gas conditioning systems as sources of germ colonization and infection of the respiratory tract results from the principle of operation and the temperature. Six respiratory air humidifiers were tested for their hygienic risk in experiments with test germs. Contrary to several reports, some humidifiers were shown to accumulate microorganisms, whereas others do not promote germ population in the respiratory tract even though the water of the humidifier is heavily contaminated. It could be confirmed that basic differences exist between "blow over" and "blow through" humidifiers in the accumulation of microorganisms in respiratory air. Moreover, our investigations revealed that even "blow over" humidifiers should not be considered completely harmless. The "blow over" apparatuses Hydrotrop 200, Aquapor and VH 620 (infant) did not cause any germ propagation in the resuscitation tubes, whereas in the "blow through" apparatuses Bennett Cascade and VH 620 (adult) germ propagation is quite considerable. The mortality kinetics of the germs differ depending on the temperature and the type of apparatus used and should be taken into account when it comes to choosing or developing respiratory gas conditioning devices. Constant heating of the water in the humidifier to a minimum of 50 degrees C provokes a bactericide behaviour of the problem germs. Therefore, it is quite justifiable to do without expensive internationally recommended measures if the humidifier is well chosen. The requirement to replace the humidifier every 24 hours in long-term artificial respiration need not be observed for devices classified as harmless if aseptic handling is guaranteed, i.e. if manual germ transmission by the staff is avoided. PMID:2222715
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mounts an attack on the host's insulin-producing beta cells. Because most cases of T1D cannot be attributed only to individual genetics, it is strongly inferred that there is a significant environmental contribution, such as infection, impacting disease development. The human enteroviruses (HEV) are common picornaviruses often implicated as triggers of human T1D, although precisely which of the numerous HEV may be involved in human T1D development is unknown. Experiments using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, commonly used to model T1D, show that induction of T1D by HEV infection in NOD mice is a multifactorial process involving both the virus and the host. Interestingly, results demonstrate that HEV infection of NOD mice can also induce long-term protection from T1D under certain conditions, suggesting that a similar mechanism may occur in humans. Based upon both experimental animal and observational human studies, we postulate that HEV have a dual role in T1D development and can either cause or prevent autoimmune disease. Whichever outcome occurs depends upon multiple variables in the host-virus equation, many of which can be deduced from results obtained from NOD mouse studies. We propose that the background to the sharply rising T1D incidences observed in the 20th century correlates with increased levels of hygiene in human societies. Viewing T1D in this perspective suggests that potential preventative options could be developed. PMID:20049905
Tracy, S; Drescher, K M; Jackson, J D; Kim, K; Kono, K
The answer to this question should be 'no' if you can afford it and 'yes' if you cannot. However, Control Banding (CB) is proving itself in areas with uncertainties. This could be either a lack of knowledge--as with nanomaterials or when lacking an OEL--or with the lack or expertise, as can be seen with SMEs and in Economically Developing Countries (EDCs). Over 90% of the world's workers do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods to achieve prevention from acquiring work-related illness and injury. Although risk factors for work-related illness and disease are well known, until the recent growth of CB there had yet to be designed and implemented a comprehensive OSHH process that focuses on achieving minimization of these occupational risk factors for the vast majority of the global workforce. This problem exists for three primary reasons: (1) There are not a sufficient number of trained and qualified OSHH professionals worldwide to attempt to offer comparable levels of traditional services necessary to achieve prevention; (2) The vast majority of OSHH professionals, and the funds to afford their conventional approaches, are concentrated in Developed Countries, such as those in the