Shandala, M G
Based on the main tasks of hygienic support of balanced diet of the population, we consider different issues of disinfection contribution in:food safety, prevention of the emergence and dissemination of relevant infectious and noninfectious diseases, quality disruption of foodstuffs under various biological pathogens (bacteria, protozoa, helminthes, arthropods, rodents), which are the causative agents of human disease vectors or natural reservoirs of pathogens. The need to involve the disinfection competence in ensuring the safety and security of canned food, as well as the products long-term storage is stressed. Paper deals with factors, key for effectiveness of disinfection and, therefore, epidemiological and hygienic safety of the equipment and facilities, food industries and food service. We consider the need to take into account advantageous properties and shortcomings of some groups of disinfectants in terms both of microbicidal effectiveness and of their toxic safety, compatibility with the materials of processed objects, ease of use, etc. The focus is made on the need to select some disinfection technology in terms of the primary objective and current conditions taking the type and attributes of the relevant biological pathogens into account. PMID:24000699
Dwinger, R H; Golden, T E; Hatakka, M; Daelman, W
Following several animal disease outbreaks and food contaminant scandals in Europe in recent years, the European Commission adopted the White Paper on Food Safety in 2000. This White Paper contains a number of recommendations aimed to increase food safety, improve the traceability of food products and regain consumer confidence in the food industry. To this effect a package of new European legislation on food and feed has been prepared with the following characteristics: responsibility of food safety lies with the food business operator, while the competent authority of the Member State verifies correct implementation of the new rules. Production should be based on good hygienic practice and HACCP principles and products are subject to microbiological criteria and temperature limits. The legislation deals with all food and covers the entire food chain ("from stable to table"). The general framework of the new food hygiene legislation is explained. The General Food Law (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002) is discussed in more detail as well as the Regulations concerning food hygiene. The characteristics and requirements of each one of the three Hygiene Regulations is presented (Regulation (EC) No 852/2004, Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 and Regulation (EC) No 854/2004) with a particular emphasis on the changes in the new (horizontal) legislation as compared to the old (vertical) Directives. Implementing measures of the Hygiene Regulations have been published in the form of four Commission Regulations in December 2005. The implementing measures deal with technical issues often in great detail and became applicable at the same time as the Hygiene Regulations with effect of 1 January 2006. The major issues as laid down in the four Commission Regulations are presented. Finally, various guidance documents are mentioned. These documents are available on the Internet site (http//ec.europa. eu/food/food/biosafety/hygienelegislation/guide_en.htm) of DG SANCO and explain in plain language some of the topics of the Hygiene Regulations. PMID:17763630
Hobbs, Betty C.; Colbourne, M. J.; Mayner, P. E.
The incidence of gastroenteritis on a passenger ship is reviewed and discussed in relation to the agents of infection from stool specimens, the bacteriological condition of food samples, and the practice of galley hygiene. PMID:1208291
Varying economic conditions and management systems in different countries have determined the foundation of legal regulations for sanitary food control. The legal system in Poland in the years 1795-1928 was subject to the laws of three partitioning powers: Prussia, Russia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. On March 28, 1928, the President of Poland passed three decrees equivalent to acts which had a significant impact on sanitary food control. The decrees took into account the following issues: animal protection, food products inspection and evaluation of slaughter animals and meat. For the people of Poland, who in the first half of the 20th century lived within the boundaries drawn by the partitioners, it was important that the legal systems had been based on German law, regarded the best possible at that time. Although the decrees were based on Prussian and Austrian regulations, the infrastructure of food production, of food trade and hygiene in Poland until 1945 was built on the Russian administrative foundation (2/3 of Polish territory) (Fig. 1). After World War II, the economic system established in Poland was subordinate to Soviet rules. This included food manufacturing plants as well as the system of food control. In 1989 Poland came through deep political and economic changes, but the legal system has remained the same. However, there are disputes about the scope between the National Hygiene Inspectors (PIS) operating under the Ministry of Health and Veterinary Hygiene Inspectors (WIS) subject to Woivod's Office.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8261911
...Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary...Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) of the Codex Alimentarius...Drafting basic provisions on food hygiene applicable to all food;...
...Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary...Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) of the Codex Alimentarius...Drafting basic provisions on food hygiene applicable to all food;...
...Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary...Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) of the Codex Alimentarius...trade. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene is responsible for: (a)...
M. B. Egan; M. M. Raats; S. M. Grubb; A. Eves; M. L. Lumbers; M. S. Dean; M. R. Adams
This review summarises the methods and results of studies conducted worldwide on the effectiveness of food safety and food hygiene training in the commercial sector of the food industry. In particular it focuses on those studies that have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of such training. Forty-six studies of food hygiene training are included which used some outcome measure to
Mųretrų, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig
Surfaces with microorganisms may transfer unwanted microorganisms to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. A high hygienic status of surfaces that come in contact with food is important in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. During the last decade, products containing antimicrobial compounds, such as cutting boards, knives, countertops, kitchen utensils, refrigerators, and conveyor belts, have been introduced to the market, claiming hygienic effects. Such products are often referred to as "treated articles." Here we review various aspects related to treated articles intended for use during preparation and processing of food. Regulatory issues and methods to assess antibacterial effects are covered. Different concepts for treated articles as well as their antibacterial activity are reviewed. The effects of products with antimicrobials on food hygiene and safety are discussed. PMID:21740725
...Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary...Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) of the Codex Alimentarius...established to draft basic provisions on food hygiene applicable to all food; to...
Quaranta, Gianluigi; Laurenti, Patrizia; Gerardo Cairo, Antonio; Ricciardi, Gualtiero
A food hygiene training course was offered to 25 members of the public catering committees of seven corporate restaurants. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the course and identify critical topics, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after completing the training course. Results are presented in this article and underscore the importance of training members of public catering committees in addition to food handlers. PMID:17912276
Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.
Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…
Ibrahim Giritlioglu; Orhan Batman; Nuray Tetik
The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of food safety and hygiene among students in university cookery programs in Turkey. A questionnaire was given to 82 cookery students in two vocational schools from two different universities. The results showed that although the students regarded the issues of food safety and personal hygiene as important, they
Egan, M. B.; Bielby, G.; Eves, A.; Lumbers, M. L.; Raats, M. M.; Adams, M. R.
Objective: A nationwide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of food hygiene in UK secondary schools. Previous studies have focused on effective strategies in consumer food hygiene training but there is little research focusing on school-based education. Design: The questionnaire was developed based on the results of in-depth interviews…
661 Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2007, Pages 661666 Factors Related to Food Worker 37247; 4Connecticut Department of Public Health, Food Protection Program, Division of Environmental To identify factors related to food worker hand hygiene practices, we collected (i) observational data on food
Mizan, Md Furkanur Rahaman; Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Ha, Sang-Do
Seafood forms a part of a healthy diet. However, seafood can be contaminated with foodborne pathogens, resulting in disease outbreaks. Because people consume large amounts of seafood, such disease outbreaks are increasing worldwide. Seafood contamination is largely due to the naturally occurring phenomenon of biofilm formation. The common seafood bacterial pathogens that form biofilms are Vibrio spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. As these organisms pose a global health threat, recent research has focused on elucidating methods to eliminate these biofilm-forming bacteria from seafood, thereby improving food hygiene. Therefore, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation, the factors that regulate biofilm development and the role of quorum sensing and biofilm formation in the virulence of foodborne pathogens. Currently, several novel methods have been successfully developed for controlling biofilms present in seafood. In this review, we also discuss the epidemiology of seafood-related diseases and the novel methods that could be used for future control of biofilm formation in seafood. PMID:25846914
The incidence of food poisoning in the UK is increasing substantially, with about 50% arising in the home. Many different organisms cause food-borne infections, including Salmonella, Campylobacter and Shigella. Storing food correctly is important. Many households shop only once a week and food is often kept for several days before being eaten. Standards of domestic kitchen hygiene must be improved if the incidence of food poisoning is to be reduced Hand washing, kitchen cleanliness and disinfection are essential. PMID:8680190
Lazarevi?, Konstansa; Stojanovi?, Dusica; Bogdanovi?, Dragan; Doli?anin, Zana
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of food hygiene training of food handlers on sanitary-hygienic conditions in hospital kitchens, based on microbiological analysis of smears taken in hospital kitchens. The study was conducted in the 1995-2009 period at the Clinical Centre Nis, Serbia. The food hygiene training was conducted in February 2005, by an infection control officer. 1,076 smears in the central kitchen and 4,025 smears in distributive kitchens were taken from hands and work clothes, work surfaces, equipment, and kitchen utensils. Microbiological analysis of smears was carried out in an accredited laboratory of the Public Health Institute Nis (Serbia). A significantly lower percentage of smears with isolates of bacteria (p < 0.001) taken from hands and work clothes, work surfaces, equipment and kitchen utensils in the central and distributive kitchens was observed in the period following the food safety education programme (2005-2009). The most commonly isolated bacteria was: Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., and E. coli. Our results confirmed that food hygiene training improved hygiene and is also an important component for the prevention of nosocomial infection. PMID:24344539
Leach, J C
In September 1995 new general food hygiene regulations came into force. The new law, quite rightly, requires proprietors of food businesses to focus their thoughts and actions on risks to food safety. Proprietors are required to identify and assess risks and ensure that adequate management procedures are put into place to ensure food safety. This is a welcome move as contributing factors in most cases of food poisoning involve poor food hygiene practices. At the same time there has been a large increase in the amount of advice and guidance to local authority enforcement officers, particularly to assess risks to food safety when considering what action to take in any situation - the lower the risk the less appropriate it is to take legal action. However, there are many conditions found in food premises which present little or no risk to health, such as routine cleanliness in non-high risk areas, but lower standards on these might be viewed by the public as inappropriate for food businesses. With an increasing amount of choice available to customers, proprietors and managers of food businesses need to be more aware than ever of the complex pattern of consumer demands including that of supplying a clean and safe product in its broadest sense. The notion of consumer sovereignty is not a new concept. Combined with the new laws could it hold the key to genuine improved standards in food hygiene? This article reviews the subject and draws attention to a research programme being undertaken at the University of Brighton to identify, compare and contrast factors which the public perceive as important in terms of food hygiene in public eating places with those considered important by professionals with an interest in the subject. The results could bring benefits to the catering industry and customers. PMID:8987337
Little, C L; Lock, D; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T
A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, two thirds (66%) were catering premises and one third (34%) were retail premises. Comparison with PHLS Microbiological Guidelines revealed that significantly more ready-to-eat food samples from catering premises (20%; 2,511/12,703) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality compared to samples from retail premises (12%; 1,039/8,462) (p < 0.00001). Three quarters (76%) of retail premises had hazard analysis systems in place compared with 59% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). In 87% of retail premises the manager had received some form of food hygiene training compared with 80% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). From premises where the manager had received no food hygiene training a greater proportion of samples were of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (20% retail, 27% catering) compared with premises where the manager had received food hygiene training (11% retail, 19% catering) (p < 0.00001). Where the manager of the premises had received food hygiene training, documented hazard analysis systems were more likely to be in place (p < 0.00001). Higher proportions of samples of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (17% retail, 22% catering) were from premises where there was no hazard analysis system in place compared to premises that had a documented hazard analysis system in place (10% retail, 18% catering) (p < 0.00001). Our meta-analysis suggests that the lower microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods from catering premises compared with those collected from retail premises may reflect differences in management food hygiene training and the presence of a hazard analysis system. The importance of adequate training for food handlers and their managers as a pre-requisite for effective hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) based controls is therefore emphasised. PMID:14708277
Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio=2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11–7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam. PMID:19902795
Golysheva, G V
The paper presents new requirements for carriage of foodstuffs by rail in Russia. It discusses the aspects of environmental safety from possible spilling, leakage, scattering, and other emergencies; the matters of health care in those engaged in cargo transportation, as well as the preservation of cargoes themselves. The basic hygienic requirements that should be met on transportation of foodstuffs; the main points of compulsory certification of railway transport vehicles used to carry foodstuffs are outlines. Emphasis is laid on the necessity of setting up a uniform database for certifying railway vehicles designed for carriage of foodstuffs throughout the railway network of Russia. PMID:15141628
Mortlock, M P; Peters, A C; Griffith, C J
A mail survey was designed and distributed to 1,650 managers of food businesses across the manufacturing, retail, and catering sectors of the United Kingdom food industry. Respondents were asked about the food hygiene practices of their business, their use of systems such as hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP), and their attitudes toward a range of food hygiene-related issues. Complete responses were received from 254 businesses, a response rate of 15.3%. The results showed that 69% of manufacturers were using HACCP systems, significantly more than the 13% and 15% in the retail and catering sectors, respectively (P < 0.05); 53% of manufacturing, 59% of retail, and 48% of catering managers thought that their business represented a low risk to food safety. Among businesses using HACCP, specific training in the system was significantly related to the likelihood that businesses had adopted all seven of the HACCP principles (P < 0.05). Business size was a significant factor in the use of HACCP in both the manufacturing and retail sectors. Higher levels of food hygiene qualifications among business managers, business status, and higher perceptions among managers of the risk to food safety of the business were also significantly related to HACCP use in all sectors (P < 0.05). The results from this survey have implications for the future development of HACCP, particularly within the UK retail and catering sectors. Risk communication and training are highlighted as areas of concern for marketing HACCP within these industry sectors. PMID:10419273
Kloppert, B; Wolter, W; Zschöck, M; Kabisch, D; Hamann, H P; Frost, J W
In Hesse, Germany, bulk milk of farms producing raw milk cheese is examined by PCR for Coxiella burnetii yearly. In 2003 the pathogen has been detected unusually frequent. By means of two examples the hygienic measures are shown, which were initiated by the veterinary administration. To detect Coxiella burnetii means always the preoccupation with unsolved questions. It is particularly uncertain, whether there is a risk of oral infection for the human being. From the point of view of food hygiene, surveys are needed urgently to work out a risk assessment. Based on this a uniform risk management and a reasonable risk communication can be fixed. PMID:15469060
Wiemer, Dorothea F.; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L.; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M.
This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8–12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls. PMID:24265919
Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan
To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety. PMID:22866582
Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E. C.
Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices. PMID:25258630
Bessonov, V V
Analysis of the income of diet and frequency of use of food additives--dyes in food production showed that established in Russia hygienic standards provide compliance with acceptable doses of these substances. For the first time in Russia an assessment of dietary intake of several food dyes, possessing biological activity is conducted. The average daily intake by using such substances can reach (as % of physiological needs of the adult population): riboflavin--180%, curcumin--60%, beta-carotene--25%, anthocyanins--10%, canthaxanthin (lutein, lycopene)--5%. PMID:21692348
Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.
Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.
Takanashi, Kumiko; Quyen, Dao To; Le Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine
Background Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. Methods In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of children aged between six months and four years in suburban Hanoi. Baseline data were collected in January 2006 (n?=?125). After conducting IEC interventions, we collected a 1st set of evaluation data in January 2007 (n?=?132). To examine the long-term impact of the interventions, we then collected a 2nd set of evaluation data in January 2008 (n?=?185). Changes in childhood diarrhea prevalence, IEC coverage, and food hygiene and food safety behaviors were assessed over a two-year period using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Effective IEC channels were determined through multiple linear regression analysis. Results Childhood diarrhea was significantly reduced from 21.6% at baseline to 7.6% at the 1st post-intervention evaluation (P?=?0.002), and to 5.9% at the 2nd evaluation. Among 17 food hygiene and food safety behaviors measured, a total of 11 behaviors were improved or maintained by the 2nd evaluation. Handwashing after toilet use was significantly improved at both evaluation points. Overall, 3 food safety behaviors and 7 food hygiene behaviors were found to have significantly improved at the 1st and at the 2nd evaluations, respectively. Flip chart communication administered by community groups was identified to be the most effective IEC channel for effecting behavior change (P?=?0.018). Conclusions Flip chart communication administered by community groups is effective for improving multiple food hygiene and food safety behaviors in sustainable ways, and should be included in water and health promotion programs. PMID:23950978
Nizame, Fosiul A.; Unicomb, Leanne; Sanghvi, Tina; Roy, Sumitro; Nuruzzaman, Md.; Ghosh, Probir K.; Winch, Peter J.; Luby, Stephen P.
Enteric diseases are often caused by poor hygiene and can contribute to stunting. From 50 randomly selected villages in Bangladesh, we collected quantitative and qualitative data on handwashing linked to child feeding to integrate handwashing promotion into a young child complementary feeding program. Most participants stated that the community knew the importance of handwashing with soap before food preparation and feeding a child, but had not developed the habit. We observed no handwashing with soap at these key times; sometimes hands were rinsed with water only. Most participants cited the unavailability of soap and water near the cooking place as a barrier to handwashing before food preparation. Most caregivers ranked nurturing messages as the best motivator to encourage handwashing with soap. An integrated intervention should include having soap and water available near the food preparation area and should use nurturing themes to encourage habitual handwashing with soap. PMID:24080638
Nizame, Fosiul A; Unicomb, Leanne; Sanghvi, Tina; Roy, Sumitro; Nuruzzaman, Md; Ghosh, Probir K; Winch, Peter J; Luby, Stephen P
Enteric diseases are often caused by poor hygiene and can contribute to stunting. From 50 randomly selected villages in Bangladesh, we collected quantitative and qualitative data on handwashing linked to child feeding to integrate handwashing promotion into a young child complementary feeding program. Most participants stated that the community knew the importance of handwashing with soap before food preparation and feeding a child, but had not developed the habit. We observed no handwashing with soap at these key times; sometimes hands were rinsed with water only. Most participants cited the unavailability of soap and water near the cooking place as a barrier to handwashing before food preparation. Most caregivers ranked nurturing messages as the best motivator to encourage handwashing with soap. An integrated intervention should include having soap and water available near the food preparation area and should use nurturing themes to encourage habitual handwashing with soap. PMID:24080638
van Tonder, Izanne; Lues, Jan F R; Theron, Maria M
This paper presents data on personal- and general-hygiene knowledge and practices among food handlers in the delicatessens of a major retail group in the Western Cape in South Africa. Food handlers were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. Although the majority of food handlers adhered to basic hygiene principles, there is definitely a need for proper and continuous training in personal and general hygiene, not only for food handlers, but also for management. The study reported here is of importance particularly in view of new local regulations governing the application of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. Management is responsible for the implementation of this system, and where supervision is not adequate, the manager of the outlet should intervene to ensure that staff conform to the requirements. PMID:18044251
Stilo, A; Parisi, S; Delia, S; Anastasi, F; Bruno, G; Laganą, P
The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water management) are evident and should be carefully discussed once more. PMID:19798915
Monte, C M; Ashworth, A; Nations, M K; Lima, A A; Barreto, A; Huttly, S R
This paper describes a methodology to design feasible interventions to improve weaning food hygiene practices of families living in extreme poverty. Educational messages to promote specific behavioural changes were defined and tested by utilizing a combination of ethnographic, survey and observational methods, and integrating viewpoints and suggestions of mothers and caretakers into the decision-making process. This new approach culminated in a household trial in which five groups, each of 15 non-practising mothers, were invited to adopt defined behaviours (handwashing before and after defined events, boiling water for reconstituting powdered milk, feeding gruel by spoon rather than bottlefeeding, not storing gruels and milks, and all four together). All initiated the advocated behaviours and most (53-80%) sustained the new behaviours and practised them every time during a one-month period. Of the four advocated behaviours, spoon-feeding was the most difficult to adopt wholly. The methodology was developed in response to the high priority given to reducing weaning food contamination for diarrhoeal disease control, and the lack of any existing methodology for defining appropriate educational interventions in resource-poor regions. This approach, with its combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and community focus, is recommended for future studies to design hygiene and other health education interventions in developing countries. PMID:9160436
Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.
Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.
P. G. Wall
Summary A big challenge for veterinary educators is to stimulate interest in public health medicine and make the curriculum interesting, and relevant, to veterinary students. Veterinary public health encompasses many areas, including zoonosis control, food safety, animal health and biosecurity, animals as sentinels of environmental hazards and the contribution of animal waste to pollution of food and water, so there
Schraft, H; Untermann, F
Production liability, safety regulations as well as marketing strategies are important motivations for companies to establish in-house quality control measures which can be certified by an independent control body. Companies that advertise quality control measures place pressure on opposition companies to follow suite. It follows that certification in foodstuff production will lead to a chain reaction and spread quickly to other companies. In the establishment of a quality assurance system it is just as important to distinguish between quality control and quality assurance as it is to consider the guidelines laid down in the ISO-Standards 9000-9004. After certification according to the ISO-Standards, which dictates certain forms of quality assurance, there is no guarantee that all important risks, such as hygiene risks introduced with technology, can be excluded. In terms of public health monitoring an important responsibility awaits veterinary public health. Strategies and consequences for official monitoring of foodstuffs are presented and discussed. PMID:8327877
Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M
Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. PMID:22980014
Murat Ba?; Azmi ?afak Ersun; Gökhan K?vanē
The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety issues among food handlers in Turkey, conducting face to face interview and administrating questionnaire. Of the 764 food handlers who responded, 9.6% were involved in touching or distributing unwrapped foods routinely and use protective gloves during their working activity. A majority of participants (47.8%) had
Smulders, Frans J M; Buncic, Sava; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Huey, Robert J; Korkeala, Hannu; Prieto, Miguel; Steinhauserova, Iva
Prompted by developments in the agri-food industry and associated recent changes in European legislation, the responsibilities of veterinarians professionally active in veterinary public health (VPH), and particularly in food hygiene (FH), have increasingly shifted from the traditional end-product control toward longitudinally integrated safety assurance. This necessitates the restructuring of university training programs to provide starting competence in this area for veterinary graduates or a sub-population of them. To date, there are substantial differences in Europe in the way in which graduate programs in FH/VPH are structured and in the time allocated to this important curricular group of subjects. Having recognized this, the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE) recently instituted a working group to analyze the current situation, with a view to produce standard operating procedures allowing fair and transparent evaluations of universities/faculties constituting its membership and in concurrence with explicit European legislation on the professional qualifications deemed necessary for this veterinary discipline. This article summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations of the working group and seeks to contribute to the international efforts to optimize veterinary training in FH/VPH. PMID:22718004
Moore, Ginny; Griffith, Chris
A rapid, instrument-free, hygiene monitoring system, based on protein detection, was assessed as a means to evaluate the cleanliness of food contact surfaces within four different food processing environments. Its performance was compared to that of both ATP bioluminescence and a traditional agar-based microbiological method. Each surface was sampled using all three hygiene monitoring systems both before and after each of the production plants had carried out their normal cleaning procedures. In both cases, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the number of surfaces that were passed or failed using each of the tests. In general the number of surfaces that were deemed acceptable for food production increased after cleaning but the level of agreement between test methods differed depending on the type of production facility sampled. Protein detection was most likely to fail surfaces within the baking facility, whereas ATP bioluminescence and traditional microbiology were most likely to fail surfaces within a frozen ready-meal and a cheese production unit respectively. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to plant trials of hygiene monitoring systems, the cleaning process itself, failures in disinfection, as well as the need for a combined methodological approach for monitoring cleanliness. PMID:12590780
Kim, Eun Joo; Pai, Andrew J.; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Soon; Moon, Hyun-Kyung
The hand hygiene behavior of 400 middle school students (grades 1-3) in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do was studied to determine how stages of change were affected by food safety education, focusing on hand hygiene and general food safety. Subjects were 51.3% male and 44.3% of study subjects were first graders of middle school. Approximately 40% of subjects were at the stage of action, 42.7% were at the stage of contemplation, and 16.4% were at pre-contemplation. The most important factor that influenced proper hand washing was self efficacy (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing was also correlated significantly with positive belief (P < 0.01) and stages of change (P < 0.01). After food safety education by high-school mentors, middle-school students who were in the stages of pre-contemplation (11.1%) and contemplation (88.9%) showed significant progression toward the action stage (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing (P < 0.01) and food safety knowledge (P < 0.05) were also significantly increased after educational intervention. PMID:22586507
Mondal, Arpita; Buchanan, Robert L; Lo, Y Martin
Low-moisture foods have been responsible for a number of salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide over the last few decades, with cross contamination from contaminated equipment being the most predominant source. To date, actions have been focused on stringent hygienic practices prior to production, namely periodical sanitization of the processing equipment and lines. Not only does optimum sanitization require in-depth knowledge on the type and source of contaminants, but also the heat resistance of microorganisms is unique and often dependent on the heat transfer characteristics of the low-moisture foods. Rheological properties, including viscosity, degree of turbulence, and flow characteristics (for example, Newtonian or non-Newtonian) of both liquid and semisolid foods are critical factors impacting the flow behavior that consequently interferes heat transfer and related control elements. The demand for progressively more accurate prediction of complex fluid phenomena has called for the employment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model mass and heat transfer during processing of various food products, ranging from drying to baking. With the aim of improving the quality and safety of low-moisture foods, this article critically reviewed the published literature concerning microbial survival in semisolid low-moisture foods, including chocolate, honey, and peanut butter. Critical rheological properties and state-of-the-art CFD application relevant to quality production of those products were also addressed. It is anticipated that adequate prediction of specific transport properties during optimum sanitization through CFD could be used to solve current and future food safety challenges. PMID:25224872
...2010-01-01 false Employee hygiene. 416.5 Section 416...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...SANITATION § 416.5 Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness...in contact with product, food-contact...
Vriesekoop, Frank; Russell, Cryn; Alvarez-Mayorga, Beatriz; Aidoo, Kofi; Yuan, Qipeng; Scannell, Amalia; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jiang, Xiuping; Barro, Nicolas; Otokunefor, Kome; Smith-Arnold, Cheralee; Heap, Amy; Chen, Jing; Iturriage, Montserat H; Hazeleger, Wilma; DeSlandes, Jenny; Kinley, Brandon; Wilson, Kieran; Menz, Garry
A total of 1280 banknotes were obtained from food outlets in 10 different countries (Australia, Burkina Faso, China, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States), and their bacterial content was enumerated. The presence of bacteria on banknotes was found to be influenced by the material of the notes, and there was a strong correlation between the number of bacteria per square centimeter and a series of indicators of economic prosperity of the various countries. The strongest correlation was found with the "index of economic freedom," indicating that the lower the index value, the higher the typical bacterial content on the banknotes in circulation. Other factors that appear to influence the number of bacteria on banknotes were the age of the banknotes and the material used to produce the notes (polymer-based vs. cotton-based). The banknotes were also screened for the presence of a range of pathogens. It was found that pathogens could only be isolated after enrichment and their mere presence does not appear to be alarming. In light of our international findings, it is recommended that current guidelines as they apply in most countries with regard to the concurrent hygienic handling of foods and money should be universally adopted. This includes that, in some instances, the handling of food and money have to be physically separated by employing separate individuals to carry out one task each; whereas in other instances, it could be advantageous to handle food only with a gloved hand and money with the other hand. If neither of these precautions can be effectively implemented, it is highly recommended that food service personnel practice proper hand washing procedures after handling money and before handling food. PMID:20704502
Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi
Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…
Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.
Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…
Barbara Schalch; Brigitte Sperner; Hartmut Eisgruber; Andreas Stolle
Clostridium perfringens continues to be a common cause of food-borne disease [1,2]. It produces an enterotoxin (CPE) which is released upon lysis of the vegetative cell during sporulation in the intestinal tract. Catering premises with insufficient cooling and reheating devices often seem to be the cause of outbreaks of C. perfringens food poisoning. Typing of C. perfringens is of great
Whitehead, Kathryn A; Benson, Paul; Verran, Joanna
The accurate monitoring of surface cleanliness in terms of bacterial contamination is usually carried out using methods such as plate counts or replica plating. However these methods take at least eighteen hours to obtain results and do not determine the presence or amount of residual organic material on a surface, which may interfere with cleaning and disinfection. This work describes the application of fluorescent stains to cells (Listeria monocytogenes) and food soil (solubilized whey) to optimize a dual staining method that can be used in the quantitative analysis of surface cleanability. Seven different stains were tested at a range of concentrations (0.3%-0.001 mg/ml) and application methods. The best stain combination for differential staining of L. monocytogenes and whey food soil was 0.1 mg/ml rhodamine B with 0.1 g/ml DAPI. Differential staining of the cells and soil occurred regardless of the application method. This method has been successfully used to demonstrate the hygienic status of surfaces in an industrial situation. This novel work enables quantitative assessment of soils and cells on surfaces. PMID:19654071
Sinikka Vainiotalo; Katri Matveinen
There are limited data on the emission of cooking fumes into work atmospheres although it is known that these fumes may contain irritants or other harmful substances. Field measurements were carried out at eight workplaces (two bakeries, a food factory, and five restaurant kitchens). Air samples were collected during frying\\/grilling of meat or fish or during deep-frying, at stationary sampling
Abban, Stephen; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene
The use of UV-visible radiation for detecting invisible residue on different surfaces as a means of validating cleanliness was investigated. Wavelengths at 365, 395, 435, 445, 470 and 490 nm from a monochromator were used to detect residues of beef, chicken, apple, mango and skim milk. These were on three surfaces: aluminium, fibre re-enforced plastic (FRP; Q-Liner®) and stainless steel, pre- and post a cleaning step using commercial detergent. The area covered by residues as detected by specific wavelengths was compared statistically. The sensitivity of the wavelengths for detection differed significantly (p?0.05) for various residues depending on the material surfaces. Generally, wavelengths 365-445 nm were consistently able to illuminate all residue before cleaning, though sensitivity varied, while 490 nm showed more of the surface structural features instead of residue. The 365-395 nm wavelengths were significantly more sensitive (p?0.05) for detecting beef and chicken residues on aluminium and stainless steel both before and after cleaning. The 435-445 nm wavelengths were significantly more sensitive for detecting apple and mango residues on the FRP both before and after cleaning. It is important when UV-systems are used as real-time tools for assessing cleanliness of surfaces that the surface materials being illuminated are taken into account in the choice of lamp wavelength, in addition to expected residue. This will ensure higher confidence in results during the use of UV-light for real-time hygiene validation of surfaces. PMID:25477669
Richards, J; Parr, E; Riseborough, P
The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept is a preventive approach to quality control. It is based on a logical, structured exploration of potential hazard points in a food operation and the introduction of control and monitoring measures. HACCP studies have been extensively applied to manufacturing systems. It has been difficult to extend this detailed systematic analysis to conventional catering, partly due to the wide range of foods being processed. We describe here the application of HACCP methods to a hospital department that uses conventional catering methods. Basic principles, based on the work flow and the range of products are established. The guidelines produced can be applied to any kitchen using similar catering methods. Examples of log charts used for monitoring are provided. PMID:8104986
is to collect descriptive data on restaurant hygiene policies, environments, and food worker hygiene practices practices. Data for this study will be collected through interviews with restaurant managers-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol Summary Good hand hygiene is of critical importance in preventing
Of the numerous zoonoses part of which are reportable, according to the Federal Communicable Diseases Act, the food hygienist attributes topicality at present to salmonellosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, taeniasis (T. saginata), trichinellosis, and sarcosporidiosis. In salmonellosis, combating is directed to breeding and keeping of Salmonella-free flocks, poultry offering favourable conditions for this purpose. Moreover, one tries to decontaminate feeds through certain pelleting machines with the aid of friction heat or by admixing propionic acid. In brucellosis, the possibility of infection by tourism, but also that through ingestion of imported dairy products (like soft cheese) play a certain role. Instruction of tourists and advising foreign labour from endemic areas are essential contributions to combating. Another important infection source of toxoplasmosis is infected raw pig meat. As the agent does not survive freezing temperatures under certain conditions, the decontamination procedure is particularly suitable. In pregnancy advising, the role of raw pig meat for development of congenital toxoplasmosis should be clearly explained. In trichinellosis, apart from the traditional examination by the trichinoscope, the modified digestion procedure using pepsin as a digestive fluid was successful. Moreover, it is suitable for detecting weakly infected swine. The importance of systematic examinations of all domestic and wild pigs became evident only recently in 1977, when in Bavaria an epidemic of trichinellosis occurred following the ingestion of undetected Trichinella containing wild pig meat. According to most recent knowledge on the cycle of development of sarcosporidia, the studies showed that the species Sarc. bovihominis and suihominis were pathogens for human beings. Quite apart from necessary supplementary examinations, the freezing procedure would here too, warrant an effective protection for the raw meat consuming population. PMID:113956
...2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a...and local requirements for food processing...
Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.
Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John
Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754
... to be even more dedicated to good oral hygiene. "Braces trap food very easily, which contributes to plaque formation," says ... teeth at high pressure to remove bits of food. "They can be used as an aid in your oral hygiene practice, but not in place of brushing and ...
Estrada-Garcia, T; Lopez-Saucedo, C; Zamarripa-Ayala, B; Thompson, M R; Gutierrez-Cogco, L; Mancera-Martinez, A; Escobar-Gutierrez, A
Street-vendors in Mexico City provide ready-to-eat food to a high proportion of the inhabitants. Nevertheless, their microbiological status, general hygienic and trading practices are not well known. During spring and summer 2000, five tianguis (open markets) were visited and 48 vendors in 48 stalls interviewed. A total of 103 taco dressings were sampled for E. coli and Salmonella spp.: 44 (43%) contained E. coli and 5 (5%) Salmonella (2 S. Enteritidis phage type 8, 1 S. Agona, 2 S. B group). Both E. coli and salmonellas were isolated from three samples. Of Salmonella-positive stalls 80% (4/5) had three or more food-vendors and 80% of vendors were males, compared with 37.3% (16/43) and 46.4% (20/43) in the Salmonella-negative stalls respectively. Food-vendors kept water in buckets (reusing it all day), lacked toilet facilities, and prepared taco dressings the day before which remained at the tianguis without protection for 7.8 h on average. Consumption of street-vended food by local and tourist populations poses a health risk. PMID:15635978
Jean G. Detry; Marianne Sindic; Claude Deroanne
Hygiene is a permanent concern for food industries since they must commercialize high quality products in order to comply with the legislation and the expectations of the consumers. The hygienic state of a surface is thus a critical parameter with respect to the performances of the production process and to the final quality of the product. For this reason, cleaning
Little, Christine; Sagoo, Satnam
This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to surfaces sampled. Surfaces that were visually dirty, wet, and chopping boards that were plastic or damaged also had high levels of these bacteria. Fifty-four percent of potable water samples were of poor microbiological quality; i.e. contained coliforms, E. coli and/or enterococci. A documented food safety management system was only evident in 40.1% of vendors and cleaning schedules were only used by 43.6%. Deficiencies in the correct use of cleaning materials, such as dilution factors and the minimum contact time for disinfectants, were identified. PMID:20183200
Saroj, Sunil; Shashidhar, R; Bandekar, Jayant
Gamma radiation has been widely used for hygienization of food products. Whether gamma radiation stress induces VBNC state in Salmonella is of great concern. Therefore, the study was carried out to determine whether gamma radiation exposure induces VBNC state in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). The parameters tested were culturability on agar medium, transcriptional activity by RT-PCR, cytoplasmic membrane integrity, and direct viable count using LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit. The LIVE/DEAD BacLight counts for S. typhimurium cells treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy radiation dose were 0.8 and 0.1% of the control, respectively. Plate counts for S. typhimurium cells treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy radiation dose were 0.7 and 0.05% of the control, respectively. No viable cells of S. typhimurium were detected by both plate count and LIVE/DEAD BacLight after radiation treatment with 2 kGy. No transcriptional activity was detected in cells treated with 2 kGy radiation dose. If there were VBNC cells present, then significant differences in the counts between the LIVE/DEAD BacLight microscopic counts and plate agar counts must be observed. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the counts were observed. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment with 2 kGy results in complete killing and does not induce VBNC state in S. typhimurium. PMID:19641961
Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.
The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.
D. Beighton; S. R. Brailsford; E. Lynch; H. Yuan Chen; D. T. Clark
A group of 20 students, harbouring >104 mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva, was enrolled into the study. Models for sampling, reproducibly, the dental plaque present in specific sites (fissure and smooth surface) on the dentition were developed and validated. Withdrawal of normal oral hygiene procedures for only 1 day resulted in approximately 10–fold increases in the number of micro–organisms
Both nutritional and hygienic factors contribute to the economic success of a catering operation. Customers are increasingly nutritionally health conscious and also look for cleanliness when choosing somewhere to eat. Outbreaks of food poisoning are very bad publicity. Good quality of food is important but this is not necessarily synonymous with microbiological safety. Raw materials need to be checked on receipt and there should be good communication between the purchasing and the reception staff. Correct storage prolongs quality and safety and prevents waste, which frequently becomes most apparent when the food reaches the preparation area. The cold kitchen is very vulnerable and poor quality or badly stored raw materials compound bad handling to cause a risk to the consumer and a reduced shelf life leading to wastage. Warm holding of food needs to be balanced between the requirements of microbiological safety and loss of quality from holding too long at a high temperature. The official food inspector plays an important role, not just as the enforcer of food hygiene law, but also as an impartial adviser on hygiene. Caterers and their staff need to be encouraged to see hygiene as a positive way to economic success by reducing waste and thus achieving greater productivity: it is easier for most people to become enthusiastic about profits than about microbiology. The Swedish Catering Institute has published a training package with this as its main objective. PMID:10292084
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27...Specific Program Requirements § 850.27 Hygiene facilities and practices. (a) General...regard to the use of respirators: (1) Food or beverage and tobacco products are...
................................................................................................... 18 3.10 VENTILATION, FUME HOODS, AND PROPER OPERATIONSWyss Institute Chemical Hygiene Plan CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering June 2014 #12;Wyss Institute Chemical Hygiene Plan TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 POLICY
Chemical Hygiene Plan ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY #12;University Of Delaware Chemical Hygiene/23/2008) 11 Physical Hazards/Special Precautions 12 Health Hazards/Special Precautions (Updated 4/23/2008) 13 Special Precautions for Working with Compressed Gasses 29 Shipping Research Samples, Products
Clayton, Deborah A; Griffith, Christopher J
The main aim of this study was to determine the factors which influence caterers' hand hygiene practices using social cognitive theory. One hundred and fifteen food handlers from 29 catering businesses were observed carrying out 31,050 food preparation actions in their workplace. Caterers subsequently completed the Hand Hygiene Instrument (HHI), which ascertained attitudes towards hand hygiene using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Health Belief Model. The TPB provided a useful framework for understanding caterers' implementation of hand hygiene practices, explaining 34% of the variance in hand hygiene malpractices (p < 0.05). Five components were identified as significant predictors of hand hygiene malpractices: attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms, perceived behavioural control and intention (p < 0.05). Thus, suggesting that hand hygiene practices cannot be improved solely through the provision of information to individuals. Effective interventions may need to focus on changing the organisational food safety culture. PMID:18365799
O'Mahony, Donal E.
1 FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food Home made hot food may not be served at events conditions must be adhered to: · The caterer must have HSE Food Hygiene Certification, which is to be approved by the College Catering Manager two weeks in advance of any event. · The provider of the food
Cunningham, Annette E; Rajagopal, Raj; Lauer, Jim; Allwood, Paul
Clean food contact surfaces are important in reducing the likelihood of foodborne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to assess and compare baseline cleanliness of food contact and environmental surfaces in retail food establishments by using ATP bioluminescence (ATP-B), visual assessment, and surface contact plates. Four hundred eighty-nine surface samples were collected from three food service establishments at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (Minneapolis) and analyzed for either ATP (252) or total aerobic plate count bacteria (237). ATP levels ranged from a minimum of 4 relative light units (RLU; 0.60 log RLU) on a clean slicer to a maximum of 506,618 RLU (5.77 log RLU) on a dirty cutting board. The overall mean was 1,950 RLU (3.29 log RLU). Cutting boards had the highest ATP levels (mean, 5,495 RLU or 3.74 log RLU; median, 6,761 RLU or 3.83 log RLU). Of the 128 samples judged visually clean at the time of sampling, 70.3 % failed ATP-B testing. Sixty-one (26 % ) of the 237 total aerobic plate count samples yielded counts of over 125 CFU/50 cm(2) (failed), and of those that failed, 40 % were assessed as visually clean before sampling. The highest average counts in CFU/50 cm(2) were found on slicers (104) and cutting boards (87). The results of this study suggest that the current practice of evaluating food contact surface cleanliness by sight and touch to meet regulatory requirements might be inadequate. ATP-B testing may be an efficient tool to facilitate creation, implementation, and validation of more effective food contact surface cleaning in food establishments. PMID:21477489
... Home Share Compartir Hygiene Fast Facts Information on Water-related Hygiene Handwashing It is estimated that washing hands with soap and water could reduce diarrheal disease-associated deaths by up ...
Bristol, University of
of oral disease. Specialising in the treatment and monitoring of periodontal (gum) health, they are responsible for developing patients' oral hygiene practices. Undertaking detailed clinical procedures that patients are educated and motivated to maintain their periodontal and oral health. Dental hygienists
Stedman-Smith, Maggie; DuBois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott
Community hand hygiene interventions have reduced the spread of infectious disease in elementary schools, daycare centers, and private homes. Despite this success, and the potential for reducing workplace absenteeism and presenteeism, few peer-reviewed hand hygiene intervention studies among workers have been published. This research used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to guide the development of a model to understand and predict motivations for performing hand hygiene, and to examine related illness, absenteeism, and presenteeism among employees from 39 bank branches in Ohio. Although the TPB has been used extensively to elucidate hand hygiene practices among employees in the health care and food industries, little is known about the ability of the TPB to predict hand hygiene practices among workers in public settings. These survey findings indicate a need for hand hygiene improvement, and support the use of attitudinal beliefs and social norms to guide multimodal approaches for workplace hand hygiene interventions. PMID:23092176
Mouchtouri, Varavara; Malissiova, Eleni; Zisis, Panagiotis; Paparizou, Evina; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
The level of hygiene on ferries can have impact on travellers' health. The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene standards of ferries in Greece and to investigate whether Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation contributes to the hygiene status and particularly food safety aboard passenger ships. Hygiene inspections on 17 ferries in Greece were performed using a standardized inspection form, with a 135-point scale. Thirty-four water and 17 food samples were collected and analysed. About 65% (11/17) of ferries were scored with >100 points. Ferries with HACCP received higher scores during inspection compared to those without HACCP (p value <0.001). All 34 microbiological water test results were found negative and, from the 17 food samples, only one was found positive for Salmonella spp. Implementation of management systems including HACCP principles can help to raise the level of hygiene aboard passenger ships. PMID:22852776
Mayor, Antoinette C.
The Chemical Management Team is responsible for ensuring compliance with the OSHA Laboratory Standard. The program at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) evolved over many years to include training, developing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPS) for each laboratory process, coordinating with other safety and health organizations and teams at the Center, and issuing an SOP binder. The Chemical Hygiene Policy was first established for the Center. The Chemical Hygiene Plan was established and reviewed by technical, laboratory and management for viability and applicability to the Center. A risk assessment was conducted for each laboratory. The laboratories were prioritized by order of risk, higher risk taking priority. A Chemical Management Team staff member interviewed the lead researcher for each laboratory process to gather the information needed to develop the SOP for the process. A binder containing the Chemical Hygiene Plan, the SOP, a map of the laboratory identifying the personal protective equipment and best egress, and glove guides, as well as other guides for safety and health. Each laboratory process has been captured in the form of an SOP. The chemicals used in the procedure have been identified and the information is used to reduce the number of chemicals in the lab. The Chemical Hygiene Plan binder is used as a training tool for new employees. LeRC is in compliance with the OSHA Standard. The program was designed to comply with the OSHA standard. In the process, we have been able to assess the usage of chemicals in the laboratories, as well as reduce or relocate the chemicals being stored in the laboratory. Our researchers are trained on the hazards of the materials they work with and have a better understanding of the hazards of the process and what is needed to prevent any incident. From the SOP process, we have been able to reduce our chemical inventory, determine and implement better hygiene procedures and equipment in the laboratories, and provide specific training to our employees. As a result of this program, we are adding labeling to the laboratories for emergency responders and initiating a certified chemical user program.
...effectiveness of recalls; for notifying the Food and Drug Administration of any recalls...Commissioner for giving instruction in food-handling techniques, food protection principles, personal hygiene, plant sanitation practices, pH...
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551...MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make...articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene. [46 FR 59509, Dec....
The hygiene hypothesis offers an explanation for the correlation, well-established in the industrialized nations of North and West, between increased hygiene and sanitation, and increased rates of asthma and allergies. Recent studies have added to the scope of the hypothesis, showing a link between decreased exposure to certain bacteria and parasitic worms, and increased rates of depression and intestinal auto-immune
Bandettini, Peter A.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Chemical Hygiene Plan Division of Occupational Health ................................................................................................... 9 Precautions Required for Working with Particularly Hazardous Substances..................... 11 Chemical Hygiene Plan Evaluation and Record Keeping
... on people, but when allowed to grow in food this bacteria can produce a toxin that causes illness such as vomiting and diarrhea. Proper hygiene and handwashing can prevent this bacteria from entering ...
The public is confused by apparently conflicting messages about the need for hygiene to prevent food poisoning and other infectious intestinal disease (IID) and the hypothesis that the increase in atopic disease may be linked to lack of exposure to microbes in early childhood. The consensus of hygiene experts is that the public needs to understand what constitutes effective hygiene and how to target key household areas. Handwashing is particularly important, as are cleanliness and disinfection of food preparation surfaces. The issues are discussed and practical tips are given to pass on to families. PMID:12415774
Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...
Seward, Robert (Skip) A.
Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.
The investigation presented here is part of a series of studies on oral hygiene that deal with a very common problem occurring in everyday practice. Two different methods of mouth cleaning were tested in a comparative study on 150 subjects. At least in German-speaking countries, our methodology was groundbreaking in that measuring tools for evaluation of the oral hygiene measures implemented had not been available thus far. The results of this study clearly showed that the typical method of oral hygiene (gauze wrapped around a wooden spatula and toothbrush) produces much poorer cleaning results than the method using tongue cleaners. Surprisingly, we also observed that the eating habits of the participants "treated" with tongue cleaners improved markedly. Thus, we were able to conclusively demonstrate a connection between oral hygiene and nutritional deficiency. PMID:15137672
Minnaert, Ana Clįudia de Sį Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares
The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices. PMID:20640322
Widmer, A F
Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175
Marion Koopmans; Carl-Henrik von Bonsdorff; Jan Vinjé; Dario de Medici; Steve Monroe
Foodborne and waterborne viral infections are increasingly recognized as causes of illness in humans. This increase is partly explained by changes in food processing and consumption patterns that lead to the worldwide availability of high-risk food. As a result, vast outbreaks may occur due to contamination of food by a single foodhandler or at a single source. Although there are
Bjarke B. Christensen; Hanne Rosenquist; Helle M. Sommer; Niels L. Nielsen; Sisse Fagt; Niels L. Andersen; Birgit Nųrrung
A mathematical model is presented, which addresses individual hygiene practices during food preparation and consumption patterns in private homes. Further, the model links food preparers and consumers based on their relationship to household types. For different age and gender groups, the model estimates (i) the probability of ingesting a meal where precautions have not been taken to avoid the transfer
Lydia C. Medeiros; Virginia N. Hillers; Patricia A. Kendall; April Mason
Food safety education is most effective when messages are targeted toward changing behaviors most likely to result in foodborne illness. The five major control factors for pathogens are personal hygiene, adequate cooking, avoiding cross-contamination, keeping food at safe temperatures, and avoiding foods from unsafe sources. Pathogens associated with poor personal hygiene have the highest incidence and costs. Inadequate cooking and
Deborah A. Clayton; Christopher J. Griffith; Patricia Price; Adrian C. Peters
Despite an increase in the number of food handlers receiving food hygiene training, a high proportion of food poisoning outbreaks still occur as a result of poor food handling practices. This paper uses elements of social cognitive theory to examine the beliefs of food handlers towards food safety and to determine food handlers' self-reported practices. Questionnaires were completed by 137
.10 VENTILATION, FUME HOODS, AND PROPER OPERATIONS .....................20 3.11 HOUSEKEEPINGCHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN THE WYSS INSTITUTE FOR BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED ENGINEERING Prepared By.1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE OFFICER ......................................................................2 2
Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia
We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections. PMID:24709731
Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Sundseth, Antje; Altmann, Marianne
Hand hygiene is effective in preventing health care-associated infections, but hand hygiene compliance is low among health care workers in different hospital settings. Less is known about hand hygiene among physicians in a nonhospital setting. We evaluated handwashing behavior among 200 neurologists (100 males and 100 females) attending a world congress. Overall, 74.0% performed proper hand hygiene using soap and water, and there were significant differences between sex and handwashing behavior. PMID:24485383
The high rate of hand problems associated with the hand hygiene of medical professions is due to a combination of damaging factors: (1) the removal of barrier lipids by detergent cleaning and alchohol antisepsis followed by a loss of moisturizers and stratum corneum water and (2) the overhydration of the stratum corneum by sweat trapped within gloves. Together the facilitate
This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…
Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School with input from employees--both workplace literacy students and nonstudents--this guide contains activities for teaching health and hygiene on the job. Flowing from a perspective of respecting cultural diversity and guided by a common thread of good work practices, the activities…
Harrington, Linda; Lesh, Kim; Doell, Lynda; Ward, Sandra K
Hand hygiene is undoubtedly the most important strategy in combating the increasing incidence and debilitating effects of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare. Research on effective approaches for increasing compliance with hand hygiene is imperative, but the first step is to identify how to reliably and validly measure hand hygiene. This article examines publications between the years 1990 and 2006 that address measures of hand hygiene. The findings indicate that further research is needed to identify reliable and valid measures of hand hygiene. PMID:17849676
Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514
Ricki M Helm; A Wesley Burks
The prevalence of food allergy continues to rise, particularly in ‘westernized’ societies; it has been linked to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ and the increased diversity of food consumption worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms and Th1\\/Th2 paradigm are being closely examined with respect to the occurrence of inflammatory and injury\\/repair responses at different mucosal sites. Genetically modified plants as potential food sources and
Sergeev, E P; Nedomerkov, Iu N; Shterengarts, R Ia; Noarov, Iu A
Research in the sphere of railway hygiene helped develop sanitary regulations for railway stations, centers for preparation of passenger cars for exploitation, train restaurants, etc. The authors demonstrate the advances in prophylactic disinfection of stations and cars, in assessment of the hygienic hazards of polymeric materials used in car making and of the microclimate in the cars, etc. Trends for investigation in railway transport hygiene are outlined. PMID:7590382
Fadner, Dawn E.
The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) is a society of professionals dedicated to the health and safety of workers and community. With more than 10,000 members, the AIHA is the largest international association serving occupational and environmental health professionals practicing industrial hygiene in private industry, academia, government, labor, and independent organizations. In 1973, AIHA developed a National Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Accreditation Program. The purposes of this program are shown.
Elaine Larson; Raphaelle Girard; Carmem Lucia Pessoa-Silva; John Boyce; Liam Donaldson; Didier Pittet
Methods: This paper summarizes one component of the global WHO guidelines related to the impact of hand hygiene on the skin of health care personnel, including a discussion of types of skin reactions associated with hand hygiene, methods to reduce adverse reactions, and factors to consider when selecting hand hygiene products. Results: Health care professionals have a higher prevalence of
Plante-Jenkins, Cynthia; Belu, Florentina
Hand hygiene is one of the most important measures to prevent the transmission of infections. The infection prevention and control team at Trillium Health Centre has developed an interactive visual portrayal of the efficacy of alcohol-based hand rub use. Staff participate by having fingertip bacteria colony counts determined prior to and after hand sanitizing. During the process, infection control practitioners are able to provide one-on-one coaching on proper hand sanitizing. Seeing is believing. The visible and often dramatic decreases in the fingertip bacterial colony counts after using the hand rub help convey effectiveness. Staff find this cost-effective educational exercise fun, engaging and convincing. PMID:19667787
Paul Morrison; Nola Caffin; Robert Wallace
The increasing incidence of food-borne diseases emphasises the importance of improving and maintaining a high standard of food safety in food service establishments. Currently, a proposal to develop an Australian national food hygiene standard based on the HACCP principles, is being discussed by major stakeholders with a view to improving the standard of food safety. This article reports on the
Davidson, C A; Griffith, C J; Peters, A C; Fielding, L M
The minimum bacterial detection limits and operator reproducibility of the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test and traditional hygiene swabbing were determined. Areas (100 cm2) of food grade stainless steel were separately inoculated with known levels of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Surfaces were sampled either immediately after inoculation while still wet, or after 60 min when completely dry. For both organisms the minimum detection limit of the ATP Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test was 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 (p < 0.05) and was the same for wet and dry surfaces. Both organism type and surface status (i.e. wet or dry) influenced the minimum detection limits of hygiene swabbing, which ranged from 10(2) cfu/100 cm2 to >10(7) cfu/100 cm2. Hygiene swabbing percentage recovery rates for both organisms were less than 0.1% for dried surfaces but ranged from 0.33% to 8.8% for wet surfaces. When assessed by six technically qualified operators, the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test gave superior reproducibility for both clean and inoculated surfaces, giving mean coefficients of variation of 24% and 32%, respectively. Hygiene swabbing of inoculated surfaces gave a mean CV of 130%. The results are discussed in the context of hygiene monitoring within the food industry. PMID:10398558
Oliver, Douglas L.
of Medicine #12;SAFETY INFORMATION EMPLOYEE HANDOUT EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE (Fire, Police, Accident, Spill, Medical) Campus Locations Dial "7777" Off Campus Dial "911" Other Health and Safety Numbers Research. INTRODUCTION 1.1 The OSHA Laboratory Standard 1.2 Role of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) 1.3 Chemical Hygiene
will be treated as a re-care. Dental Hygiene Services Include: a. Medical history and blood pressure b. OralOLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY DENTAL HYGIENE CARE FACILITY CLINIC FEES Service 2010-2011 Fees 1. Dental cancer examination, dental and periodontal charting, periodontal assessment. c. Oral Health Education d
Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...
Kim, Duck O.
CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN AND HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals Plan (CHP) 1.3 Chemical Hygiene Plan Coverage and Availability 1.4 Changes in MSDS Chemical Hazards.2.3 Procedures for Reactive Chemicals 5.2.4 Procedures for Corrosive Chemicals and Contact-Hazard Chemicals 5
Aycicek, Hasan; Oguz, Utku; Karci, Koray
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and traditional microbiological swabbing culture methods were used for detection of surface hygiene on worktops, cutting boards and equipments at a hospital kitchen. A total of 280 surface samples were collected from the kitchen. The agreement between the two methods (coefficient of Kappa) was statistically significant (corrected chi(2)=30.886; kappa=0.249; p<0.001). Consequently, the ATP monitoring method provides results rapidly with improved benefits in the control of surface contamination and application of corrective action against poor hygiene. However, it is not a substitute for culturing methods, the combination of both methods was emphasized for surface hygiene monitoring. Besides, the results indicate that, for food safety and public health, the hygienic status of the surfaces in the kitchen should be improved and food handlers should be trained well on hygiene. PMID:16503304
Reed, Christopher A.
UCR Chemical Hygiene Plan, ver 2012.09.10 page 1 of 55 UCR Chemistry Department Chemical Hygiene Plan UCR CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN..................................................................................................................... 4 Responsibilities of Vice Chancellors, Deans, and Executive Officers
Christensen, Bjarke B; Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle M; Nielsen, Niels L; Fagt, Sisse; Andersen, Niels L; Nųrrung, Birgit
A mathematical model is presented, which addresses individual hygiene practices during food preparation and consumption patterns in private homes. Further, the model links food preparers and consumers based on their relationship to household types. For different age and gender groups, the model estimates (i) the probability of ingesting a meal where precautions have not been taken to avoid the transfer of microorganisms from raw food to final meal (a risk meal), exemplified by the event that the cutting board was not washed during food preparation, and (ii) the probability of ingesting a risk meal in a private home, where chicken was the prepared food item (a chicken risk meal). Chicken was included in the model, as chickens are believed to be the major source of human exposure to the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the probability of ingesting a risk meal was highest for young males (aged 18-29 years) and lowest for the elderly above 60 years of age. Children aged 0-4 years had a higher probability of ingesting a risk meal than children aged 5-17 years. This difference between age and gender groups was ascribed to the variations in the hygiene levels of food preparers. By including the probability of ingesting a chicken meal at home, simulations revealed that all age groups, except the group above 60 years of age, had approximately the same probability of ingesting a chicken risk meal, the probability of females being slightly higher than that of males. The simulated results show that the probability of ingesting a chicken risk meal at home does not only depend on the hygiene practices of the persons preparing the food, but also on the consumption patterns of consumers, and the relationship between people preparing and ingesting food. This finding supports the need of including information on consumer behavior and preparation hygiene in the consumer phase of exposure assessments. PMID:15787756
The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.
This article explores how the Meiji medical authorities applied Western medicine-derived hygienic ideas and plans to build up imperial Japan. Although several medical historians have recently begun to investigate the important role that Western medicine played Japan's modern nation-building, there has been little historical analysis of how hygiene administration influenced military hygiene in this process. While some prominent historians of modern Japan have discussed the impact of Dutch medicine on the rise of Western learning during the Tokugawa era (1603-1868) or have placed it within the context of Japan's colonial expansion into Taiwan or China, they have not analyzed the process by which hygiene administration contributed to the development of military hygiene in the making of imperial Japan. In this paper, I will investigate why and how Japan's medical leaders adopted German medicine and the British hygiene administration system, and pursued their application to Meiji Japan's military forces. PMID:19244739
Kokosza, D; Pie?kowska, K
In 1987 the hygienic condition was analysed of 28 workers' canteens in the Province of Ciechanów considering also the quality of lunches or the se called regenerative-fortifying meals. The inspection showed that the hygienic condition of 14 canteens (40%) was unsatisfactory. The microbiological cleanliness of the equipment was questioned most frequently in these canteens in which the hygienic condition was below standard. In 28 canteens controlled the nutrition was incorrect in view of deviations from the accepted standard content of protein, fats and carbohydrates as well as energy. The food rations expressed in 12 groups of products in 21 canteens differed from the recommended values for partial nutrition. It was found also that the occupational qualifications and the level of knowledge on rational nutrition of the staff and personnel in the canteens were unsatisfactory. PMID:2267554
Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J
Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (p<.01). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 2/42 samples, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 4/42 samples. A short-term public health campaign targeting veterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals. PMID:24981423
Kim, Duck O.
, Police, Accident, Spill, Medical) Campus Locations Dial "7777" Off Campus Dial "911" Other Health PLAN (CHP) (5/2013) 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 The OSHA Laboratory Standard 1.2 Role of the Chemical Hygiene
Kim, Duck O.
, Police, Accident, Spill, Medical) Campus Locations Dial "7777" Off Campus Dial "911" Other Health (CHP) (3/2012) 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 The OSHA Laboratory Standard 1.2 Role of the Chemical Hygiene Plan
People who are staying in temporary shelters and evacuation centers may be at risk for diseases that spread in crowded conditions. Maintaining personal hygiene is one way to protect yourself. Keeping the facility clean is also very important....
New Hampshire, University of
HEALTHCARESCIENCES Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene, Health permanent physical disabilities. Clinical Practice: Acute care Neuro-rehab Out-patient Management Education? PHYSICALTHERAPY Physical therapy involves treatment through physical means for people disabled by illness
Volker Heinz; Roman Buckow
\\u000a Abstract Novel non-thermal food processing technologies aim to provide safe, high quality foods with desirable nutritional, physico-chemical\\u000a and sensorical properties. More recently with the use of minimal processing treatment concepts have been added to the already\\u000a existing food processing requirements. Some of them might be beneficial for the improvement of hygiene and the extension of\\u000a shelf life. This presentation will focus
Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah
Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.
Rook, Graham A W
Throughout the twentieth century, there were striking increases in the incidences of many chronic inflammatory disorders in the rich developed countries. These included autoimmune disorders such as Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Although genetics and specific triggering mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and viruses are likely to be involved, the increases have been so rapid that any explanation that omits environmental change is incomplete. This chapter suggests that a series of environmental factors, most of them microbial, have led to a decrease in the efficiency of our immunoregulatory mechanisms because we are in a state of evolved dependence on organisms with which we co-evolved (and that had to be tolerated) as inducers of immunoregulatory circuits. These organisms ("Old Friends") are depleted from the modern urban environment. Rather than considering fetal programming by maternal microbial exposures, neonatal programming, the hygiene hypothesis, gut microbiota, and diet as separate and competing hypotheses, I attempt here to integrate these ideas under a single umbrella concept that can provide the missing immunoregulatory environmental factor that is needed to explain the recent increases in autoimmune disease. PMID:22090147
Engeswick, Lynnette Marie
This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…
de Lijser, Peter
that fume hoods and other protective equipment are functioning properly D. Provisions for laboratory workerChemical Hygiene Plan I. Policy The purpose of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) is to outline community are protected from health hazards associated with chemicals with which they work. II. Authority
Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…
The Chemical Hygiene Officer's (CHO) role is absolutely critical in fostering and ensuring both chemical hygiene practices and the chemical hygiene plan. OSHA defines the Chemical Hygiene Officer as an “employee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.” The CHO position is also essential in helping to facilitate the safeguards put in place as part of the chemical hygiene plan to protect both the teacher and students.
Sattar, Syed A; Springthorpe, V Susan; Tetro, Jason; Vashon, Robert; Keswick, Bruce
Enteric and respiratory viruses are among the most frequent causes of human infections, and hands play an important role in the spread of these and many other viral diseases. Regular and proper hand hygiene by caregivers and food handlers in particular is essential to decontaminate hands and potentially interrupt such spread. What would be considered a proper decontamination of hands? Handwashing with regular soap and water is often considered sufficient, but what of hygienic handwash and handrub antiseptic products? Are they more effective? The evidence suggests that some clearly are. Activity against bacteria may not reflect the ability of hygienic hand antiseptics to deal with viruses, especially those that are nonenveloped. In spite of the acknowledged importance of hands as vehicles for viruses, there is a lack of suitable regulatory mechanism for handwash or handrub products to make claims of efficacy against viruses. This is in contrast with the ability of general-purpose disinfectants to make antiviral claims, although transmission of viruses from surfaces other than those of reusable medical devices may play only a minor role in virus transmission. This review discusses the (1). recent information on the relative importance of viruses as human pathogens, particularly those causing enteric and respiratory infections; (2). the survival of relevant viruses on human hands in comparison with common gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria; (3). the potential of hands to transfer or receive such contamination on casual contact; (4). role of hands in the spread of viruses; (5). the potential of hygienic measures to eliminate viruses from contaminated hands; (6). relative merits of available protocols to assess the activity of hygienic hand antiseptics against viruses; and (7). factors considered crucial in any tests to assess the activity of hygienic hand antiseptics against viruses. In addition, this review proposes surrogate viruses in such testing and discusses issues for additional consideration by researchers, manufacturers, end-users, and regulators. PMID:12360145
Musrati, Ahmed Ali
I have read with interest the article ''Understanding Muslim patients: cross-sectional dental hygiene care'' by ML Sirois et al. In the time that I see their article as a faithful, unbiased image showing a Muslim's religious life and conduct from the oral and systemic health perspective, I still have two main concerns about certain facts which were denoted with imprecise connotations. These are related to food and Ramadan fasting. PMID:25399787
Pooja Arora; Annu Sindhu; Neeraj Dilbaghi; Ashok Chaudhury
The wholesomeness of food is the real proviso for healthy life. Food freed from microbial and chemical cross-contaminations adds on to its hygienic and nutritive value. Infectious diseases spreading every day through food have become a life-threatening problem for millions of people around the world. Food or food products are the potent transmitting agent of more than 250 known diseases.
This self-assessment instrument for day care center staff is designed to help caregivers provide safe food to children. The nine sections of the instrument, presented in checklist format, concern: (1) personal hygiene; (2) purchasing, receiving, and inspecting of food; (3) food storage; (4) food service equipment; (5) food preparation; (6) infant…
This self-assessment instrument for family day care providers is designed to help caregivers provide safe food to children. The eight sections of the instrument, presented in checklist format, concern: (1) personal hygiene; (2) purchasing and inspecting of food; (3) food storage; (4) kitchen equipment; (5) food preparation; (6) infant food…
? After having contact with an animal or animal waste Step Two: Practicing good personal hygiene ? Don?t share personal items, such as hair brushes, combs, razors, toothbrushes or towels with anyone. ? Don?t share drinks or eating utensils. ? Use...). To sanitize, use 1 teaspoon of household bleach in 1 quart of clean water. Any cleaning product with a label stating that it is a sanitizer will also work. Health and Hygiene in Evacuation Centers ? Clean all surfaces in the living area with a household...
Diseases in farm raised nutria (Myocastor coypus) often depend on hygienic fatalities in the different housing systems of the farms. The principle ways of accomodation for nutria are briefly described with reference to the specific hygienic problems. PMID:4024068
to the following: · Close chemical fume hood sashes. No work is allowed in fume hoods during a power outageChemical Hygiene Planh · UNIVERSITY OF AlASKA · · FAIRBANKS INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................3 C Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO
Hygiene Officer C. Laboratory Workers VIII. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS A. Working with Allergens and EmbryotoxinsSafety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Section 0030 Table of Contents Attention B. Cost C. Supervision VII. CHEMICAL HYGIENE RESPONSIBILITIES A. Department Head B. Chemical
Defines "mental hygiene" as approaches to preventive psychiatry through the development of habits of self-care. States that role-playing is an important tool in the development of mental hygiene. Concludes that role-playing is helpful in the development of metacognitive skills, and enhances mental hygiene in the process. (PA)
Pilot Overmyer, using beverage container and drinking straw secured in meal tray assembly (ASSY), experiments with microgravity chararcteristics of liquid on middeck in front of forward lockers. Overmyer also looks over packages of food attached to middeck lockers in meal tray assemblies. Carry-on food warmer appears overhead and other meal tray assemblies, personal hygiene mirror assy, personal hygiene kit, and portrait of G.W.S. Abbey, JSC's Director of Flight Operations, appear on lockers.
Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G
Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Over the study period, 24 new cases of elevated SCC were detected. No associations existed for the risk of experiencing an elevated SCC with alley scraping frequency or cow behavior patterns. However, increased odds of occurrence of elevated SCC were noted for cows of lower milk yield as well as for multiparous cows. In summary, these results show that cow hygiene is affected by the standing and lying behavior of cows and by the cleanliness of the cow's environment. These findings emphasize the need for cows to be provided clean standing and lying environments. The results also show that frequent cleaning of barn alley floors will help improve cow hygiene. PMID:22884345
North Seattle Community Coll., WA.
The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…
Ferrara, Katherine W.
protection available and worn in the laboratory? Laboratory Equipment: Y N N/A 20. Have chemical fume hoods the fume hood draw air (test with a tissue on hood edge) and is a flow indicator installed and working? 23Laboratory Safety Survey Chemical Hygiene Plan OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY UNIVERSITY
? After having contact with an animal or animal waste Step Two: Practicing good personal hygiene ? Don?t share personal items, such as hair brushes, combs, razors, toothbrushes or towels with anyone. ? Don?t share drinks or eating utensils. ? Use...
and Responsibilities 11 General Classes of Hazards Chemicals 13 Flammable and Combustible Chemicals 14 CorrosiveUNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY FACILITIES;5 CHEMICAL SPILL Name Office Cell Home Rick Williams 575-4079 879-2161 721-2472 Wayne Brashear 575-4419 263
Joliet Junior Coll., IL.
A project revised the existing Occupational Safety Program at Joliet Junior College (JJC) to indicate an AAS degree option in Industrial Hygiene Technology (IHT). Its objectives were to (1) utilize, where possible, existing courses within the college's curricula; (2) align the structure of the proposed curriculum with accreditation/certification…
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.
This program guide is intended for the implementation of a dental hygiene program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, describes jobs under the program, and includes a curriculum framework and student performance standards for dental hygienist…
American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.
A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…
Carsten Flohr; Lindsey Yeo
Background: We published a systematic review on atopic dermatitis (AD) and the hygiene hypothesis in 2005. Since then, the body of literature has grown significantly. Objectives: We therefore repeated our systematic review to examine the evidence from population-based studies for an association between AD risk and specific infections, childhood immunizations, the use of antibiotics and environmental exposures that lead to
Doko, Sanni Y; Degla, Pamphile; Edoun, Gilbert O; Bosma, Roel H
Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonké sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested hygienic measures and medication in improved housing. The effect of the two treatments and their combination on lamb performance and the internal rate of return (IRR) were compared to a control. For each treatment, survival and growth were observed in 20 lambs, living in 38 herds. Good housing and hygiene (daily cleaning and fortnightly disinfection of stable and water and feed troughs) reduced mortality and increased growth of suckling lambs until 3 months. Good housing plus medication (unique injection of vitamins and amino acids and with ivermectine for deworming, weekly tick treatment by spraying, and in case of diarrhea, antibiotic treatment) reduced mortality, but growth was not higher than the control. Accounting labor opportunity, the IRR was about equal for both, but capital investment was lower for the hygiene treatment which is thus more accessible to poor farmers. The combination of both treatments increased growth and benefits compared with the hygiene treatment, but decreased the IRR. PMID:22644730
C. Ganesh Kumar; S. K Anand
Biofilms have been of considerable interest in the context of food hygiene. Of special significance is the ability of microorganisms to attach and grow on food and food-contact surfaces under favourable conditions. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process and different mechanisms are involved in their attachment and growth. Extracellular polymeric substances play an important role in the attachment and colonization
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the utility of a food hygiene management system training workshop and guidance pack to help small fast food businesses comply with new legal requirements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A pre-course questionnaire was used to determine knowledge and attitudes towards food safety management systems. Levels of compliance with best practice on operating
Most food-borne diseases are caused by microorganisms that initially contaminate the living plant or animal or recontaminate the food during handling or processing. Control measures are intended to (1) prevent microorganisms from contaminating food and involve all hygienic production measures (raw material, premises, equipment, cleaning and disinfection, personnel); (2) prevent microorganisms both from growing or forming toxins, e.g. through chilling,
Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan
The purpose of this review is to examine studies that have assessed the association between hand hygiene enhancement and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates and to explore controversies surrounding this association. Many studies have been published confirming the link between improved hand hygiene compliance and reduction in MRSA acquisition and infections, including bacteremia. These studies have also shown the cost-beneficial nature of these programmes. Despite considerable research some issues remain unanswered still, including the temporal relationship between hand hygiene enhancement strategies and decrease in MRSA rates, association between hand hygiene enhancement and MRSA-related surgical site infections, diminishing effect of hand hygiene compliance on MRSA rates after reaching a threshold and the role of instituting contact precautions in the setting of low MRSA rates and sufficient hand hygiene compliance. In conclusion, enhancement of hand hygiene compliance has been shown to reduce MRSA rates; however, some open issues warrant further investigation. PMID:25937922
What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...
This fascinating collection of social hygiene posters (designed to inculcate certain social practices regarding hygiene, friendship, prostitution, and mental health) is culled from the fine holdings of the Social Welfare History Archives at the University of Minnesota Libraries. Interestingly enough, the Archives were established in 1964 by the historian Clarke Chambers, who in his own work on voluntary associations discovered that most manuscript repositories had collected very few social welfare records. Visitors will appreciate the online search engine which features options such as a time period search, a keyword search, and the opportunity to search by the subject or theme of each poster. Each record contains an image of the original poster, information about the poster's provenance, its creation date, and the organization responsible for creating the poster. For those interested in the social history of the United States during this period, this small collection will be quite appealing.
Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904
Kudriashov, I N; Fedoruk, A A
Hygienic evaluation covered work conditions of main occupations in ferroalloys production on a plant in Ural regions. The occupations are: ferroalloy furnace operator, ferroalloy furnace worker and crane operator. The findings proved that the workers are exposed to a complex of occupational hazards among which dust and unfavorable microclimate play major role. At the enterprise, occupational dust disease cases (silicosis from exposure to silicon-containing dust) are registered, with average development duration of 28.7 +/- 6.2 years. PMID:25282808
Ettinger, H.J. (ed.)
Studies relating to the performance of respiratory protective equipment have (1) developed new automated fit test methods, (2) determined the performance of respirators under temperature and humidity extremes, (3) assisted in evaluating the performance characteristics of a new military mask being developed, (4) evaluated alternate nondestructive respirator fit test methods, and (5) examined the performance of sorbents. Investigations of the use of personal protective clothing (PPC) have identified potential alternate field test methods and evaluated a potential simple screening test to be used as a PPC selection guide. Aerosol research has (1) evaluated instrumentation characteristics relative to respirator fit testing, (2) developed special aerosols for inhalation toxicology studies involving fibers and highly toxic chemical agents, and (3) defined the relative efficiency of alternate field-sampling cassette designs used for industrial hygiene personal sampling. Air-cleaning studies have resulted in the development of new filter test methods for respirator and space filters and evaluated the feasibility of a filtration system using liquid barriers. Applied industrial hygiene studies have evaluated the health hazards at a coal gasification facility, investigated the testing and use of chemical fume hoods, helped evaluate special DOE industrial hygiene concerns, and examined uranium solubility.
Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use. PMID:7328384
Collier, Stephen Ward
May 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene ANALYSIS OF CURRICULAR UNITS OF A GRADUATE INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM A Thesis by STEPHEN WARD COLLIER Approved as to style and content by: J. Vernon (Chairman of Committee) C. L. Gilmore (member... J. Vernon In order to examine the nature of curricular units and methods of instruction used in graduate level industrial hygiene programs, 20 previously validated task/activities were selected anc 20 corresponding enabling objectrves were...
White, L W
Two previous articles describing a behavioristic approach to oral hygiene for orthodontic patients have been presented by the author. The present article evaluates a key feature of the latter study which used an aversive conditioner for patients who came to the office with loose bands and displayed poor oral hygiene. The aversive conditioner was effective in reducing poor oral hygiene during office visits but had no effect in reducing the incidence of loose bands. The timing of aversive stimulus is probably responsible for success with the oral hygiene training and also for the failure to reduce the number of loose bands. PMID:6929163
Minichbauer, Brittany C; Sheats, Rose D; Wilder, Rebecca S; Phillips, Ceib L; Essick, Gregory K
According to the National Research Council, 70 million Americans chronically suffer from approximately 60 medically recognized sleep disorders. With most clinicians unaware of these disorders, many individuals remain undiagnosed. To effectively address this issue, health care professionals must work collaboratively to educate, identify, and treat patients with sleep disorders. However, medical and dental clinicians do not receive adequate education in sleep medicine. On the frontline regarding prevention and counseling, dental hygienists play an important role in patient education, screening, and management of sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the amount of sleep medicine content in U.S. dental hygiene programs. An electronic survey was emailed to all 334 accredited U.S. dental hygiene programs. The 18-question survey assessed the sleep medicine content presented during the 2012-13 academic year. A total of 35.3% (n=118) of the programs responded. The mean number of hours devoted to sleep medicine in their curricula was 1.55 hours (SD=1.37). Although 69% (n=79) of the responding programs reported spending time on sleep bruxism (mean=1.38 hours, SD=0.85), only 28% (n=32) reported spending time on other topics such as snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (mean=1.39 hours, SD=0.72). These results suggest that sleep medicine is included in the majority of U.S. dental hygiene programs, but the content is limited and focused on sleep bruxism. This level of training is inadequate to prepare dental hygienists for their potential role in patient education, screening, and management of sleep-related breathing disorders. PMID:25941141
Tefera, Tamirat; Mebrie, Getye
Background As a result of urbanization, eating and drinking from food service establishments is becoming a common practice in developing countries like Ethiopia, which increases the chances of food borne diseases. The health status and hygiene practices of food handlers are the major determinants of food contamination. In developing countries where there are poor regulatory systems for food hygiene, food handlers are often appointed without screening for possible infections associated with poor hygiene like intestinal parasites. Objective This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites and assessing the hygiene practices among food handlers in Yebu Town, southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 118 food handlers in Yebu Town in January 2011. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using both direct wet mount and Formol ether concentration techniques. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects was 44.1% (52/118). Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm spp were the predominant parasites identified from the stool of study participants. Age above 35 years (AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 21.8), no regular practice of washing hands before a meal (AOR: 7.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 24.8), and untrimmed finger nail (AOR: 14.7, 95% CI: 2.8, 75.4) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. Conclusion The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects. The study also revealed poor personal hygiene like poor practice of hand washing and poor finger nail hygiene. Therefore, much has to be done to improve the personal hygiene of the food handlers. Pre-placement and periodic screening of food handlers for parasites and prompt treatment, and health education on regular trimming or cleaning of fingernails would be the way forward for prevention of food borne diseases. PMID:25329050
Pansini, R; de Ruiter, J R
Tool making or modification to produce a tool of apparent improved functionality has rarely been reported in monkeys, especially when tools are used outside the context of food acquisition. We report on an observation of selection, modification and use of splinters for hygiene purposes in a male mandrill. The zoo-housed animal was video-recorded breaking splinters in sequence to use them underneath his toenails. This record brings forward new evidence that the ability to use and modify tools is not limited to apes and some New World monkeys but is also apparent in Old Word monkeys. PMID:21740959
Purpose: Caries, a social ailment, is one of the diseases of civilization of the 20th century. In Poland, the incidence rate of caries is very high both in the young and adults. The major etiological factors of caries are: improper oral hygiene, diet based on carbohydrate-rich and highly proc- essed food products, neglect of prophylaxis and dental check-up. The aim
and food safety trainings. The Top 6 Causes of Food Poisoning: · Poor personal hygiene and sick foodFood Safety Guidelines for Events Guidelines should by reviewed by the event organizer at the time to groups planning to give away food for free or for a non-required donation at their events. Ohio State
ROAMLESS HUDSON; WILLIAM T. SMALL
There is a swelling upsurge of interest among smaller educational institutions in the development of undergraduate industrial hygiene programs. The following article is presented to provide broad and rapid dissemination of information useful to similar institutions contemplating entry into the industrial hygiene educational field. Also, future employers should be aware of this important new development, aimed at supplying the trained
Karst, Nancy S.
Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…
Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer
The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…
E. J. Etty; M. Henneberke; R. J. Gruythuysen; J. H. M. Wöltgens
For 548 children aged 4-16 years, mean ( ± SD) age 10.3 ± 2.7 at visit 1, the dental status was recorded at four consecutive 6-monthly visits. Simultaneously oral hygiene was scored according to a modified patient hygiene performance (PHP) index after application of disclosing solution and before the dental examination. The following cariogenic changes could be observed: initiation (white
Woodall, Jerry M.
Center for Nano and Micro Manufacturing Chemical Hygiene Plan Vers. 12/13 Page 1 Chemical Hygiene and safety information for all members of the Center for Nano-MicroManufacturing (CNM2) laboratory chase) 1268 (Service chase) 1274 Lab work room 1276 (Service chase) #12;Center for Nano and Micro
a Chemical Hygiene Plan, its scope is not limited to chemical hazards. We have tried to include every topic1 Chemical Hygiene Plan for the MRL TEMPO Facility September 25, 2009 Update and Revision Table) Emergency Assistance Fire, Police, Medical, Hazardous Materials, etc. 15 4) Required Safety Training 16 5
Valerie A Curtis
Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of
Anita Goyal; N. P. Singh
Purpose – This paper seeks to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study applies multivariate statistical tools to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. In addition, the authors analysed the consumption patterns, impact of hygiene and nutritional
This study evaluates the relationship of children's hygiene habits and food handling behaviors on lead levels on hands and handled foods for toddlers living in lead contaminated homes. Forty eight inner city toddlers who had previously been identified as having elevated blood le...
Food Allergy Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your immune system ... it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Allergic reactions to food ...
Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene. PMID:12163918
Stone, Patricia W; Hasan, Sumya; Quiros, Dave; Larson, Elaine L
Hands of health care personnel frequently serve as vectors for the transmission of organisms between patients and are also a major reservoir for pathogens with antimicrobial resistance. Hand hygiene is one effective strategy to reduce health care associated infections. The purposes of this study were to (a) compare the costs of hand hygiene in hospitals with high and low hand hygiene compliance as well as high and low frequency of alcohol hand rub use; and (b) examine associations between hospital characteristics and hand hygiene compliance as well as frequency of alcohol hand rub use. Nursing and health care policy leaders should look for ways to promote sustained adherence to hand hygiene recommendations. PMID:18080624
Nickrent, Daniel L.
247 Preventive Oral Care 3 DH226 Head & Neck Anatomy 2 DH248 General & Oral Pathology 4 Total: 15 Pharmacology 3 DH322 Op.Oral Care & Adj. Procedures 2 DH320 Dental Hygiene Clinic & Radiology II 4 DH347 Community Oral Care 2 DH341 Periodontics 3 DH355 Dental Hygiene Clinic & Radiology III 4 UC Elec. Elective 3
Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.
GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education and hygiene. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is in French. It is divided into two main sections, one for physical education, and one for hygiene. Each section contains several straight-text chapters with illustrations interspersed. The guide is offset printed and…
It is important to obtain the information on food security in the countries other than Japan since more than 60 % of the food consumed come from these countries. Food security is now considered as a global issue. A global trend persuading us to provide safe food to humans is based on the concept of human security development associated with a sense of human mission to sustain one's life. Another global tendency pushing us to secure safety and hygiene of food is driven by the economic pressure coming from the rules in international trade established by Codex Committee under FAO/WHO. In contrast to these trends under globalization requesting safe and hygienic food, food habits based on tradition or religion are maintained locally in various parts of the world. These local habits include eating raw or improperly cooked foods, which may become a risk of being exposed to food poisoning pathogens. This issue may be adequately solved by a risk assessment approach based on the concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP). Like or not, people in some local areas live in the unhygienic environment where they are unintentionally and frequently exposed to enteric pathogens or immunologically cross-reacting microorganisms through which they may acquire specific immunity to the pathogens and escape from infection by the pathogens. There are therefore many areas in the world where people understand the necessity to provide safe food at the international level (globalization) but actually consume food in varying hygienic conditions from area to area due in part to traditional food habits or living environments (localization); we call this situation as glocalization (global+local). PMID:22894059
Spiegel van der M
Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery sector. <\\/o:p><\\/span>
Despite the long history of the dental hygiene profession, little research has been conducted on the characteristics of its literature. In this study, the bibliometric method was used to identify the core journals in the discipline and the extent of indexing of these journals. The study was a part of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section's project to map the allied health literature. Five journals were found to provide one-third of all references studied. Forty-two journals yielded an additional one-third of the references. MEDLINE had the best indexing coverage with 87% of the journals receiving indexing for at least one-half of the articles included. Limited coverage was provided by EMBASE/Excerpta Medica (11%) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (9%). The findings identified titles that should be added by indexing services as well as those that should have more complete coverage. PMID:10427428
The causes of male infertility may be identified, with the possibility of drugs treatment, or they may be idiopathic, for which treatments are at the research stage. The treatments available aim to increase the quantity and quality of spermatozoa produced by increasing their fertilising capacity and protecting their nuclear structure. Hormone treatments - recombinant FSH, purified FSH - give different results depending on whether studies examine semen parameters or fertilisation and pregnancy rates. In the case of non-hormone treatments (folates, zinc, vitamins E or C, selenium, glutathione and carnitine), the data in the literature is also contradictory and there is no clear consensus of opinion. However, the studies make use of highly variable methodologies and many of them are non-randomised. In terms of hygiene and dietary measures, tobacco, alcohol and excess weight have a negative effect on semen parameters and it is relevant to encourage patients to adopt a healthier lifestyle. PMID:18279723
Putnam, David F.; Jolly, Clifford D.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Price, Don
A multifiltration hygiene water reclamation process that utilizes adsorption and particulate filtration techniques is described and evaluated. The applicability of the process is tested using a simulation of a 4-man subsystem operation for 240 days. It is proposed the process has a 10 year life, weighs 236 kg, and uses 88 kg of expendable filters and adsorption beds to process 8424 kg of water. The data reveal that the multifiltration is an efficient nonphase change technique for hygiene water recovery and that the chemical and microbiological purity of the product water is within the standards specified for the Space Station hygiene water.
Shashideep Singhal; Delia Dian; Ali Keshavarzian; Louis Fogg; Jeremy Z. Fields; Ashkan Farhadi
Background The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ suggests that a reduction in the microbial exposure due to improved health measures has contributed\\u000a to an immunological imbalance in the intestine and increased the incidence of autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel\\u000a diseases (IBD). Accordingly, we investigated associations between oral hygiene practices and IBD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We developed and administered a multiple choice questionnaire to evaluate oral hygiene
Bakasun, Vjekoslav; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir
In years following to the second world war the convention organisator was faced with major technical difficulties due to universal shortage of resources. During the 50's, two conventions of health workers with topics related to preventive medicine were held in Opatija. On both occasion Sanitary Bureau of Rijeka (Institute of Hygiene) was the main organisator. Reviewing the correspondance in Institute of Hygiene archive, one can monitor the preparations for the congress. In order to meet the participant's expectation, director of Institute of Hygiene, requested from the local entrepreneur adequate supply of postcard and cigarettes. PMID:23607176
... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...
A. C. Sant’Anna; M. J. R. Paranhos da Costa
Corporal hygiene is an important indicator of welfare for dairy cows and is dependent on facilities, climate conditions, and the behavior of the animals. The objectives of this study were to describe how the hygiene conditions of dairy cows vary over time and to assess whether a relationship exists between hygiene and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. Monthly hygiene
NATALIE C G FREEMAN; LINDA SHELDON; MARTA JIMENEZ; LISA MELNYK; EDO PELLIZZARI; MAURICE BERRY
This study evaluates the relationship of children's hygiene habits and food-handling behaviors on lead levels on hands and handled foods for toddlers living in lead-contaminated homes. Forty-eight inner city toddlers previously identified as having elevated blood lead levels participated in three consecutive days of designated food-handling activities. During the visits, duplicate diets were obtained, the child handled a banana, a
Vos, Gordon Alexander
The scope of this thesis project entailed the development of a computer program to serve as a tool for professionals and for students in the occupational health, safety, and industrial hygiene fields. The purpose of the project was the development...
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Research Management Assistant Research Nyla Joseph Research Operations Administration Assistant X2 Erastos Florides Breon De Assistant Research Operations Finance Officer X1 Dawn Carpenter Research Operations Contracts Officer
...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No person known to...
...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No person known to...
Ferrara, Katherine W.
fume hoods; others may have biological safety cabinets, glove boxes, flammable liquid storage cabinets, special precautions or procedures, preventative maintenance schedules (fume hoods are evaluated annually1 Appendix B: LABORATORY-SPECIFIC CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN The Laboratory Standard requires laboratory
...Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No person known to be affected by a communicable or infectious disease shall be permitted to come in contact with the product. (b) Plant personnel coming into contact with the...
In this inquiry activity, students generate investigable questions to explore the link between hygiene/cleanliness and bacteria growth/population. The students will present their conclusions, and video clips containing additional information will be discussed.
By applying philological methods, the authors of different chapters of Lingnan Weisheng Fang (Lingnan Hygiene Prescription) were investigated based on historical materials and epitaphs. The date of compilation of the book was also approximately investigated. PMID:17278433
Public Health Service Veterans Administration Universities and colleges OCCUPATIONALTHERAPY OccupationalALLIED HEALTH Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene, Health Information, etc. after gaining severalyearsofgeneralexperience. AREAS EMPLOYERS #12;EMPLOYERSAREAS (Allied Health
V. A. Curtis
Encouraging changes in hygiene practices are potentially one of the mosteffective means of reducing the global impact of diarrhoeal diseases, whichkill an estimated 3.3 million children a year. However, efforts to improve hygiene in the developing world have met with limited success. Some of thereasons behind this include:
A. Strina; S. Cairncross; M. L. Barreto; C. Larrea; M. S. Prado
Brief biweekly home visits, made as part of a cohort study of diarrhea in young children under age 5 years that was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, in 1998-1999, were used as a low-cost way to collect structured observation data on domestic hygiene behavior. Field-workers were trained to check a list of 23 forms of hygienic or unhygienic behavior by
Collier, Stephen Ward
in the recognition, evaluation, and control of hazards, as opposed to the mem- orization of technical industrial hygiene formulae. A very clear message, calling for graduate programs to produce industrial hygienists who are educated rather than trained... to being bona fide industrial hygienists, but their competencies would seriously degrade the repu- tation for skills, abilities, knowledge, finesse, etc. , which has been characteristic of the image of indus- trial hygiene to date. The American Academy...
Joanna Santeliz; Christopher L. Karp; Marsha Wills-Karp
Rising rates of allergic disease accompany the healthier benefits of a contemporary westernized lifestyle, such as low infant mortality. It is likely that these twinned phenomena are causally related. The hygiene hypothesis states that allergy and increased longevity are both consequences of reducing infectious stressors during early childhood. Mechanistic explanations for the hygiene hypothesis have typically invoked the T-helper-type 1\\/2
Stenberg, Anna; Macdonald, Clare; Hunter, Paul R
Background To assess whether domestic kitchen hygiene is an important contributor to the development of diarrhoea in the developed world. Methods Electronic searches were carried out in October 2006 in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane central register of clinical trials and CINAHL. All publications, irrespective of study design, assessing food hygiene practices with an outcome measure of diarrhoea were included in the review. All included studies underwent data extraction and the data was subsequently analysed. The analysis was conducted by qualitative synthesis of the results. Given the substantial heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures meta-analysis was not done. In addition the existing dataset of the UK IID study was reanalysed to investigate possible associations between self-reported diarrhoea and variables indicative of poor domestic kitchen hygiene Results Some 14 studies were finally included in subsequent analyses. Of the 14 studies included in this systematic review, 11 were case-control studies, 2 cross-sectional surveys, and 1 RCT. Very few studies identified any significant association with good environmental kitchen hygiene. Although some of the variables in the reanalysis of the UK IID study were statistically significant no obvious trend was seen. Conclusion The balance of the available evidence does not support the hypothesis that poor domestic kitchen hygiene practices are important risk factors for diarrhoeal disease in developed countries. PMID:18294383
Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J
The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441
Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A
Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates. PMID:23180223
Garcarek, Jerzy; Falkowski, Aleksander; Janczak, Dariusz; Weyde, Wac?aw
Exposure of both patients and medical staff to relatively high doses of radiation is one of the features characteristic of interventional radiology (IR). Regulations regarding this kind of therapeutic management can be found in many legal references and recommendations of European Union Law. The purpose of the paper is collection and systematic analysis of activities and procedures associated with the question of radiation hygiene which should be observed in IR suites. Requirements regarding equipment of the IR suite, as well as radiation protection of patients and medical staff, constitute main questions included in the paper, worked out on the basis of valid regulations and occupational experience of the authors. Particular attention is paid to borderline requirements regarding modern IR suite equipment and its organization. Part of the paper is devoted to the understanding of physical laws of ionizing radiation in biological space and its surroundings. Understanding of physical laws, proper utilization of IR suite equipment, and strict compliance with recommendations of radiation protection by both patients and medical staff are critical for limitation of the harmful influence of radiation during interventional therapeutic procedures. An additional role of the paper is to make it easier to take decisions when creating new IR suites, in accordance with valid regulations and the rule of functionality. PMID:24493688
Chuchkova, M; Toshkov, S
The hospital environment, studied according to the parameters of microclimate, natural and artificial lighting and acoustic regime, is a factor with an effect on the disposition and healing process. Concrete data are presented, suggesting some failures in the micro-climate kept in the hospital premises studied and substantial unfavourable discrepancies in the existing standardization and the present conditions of stay. The artificial illumination is considerably diminished--20-70 lx, at a norm of 300 lx. The windows proved to be unnecessarily large, guaranteeing increased penetration of natural light but hence - creating conditions for overheating (cooling resp.) - at at a norm 1:5 to 1:4, the established light coefficient is 1:3 up to 1:2. The acoustic regime showed also some great deviations towards the increase of noise levels - at a norm of 35 dB A, the established levels are within the limits of 38 to 72 dB A. The hospital environment is obvious to need some changes that would have a favourable effect only with a strict adherence to the hygienic standardization in the course of design and building. PMID:3823044
Fuller, Chris; Besser, Sarah; Cookson, Barry D; Fragaszy, Ellen; Gardiner, Julian; McAteer, John; Michie, Susan; Savage, Joanne; Stone, Sheldon P
Trials evaluating interventions to improve health care workers' hand hygiene compliance use directly observed compliance as a primary outcome measure. Observers should be blinded to the intervention and the effectiveness of blinding assessed to prevent systematic bias. The literature has not addressed this issue, and this study describes a robust and pragmatic method for assessing the adequacy of blinding in hand hygiene intervention trials. PMID:20189686
Sax, H; Allegranzi, B; Uēkay, I; Larson, E; Boyce, J; Pittet, D
Hand hygiene is a core element of patient safety for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Its promotion represents a challenge that requires a multi-modal strategy using a clear, robust and simple conceptual framework. The World Health Organization First Global Patient Safety Challenge 'Clean Care is Safer Care' has expanded educational and promotional tools developed initially for the Swiss national hand hygiene campaign for worldwide use. Development methodology involved a user-centred design approach incorporating strategies of human factors engineering, cognitive behaviour science and elements of social marketing, followed by an iterative prototype test phase within the target population. This research resulted in a concept called 'My five moments for hand hygiene'. It describes the fundamental reference points for healthcare workers (HCWs) in a time-space framework and designates the moments when hand hygiene is required to effectively interrupt microbial transmission during the care sequence. The concept applies to a wide range of patient care activities and healthcare settings. It proposes a unified vision for trainers, observers and HCWs that should facilitate education, minimize inter-individual variation and resource use, and increase adherence. 'My five moments for hand hygiene' bridges the gap between scientific evidence and daily health practice and provides a solid basis to understand, teach, monitor and report hand hygiene practices. PMID:17719685
Portillo, Karen M; Rogo, Ellen J; Calley, Kristin H; Cellucci, Leigh W
The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify specific information related to U.S. dental hygiene baccalaureate degree completion programs. Learning experiences, assessment methods, and baccalaureate institutional partnerships were assessed. Of the sixty dental hygiene programs that offer a degree completion program, the forty-two that met the inclusion criteria (including having operated for at least three years) were invited to participate in a thirty-eight item online survey. A 62 percent (n=26) response rate was obtained. Learning experiences in responding programs included core dental hygiene courses, general education courses, and elective dental hygiene courses. Emphasis areas offered by various programs were in the specialty areas of education, public or community health, and research. Respondents reported that their graduates were employed in multiple settings (65 percent; n=17), with 19 percent (n=5) reporting employment in the combined grouping of private practice, education, and public health. Institutional partnerships included articulation agreements (88 percent; n=21), community college baccalaureate (8 percent; n=2), and university extension (4 percent; n=1) models. The findings of this study provide a baseline for assessing the educational composition and design of U.S. dental hygiene degree completion programs. However, results of this study showed inconsistencies among learning experiences that might raise concerns when considering students' level of preparation for graduate education and future leadership roles in the profession. PMID:23658400
Liu, Cong; Liang, Jun; Yan, Xiao-yu
The Qing dynasty, the last feudal dynasty of Chinese history, the social formation of which had changed many times as well as the hygienic law formation changed accordingly. The legislative principles of consulting the hygienic law system of the Han and the Jin dynasty, the hygienic law with thoughts of concentration of authority and the rules of rites, the customary law with supplementary functions, the colonial nature of late hygienic law constituted the characteristics of hygienic law system of the Qing dynasty, which had certain reference values to current construction of hygienic law system. PMID:19824356
The results of epidemiological investigations justifies the assumption that increasing health defects, especially enteritis infectiosa, are caused inter alia by inadequate hygienic conditions in households. The number of such diseases ranges between 100,000 and more than 1,000,000 cases per year in the FRG. Responsible for this development is a lack of information about the behaviour of microorganisms in the environment and its pathways of distribution. In addition risks are growing with the recommendation of cleansing methods, which had been adequate for the kitchen techniques in former centuries, but must fall under the conditions of the modern supply, processing and conservation. The described investigations are directed at the determination of the distribution of germs by working in normal household kitchens and at the effectiveness of surface-decontamination-cleansers (so-called FD-preparations). Test principle was the production of a complete dinner by each of 79 housewives with use of minced meat, which was contaminated with micrococcus luteus. After final cleaning of the kitchen we determined the degree of contamination of surfaces, machines and of the components of the meal with use of rodacplates, swabs and quantitative cultures respectively. The experiments are completed by interviews with the housewives. The results let conclude that the use of household cleansers with germicidal properties even in the hand of housewives will reduce the distribution of unwanted microorganisms in the kitchens. In this respect surfaces, on which components of the meal are prepared, and the machines, like cutting machines, waring blenders a.o., are of utmost importance. Disinfections of other parts of the flats including toilets are unnecessary (exception: severe infectious diseases). Therefore the use of FD-preparations outside of the kitchens is not required, but acceptable (it is not necessary to use a cleanser in the kitchen, another one in the toilet and a third one for the bath tube etc.). We do not recommend adapting cleaning and disinfective methods of the hospitals to the normal households. Instead of medical disinfections one should use detergents with nontoxic germicidal additives (e.g. H2O2) in this area, which do not require changing the traditional cleaning techniques. They also should guarantee that cleanliness, absence of odor and minimization of germs are achieved. In addition normal kitchen soaps should be replaced by HD-preparations. PMID:2500806
Barrett, H; Browne, A
The paper explores the ways in which women's education influences domestic hygiene practices and use of health care services in a traditional agricultural village in The Gambia. The "environment of health" is one of poverty, high morbidity and low levels of female literacy. A detailed household survey was undertaken in the rainy season when agricultural work is demanding of people's time and energy and morbidity rates are high. Mothers with and without formal education and with at least one child under 5 were included in the study. Small differences were found between the educated and uneducated group in the knowledge and practice of household hygiene. The healthcare services in the village were utilised by all women regardless of whether or not they had been to school, but educated mothers appeared to have a better understanding of health education messages. The case study illustrates the synergy between health, hygiene and maternal education and discusses the implications of the findings. PMID:8961402
Arcury, Thomas A; Weir, Maria M; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F; Bischoff, Werner E; Quandt, Sara A
Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed. PMID:22776578
Milgrom, P; Weinstein, P; Melnick, S; Beach, B; Spadafora, A
We studied oral hygiene instruction given to 109 patients in 19 Washington State dental practices to investigate the extent to which therapists targeted their efforts toward patients with high disease risk. Patients were examined prior to instruction and prophylaxes. Therapists' instructions were tape-recorded and their content analyzed: therapists' expectations were scored. There were no statistically significant associations between patients' initial plaque levels and the process/content of the oral hygiene instructions delivered. On average, therapists spent 9.4 minutes of each prophylaxis session discussing oral hygiene. Therapists were judged more genuine with those patients for whom they had higher expectations of compliance, i.e., those with less plaque and low disease risk. We conclude that dental practitioners were not employing effective risk assessment strategies in selection of patients most in need of intensive instructional efforts. PMID:2911074
Jelic, Sanja; Cunningham, Jennifer A; Factor, Phillip
Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few are substantiated by clinical data. This review focuses on the impact of oral hygiene, tracheal suctioning, bronchoscopy, mucus-controlling agents, and kinetic therapy on the incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory infections, length of stay in the hospital and the ICU, and mortality in critically ill patients. Available data are distilled into recommendations for the maintenance of airway hygiene in ICU patients. PMID:18423061
Arcury, Thomas A.; Weir, Maria M.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F.; Bischoff, Werner E.; Quandt, Sara A.
Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed. PMID:22776578
Stoev, Stoycho D
Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made. PMID:19325772
Deep freezing of food and storage at -19 degC is a standard conservation procedure in food technology. The lower limit of growth of bacteria in food is from about -5 degC to about -8 degC, whereas the reproduction limit of yeasts is 2 to 3 degC lower. Storage temperatures above -10 degC should therefore not be used. At -18 degC, a commonly used storage temperature, no growth of microorganisms will occur. The microorganisms mainly found at the lower growth limit are Pseudomonas sp. and basidiomycete yeasts. The reduction in the number of microorganisms due to freezing, storage, and thawing is not of practical importance. Microbial enzymes, in particular lipases and proteases, are still active at -18 degC. Therefore, the quality of raw products and good hygiene at the production site are most important.
Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R
Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data. PMID:23924823
Stevens, Stephanie A.; Yen, Irene H.; Laraia, Barbara L.
Mobile food vending is a component of the food environment that has received little attention in the public health literature beyond concerns about food sanitation and hygiene issues. However, several features of mobile food vending make it an intriguing venue for food access. We present key components of mobile vending regulation and provide examples from 12 US cities to illustrate the variation that can exist surrounding these regulations. Using these regulatory features as a framework, we highlight existing examples of “healthy vending policies” to describe how mobile food vending can be used to increase access to nutritious food for vulnerable populations. PMID:20864711
Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)
This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.
Heijne, Janneke C M; Teunis, Peter; Morroy, Gabriella; Wijkmans, Clementine; Oostveen, Sandy; Duizer, Erwin; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco
Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We analyzed norovirus outbreaks in 7 camps at an international scouting jamboree in the Netherlands during 2004. Implementation of hygiene measures coincided with an 84.8% (95% predictive interval 81.2%-86.6%) reduction in reproduction number. This reduction was unexpectedly large but still below the reduction needed to contain a norovirus outbreak. Even more stringent control measures are required to break the chain of transmission of norovirus. PMID:19116045
Rosidah Sam; Samia Nefti
This paper presents preliminary result in the design and development of flexible robotic gripper for hygienically handling of unpacked food products. A review focuses on research and projects concerning robotic grippers and gripping technologies for food industry are presented. A details description of the design and mathematical model of the gripper are also included in this paper.
Sebastian Hielm; Pirkko Tuominen; Kaarina Aarnisalo; Laura Raaska; Riitta Maijala
Ten copies each of a mail survey was designed and distributed to 87 Finnish food manufacturing companies in order to be distributed to 870 employees representing both workers and managers. Respondents were asked about their attitudes towards food hygiene management strategies in their companies. The final response rates for companies and individual employees were 34.9% and 21.2%, respectively. Answers were
The citations in this annotated bibliography focus on hygiene and sanitation in the preparation of food and standards for food service to the public. Materials cited can be obtained through interlibrary loan through a local library or directly from the National Agricultural Library. The bibliography was derived from online searches of the AGRICOLA…
J. P. Duguid; R. A. E. North
Summary. Evidence on the extent of the part played by infected hens' eggs in causing salmonella food-poisoning is inconclusive. The role of freshly cooked shell eggs is currently much exaggerated. Prevention should be sought through improved catering practices and kitchen hygiene, and attempts to eradicate salmonellas from laying flocks are likely to be ineffective.
Williams, Trefor; And Others
This book for primary school teachers provides a practical collection of facts, advice, projects, games, stories, and sample questions for use in teaching children the importance of healthy habits. Food, personal hygiene, and the home environment are areas of particular concern. Details range from advice on ways to start a school garden or design…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.
This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…
Breeding for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using free-mated nucleus colonies generations. While the proportion of breeding colonies expressing the trait increased with each subsequent generation, levels of hygienic behaviour among progeny remained relatively unchanged. Estimated breeding
. Regulations Pertaining to the Chemical Hygiene Plan ....................1-3 a. Hazardous Chemicals........................................................................1-4 2. Chemical and Non-Chemical Hazards ............................................1-4 CSeptember 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 1 Chemical Hygiene Plan Responsibilities UW
Hagel, Stefan; Reischke, Jana; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Winning, Johannes; Gastmeier, Petra; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Scherag, André; Pletz, Mathias W
OBJECTIVE To quantify the Hawthorne effect of hand hygiene performance among healthcare workers using direct observation. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING Intensive care unit, university hospital. METHODS Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance over 48 audits of 2 hours each. Simultaneously, hand hygiene events (HHEs) were recorded using electronic alcohol-based handrub dispensers. Directly observed and electronically recorded HHEs during the 2 hours of direct observation were compared using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots. To quantify the Hawthorne effect, we compared the number of electronically recorded HHEs during the direct observation periods with the re-scaled electronically recorded HHEs in the 6 remaining hours of the 8-hour working shift. RESULTS A total of 3,978 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during the 96 hours of direct observation. Hand hygiene compliance was 51% (95% CI, 49%-53%). There was a strong positive correlation between directly observed compliance and electronically recorded HHEs (?=0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.81], P<.0001). In the 384 hours under surveillance, 4,180 HHEs were recorded by the electronic dispensers. Of those, 2,029 HHEs were recorded during the 96 hours in which direct observation was also performed, and 2,151 HHEs were performed in the remaining 288 hours of the same working shift that were not under direct observation. Healthcare workers performed 8 HHEs per hour when not under observation compared with 21 HHEs per hour during observation. CONCLUSIONS Directly and electronically observed HHEs were in agreement. We observed a marked influence of the Hawthorne effect on hand hygiene performance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(8):957-962. PMID:25903555
Services Include: a. Medical history and blood pressure b. Oral cancer examination, dental and periodontalOLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY DENTAL HYGIENE CARE FACILITY 2011-2012 Fees CLINIC FEES 1. Dental Hygiene of treatment, a new fee will be charged and the appointment will be treated as a re-care. Dental Hygiene
Peter J Larmer; Trish M Tillson; Faye M Scown; Philippa M Grant; Jamie Exton
Conclusions Hand hygiene is a crucial component of risk management for both health care workers and their patients. It is important that hand hygiene practice is based on the best current evidence. As a result of a systematic review, evidence-based recommendations for hand hygiene for health care workers are proposed. Ever since we were toddlers our parents have taught us
Jamie Bartram; Sandy Cairncross
As the first article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Jamie Bartram and Sandy Cairncross argue that the massive burden of ill health associated with poor hygiene, sanitation, and water supply demands more attention from health professionals and policymakers.
Sanja Jelic; Jennifer A Cunningham; Phillip Factor
Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and\\/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few
Valerie Curtis; Bernadette Kanki; Thierry Mertens; Etienne Traore; Ibrahim Diallo; Franēois Tall; Simon Cousens
Stool disposal practices have been shown to be associated with childhood diarrhoea. However, efforts to promote improved hygiene behaviour are hampered by a lack of understanding of what determines those behaviours. Data from 2793 household interviews with mothers of children from the town of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso were analyzed to examine what differentiated mothers who reported using safer stool
Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.
At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…
Malaria Centre London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK http://malaria.lshtm.ac.uk/ firstname.lastname@example.org Copies of this report may be obtained at http://malaria. lshtm.ac.uk/ or by writing to the address above. Cover image: Mala (Matt Murphy/Handsome Frank) Malaria
Summary: This paper reviews the risks on hygienic problems in the northern environments by reindeer slaughter and related waste disposals. Such risks are evident from anticipated possible changes in the socio-economic structure in this region and changes in land use and animal keeping. There are several problems going along with different pathogens and their infection ways. Precautions have to be
M Kennedy; E Burnett
It is recognised that early intervention in healthcare workers’ education is important in terms of embedding effective infection prevention and control knowledge into practice. One of the most important aspects of this education is hand hygiene compliance and technique expectations. This small study was undertaken in collaboration with the University of Dundee, School of Nursing and Midwifery and NHS Tayside.
Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida
This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…
Evans, Paul G.
SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Including the Chemical Hygiene Plan Wisconsin Center for Applied #12;i Safety and Health Program For The Wisconsin Center for Applied Microelectronics March, 2014 Safety and Health Committee Jon McCarthy, Director email@example.com 263-1073 Dan Christensen, Lab
Honey bees bred for “suppression of mite reproduction” resist the growth of Varroa destructor through the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped brood. This is varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH), and the bees are called VSH bees. VSH is a multi-step process that involves detection, uncapping of th...
Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth
A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…
Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) The CPEST MapperThe CPEST Mapper A GIS residents Implemented through local health departmentsImplemented through local health departments Seven in cancer Client Database at DHMH (colorectal, prostate, oral, skin)DHMH (colorectal, prostate, oral, skin
Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others
Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)
AG DUSE; MP da SILVA; I. Zietsman
The burden of infectious diseases may be reduced by adopting effective infection control measures. Some of these are dependent on the provision of adequate and safe water supplies for maintenance of basic standards of personal, domestic and healthcare hygiene. Consequences of scarce, and sometimes unsafe, waters supplies in South Africa are highlighted with reference to healthcare-associated infections, community acquired infectious
Gantt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.
A study examined the impact of the Centers for Disease Control's home study course in community hygiene on the job performance of 45 sanitarians in 30 districts throughout North Carolina. Data were collected from: (1) pre- and post-tests that evaluated the sanitarians' mastery of knowledge in such areas as water supply, sewage disposal, solid…
M. Gonzales; L. L. Garcia; E. A. Vigil; G. W. Royer; M. I. Tillery; H. J. Ettinger
The Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC) facility, in its early stages of development, provided the unique opportunity to sample a Modified In-Situ (MIS) operation during the preparation phase of the first retort, during pyrolysis, and during preparation of a subsequent retort. Industrial hygiene measurements were made in the lowest (G) level (835 feet) of the mine, prior to and
McConaughy, F L
The relationship of a dental hygiene program's admissions criteria to its graduates' subsequent job satisfaction was examined. One hundred thirteen subjects who had graduated from an associate degree-granting dental hygiene program between the years 1977 and 1986 responded to a mailed questionnaire that obtained demographic information and job satisfaction measures. The admissions criteria were collected from records on file at the dental hygiene program. Responses to the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) were tabulated to obtain a general job satisfaction score and to obtain selected job satisfaction subscale scores on variety, compensation, advancement, and achievement. It was hypothesized that there would be no relationship between the admissions criteria and the selected job satisfaction scale scores. A total of five stepwise multiple regression analyses was performed, with each of the five satisfaction scale scores as the dependent variable and the admissions criteria entered as independent variables. No variables were entered into a regression equation, as no correlations were significant at p less than .05. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the general job satisfaction percentile score as the dependent variable and year of graduation as the independent variable was conducted. When combined as groups, those who graduated in the first five years (1977-81) expressed statistically significant lower general job satisfaction (p = .0072) than the graduates from 1982-1986. The analysis of the admissions criteria and job satisfaction scores must be looked at cautiously, as the sample was limited to graduates from a particular dental hygiene program. PMID:2098489
Heath, Walter D.; Spetz, Sally H.
This curriculum resource guide, one of seven developed by the State of Illinois to present information on new and emerging curricula existing in the nation, can be used as a basis for local educators to determine the resources needed to offer industrial hygiene technician curricula and to initiate curriculum development at the local level.…
Petri, Cynthia J.; Winnail, Scott D.; Geiger, Brian F.; Artz, Lynn M.; Mason, J. W.
Children, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to several infectious diseases as a result of contact with child care centers. This pilot program, implemented in a rural county in a southeastern state, was designed to enhance knowledge and skills related to improved hygiene practices in a child care setting. The target audience for the…
Kim, Duck O.
.1 Organisms present on patient skin or in the inanimate environment 7.2 Organism transfer to health-careWHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care is Safer Care WHOGuidelinesonHandHygieneinHealthCare #12;WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data WHO
Holzapfel, W H; Geisen, R; Schillinger, U
A review is presented on the present status of biological preservation of foods. Recent developments are discussed with respect to underlying mechanisms of inhibition by 'protective' cultures, and special reference is made to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their 'food-grade' safety. The role of bacteriocins, their limitations and potentiating role in biological systems, is also addressed. The use of enzymes (e.g. lysozyme) for food preservation is mainly restricted by economic factors, their inactivation by endogenous food components and their limited activity spectrum. Practical applications of protective cultures refer to particular food commodities that either constitute novel systems with respect to packaging and/or composition, or represent special hygienic risks. It is concluded that biological preservation cannot substitute GMP; it, however, offers an additional (and acceptable) processing parameter for improving the safety and assuring the quality of a given food. PMID:7710912
Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS) and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48) and the creation of legislation (n = 44); response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6%) of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2%) for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6%) of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44). The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44) of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5%) declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6%) and 39 (81.3%) authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48) of the responding authorities and 20.8% (10 out of 48) of the port authorities of other countries. Conclusion This study revealed a diversity of approaches and practices in the conduct of inspections, differences in the qualifications/knowledge/experience of inspectors, the legislation applied during inspections, and the lack of communication and training among many EU countries. An integrated European inspection programme involving competent expert inspectors in each EU Member States and special training for ship hygiene delivered to crew members and inspectors would help to minimize the risk of communicable diseases. Common inspection tools at a European level for hygiene inspection practices and port-to-port communication are needed. PMID:20219097
Murray, R. W.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.; Turner, T. R.
The Galley, a 42 man-day meal preparation facility (with flexibility to accomodate 210 man-days) is described. The facility is designed for minimum meal preparation and clean-up time in zero g and ease of servicing, maintenance, and removal in one gravity. The Galley provides a centralized location for performing all of the food-related functions (except dining) within the orbiter. Consideration is given to the oven-water heater, personal hygiene station, water dispensers, and water supply subsystem. The Galley is positioned in the orbiting mid deck, interfacing with rehydratable food packages and the waste collector subsystem.
McGuckin, Maryanne; Govednik, John
A survey of 1,000 US consumers quantified their knowledge of health care worker hand hygiene compliance, their information sources on hand hygiene rates, and their past behavior of asking health care workers to perform hand hygiene. Sixty-nine percent of respondents believed compliance is above 50%; 17% of respondents had asked a health care worker to perform hand hygiene. Our findings suggest that an organized plan of disclosure about hand hygiene rates may be a way to empower through knowledge. PMID:25278403
Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S; Haak, J; Wilke, F; Hübner, C; Dahms, C; Hoffmann, W; Kramer, A
Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions. PMID:22242105
Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.
Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.
Switzerland is a confederation consisting of 26 states, the so-called 'cantons'. In the field of food control, the Swiss federal state is in charge of issuing the regulations (Food law and associated texts), whereas enforcement is assigned to the cantons. The offices in charge of food control are the cantonal laboratories headed by a 'Cantonal chemist'. These offices pursue three main goals: to protect consumer health, to protect the consumer against frauds and to ensure food handling under good hygiene conditions. To that purpose, the Cantonal chemist heads both a laboratory and a staff of inspectors, who are responsible for the control of food products (including meat and drinking water), the control of hygiene and production at factories, stores, restaurants, etc. as well as the control of common goods and household items such as toys, clothing, make-up, dishes, cookware, jewelry and so on. All laboratories and inspection bodies are accredited according to ISO norms EN 17'020 and EN 17'025. The offices headed by the cantonal chemists analyze annually about 110'000 samples on sale or from factories, whereas the inspection bodies perform roughly 45'000 inspections (without primary producers and occasional importers). PMID:25437157
In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water to meet all domestic demands. Domestic water supply must be accompanied by appropriate sanitation and hygienic education.
Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.
Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.
Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and ... Poor food safety practices can cause infection from a foodborne illness. Symptoms of foodborne illnesses vary, but they usually include ...
... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...
Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)
The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.
Dean D. Metcalfe
The clinical expression of food hypersensitivity or food allergy is usually the end-result of a series of complex interactions among ingested food antigens, the digestive tract, tissue mast cells and circulating basophils, and food antigen-specific IgE. In some well-defined, food-induced diseases, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, additional immunologic mechanisms are involved. An understanding of the nature of antigens in foods capable
Engineering K-PhD Program,
Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.
Maintaining skin integrity is an essential part of ensuring health and wellbeing in older people, and personal hygiene and emollient practices are central in achieving this aim. As nurses we are expected to deliver evidence-based care. However, there is a significant lack of evidence about how best we should provide day-to-day care that promotes skin health for older people. This article briefly examines the concept of evidence-based practice, reveals the gap in knowledge on skin hygiene and emollient practices for older people and justifies the need for a systematic review in this area. Finally it introduces a Cochrane protocol for a review that will collate and review existing knowledge and identify areas for future research. The application to practice of the new evidence generated either by the Cochrane review or by subsequent research is examined. PMID:25924756
Rogaczewska, T; Ligocka, D; Nowicka, K
Seven types of carbon black used in type production were subjected to hygienic evaluation. The coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs), toluene solubles, were determined by the gravimetric method and benzo/a/pyrene by HPLC with a spectrophotometric detector. Toluene solubles were found to amount to 0.12-0.25% (by weight). Benzo/a/pyrene (1.44-3.07 ppm) was detected in five out of the seven carbon blacks examined. PMID:2489438
An on-site visit was made to Dubarry Cleaners, Detroit, Michigan, as part of an industry-wide mortality and industrial hygiene study of dry cleaning workers exposed to perchloroethylene (PCE). Air samples were taken at the facility and the time weighted average exposure to PCE was calculated to be 23 parts per million (ppm) with 5-minute peak exposures ranging from 33 to
Hawthorne, A.R.; Metcalfe, C.E.
The design, development, and evaluation of a field-portable derivative uv-absorption spectrometer (DUVAS) for monitoring vapors from volatile aromatic compounds is described. The microcomputer-controlled instrument is capable of sensitive and selective multicomponent measurement of one- or two-ring aromatic compounds in real time. DUVAS is useful as an industrial hygiene tool both for area monitoring and for leak detection. Examples are given of field monitoring and laboratory evaluation of the prototype instrument.
C. Bibbolino; S. Pittalis; V. Schininą; E. Busi Rizzi; V. Puro
Healthcare-associated infections are a critical challenge for the public health sector. Most are acquired through contact,\\u000a predominantly with the hands of health care personnel. Hand hygiene, therefore, is the single most effective measure for preventing\\u000a and controlling infectious diseases. Recently, cases of acute hepatitis C occurred in patients who had undergone contrast-enhanced\\u000a computed tomography. This was probably related to inadequate
Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H
The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board. PMID:24385532
Cookson, B; Mathai, E; Allegranzi, B; Pessoa-Silva, C L; Bagheri Nejad, S; Schneider, A; Tschopp, C; Wendt, C; Pittet, D
Hand hygiene promotion is considered as the cornerstone for healthcare-associated infection prevention. Over the past years, hand hygiene guidelines have been developed by different agencies at international, national and subnational levels. A comparison of these documents could help in understanding recommendations in different parts of the world and the methods used for their development. Guidelines were identified through search engines, electronic libraries, and personal contacts, and their content was analysed using an adapted version of a tool from the European DG XII-funded HARMONY project. Twenty-two guidelines were retrieved and 21 were evaluated. Documents varied in scope, approach, content and terminology. Some were primarily advisory directives, whereas others focused on the technical issues of why, when, and how to perform hand hygiene. The extent to which evidence was collected and assessed varied considerably and details were provided only in very few. Grading systems and definitions to indicate the strength of evidence and recommendations also differed. The intended outcome was to improve hand hygiene practices in healthcare, thus leading to a reduction of healthcare-associated infections and/or antimicrobial resistance. Although overall agreement on indications and procedures was noted, the range and depth of recommendations on best practices and implementation varied. Essential aspects such as compliance measurement and audits to assess guideline effectiveness were neglected in most documents. In conclusion, there is a need for a more consistent approach leading to recommendations based on a thorough evaluation of evidence and applicable worldwide. Aspects related to implementation and impact monitoring deserve greater attention. PMID:19481295
Capolongo, S; Buffoli, M; Oppio, A; Rizzitiello, S
This paper proposes an innovative and transparent methodology to support the "ASL Milano" (Local Health Agency) in the hygiene and health evaluation of construction projects, in order to highlight their positive and negative performance beyond the requirements imposed by the current laws and regulations regarding buildings' hygiene performance, which are too old and therefore unsuitable to ascertain the real quality of indoor environments. The compliance with laws or regulations, mostly out of date, and the assessment of performance involving only a part of the current emerging needs and problems, in fact, should be considered as a necessary, although not a sufficient step, to ensure high quality indoors. Consequently, it is necessary to identify and test an assessment tool which could provide an effective and flexible support for the development of hygiene and health statements regarding projects at building scale (new construction, conversion of the existing, rehabilitation, extension, change of use, etc). The assessment tool suggested by this paper is tailored for the metropolitan area of the city of Milan, but its evaluation framework could be developed and applied to other contexts. PMID:23471453
Airaksinen, Sanna; Heiskanen, Minna-Liisa; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Laitinen, Juha; Laitinen, Sirpa; Linnainmaa, Markku; Rautiala, Sirpa
Respiratory exposure to organic dust induces chronic pulmonary diseases both in farmers and horses. The aim of this study was to examine the variation of dustiness and hygiene quality of peat moss bedding. Materials studied were weakly decomposed sphagnum peat (A), weakly decomposed sphagnum peat warmed up in storage (> 30 degrees C) (B) and two more decomposed few-flowered sedge peats (C and D). The geometric mean of mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinomycetes were determined from the material. Samples of inhalable dust and endotoxins were collected with IOM samplers and respirable dust with 10M foam samplers when the peat was rotated in a cylinder. The number of particles was detected with an optical particle counter. An LAL assay was used for analysing endotoxins from the filter samples. There were differences in the hygiene quality and dustiness between peat materials (p < 0.01). The geometric mean of fungi was smallest in material A. Warming-up increased the number of fungi in sphagnum peat, but on the other hand, it decreased the content of endotoxin (p < 0.01). Few-flowered peat materials contained thermophilic actinomycetes and material D also contained Aspergillus fumigatus. The concentrations of inhalable dust, respirable dust and the number of particles were smaller in the few-flowered peats (C-D) than in the sphagnum peats (A-B). It is concluded that there are differences in the dustiness and hygiene quality of peat bedding. PMID:16028867
Okada, H; Kuhn, C; Feillet, H; Bach, J-F
According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, the decreasing incidence of infections in western countries and more recently in developing countries is at the origin of the increasing incidence of both autoimmune and allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis is based upon epidemiological data, particularly migration studies, showing that subjects migrating from a low-incidence to a high-incidence country acquire the immune disorders with a high incidence at the first generation. However, these data and others showing a correlation between high disease incidence and high socio-economic level do not prove a causal link between infections and immune disorders. Proof of principle of the hygiene hypothesis is brought by animal models and to a lesser degree by intervention trials in humans. Underlying mechanisms are multiple and complex. They include decreased consumption of homeostatic factors and immunoregulation, involving various regulatory T cell subsets and Toll-like receptor stimulation. These mechanisms could originate, to some extent, from changes in microbiota caused by changes in lifestyle, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Taken together, these data open new therapeutic perspectives in the prevention of autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:20415844
Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu
Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective. PMID:25252644
Santos, Maria-José; Nogueira, José Rocha; Patarata, Luis; Mayan, Olga
Food safety levels in school food services are an important concern, given that any incident can affect a high number of students. The purpose of this research was to evaluate food handlers' knowledge and self-reported behaviour as regards the safe handling of food in school canteens. The study was conducted in 32 school canteens and included 124 participants. Food handlers displayed a reasonable level of knowledge, particularly regarding personal hygiene and cross-contamination, but fared worse in other areas. The level of knowledge displayed was influenced by age, motivation and training. A high correctness in handlers' self-reported behaviour towards food safety was observed, with a negative trend appearing when workload was increased. Our assessment of prevailing knowledge levels indicates that food professionals need to be made significantly more aware of the importance their actions can have on children's health. PMID:19031144
Welcome to the Five Food Groups MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...
Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S
Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The mean Debris Index and Plaque Index scores of dentate elderly were 2.87±0.22 and 3.17±0.40, respectively, the mean Denture Plaque and Denture Stomatitis scores were 3.15±0.47 and 1.43±0.68, respectively. Conclusion The dental hygiene was inadequate. This study emphasizes the care demand and the need for help in oral hygiene procedures for the dependent institutionalized elderly. PMID:26180560
Todd, Jemma; Mullan, Barbara
University students have poor sleep hygiene, leading to poorer health. Facets of self-regulation such as planning, behavioural inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory were explored in relation to three sleep hygiene behaviours: Avoiding stress or anxiety before bed, avoiding going to bed hungry or thirsty, and making the bedroom restful. One hundred and thirty-seven participants took part in an Internet-based survey over two time points separated by a period of two weeks. Only cognitive flexibility and behavioural inhibition correlated with sleep hygiene. Cognitive flexibility significantly predicted an aspect of sleep hygiene after controlling for past behaviour. However, when past behaviour was controlled for, behavioural inhibition no longer predicted sleep hygiene. Thus, cognitive flexibility may play a role in explaining sleep hygiene; however, behavioural inhibition does not appear as important as previously assumed. Further research could build on this study to determine whether cognitive flexibility can be experimentally improved. PMID:22788412
Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a component of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Improving the infection control culture in veterinary medicine would facilitate future campaigns and studies in this area, as well as overall patient and staff safety. PMID:24885304
Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter
Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training. PMID:25699224
Duke, James Edward
DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAMS AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAM% AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to Texas...
Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching; Mabry, Amanda; Champlin, Sara; Stroever, Stephanie
Hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent the spread of health care-associated infections, but many facilities may not have the resources or expertise to develop their own hand hygiene promotion campaign. This observational study demonstrated that a campaign developed for 1 facility could successfully contribute to behavior change at another, unrelated facility. It serves as a model and evidence that health care facilities can successfully adopt hand hygiene promotion campaigns developed and validated at other facilities. PMID:25841650
Released online by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on September 7, this 59-page report "establishes a baseline to measure how effective industry and regulatory efforts are in changing behaviors and practices that directly relate to food-borne illness in the retail food industry." Based on data collected from close to 900 institutional food service establishments, restaurants, and retail food stores, the report finds that three areas deserve special attention: improper holding times and temperatures, contaminated equipment, and poor personal hygiene. The full text of the report is available in HTML and .pdf formats.
The reasoning that improved hand hygiene compliance contributes to the prevention of health care-associated infections is widely accepted. It is also accepted that high hand hygiene alone cannot impact formidable risk factors, such as older age, immunosuppression, admission to the intensive care unit, longer length of stay, and indwelling devices. When hand hygiene interventions are concurrently undertaken with other routine or special preventive strategies, there is a potential for these concurrent strategies to confound the effect of the hand hygiene program. The result may be an overestimation of the hand hygiene intervention unless the design of the intervention or analysis controls the effect of the potential confounders. Other epidemiologic principles that may also impact the result of a hand hygiene program include failure to consider measurement error of the content of the hand hygiene program and the measurement error of compliance. Some epidemiological errors in hand hygiene programs aimed at reducing health care-associated infections are inherent and not easily controlled. Nevertheless, the inadvertent omission by authors to report these common epidemiological errors, including concurrent infection prevention strategies, suggests to readers that the effect of hand hygiene is greater than the sum of all infection prevention strategies. Worse still, this omission does not assist evidence-based practice. PMID:25678805
Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Associate Research 3 PH 30007 Prevention and Control of Diseases 3 Graduation Requirements Summary Minimum Total
Kate, Kiran; Negi, Sumit; Kalagnanam, Jayant
Food-borne illness is a growing public health concern in the world. Government bodies, which regulate and monitor the state of food safety, solicit citizen feedback about food hygiene practices followed by food establishments. They use traditional channels like call center, e-mail for such feedback collection. With the growing popularity of Web 2.0 and social media, citizens often post such feedback on internet forums, message boards etc. The system proposed in this paper applies text mining techniques to identify and mine such food safety complaints posted by citizens on web data sources thereby enabling the government agencies to gather more information about the state of food safety. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of our system and the text mining methods used. We also present results which demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in a real-world deployment. PMID:25160357
El Derea, H; Salem, E; Fawzi, M; Abdel Azeem, M
We assessed the food safety knowledge and food handling practices of 23 food handlers in 2 hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt [Gamal Abdel Nasser (GAN) and Medical Research Institute (MRI)] before and after a food safety training programme, and also the bacteriological quality of patient meals and kitchen equipment. There was a significant improvement in all knowledge-associated parameters except for personal hygiene in GAN. There was an improvement in the food safety practices in both hospitals. The bacteriological quality of most patient meals and food preparation surfaces and utensils improved after training. The bacteriological quality of patients' meals served in GAN was generally better than that in MRI. PMID:19166178
Oscar L. Frick
\\u000a IgE-mediated food allergies are part of a spectrum of adverse reactions to foods including immune and nonimmune mechanisms.\\u000a Anaphylaxis is the most serious and life-threatening manifestation of food allergy. Asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and\\u000a urticaria\\/angioedema also result from IgE-mediated reactions to foods. Not only ingestion of an allergenic food, but inhalation\\u000a of food allergens may cause reactions. There are many
Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.
Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise. PMID:21364287
Phillips, Margaret L; Elledge, Brenda L; Basara, Heather G; Lynch, Robert A; Boatright, Daniel T
Records of restaurant inspections by public health departments provide sequential "snapshots" of conditions in retail food service establishments that can be used to identify risk factors and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Data from a random 10 percent sample of restaurant inspection files from 31 counties in Oklahoma, including 4,044 inspections conducted during 1996-2000 in "medium-risk" and "high-risk" establishments, were analyzed to determine rates of critical violations and recurrent violations for different categories of establishments. Repeat violations accounted for about half of all violations. Establishments subjectively designated as high risk by health department personnel were in fact found to have higher violation rates than those described as medium-risk establishments. Outside Oklahoma County, regional chain restaurants were significantly more likely than other restaurants to have recurrent violations of critical items related to food-holding temperature, hygiene practices, sanitization, and hygiene facilities. Differences observed in violation rates among individual establishments were not primarily attributable to inconsistent enforcement by individual inspectors; rather, they appeared to be indicative of real differences in hygienic conditions and practices. PMID:16779998
Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M
The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen production and audits in such AI centers for the external control of hygiene parameters. PMID:25459424
Microbiological safety is achieved by applying good hygienic practices throughout the food chain, "from farm to fork". Governmental food control is traditionally based on inspection of the facilities where foods are handled, and on testing food samples. Testing is usually applied to imported foods, when no information concerning the safety of a consignment is available. The microbiological safety is judged by means of microbiological criteria. Such criteria should, in the context of the WTO/SPS measures, be scientifically justified, and established according to the principles described by the Codex Alimentarius. However, microbiological testing is not a very reliable tool for consumer protection; the emphasis is currently shifting to the application of food safety management tools such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP). PMID:9282394
Huda, Tarique Md Nurul; Unicomb, Leanne; Johnston, Richard B; Halder, Amal K; Yushuf Sharker, Md Abu; Luby, Stephen P
Started in 2007, the Sanitation Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh (SHEWA-B) project aims to improve the hygiene, sanitation and water supply for 20 million people in Bangladesh, and thus reduce disease among this population. This paper assesses the effectiveness of SHEWA-B on changing behaviors and reducing diarrhea and respiratory illness among children < 5 years of age. We assessed behaviors at baseline in 2007 and after 6 months and 18 months by conducting structured observation of handwashing behavior in 500 intervention and 500 control households. In addition we conducted spot checks of water and sanitation facilities in 850 intervention and 850 control households. We also collected monthly data on diarrhea and respiratory illness from 500 intervention and 500 control households from October 2007 to September 2009. Participants washed their hands with soap < 3% of the time around food related events in both intervention and control households at baseline and after 18 months. Washing both hands with soap or ash after cleaning a child's anus increased from 22% to 36%, and no access to a latrine decreased from 10% to 6.8% from baseline to 18 months. The prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory illness, among children <5 years of age were similar in intervention and control communities throughout the study. This large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme resulted in improvements in a few of its targeted behaviors, but these modest behavior changes have not yet resulted in a measurable reduction in childhood diarrhea and respiratory illness. PMID:22197292
This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.
A descriptive study was conducted to determine hygiene status of rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, using a purposive sample of 145 villagers: 71 male and 74 female. Participants were divided into 14 groups (by community) and group interviews were conducted with them. Communities neither had enough water (92.9%) nor treated drinking water (71.4%); sizeable numbers did not store drinking water safely; threw waste water away (92.9%) and solid waste in the rubbish pit (78.6%); where there are no toilets, they relieved themselves in the veld; children <12 years generally did not use toilets (71.4%). Communities washed hands after changing baby's nappy (78.6%), before handling food (57.1%), before eating (50.0%), after a visit to the toilet (92.9%), after touching animals (57.1%) and when they wake up (92.9%); and did not take a full body wash daily (71.4%). The results have implications for policy-makers, programme planners, academics and practitioners in the field. PMID:16854674
After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)
The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.
Food web reading. Build a food web and design a creature. Requires downloaded program. Download your assignment Food Web Assignment Sheet. Use the following sites and activities to answer the questions. Do not start the creature creator until Mr. Wood has seen your food web and completed assignment and allowed you to move on. Type your answers on the sheet and edit it to fit one page. When ...
In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...
Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J. (comps.)
Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.
Kostkova, Patty; Farrell, David; de Quincey, Ed; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna; McNulty, Cliodna
Technology enhanced education has been recently established as a new approach for all stages of education. However, among these new IT media it is computer games playing the central role in delivering education in particular to children and teenagers, however, real world sound evaluation is often given little attention. The EU funded e-Bug project developed web games aimed at children to teach basic principles of prudent antibiotics use, hand and respiratory hygiene and aims to reinforces an awareness of microbes, hand and respiratory hygiene among junior and senior school children in 10 countries in Europe. An educational pack implemented in schools across Europe is complemented by Internet web games for two age groups teaching a set of learning objectives (LOs) using a fast and interactive platform game design for junior children and investigate detective games based on PBL principles for senior children. In this paper, we present the design of e-Bug junior and senior games and evaluation results. PMID:20841757
The author analyzed data from a set of reports submitted to the Maine Board of Dental Examiners by dental hygienists practicing under a new supervision category entitled "Public Health Supervision" enacted in Maine in 1995. The data set included information on public health dental hygiene applicants and projects reported between May 1995 and November 1998. With mounting interest from dental hygienists seeking to serve the population with limited access to preventive dental care, the regulatory board created a public health dental hygiene supervision category in the Maine regulations. The analysis revealed that dental hygienists are seeking and receiving the public health supervision endorsement. Sixty percent of the public health projects were implemented by dental hygienists in public service agencies. Those who addressed a need in their own communities without the benefit of a public health organization accounted for 40% of the applications. Examples of projects are described. The report serves as a summary of three years of data from which to assess future trends. PMID:11314054
Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy
The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…
Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...
Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.
Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768 PMID:21385426
Schaffner, Donald W; Bowman, James P; English, Donald J; Fischler, George E; Fuls, Janice L; Krowka, John F; Kruszewski, Francis H
There are conflicting reports on whether antibacterial hand hygiene products are more effective than nonantibacterial products in reducing bacteria on hands and preventing disease. This research used new laboratory data, together with simulation techniques, to compare the ability of nonantibacterial and antibacterial products to reduce shigellosis risk. One hundred sixtythree subjects were used to compare five different hand treatments: two nonantibacterial products and three antibacterial products, i.e., 0.46% triclosan, 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, or 62% ethyl alcohol. Hands were inoculated with 5.5 to 6 log CFU Shigella; the simulated food handlers then washed their hands with one of the five products before handling melon balls. Each simulation scenario represented an event in which 100 people would be exposed to Shigella from melon balls that had been handled by food workers with Shigella on their hands. Analysis of experimental data showed that the two nonantibacterial treatments produced about a 2-log reduction on hands. The three antibacterial treatments showed log reductions greater than 3 but less than 4 on hands. All three antibacterial treatments resulted in statistically significantly lower concentration on the melon balls relative to the nonantibacterial treatments. A simulation that assumed 1 million Shigella bacteria on the hands and the use of a nonantibacterial treatment predicted that 50 to 60 cases of shigellosis would result (of 100 exposed). Each of the antibacterial treatments was predicted to result in an appreciable number of simulations for which the number of illness cases would be 0, with the most common number of illness cases being 5 (of 100 exposed). These effects maintained statistical significance from 10(6) Shigella per hand down to as low as 100 Shigella per hand, with some evidence to support lower levels. This quantitative microbial risk assessment shows that antibacterial hand treatments can significantly reduce Shigella risk. PMID:24680068
The mite-resistance trait called suppression of mite reproduction (SMR) can be explained by a form of hygienic behavior that we call varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). With VSH, adult honey bees remove worker-bee pupae from brood cells infested with Varroa destructor. Objectives were (1) to define whic...
The mite-resistance trait called suppression of mite reproduction (SMR) is a form of hygienic behavior that we have named varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). With VSH, adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) disrupt the population growth of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) by removing mite-infested bee p...
Shu Abe; Kazuyuki Ishihara; Mieko Adachi; Katsuji Okuda
The purpose of this study was to establish criteria for the visual evaluation of oral hygiene by analyzing the relationship between status of oral hygiene and number of oral bacteria in saliva for use in predicting the development of pneumonia. A total of 145 Japanese people of advanced age living in nursing homes were enrolled in the study. We evaluated
Piazza, C C; Contrucci, S A; Hanley, G P; Fisher, W W
The escape-maintained destructive behavior of a girl with mental retardation persisted during hygiene routines with directive prompting, differential reinforcement for compliance, and extinction as treatment. Using nondirective prompting and noncontingent reinforcement, destructive behavior was reduced to near-zero levels during the hygiene routine. PMID:9433795
and Housekeeping a) Chemicals b) Cleaning your lab c) Fume Hood d) Disposal of Sharps e) Chemical waste Disposal fUCSB Lab-specific Chemical Hygiene Plan 1 EH&S, Rev. 1/07 Chemical Hygiene Plan (CPH) UCSB MRL) Chemical Spill g) Safe storage of chemicals h) Gloves i) Chemical Hazardous j) Eyewash and First Aid Kit k
) Cleaning your lab c) Fume Hood d) Disposal of Sharps e) Chemical waste Disposal f) Chemical Spill g) SafeUCSB Lab-specific Chemical Hygiene Plan 1 EH&S, Rev. 1/07 Chemical Hygiene Plan (CPH) UCSB MRL Information. - Emergency Information. - Health & Safety References. 2. Safety and Housekeeping a) Chemicals b
The practicum reported here involved the design of a hygiene awareness unit to help 30 second-grade students in an inner-city school become aware of and improve their personal and oral hygiene, and to provide necessary knowledge concerning pediculosis. Surveys of students and faculty prior to the program demonstrated the need for such a program as…
John R. Harbo; Jeffrey W. Harris
Summary Mite resistance that we had earlier called suppression of mite reproduction (SMR) is a form of hygienic behaviour that we have named Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH). With VSH, adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) disrupt the reproduction of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) by removing mite infested bee pupae from their cells. This study determines which brood cells are targeted by
M. Dolores Arenas; Guillermina Barril; Juan Garcia-Valdecasas; Jose Luis Gorriz; Antonio Soriano; Andres Antolin; Sergio Garcia; Mario Espinosa; Manuel Angoso
Background. This study intended to investigate the degree of compliance with hand hygiene and use of gloves by health workers in haemodialysis (HD) units, and the factors that influenced adherence to hand hygiene protocols. Methods. During the month of November 2003, one person observed the health care staff in each of nine different dialysis units, during 495 randomly distrib- uted
J. E. Moxley; B. W. Kennedy; B. R. Downey; J. S. T. Bowman
A total of 581 official test herds on the Quebec Dairy Herd Analysis Service were surveyed to measure frequency of practices of milking hygiene and effects of milking hygiene on herd averages of somatic cell counts and milk production. Over 99% of the dairymen washed or sprayed cows' udders, 55% used a sepa- rate towel for washing, 18% dried udders
Miko, Benjamin A.; Cohen, Bevin; Conway, Laurie; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine
Background Although several studies have characterized the hygiene habits of college students, few have assessed the determinants underlying such behaviors. Objectives Our study sought to describe students' knowledge, practices, and beliefs about hygiene and determine whether there is an association between reported behaviors and frequency of illness. Methods A sample of 299 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, personal and household hygiene behaviors, beliefs and knowledge about hygiene, and general health status. Results Variation in reported hygiene habits was noted across several demographic factors. Women reported “always” washing their hands after using the toilet (87.1%) more than men (65.3%, P = .001). Similarly, freshmen reported such behavior (80.4%) more than sophomores (71.9%), juniors (67.7%), or seniors (50%, P = .011). Whereas 96.6% of participants thought that handwashing was either “very important” or “somewhat important” for preventing disease, smaller proportions thought it could prevent upper respiratory infections (85.1%) or gastroenteritis (48.3%), specifically. There was no significant relationship between reported behaviors and self-reported health status. Conclusion The hygiene habits of college students may be motivated by perceptions of socially acceptable behavior rather than scientific knowledge. Interventions targeting the social norms of incoming and continuing students may be effective in improving hygiene determinants and ultimately hygiene practices. PMID:22464037
Fluent, Marie T
Hand hygiene remains the single most important measure for reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections. In the past 20 years, hand-washing recommendations and guidelines have become increasingly complex, and a plethora of products have become available. This article aims to discuss and clarify the fundamentals of appropriate hand hygiene in dentistry. PMID:24564616
Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.
In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1990 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper (WRHC) College in Palatine, Illinois. A survey was mailed to all 30…
This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.
Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona
Abstract The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignįc Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases' prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the "Regimen Sanitatis Salerni" has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later. PMID:25212979
Food allergy is an important public health problem. The prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy is estimated at 3.24% of French population. Clinical pictures are varied: atopic dermatitis, urticaria and oedema, asthma, rhinitis, anaphylactic shock. Their comparative frequencies change with age. The risk of fatal anaphylactic reactions (acute asthma, anaphylactic shock, laryngeal oedema) is underlined. The role of risk factors on expression of food allergy is important: exercise, concomitant intake of alcohol, aspirin NAIDS, beta-blockers or converting enzyme inhibitors. The modifications of food habits and of food allergenicity by agro-alimentary technology, the consumption of novel foods and masked allergens explain the present aspects of food allergy. The role of intestinal flora and early diversification of food influence the acquisition of tolerance. The diagnosis of food allergy depends of the expert appraisement of the allergologist. Oral challenge tests distinguish sensitisation from true food allergy. Treatment is based on targeted eviction diet. Contact with food allergen must be avoided by other way: skin (cosmetic), respiratory tract and drug intake. The control of risk factors is essential. PMID:11797470
Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.
The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.
Noor, N. Mohd; Jusoh, M. A.; Razis, A. F. Abdull; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.
Exposing food to radiation can improve hygiene quality, germination control, retard sprouting, and enhance physical attributes of the food product. To provide for food safety, radiation dosimetry in irradiated food is required. Herein, fabricated germanium doped (Ge-doped) optical fibres have been used. The fibres have been irradiated using a gamma source irradiator, doses in the range 1 kGy to 10 kGy being delivered. Using Ge-doped optical fibres of variable size, type and dopant concentration, study has been made of linearity, reproducibility, and fading. The thermoluminescence (TL) yield of the fibres were obtained and compared. The fibres exhibit a linear dose response over the investigated range of doses, with mean reproducibility to within 2.69 % to 8.77 %, exceeding the dose range of all commercial dosimeters used in evaluating high doses for the food irradiation industry. TL fading of the Ge-doped flat fibres has been found to be < 13%.
Collins, Gary S.
-828, Hazardous Chemicals in Labs, AKA the "Lab standard" requires each laboratory to implement a written Chemical1 Your Laboratory Specific Chemical Hygiene Plan Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 296 Hygiene Plan (CHP) and designate a "Chemical Hygiene Officer" responsible for ensuring that the plan
The hygienic performance of biowaste composting plants to ensure the quality of compost is of high importance. Existing compost quality assurance systems reflect this importance through intensive testing of hygienic parameters. In many countries, compost quality assurance systems are under construction and it is necessary to check and to optimize the methods to state the hygienic performance of composting plants. A set of indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of normal operating biowaste composting plants was developed. The indicator methods were developed by investigating temperature measurements from indirect process tests from 23 composting plants belonging to 11 design types of the Hygiene Design Type Testing System of the German Compost Quality Association (BGK e.V.). The presented indicator methods are the grade of hygienization, the basic curve shape, and the hygienic risk area. The temperature courses of single plants are not distributed normally, but they were grouped by cluster analysis in normal distributed subgroups. That was a precondition to develop the mentioned indicator methods. For each plant the grade of hygienization was calculated through transformation into the standard normal distribution. It shows the part in percent of the entire data set which meet the legal temperature requirements. The hygienization grade differs widely within the design types and falls below 50% for about one fourth of the plants. The subgroups are divided visually into basic curve shapes which stand for different process courses. For each plant the composition of the entire data set out of the various basic curve shapes can be used as an indicator for the basic process conditions. Some basic curve shapes indicate abnormal process courses which can be emended through process optimization. A hygienic risk area concept using the 90% range of variation of the normal temperature courses was introduced. Comparing the design type range of variation with the legal temperature defaults showed hygienic risk areas over the temperature courses which could be minimized through process optimization. The hygienic risk area of four design types shows a suboptimal hygienic performance. PMID:15869987
Xie, Q; Ba, F; Zhang, H; Liu, G
The effectiveness of three commercial chewing gums ("Hua Aikang","Cao Shanhu" and "Poli") and brushing with toothpaste on the elimination of dental plaque was observed in 31 healthy males (aged 19-25 years). Before and after chewing or brushing, evaluation of oral taste and examination of plaque were performed. The result showed that the oral taste after chewing, "hua aikang" was the best, then "po li" and "cao shanhu"; plaque indexes were substantially reduced by all four kinds of treatment (P < 0.001) as compared with the pretest values, however "hua aikang" demonstrated a better effectiveness (P < 0.001). It also indicates that plaque index is an important index revealing the hygiene status. PMID:11541425
The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.
Boccia, Antonio; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Tufi, Daniela; De Giusti, Maria; Grisolia, Massimo
Under President's Executive Order 915/1982, the Malagrotta waste disposal plant has been surrounded by a water-proof ring. This study reflects a eight-year research activity about "the Plant's steadiness and its impact on the land; hygienic monitoring of aquifers, air quality control and sound pollution; health and safety of workers; disinfection and land reclamation". For surface subsidence to be measured, 21 spots were monitored and 30 piezometers were set up in adjacent critical areas, both inside and outside the plant. Some of them were also used to pick up water and test it for chemical and microbiological purposes. Samples of leachates were analysed, air quality assessed and sound tests carried out. Overall outcomes show good performance in terms of interaction between plant, hydro-geological regimen and possible impact on the surrounding land. PMID:14716379
Capasso, L; Schioppa, F S
In Italy Public Health legislation had, since unification of the nation in 1861, a peculiar consideration for building hygiene, with a particular focus on dwellings. The first law about these themes is the number 5849 in 1888, named Crispi-Pagliani, after the Italian prime minister of the time and the hygienist who collaborated in lawmaking. The authors of the present work describe how laws evolved during 150 years of history, passing through social, demographic, political, economical, cultural and scientific changes. In the meantime they try to explain the role of public health practitioners in this field, also in relation with administrative processes that changed in time. Everything considering how indoor environment and home in particular are fundamental determinants of health, nowadays that people in richest countries spend most of their lifetime in this particular environment. PMID:22834249
Drescher, Kristen M; von Herrath, Matthias; Tracy, Steven
Enteroviruses and humans have long co-existed. Although recognized in ancient times, poliomyelitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D) were exceptionally rare and not epidemic, due in large part to poor sanitation and personal hygiene which resulted in repeated exposure to fecal-oral transmitted viruses and other infectious agents and viruses and the generation of a broad protective immunity. As a function of a growing acceptance of the benefits of hygienic practices and microbiologically clean(er) water supplies, the likelihood of exposure to diverse infectious agents and viruses declined. The effort to vaccinate against poliomyelitis demonstrated that enteroviral diseases are preventable by vaccination and led to understanding how to successfully attenuate enteroviruses. Type 1 diabetes onset has been convincingly linked to infection by numerous enteroviruses including the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), while studies of CVB infections in NOD mice have demonstrated not only a clear link between disease onset but an ability to reduce the incidence of T1D as well: CVB infections can suppress naturally occurring autoimmune T1D. We propose here that if we can harness and develop the capacity to use attenuated enteroviral strains to induce regulatory T cell populations in the host through vaccination, then a vaccine could be considered that should function to protect against both autoimmune as well as virus-triggered T1D. Such a vaccine would not only specifically protect from certain enterovirus types but more importantly, also reset the organism's regulatory rheostat making the further development of pathogenic autoimmunity less likely. PMID:25430610
Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.
Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:24009546
R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN
The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available
Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857
Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Kopczy?ski, Przemys?aw
Currently, food allergy is considered to be one of the diseases of civilization, which occurs as a result of the changing conditions of life and environmental changes (e.g. increased popularity of cesarean delivery, excessive hygienic regime during the neonatal-infantile period). Based on medical statistics, it can be concluded that this problem will be intensified. Consumption of food is one of the main activities in human life. What and how one eats affects our health. Meals eaten regularly provide the components necessary for the energy metabolism. Multicultural society, travel, and new trends affect the diversity of food consumed. The mechanism of food allergy reaction covers all 4 types of the immune response of the classical division of Gell and Coombs. The percentage of the immune response was assessed by Chandra as follows: type I – 48%, type II – 6%, type III – 10%, and type IV – 18%. The article presents the risk factors for food allergy, most common symptoms, preventive measures and characteristics of food products that are potential allergens. PMID:24278058
Reid, Ethan A.
Since the beginning of manned operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the crew had performed hygiene activities within the aisle way (the habitable volume, not including the sleep areas) of the ISS. The Crew used wet towels, re-hydrated body soap, and "no-rinse" shampoo to cleanse themselves amongst the stowage and systems hardware, referred to as "racks", even without a designated area to dry the wet items. Performing hygiene in this manner became an accepted method; no isolated location was available to the Crew. After several years of hygiene operations, some of the fabric-covered racks began to grow biological material (generically described as mold) and soon became a Crew health concern. Hygiene has one of the strongest impacts on Crew morale, and mandating changes to the Crew routine would have been met with strong resistance. The answer to the conundrum was to develop a liner to be placed within the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS), one of the Crew s sleeping racks. This liner provided the Crew a means to perform hygiene activities within a private, enclosed area that also significantly decreased the potential to grow mold. This paper will describe the development of the TeSS Hygiene Liner, its impacts on the ISS and Crew, as well as its contribution to hygiene activities used in space today.
Grant, Adam M; Hofmann, David A
Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands. Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviors, it is important to highlight the personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that emphasized personal safety ("Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases") or patient safety ("Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases"). We assessed hand hygiene by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1) and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals' hand-hygiene behaviors (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated meaningful changes in behavior: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were reminded of the implications for themselves. PMID:22075239
Wilson, Katherine E; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Chen, Sophie Yu-Pu; LeBourgeois, Monique K; Chervin, Ronald D; Miller, Alison L
This study examined sleep hygiene practices and bedtime resistance and tested whether associations differed by child temperament. Parents of Head Start preschoolers (n = 374, 56% non-Hispanic white) completed the Going to Bed subscale of the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale (GTB; higher score reflects less bedtime resistance), Children's Sleep Hygiene Scale (CSHS; higher score reflects better sleep hygiene), and Child Behavior Questionnaire (Anger, Activity, Impulsivity subscales indicated difficult temperament). Monte Carlo simulation adjusted for demographic covariates tested associations of CSHS with GTB in children with more- vs. less-difficult temperaments. Children with more- vs. less-difficult temperaments experienced worse sleep hygiene (p < .0001) and had more bedtime resistance (p < .0001). Among children with more difficult temperaments, better sleep hygiene was linearly associated with less bedtime resistance (? = 1.28, 95% CI 0.77, 1.78). Among children with less difficult temperaments, the association followed a piecewise linear trend: sleep hygiene was not associated with bedtime resistance when CSHS scores were < 4.1 (? = 0.15, 95% CI -4.87, 3.13), but for CSHS scores ? 4.1, an increase in CSHS was associated with lower bedtime resistance (? = 1.33, 95% CI 1.00, 1.79). Consistent sleep hygiene is associated with less bedtime resistance and may be helpful in reducing bedtime resistance among children with more difficult temperaments. PMID:25221914
Protas, S V
Hygienic research and analysis of literature on subway parkings air pollution with respirable fibrous particles that are formed during automobile exploitation due to attrition of friction parts (brake blocks, clutch plates) helped to come to a conclusion that level of air pollution with fibrous particles does not exceed allowable hygienic norms and accordingly does not harm health of workers and visitors of subway parkings, therefore there is no need in improvement of present hygienic regulations of such objects in view of preventing asbestos-induced diseases. PMID:25069274
Chen, Shaun C; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Chiu, Chihwei P
Food security plays a central role in governing agricultural policies in Taiwan. In addition to overuse or the illegal use of pesticide, meat leanness promoters, animal drugs and melamine in the food supply; as well as foodborne illness draws the greatest public concern due to incidents that occur every year in Taiwan. The present report demonstrates the implementation of a food safety control system in Taiwan. In order to control foodborne outbreaks effectively, the central government of the Department of Health of Taiwan launched the food safety control system which includes both the good hygienic practice (GHP) and the HACCP plan, in the last decade. From 1998 to the present, 302 food affiliations that implemented the system have been validated and accredited by a well-established audit system. The implementation of a food safety control system in compliance with international standards is of crucial importance to ensure complete safety and the high quality of foods, not only for domestic markets, but also for international trade. PMID:19965358
The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...
... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.
... caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and shellfish. These eight foods account for 90% of food allergies. Most people ... outgrow allergies to milk, eggs, soybean products and wheat, not all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish ... Anaphylaxis Network Questions to Ask Your ...
R. C. Aalberse
A food allergen may be defined as a substance that reacts with IgE antibodies, induces allergic sensitisation or induces allergic reactions. Some allergens only induce allergic sensitisation but do not provoke symptoms, while others bind IgE but do not induce mast cell degranulation. There is no common structure that can predict whether a given antigen may be a strong food
With an increased concern over the nature of food production across the globe, it would make sense that a number of organizations and foundations would see fit to address these conditions through any number of crucial initiatives. Launched in 2000, Food & Society is one such initiative. Created by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the purpose of the initiative is ā??to support the creation and expansion of community-based food systems that are locally owned and controlled, environmentally sound, and health promoting.ā?¯ On their homepage, visitors can sign up to receive news updates and look through a calendar of upcoming events. Another highlight of the homepage is the ā??Food in the Newsā?¯, which features the latest information on such topics as farmersā?? markets and recent reports, such as ā??Perceptions of the U.S. Food System: What and How Americans Think About Their Foodā?¯.
McBride, Anne E
Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050
E, Alonzo; V, Pontieri; V, Cannizzaro; R, La Carrubba; P, Pisana; M, Raiti; M, Fardella
Nutrition needs increasingly integration between Food Safety and Nutritional Prevention, duties, in Italy, since I 998 the Food Hygiene and Nutrition services (SIAN) do. Furthermore, working in Evidence Based Prevention (EBP) is necessary to improve the prevention and make it more useful to people health, so it must be used tested efficacy methods, above all in a unsuitable economic and human sources contest. In order to improve the prevention and working in EBP, SIAN have devised and achieved some Nutritional Prevention Projects, interregional, regional and local wide net-working, by using process and efficacy indicators, in some projects also user's satisfaction indicators are used. Project's results will be used to work in EBP ever more in order to improve the prevention and make it repeatable and sustainable to prevent the gradual and constant increase of chronic-degenerative diseases an consequently health costs. PMID:25486691
Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N
A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in our study as well as the cross contamination of meat products. PMID:25600954
Henson, Harold Alonso
The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how learning is facilitated in a dental hygiene clinical continuing education course designed using Kolb’s experiential learning model. This study assessed the ...
Cain, J. R.
This paper outlines the rationale for a new scientific discipline namely astronautical hygiene. Astronautical hygiene is an applied science that utilises a knowledge of space toxicology, space medicine, astronautics, occupational hygiene etc. to identify the hazards, assess the exposure risks to health, and thereby determine the measures to mitigate exposure to protect the health of astronauts during living and working in space. This paper describes the nature of the hazards (i.e. physical, chemical, microbial and psychological) encountered during space flight. It discusses exposure risk assessment and the use of sampling techniques to assess astronaut health risks. This paper then discusses the measures used to mitigate exposure to the exposure hazards during space exploration. A case study of the application of the principles of astronautical hygiene to control lunar dust exposure is then described.
Khan, Javed I.
Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene - Associate Environmental Technology I or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health 1 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3 EVHS 10010
Khan, Javed I.
Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Associate planning to enroll in the Bachelor of Science in Public Health should take PH 10001 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3
Breeding, David Clarence
Although the multi-disciplinary profession of industrial hygiene (IH) has been established for many years and IH practitioners have been prolific in developing the technical tools for recognition, evaluation and control ...
Teacher is Space participant Christa McAuliffe (right) is briefed on her suit and on personal hygiene equipment to be used on the STS 51-L mission. The briefing was conducted by Laura Louviere (center).
Henson, Harold Alonso
The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how learning is facilitated in a dental hygiene clinical continuing education course designed using Kolb’s experiential learning model. This study assessed the effectiveness of an experiential...
reviews the research on the hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods. A literature search was conducted in April 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed,...
...tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device intended to be used manually to stimulate and massage the gums to promote good periodontal (gum) condition. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...
Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P?=?0.002, P?0.001, respectively). This difference peaked during the influenza season (when intervention began) and declined in the following months. Teachers (n?=?23) agreed that hand hygiene is not performed properly among students and reported time constraints as a barrier to frequent hand washing. Conclusions Adding hand hygiene instruction to existing hand hygiene practices improved attendance at public elementary schools during the flu season. Standardized and brief repetitive instruction in hand hygiene holds potential to significantly reduce absenteeism. PMID:22587432
Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; d’Avila, Domingos O.
? Introduction and Objectives: Hand hygiene is essential for preventing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. The present study compared the effectiveness of two hygiene techniques in reducing the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) on the hands of patients undergoing PD. ? Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 22 participants enrolled in the same PD program underwent a two-hand evaluation for microbiologic flora. Participants participated in two treatments: a) simple hand hygiene plus antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients washed their hands with water and glycerin soap for 1 minute and then rubbed and dried their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel; and b) antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients rubbed their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel until fully dry. To sample distal finger surfaces, we asked the participants to touch sheep blood agar plates directly. ? Results: The CFU count for both hands was significantly higher in the regular hygiene group than in the gel-only group [69.0 (16.0 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.0 (2.2 - 55.5) CFU, p < 0.010]. Growth of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus colonies was significantly higher in right-hand cultures from the regular hygiene group than in those from the gel-only group [69.5 (26.25 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.5 (1.0 - 41.7) CFU; p < 0.050]. ? Conclusions: Among patients undergoing PD, using 70% ethyl alcohol gel to cleanse the hands may be more effective than following the regular hygiene recommendations in reducing bacterial populations. PMID:24179108
E. Girou; S. H. T. Chai; F. Oppein; P. Legrand; D. Ducellier; F. Cizeau; C. Brun-Buisson
Improvement in hand hygiene compliance is important for reducing cross-infection by micro-organisms. The objective of this prospective observational study was to measure how the improper use of gloves limits compliance to hand hygiene and exposes patient's to infection. The study was conducted in five wards (three intensive care units and two medical wards) in a French university hospital. Staff–patient and
Pokrywka, Marian; Feigel, Jody; Douglas, Barbara; Grossberger, Susan; Hensler, Amelia; Hensler, Amelia; Weber, David
Prevention strategies for Clostridium difficile infection traditionally have addressed barrier precautions, environmental disinfection, and health care worker hand hygiene. When applied as a bundle, this approach has been used widely as an evidence-based strategy to prevent hospital-acquired C. difficile infection. Expanding the bundle to include patient hand hygiene is a nurse-driven approach to prevent C. difficile transmission. PMID:25137788
Polacco, Marc A; Shinkunas, Laura; Perencevich, Eli N; Kaldjian, Lauris C; Reisinger, Heather Schacht
An anonymous, online survey of medical students, interns, and faculty at a university hospital was conducted in 2013 to examine self-reported adherence to hand hygiene opportunities. Variation in self-reported adherence ranged from frequencies of 60%-100%. Such variation suggests the need to direct education toward hand hygiene opportunities with lower reported rates of adherence, especially toward those opportunities that are difficult to monitor. PMID:25637116
Sant'anna, A C; Paranhos da Costa, M J R
Corporal hygiene is an important indicator of welfare for dairy cows and is dependent on facilities, climate conditions, and the behavior of the animals. The objectives of this study were to describe how the hygiene conditions of dairy cows vary over time and to assess whether a relationship exists between hygiene and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. Monthly hygiene evaluations were conducted on lactating cows in 2 dairy farms for 9 consecutive months, totaling 3,554 evaluations from 545 animals. Hygiene was measured using a 4-point scoring system (very clean, clean, dirty, and very dirty) for 4 areas of the animal's body (leg, flank, abdomen, and udder) and combining these scores to generate a composite cleanliness score. A total of 2,218 milk samples was analyzed from 404 cows to determine SCC and somatic cell linear scores (SCLS). Individual variation was observed in the hygiene of cows throughout the year, with the highest proportion of clean cows being observed in August and the lowest in January. In spite of this seasonal variation, approximately half (55.62%) of the cows displayed consistent cleanliness scores, with 45.86% of them remaining consistently clean (very clean or clean) and 9.76% remaining dirty (very dirty or dirty) over the course of the study. The very clean cows had the lowest SCLS, followed by the clean, dirty, and very dirty cows (no statistically significant differences were found between the latter 2 groups). The most critical months for cow hygiene were those with the greatest rainfall, when a reduction in the welfare of cows and higher SCC values were observed. The evaluation and control of dairy cow hygiene are useful in defining management strategies to reduce problems with milk and improve the welfare of the animals. PMID:21787920
Dohmen, W; Neijenhuis, F; Hogeveen, H
Poor hygiene is an important risk factor for reduced udder health. Because the teat cleaning process is done automatically on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), hygiene management might differ. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hygiene and udder health on farms with an AMS at the farm level as well as at the cow level. Information on hygiene and udder health was collected on 151 Dutch dairy farms with an AMS. Teams of 2 veterinary students collected data with the use of a partially open-ended questionnaire and scoring protocols for hygiene of the cows, cleanliness of the AMS, and functioning of the AMS. Milk production records from the Dutch dairy herd information association were also collected. Stepwise general linear models were used to analyze the relation between hygiene and udder health at farm level. Dependent variables were average herd somatic cell count (SCC), the average percentage of new cows with a high SCC, and the incidence rate of clinical mastitis, all in the year preceding the farm visit. The annual average herd SCC was positively related to the proportion of cows with dirty teats before milking and the proportion of cows with dirty thighs. The annual average percentage of new cows with a high SCC was positively related to the proportion of cows with dirty teats before milking and the proportion of milkings where teats were not covered with teat disinfecting spray by the AMS. The annual incidence rate of clinical mastitis was positively related to the frequency of replacing the milking filters. At the cow level, hygiene scores of the udder, thighs, and legs (range 1 to 4, where 1 is clean and 4 is very dirty) were related with cow SCC from the milk production test day closest to the farm visit using a general linear mixed model. The relationship between cow SCC and the hygiene score of the udder was positive. PMID:20723676
In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.
Lawrence Hall of Science
In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.
DeBate, Rita D; Cragun, Deborah; Severson, Herbert H; Shaw, Tracy; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William
The incorporation of web-based learning into the dental curriculum has been consistently recommended in the literature on reform in dental education. There has been growing support for web-based learning in dental and dental hygiene education as demonstrated by deans' identifying this as a planned curricular innovation. The purpose of our study was to explore characteristics of e-courses that may serve to increase adoption among dental and dental hygiene faculty members. Eight ninety-minute focus groups (three dental; five dental hygiene) were conducted with dental (n=27) and dental hygiene (n=23) faculty members from six academic institutions. The resulting data were analyzed to identify two overarching themes and associated subthemes with regard to benefits and barriers influencing adoption of e-courses. A working conceptual framework, based on the Diffusion of Innovations, was developed from these themes to understand the characteristics that may influence the rate of adoption of e-courses among dental and dental hygiene faculty members. Analysis of the data revealed four main adoption barriers: 1) low perceived relative advantage to faculty members; 2) low compatibility with current curriculum; 3) high perceived time commitment; and 4) complexity of e-course development. This exploratory assessment identifies leverage points for facilitating the adoption and sustainability of e-courses in dental and dental hygiene education. PMID:21546592
Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet
Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553
Bigio, G; Al Toufailia, H; Ratnieks, F L W
In the honey bee, hygienic behaviour, the removal of dead or diseased brood from capped cells by workers, is a heritable trait that confers colony-level resistance against brood diseases. This behaviour is quite rare. Only c. 10% of unselected colonies show high levels of hygiene. Previous studies suggested that hygiene might be rare because it also results in the removal of healthy brood, thereby imposing an ongoing cost even when brood diseases are absent. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying hygienic behaviour in 10 colonies using a standard technique, the freeze-killed brood (FKB) bioassay. At the same time, we also quantified the removal of untreated brood. The study colonies showed a wide range in hygienic behaviour, removing 19.7-100% of the FKB. The removal of untreated brood ranged from 2% to 44.4%. However, there was no correlation between the two removal rates for any of the four age groups of untreated brood studied (eggs, young larvae, older larvae from uncapped cells and larvae/pupae from capped cells). These results do not support the cost-to-healthy-brood hypothesis for the rarity of hygienic behaviour. PMID:24330477
Pincock, Ted; Bernstein, Paul; Warthman, Shawn; Holst, Elizabeth
Proper performance of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs). With increasing awareness of the cost and societal impact caused by HAIs has come the realization that hand hygiene improvement initiatives are crucial to reducing the burden of HAIs. Multimodal strategies have emerged as the best approach to improving hand hygiene compliance. These strategies use a variety of intervention components intended to address obstacles to complying with good hand hygiene practices, and to reinforce behavioral change. Although research has substantiated the effectiveness of the multimodal design, challenges remain in promoting widespread adoption and implementation of a coordinated approach. This article reviews elements of a multimodal approach to improve hand hygiene and advocates the use of a "bundled" strategy. Eight key components of this bundle are proposed as a cohesive program to enable the deployment of synergistic, coordinated efforts to promote good hand hygiene practice. A consistent, bundled methodology implemented at multiple study centers would standardize processes and allow comparison of outcomes, validation of the methodology, and benchmarking. Most important, a bundled approach can lead to sustained infection reduction. PMID:22546269
McCammon, C.S. Jr.; Robinson, C.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Roscoe, R.
A suspicion of an excess cancer risk in automotive model shops prompted the Industrywide Studies Branch, NIOSH, to conduct a proportionate mortality study and an industrial hygiene characterization of operations in these shops. The mortality study showed a statistically significant excess proportion of deaths due to colon cancer and leukemia (for woodshops only). The materials used in the model shops include various natural woods, laminated woods, plastics, resins, varnishes, putties and paints. Personal breathing zone samples were collected for total and respirable dust, amines, various hydrocarbons (including styrene, and toluene), formaldehyde, and nitrosamines. Particle size distribution studies were conducted on the wood dust and bulk airborne samples of dusts were subjected to various mutagenicity test systems. Work practices, ventilation and general housekeeping were checked. Total wood dust samples ranged from 0.03 to 25 mg/m3 with an average around 1.0 mg/m3. The percent respirable dust ranged from 19 to 38% as measured with Andersen impactors. Solvent exposure samples ranged from non-detectable to about 10% of the OSHA Permissible Exposure Levels. Relevant recommendations for improvement of contaminant control were made.
An on-site visit was made to Dubarry Cleaners, Detroit, Michigan, as part of an industry-wide mortality and industrial hygiene study of dry cleaning workers exposed to perchloroethylene (PCE). Air samples were taken at the facility and the time weighted average exposure to PCE was calculated to be 23 parts per million (ppm) with 5-minute peak exposures ranging from 33 to 141 ppm. A 15-minute sample collected indicated a 34-ppm peak of PCE. The author recommends that prospective employees receive preemployment physical examinations, that all dry-cleaning machines and recovery units be equipped with a unit blower capable of providing an indraft velocity through the loading door of 100 feet per minute for each square foot of door opening, that respiratory protection be provided for emergency use, that protective clothing to prevent skin exposure be provided, that all employees be informed as to hazards, symptoms and precautions to take, that storage containers, equipment, piping, and valves be checked for leaks, and that recovered solvent be piped directly to the base tank of the dry cleaning machine and residues containing solvent be disposed of in a manner which would not create a health hazard.
Uzunova, S; Iordanova, I; Ba?nova, A; Tachev, A; Ivanov, T
The purpose of the study is to establish hygienic properties of the new preparations for intensive washing and their effect on the skin of man. Examinations are performed on 5 new washing preparations from firm "Verila": "Linda" (from the producer and from the trade network from the country--Ruse, Blagoevgrad, Stara Zagora, Pleven, Cherven Bryag, Plovdiv and Dobrich), recipe No 1, 2, 3 and 4. Sanitary and chemical examinations are carried out: organoleptic indices, nonionogenic surface active substances, total content of surface active substances, content of carbamide, sodium carbonate, ammonium nitrate, formaldehyde and free alkali. Investigations are made on 125 volunteers for skin irritative and allergenic effect, with epicutaneous test before and after 30-day washing--respectively with 0.5% and 2% and with 5% and 20% of the washing preparations. The results point out the absence of ammonium nitrate and formaldehyde and compliance with the content of the composition of the declared expenditure norms (except of "Linda" from the trade network of the country). There are no reactions of skin irritation and allergy in neither of the subjects with all washing preparations. Recommendations are given to the producer for observing the technological discipline and requirements to the packings. PMID:7845975
In this adaptation of a video that high school students created in collaboration with the Environmental Justice League of Rhode Island, learn what's whack about our current food systems and the many actions individuals can take to address these issues.
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Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology Food Safety and Technology National Center for Food Safety and Technology IIT Moffett Campus 6502 S. Archer Road Summit-Argo, IL 60501 708 Ravishankar The National Center for Food Safety and Technology (NCFST), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug
the local foods value chain. Very low profit margins, lack of subsidies, dispersed rural populationsLOCAL FOOD DIGEST: Food Hub Overview Greg Schweser Associate Director, Sustainable Local Foods, University of Minnesota Humphrey School of Public Affairs LOCAL FOOD MOVEMENT Food hub development has become
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Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio
The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489
Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rati
The answer to this question should be 'no' if you can afford it and 'yes' if you cannot. However, Control Banding (CB) is proving itself in areas with uncertainties. This could be either a lack of knowledge--as with nanomaterials or when lacking an OEL--or with the lack or expertise, as can be seen with SMEs and in Economically Developing Countries (EDCs). Over 90% of the world's workers do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods to achieve prevention from acquiring work-related illness and injury. Although risk factors for work-related illness and disease are well known, until the recent growth of CB there had yet to be designed and implemented a comprehensive OSHH process that focuses on achieving minimization of these occupational risk factors for the vast majority of the global workforce. This problem exists for three primary reasons: (1) There are not a sufficient number of trained and qualified OSHH professionals worldwide to attempt to offer comparable levels of traditional services necessary to achieve prevention; (2) The vast majority of OSHH professionals, and the funds to afford their conventional approaches, are concentrated in Developed Countries, such as those in the EU and the US, whereas the greatest need for work-related disease, illness, and injury prevention lies within EDCs; and (3) Even within Developed Countries, the funding to acquire the services of OSHH professionals sits primarily within the largest of industries and governmental institutions. This problem renders a void of occupational risk management for the professions and trades within EDCs and similarly the SMEs within even the richest of Developed Countries. Further, conventional means to achieve such prevention rely heavily on exposure assessment sampling strategies that, although proven successful, are cost-prohibitive in these arenas.
Furlong, Melissa; Tanner, Caroline M; Goldman, Samuel M; Bhudhikanok, Grace S; Blair, Aaron; Chade, Anabel; Comyns, Kathleen; Hoppin, Jane A; Kasten, Meike; Korell, Monica; Langston, J William; Marras, Connie; Meng, Cheryl; Richards, Marie; Ross, G Webster; Umbach, David M; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya
Pesticides have been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and protective gloves and workplace hygiene can reduce pesticide exposure. We assessed whether use of gloves and workplace hygiene modified associations between pesticides and PD. The Farming and Movement Evaluation (FAME) study is a nested case-control study within the Agricultural Health Study. Use of protective gloves, other PPE, and hygiene practices were determined by questionnaire (69 cases and 237 controls were included). We considered interactions of gloves and hygiene with ever-use of pesticides for all pesticides with ?5 exposed and unexposed cases and controls in each glove-use stratum (paraquat, permethrin, rotenone, and trifluralin). 61% of respondents consistently used protective gloves and 87% consistently used ?2 hygiene practices. Protective glove use modified the associations of paraquat and permethrin with PD: neither pesticide was associated with PD among protective glove users, while both pesticides were associated with PD among non-users (paraquat OR 3.9 [95% CI 1.3, 11.7], interaction p=0.15; permethrin OR 4.3 [95% CI 1.2, 15.6] interaction p=0.05). Rotenone was associated with PD regardless of glove use. Trifluralin was associated with PD among participants who used <2 hygiene practices (OR 5.5 [95% CI 1.1, 27.1]) but was not associated with PD among participants who used 2 or more practices (interaction p=0.02). Although sample size was limited in the FAME study, protective glove use and hygiene practices appeared to be important modifiers of the association between pesticides and PD and may reduce risk of PD associated with certain pesticides. PMID:25461423
Forrester, L A; Bryce, E A; Mediaa, A K
A year-long multifaceted hand-hygiene campaign entitled Clean Hands for Life targeting individual, environmental and organisational factors that influence healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour was implemented in 36 acute and long-term care facilities in Vancouver Coastal Health region. The campaign involved rotation of ten novel posters, two poster contests, and distribution of multiple promotional items. A social marketing approach was used to implement and monitor the effectiveness of the campaign. Evaluation included quality assurance surveys, staff surveys (baseline, mid- and post-campaign), and focus groups. A total of 141 poster contest submissions was received, 5452 staff surveys completed and 14 focus groups conducted. Overall knowledge of the importance of hand-hygiene and intention to clean hands was high at baseline. No significant differences were observed when mid- and post-campaign scores were compared to baseline. The majority (89.5%) of HCWs reported that they preferred soap and water over alcohol hand gel. A significant increase in the self-reported use of hand-hygiene products was observed particularly among HCWs not providing direct patient care. Barriers to hand-hygiene included inappropriate placement of sinks, traffic flow issues, inadequately stocked washrooms, workload and time constraints. Organisational support was visible throughout the campaign. The results showed that social marketing is an effective approach in engaging HCWs. Hand-hygiene campaigns that focus almost exclusively on increasing awareness among HCWs may not be as successful as multifaceted campaigns or campaigns that target identified barriers to hand-hygiene. PMID:20153550
Fijan, S; Sostar-Turk, S; Cencic, A
As textiles sent to hospital laundries contain many types of pathogenic organisms, it is important that laundering not only has an appropriate cleaning effect but also has a satisfactory disinfecting effect. Critical to this process is the maintenance of an appropriate hygiene level in the clean area of laundries in order to prevent recontamination of textiles from manual handling when ironing, folding, packing etc. The aims of this study were to evaluate the hygienic state of a hospital laundry, to introduce continuous sanitary measures, and to introduce a continuous hygiene monitoring system with an infection control programme. Two systems for evaluating hospital laundry hygiene were combined: HACCP principles (hazard analysis and critical control points) and RAL-GZ 992 standards (quality assurance standard for textile care of hospital laundry). Evaluation of the hygienic state of the hospital laundry was carried out by evaluating the number and types of micro-organisms present at the critical control points throughout the whole laundering process, using RODAC agar plates for surface sampling and the pour plate method for investigating water samples. The initial examination showed that the sanitary condition of the laundry did not reach the required hygiene level. Therefore, fundamental sanitation measures were instituted and the examination was repeated. Results were then satisfactory. The most important critical control point was the chemothermal laundering efficiency of the laundering process. To prevent micro-organisms spreading into the entire clean working area, it is important that, in addition to regular sanitary measures such as cleaning/disinfecting all working areas, technical equipment and storage shelves etc., regular education sessions for laundry employees on proper hand hygiene is undertaken and effective separation of the clean and dirty working areas is achieved. PMID:15975691
Ivanovi?, D; Alvarez, M L; Trufello, I; Aguayo, M; Yįńez, E; Zacarķas, I
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition in students graduating from high school in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago. The sample included 272 students of both sexes and type of school (public and private) and from high, medium and low socioeconomic level (SEL), measured through the Graffar Modified Scale. The degree of knowledge on food and nutrition was measured through a test of 48 items based on curriculum program objectives. The test covered three areas: Area 1, Food and Requirements; Area 2, Food, Personal and Environmental Hygiene, and Area 3, Nutritional Physiology. Students showed a good achievement of the food and nutrition objectives that are considered essential for obtaining and adequate nutrition and health status. Students from high SEL registered a significantly higher degree of knowledge on food and nutrition than students from other strata (p less than 0.001). However, sex and type of school had no effect on the degree of food and nutrition knowledge. This study is a contribution to the better understanding of factors affecting the food and nutrition knowledge, and provides good foundations for further studies. PMID:3632225
Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C
First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100
Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C
First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100
Bari, Md. Latiful; Hossain, M. Anwar; Isshiki, Kenji; Ukuku, Dike
Yersinia enterocolitica are ubiquitous, being isolated frequently from soil, water, animals, and a variety of foods. They comprise a biochemically heterogeneous group that can survive and grow at refrigeration temperatures. The ability to propagate at refrigeration temperatures is of considerable significance in food hygiene. Virulent strains of Yersinia invade mammalian cells such as HeLa cells in tissue culture. Two chromosomal genes, inv and ail, were identified for cell invasion of mammalian. The pathogen can cause diarrhoea, appendicitis and post-infection arthritis may occur in a small proportion of cases. The most common transmission route of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is thought to be fecal-oral via contaminated food. Direct person-to-person contact is rare. Occasionally, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica has been detected in vegetables and environmental water; thus, vegetables and untreated water are also potential sources of human yersiniosis. However, the isolation rates of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica have been low, which may be due to the limited sensitivity of the detection methods. To identify other possible transmission vehicles, different food items should be studied more extensively. Many factors related to the epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica, such as sources, transmission routes, and predominating genotypes remain obscure because of the low sensitivity of detection methods. PMID:22567332
Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A
This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. PMID:24425418
Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Ka?uska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga
The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms.
Krupi?ska-Nanys, Magdalena; Zarzecka, Joanna
Backround: The study is focused on increased risk of dental plaque accumulation among the children undergoing orthodontic treatment in consideration of individual hygiene and dietary habits. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 91 children aged 7-14 including 47 girls and 44 boys. The main objectives of the study were: API index, plaque pH, DMF index, proper hygiene and dietary habits. Statistical analysis was provided in Microsoft Office Exel spreadsheet and STATISTICA statistical software. Results: The average API index among the children wearing removable appliance was 9 (SD = 13), and among children without appliances was 16 (SD = 21). DMF index for patients using appliances was 5 (SD = 3) and for those without appliances was 4 (SD = 2). The average plaque pH was 6 for children with appliances (SD = 0.9) and 6.2 without ones (SD = 0.3). Conclusion: In patients in whom there is a higher risk of dental plaque accumulating, correct oral hygiene supported with regular visits to the dentist is one of the best ways to control dental caries. In the fight against caries the most effective and only approach is to promote awareness of the problem, foster proper hygiene and nutritional habits, as well as educate children from a very young age in how to maintain proper oral hygiene. PMID:25709359
Partido, Brian B; Jones, Archie A; English, Dana L; Nguyen, Carol A; Jacks, Mary E
Dental and dental hygiene faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction in the clinical environment, especially in tasks requiring clinical judgment. From previous efforts to calibrate faculty members in calculus detection using typodonts, researchers have suggested using human subjects and emerging technology to improve consistency in clinical instruction. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if a dental endoscopy-assisted training program would improve intra- and interrater reliability of dental hygiene faculty members in calculus detection. Training included an ODU 11/12 explorer, typodonts, and dental endoscopy. A convenience sample of six participants was recruited from the dental hygiene faculty at a California community college, and a two-group randomized experimental design was utilized. Intra- and interrater reliability was measured before and after calibration training. Pretest and posttest Kappa averages of all participants were compared using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA to determine the effectiveness of the calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability. The results showed that both kinds of reliability significantly improved for all participants and the training group improved significantly in interrater reliability from pretest to posttest. Calibration training was beneficial to these dental hygiene faculty members, especially those beginning with less than full agreement. This study suggests that calculus detection calibration training utilizing dental endoscopy can effectively improve interrater reliability of dental and dental hygiene clinical educators. Future studies should include human subjects, involve more participants at multiple locations, and determine whether improved rater reliability can be sustained over time. PMID:25640616
Wetmore, Ann O'Kelley; Boyd, Linda D; Bowen, Denise M; Pattillo, Robin E
One challenge facing dental hygiene, as well as dental, education is to identify clinical teaching strategies promoting critical thinking and clinical reasoning. These skills are crucial elements in the practice of dental hygiene. A two-group design (intervention, n=28, and control, n=30) assessed first-year dental hygiene students using pre-and post-Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) scores to evaluate the effect of reflective blogging on critical thinking skills. A reflective blog rubric, based on Mezirow's levels of reflection, determined if reflective blogging increased the level of reflection for dental hygiene students. The results suggest within this nonprobability sample that reflective blogging did not produce a significant change in students' HSRT scores (p>0.05). However, analyses of reflective blog rubric scores demonstrated statistically significant improvements (p<0.05) in students' levels of reflection. Furthermore, data analysis revealed a correlation (p<0.05) between HSRT subscale scores and the element of reflection scores for the intervention group. This study addressed needs of the dental and dental hygiene education community by examining the use of blogs, an emerging technology, as a tool for reflecting on clinical experiences and, in turn, for promoting critical thinking. PMID:21123501
Chauliac, Michel; And Others
Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…
Barkman, Susan J.
Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…
In this activity, learners construct possible food webs for six different ecosystems as they learn about the roles of different kinds of living organisms. Learners will also discuss and classify producers vs. consumers and different kinds of consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers and scavengers). This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) cards.
Oka, A E; N'Cho, K J; Kattie, A L; Koffi, N A; Bakayoko-Ly, R
Sugar and tooth decays are bound closely. The mechanisms of destruction of the tooth from the glycolyse are known. The role played by the food in the development of the caries is unique. Foods sweetened of all ways, rich in sucrose are responsible of the intervening of the carious lesions. The transformation of the fermentable sugars in lactic with the absence of hygiene and the action conjugated of the bacteria leads to tooth decays in temporary and permanent denture that evolve very quickly in the absence of treatment. Reasons for which the authors put in evidence in this survey, the influence of the food sweetened on the teeth at the children while showing the cases of caries and its complications due to the excessive consumption of fermentable hydrates of carbon. PMID:14560677
Yin, D. (Institute of Food Safety Control and Inspection, Beijing (China))
Eight trials, with 439 human volunteers who consumed irradiated foods including rice, potatoes, mushrooms, peanuts, and Chinese sausages, as well as diets composed of multiple irradiated foods (irradiated at dosages of 0.2 to 8 kGy) that accounted for 60-66% of the entire diet, were carried out for 2-3 months according to a unified protocol. No adverse effects on body weight, blood pressure, ECG, hematology, blood enzyme activities, serum lipids or blood or urine 17-hydroxycortisol contents and no chromosomal aberration of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found. It is especially worthwhile to note that there was no change in the polyploidy after consumption of irradiated diets. On the basis of these results and a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of irradiated foods, temporary hygienic standards for irradiated rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, Chinese sausages, peanuts, and mushrooms were promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Public Health.
Stadler, Connie R.; Rapp, Rita M.; Bourland, Charles T.; Fohey, Michael F.
All food in the Space Shuttle food system was precooked and processed so it required no refrigeration and was either ready-to-eat or could be prepared for consumption by simply adding water and/or heating. A gun-type water dispenser and a portable, suitcase-type heater were used to support this food system during the first four missions. On STS-5, new rehydratable packages were introduced along with a needle-injection water dispenser that measured the water as it was dispensed into the packages. A modular galley was developed to facilitate the meal preparation process aboard the Space Shuttle. The galley initially flew on STS-9. A personal hygiene station, a hot or cold water dispenser, a convection oven, and meal assembly areas were included in the galley.
Conway, Laurie J.; Riley, Linda; Saiman, Lisa; Cohen, Bevin; Alper, Paul; Larson, Elaine L.
Article-at-a-Glance Background Despite substantial evidence to support the effectiveness of hand hygiene for preventing health care–associated infections, hand hygiene practice is often inadequate. Hand hygiene product dispensers that can electronically capture hand hygiene events have the potential to improve hand hygiene performance. A study on an automated group monitoring and feedback system was implemented from January 2012 through March 2013 at a 140-bed community hospital. Methods An electronic system that monitors the use of sanitizer and soap but does not identify individual health care personnel was used to calculate hand hygiene events per patient-hour for each of eight inpatient units and hand hygiene events per patient-visit for the six outpatient units. Hand hygiene was monitored but feedback was not provided during a six-month baseline period and three-month rollout period. During the rollout, focus groups were conducted to determine preferences for feedback frequency and format. During the six-month intervention period, graphical reports were e-mailed monthly to all managers and administrators, and focus groups were repeated. Results After the feedback began, hand hygiene increased on average by 0.17 events/patient-hour in inpatient units (interquartile range = 0.14, p = .008). In outpatient units, hand hygiene performance did not change significantly. A variety of challenges were encountered, including obtaining accurate census and staffing data, engendering confidence in the system, disseminating information in the reports, and using the data to drive improvement. Conclusions Feedback via an automated system was associated with improved hand hygiene performance in the short term. PMID:25252389
Borhani Nejad, Mohadeseh; Rashidi, Mohammad; Oloumi, Mohammad Mehdi
Today, on the contrary of the last ten decades, the necessity of teaching hygienic issues, and caring the children’s health, is pretty obvious. Avicenna (10 AC), the famous Iranian physician and philosopher, scrutinized the health and hygiene with a deep insight to the matter. He considered the wellness not only as the recovery from the disease, but emphasized the maintenance of health by suggesting special points and instructions. In Islamic education, paying attention to cleanliness, health and physical strength is very important and considered as the intermediate goals for the achievement of “pure life”, which is the ultimate goal. Avicenna paid special attention to physical purity, health and wellness, and devoted the major parts of his book to them. The present article analyzes the Avicenna’s educational opinions, specially his viewpoints regarding hygiene and health in three stages of childhood, teenage years, and youth. PMID:24596865
Borhani Nejad, Mohadeseh; Rashidi, Mohammad; Oloumi, Mohammad Mehdi
Today, on the contrary of the last ten decades, the necessity of teaching hygienic issues, and caring the children's health, is pretty obvious. Avicenna (10 AC), the famous Iranian physician and philosopher, scrutinized the health and hygiene with a deep insight to the matter. He considered the wellness not only as the recovery from the disease, but emphasized the maintenance of health by suggesting special points and instructions. In Islamic education, paying attention to cleanliness, health and physical strength is very important and considered as the intermediate goals for the achievement of "pure life", which is the ultimate goal. Avicenna paid special attention to physical purity, health and wellness, and devoted the major parts of his book to them. The present article analyzes the Avicenna's educational opinions, specially his viewpoints regarding hygiene and health in three stages of childhood, teenage years, and youth. PMID:24596865
Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Sonck, Bart; De Reu, Koen; Herman, Lieve; Zoons, Johan
The aim of this review was to compare welfare, health, and hygienic status of laying hens housed in furnished cages and in alternative systems. In alternative systems (floor housing and aviaries), birds have more freedom of movement and a more complex environment than in furnished cages. However, housing birds in much larger flocks in alternative systems leads to an increased risk of feather-pecking. Furthermore, air quality can be poorer in alternative systems than in furnished cages. This can affect health and hygienic status. There are only limited data on a direct comparison between furnished cages and alternative systems. Therefore, there is a need for an on-farm comparison of welfare, health, and hygienic status in these systems. PMID:16468949
de Lara, Catherine; Noble, Alistair
Allergic asthma continues to represent a huge health burden worldwide and is largely treated by non-selective immunosuppressive drugs, which often prove ineffective. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the increased incidence of allergy and asthma in Western countries observed in the last 50 years is due to environmental changes that include improved hygiene and a lack of infections. The immunological mechanisms that must underpin such an environmental impact on immune regulation remain to be defined, making it difficult to identify specific ways of preventing development of allergy and asthma in early life. In this article we will seek to review some of the pathways that might underlie the hygiene hypothesis in an attempt to provide targets for future asthma prevention. PMID:19707324
Laurian J. ed. Unnevehr
CONTENTS: Overview \\/ Laurian J. Unnevehr; Food Safety as a Public Health Issue for Developing Countries \\/ Fritz K. Käferstein; Mycotoxin Food Safety Risk in Developing Countries \\/ Ramesh V. Bhat and Siruguri Vasanthi; Trends in Food Safety Standards and Regulation: Implications for Developing Countries \\/ Julie A. Caswell; Food Safety Issues in International Trade \\/ Spencer Henson; Balancing Risk
Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...
Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...
Zellmer, Caroline; Blakney, Rebekah; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia
Hand hygiene with soap and water after the care of a patient with Clostridium difficile infection is essential to reduce nosocomial transmission in an outbreak situation. Factors that may pose barriers to user completion of infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene, are of interest. We undertook a quantitative study to evaluate the relationship between sink location and compliance with handwashing among health care workers and visitors in a surgical transplant unit. We found that placement of 2 more easily visible sinks in a surgical transplant unit was associated with improved adherence to handwashing. PMID:25704256
Carter, Eileen J; Cohen, Bevin; Murray, Meghan T; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L
Hand hygiene (HH) in pediatric long-term care settings has been found to be sub-optimal. Multidisciplinary teams at three pediatric long-term care facilities developed step-by-step workflow diagrams of commonly performed tasks highlighting HH opportunities. Diagrams were validated through observation of tasks and concurrent diagram assessment. Facility teams developed six workflow diagrams that underwent 22 validation observations. Four main themes emerged: 1) diagram specificity, 2) wording and layout, 3) timing of HH indications, and 4) environmental hygiene. The development of workflow diagrams is an opportunity to identify and address the complexity of HH in pediatric long-term care facilities. PMID:25773517
Hay, Simon I.; McHugh, Gerri M.
Presidents have been required to give an inaugural address on commencing office at the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) since its foundation in 1907. All presidential addresses were identified, sourced and assembled into an annotated bibliography. The majority of presidential addresses have been published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Unpublished and in some cases ‘lost’ contributions have now been sourced where possible and archived at the RSTMH. This unique, rich and rewarding archive provides a vista into the development of the RSTMH and the discipline of tropical medicine. The archive is freely available to all. PMID:24026462
Aiello, Allison E; Malinis, Maricar; Knapp, Jennifer K; Mody, Lona
There are few studies that have assessed factors influencing infection control practices among health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs (N = 392) in 4 nursing homes to assess whether knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions influence reported hand hygiene habits. Positive perceptions and beliefs regarding effectiveness of infection control in nursing homes were associated with reported appropriate glove use and fingernail characteristics, respectively, among HCWs. Further research on hand hygiene interventions, including targeted educational in-services should be conducted in the nursing home setting. PMID:18945512
... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...
Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)
A series of resources and inquiry lessons on nutrition and food-related concepts such as photosynthesis, food webs, food contaminants, food borne parasites or bacterial infections and choosing a healthy diet.
Seeliger, H. P. R.
Any attempt to evaluate the prevalence of food-borne diseases in Europe is fraught with difficulty, partly because in some countries such diseases, if reported, are not clearly designated as food-borne, and partly because of the variety in terminology and methods of classification. Nevertheless, it is apparent that, although certain food-borne infections have decreased in prevalence, others have increased during the past decade. This increase has been shown to be related in some countries to the import of certain foodstuffs and fodder from tropical and subtropical regions and has resulted in a general spread of Salmonella infections by a wide variety of serotypes. Food-borne intoxications are predominantly caused by the ingestion of the toxins elaborated by the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in food and by spore-forming bacilli. Botulism is now rare in Europe. While the recent increase in the prevalence of these diseases calls for strict supervision of food products and improved measures of ensuring food hygiene, the efficacy of such steps as may be taken will depend on close co-operation between public health and veterinary public health authorities. PMID:14444504
Wieneke, A A; Roberts, D; Gilbert, R J
Between 1969 and 1990 strains of Staphylococcus aureus from 359 outbreaks and sporadic cases of staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom were examined in the PHLS Food Hygiene Laboratory for the production of enterotoxin. In a number of instances the incriminated foods were also examined for the presence of enterotoxin. Strains from 79% of incidents produced enterotoxin A alone or together with another enterotoxin. The level of S. aureus present in the foods ranged from no viable S. aureus detected to 1.5 x 10(10) c.f.u./g with a median of 3.0 x 10(7) c.f.u./g. Enterotoxin was detected in foods in the absence of viable S. aureus in only two outbreaks and in both cheese was the implicated food. Meat, poultry or their products were the vehicle in 75% of incidents with ham and chicken most frequently implicated. Other foods included fish and shellfish (7%) and milk and milk products (8%). Most contamination took place in the home followed by restaurants and shops. Seventy-one percent of the incident strains were lysed by phages of group III or I/III. PMID:8519317
Wieneke, A. A.; Roberts, D.; Gilbert, R. J.
Between 1969 and 1990 strains of Staphylococcus aureus from 359 outbreaks and sporadic cases of staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom were examined in the PHLS Food Hygiene Laboratory for the production of enterotoxin. In a number of instances the incriminated foods were also examined for the presence of enterotoxin. Strains from 79% of incidents produced enterotoxin A alone or together with another enterotoxin. The level of S. aureus present in the foods ranged from no viable S. aureus detected to 1.5 x 10(10) c.f.u./g with a median of 3.0 x 10(7) c.f.u./g. Enterotoxin was detected in foods in the absence of viable S. aureus in only two outbreaks and in both cheese was the implicated food. Meat, poultry or their products were the vehicle in 75% of incidents with ham and chicken most frequently implicated. Other foods included fish and shellfish (7%) and milk and milk products (8%). Most contamination took place in the home followed by restaurants and shops. Seventy-one percent of the incident strains were lysed by phages of group III or I/III. PMID:8519317
American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.
The proceedings of the second in a series of workshops on dental hygiene education and practice are presented. The opening remarks are by Cheryl Westphal. Papers categorized as "Considerations for the Professionalization of Dental Hygiene" are as follows: "Socio-Economic Viewpoint" (Gary Gaumer); "Political Science Viewpoint" (Lelia Helms);…
Beth A. C. Yeager; Sharon R. A. Huttly; Judith Diaz; Rosario Bartolini; Margot Marin; Claudio F. Lanata
This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of an intervention to promote improved hygiene practices in a shanty town area of Lima, Peru. Following formative research, the intervention focused on behaviors associated with the hygienic use of potties by children aged 15-47 months and keeping the home environment free from feces. A health communications strategy was developed invol- ving
Efurd, Melissa G.
The purpose for conducting this study was to investigate and describe the relationship between applicant criteria for a dental hygiene program and subsequent outcomes on credentialing exams: the National Board Dental Hygiene Exam and the Southern Regional Testing Agency clinical exam. Because admission criteria play a crucial role in applicant…
King Research, Inc., Rockville, MD.
In the fall of 1978, field visits--involving facility tours and interviews with administrators, school and library personnel, and patients--were made to institutions run by the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. This department includes the Aged and Chronically Ill, the Juvenile Services, the Mental Hygiene, and the Mental…
McGuckin, Maryanne; Shubin, Arlene; McBride, Patricia; Lane, Stephen; Strauss, Kevin; Butler, Donna; Pitman, Andrew
Hand hygiene (HH) compliance in the intensive care unit has been studied extensively, with short-term, nonsustained compliance often because of lack of ongoing reinforcement. HH messages delivered by health care workers responsible for overseeing staff in the intensive care unit provided continuous reinforcement of HH. Compliance measured through product usage and reported as HH/bed-days increased by 60% for soap and sanitizer combined and 25% for sanitizer usage (P < 001). PMID:17161744
Bovee, E H; de Kruijf, N; Jetten, J; Barendsz, A W
EC Directive 93/43/EEC of 14 June 1993 on the hygiene of foodstuffs has been implemented in the Netherlands through the Food and Commodity Act (Warenwet) of 14 December 1995. This Directive requires food companies to identify steps in their activities that are critical to ensuring food safety, and to ensure that adequate safety procedures are identified, implemented, maintained and reviewed based on the principles of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. HACCP is a tool used to assess hazards, estimate risks and establish specific control measures that emphasize prevention and control rather than reliance on end-product testing. Increasing public awareness of food safety, together with the introduction of this new legislation, has led producers and retailers of food to demand higher standards from their suppliers. Suppliers of raw materials, ingredients and also food packaging will be expected to bring their standards of hygiene in line with the expectations of the food industry. Food producers will need to obtain the guarantee from their suppliers that the packaging does not negatively influence their products. HACCP is a method that can also be applied to ensure the safety and other quality aspects of all kinds of food packaging materials such as films, foils, trays, cups, boxes and tubs made of paper, cardboard, polymers, metal and other materials (single use or disposable packagings as well as re-usable and recycled packagings). At the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), the quality and safety aspects of re-use of food packaging, and refillable bottles in particular, have been the subject of extensive investigations in the project 'Quality monitoring of synthetic refillable bottles'. In this paper the set-up of the project and the Codes of Practice for refillable bottles are described. Moreover, the applicability of HACCP to food packagings and an example of a HACCP study for refillable PET bottles will be discussed. PMID:9373535
Grace M. Burton
This unit of four lessons from NCTM's Illuminations lets students conduct surveys and represent data in a variety of ways. They also find and compare measures of center. The lessons center around a food court, where students create and use menus in a meaningful way. Topics covered include bar graphs, line plots, and pictographs, measures of center, and probability of events. Individual lessons link to related tools where appropriate, and include questions for students, assessment options, and teacher reflection questions.
Picheansathian, Wilawan; Pearson, Alan; Suchaxaya, Prakin
This quasi-experimental study aimed to identify the impact of a promotion programme on hand hygiene practices and its effect on nosocomial infection rates in a neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital in Thailand. The study populations were 26 nursing personnel. After implementing a hand hygiene promotion programme, compliance with hand hygiene among nursing personnel improved significantly from 6.3% before the programme to 81.2% 7 months after the programme. Compliance rate did not correlate with the intensity of patient care. Nosocomial infection rate did not decrease after the intervention, probably because of the multifactorial nature of infections. All participants agreed that promotion programme implemented in this project motivated them to practise better hand hygiene. This study indicated that multiple approaches and persistent encouragement are key factors leading to a sustained high level of appropriate hand hygiene practices among nursing personnel. PMID:18715394
Student groups are challenged to create food packages for specific foods. They focus on three components in the design of their food packages; the packages must keep the food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in the food, and present the food appealingly. They design their packaging to meet these requirements.
Ibe, Nnenne I.; Iroegbu, Christian U.
Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods—beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri—and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p<0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 °C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN ?50) were above the accepted 104 colony-forming unit/g or MPN ?10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029
Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U
Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ?10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ?60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases. PMID:23462086
El-Shenawy, Moustafa; El-Shenawy, Mohamed; Mańes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose M.
Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ?103?CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, and products of plant origin). Most of the samples contaminated by L. monocytogenes had high levels of total viable bacterial counts. The results obtained may help to clarify the epidemiology of listeriosis in the country and draw the attention of the decision makers to issue hygienic regulations for food processing industries as well as street vendors in order to ensure safe street-vended ready-to-eat food. PMID:22194742
There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...
Patel, Pradip D
The 4 major driving forces that are expected to lead to increased use of affinity biosensors that meet crucial industrial test specifications, e.g., fast, reliable, cost-effective, and use of low-skilled personnel, are (1) strict legislative framework, e.g., recent changes proposed to the European food safety and hygiene legislation, EC No. 178/2002; (2) industrial shift from quality control to quality assurance procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, ensuring effective positioning in the global competitive trade; (3) just-in-time production resulting in 'right' product every time; and (4) consumer demand for safe and wholesome products. The affinity biosensors field has expanded significantly over the past decade, with a projected global biosensors market growth from $6.1 billion in 2004 to $8.2 billion in 2009, representing major industrial sectors (e.g., Pharma, Medicare, and Food). This brief review is targeted to affinity biosensors developed for the food industry and includes research and development leading to biosensors for microbiological and chemical analytes of industrial concern, commercial biosensors products on the market, and examples of future prospects in this diagnostic field. PMID:16792079
K. M. Hargis; E. Golias; R. J. Sherman; L. D. Wheat; G. W. Royer
Industrial hygiene sampling was conducted during the burn of a second and larger experimental modified in situ (MIS) oil shale retort at the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's facility in northwestern Colorado. The study was a follow-up to sampling performed before and during the burn of the first MIS retort prepared by the company. Air sampling was again conducted on
Lowe, R; Rees, D
The objectives of this study were to assess the current occupational hygiene practices of occupational health nurses and to assess their attitudes to the identification and initial quantification of workplace hazards. A questionnaire was mailed to all occupational health nurses registered with the South African Society of Occupational Health Nurses. Responses were obtained from 221 (53.7%). Responders and non-responders did not differ on key characteristics. Only 14 (6%) of the respondents performed occupational hygiene tasks as part of their routine work and only 31 (14%) volunteered hazard identification and quantification as tasks that would significantly improve practice. Nevertheless, when asked directly, 120 (54%) agreed that occupational hygiene fell into the ambit of occupational health nursing. Over 70% were positive about receiving theoretical and practical hygiene training. Constraints to greater hazard identification included limited time and resources and concern about intruding into the domains of other practitioners. Sufficient numbers of occupational health nurses were interested in identifying hazards in the workplace for training courses to be planned and offered now; however, restraints to practice need to be clarified and removed for these new skills to be used effectively. PMID:8716701
DK Blackmore; AR Watson; DN Brewer
Development of the veterinary undergraduate course in meat hygiene over a ten year period is discussed. Arrangements and supervision of students during a two week practical course at six specified centres of meat production, and the value of such training in an actual industrial environment are discussed. The timing of this course in relation to the veterinary curriculum and the
This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and educational program, an epidemiology program, and a toxicological program. The industrial hygiene monitoring program during the past two years continued evaluation of occupational exposures to various air contaminants. The major emphasis was directed to the development, refinement and implementation of the skin contamination evaluation project. The medical examination program continued to indicate the absence of discernible occupationally related changes in employee medical profiles. In addition, appreciable effort was expended on efforts to develop a single layered garment which would prevent the appearance of black specks on the anterior thighs of plant operators working in areas of high particulate concentrations. The employee personal hygiene and educational program was extended to include both temporary and contract personnel. An epidemiology program was initiated during the period and efforts were concentrated primarily on program design and data collection. In the toxicological program, acute and genetic studies were completed on most of the SRC-II materials but no studies were initiated in the SRC-I portion of the program because of unavailability of test materials.
Prokopenko, L V; Kravchenko, O K; Ermolenko, A E; Kurierov, N N; Lagutina, A V; Tseitlina, G S
Brief historical summary about Institute' vibroacoustic factors investigations development in the XXth century is presented. There are shown the data of noise, vibration, ultra- and infrasound hygienic rating in comparison with international approaches; the ways of its international harmonization in modern social and economic situation are selected. PMID:24341033
Luste, Sami; Luostarinen, Sari
The effect of hygienization (70 °C, 60 min) and ultrasound (6000 ± 500 kJ/kg total solids (TS)) pre-treatments on hydrolysis and biological methane (CH(4)) potential (BMP) of dairy cattle slurry was studied. The BMP of the untreated slurry (control) was 210 ± 10 Nm(3) CH(4)/ton volatile solids (VS) added; after ultrasound pre-treatment it was 250 ± 10 Nm(3) CH(4)/ton VS(added) and after hygienization 280 ± 20 Nm(3) CH(4)/ton VS(added). The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the inoculum increased from 22 (untreated) to 26 (ultrasound treated) and up to 28 N ml CH(4)/g VS d, after hygienization. However, only hygienization achieved a positive net energy balance. Both pre-treatments increased the VS-based hydrolysis of slurry (10-96%), soluble nitrogen (N(sol)) content in digestates (20 ± 5%) and biodegradability of the slurry (8 ± 3%) as estimated via elevated VS removal. PMID:21592760
Frataccia, Enrico V.; Hennington, Iris
The growing incidence of teacher burnout suggests that many teachers have difficulty in satisfying their needs and in deriving satisfaction from teaching. This study examined the needs that teachers appear to have difficulty in satisfying. The study is based on Herzberg's Hygiene-Motivation Theory. This theory, related to Maslow's Hierarchy of…
Feldman, David; Elliott, Thomas A.
A multidimensional oral hygiene curriculum appropriate for the moderately to profoundly retarded and composed of tooth brushing, flossing, and gum stimulation/massage is proposed. Task analyses are included for manual tooth brushing, utilizing an oral irrigation appliance, manual flossing, and use of an adaptive aid for flossing. Also provided are…
Brian Brown; Brigitte Nerlich; Paul Crawford; Nelya Koteyko; Ronald Carter
Infectious diseases, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and avian influenza, have recently been high on the agenda of policy makers and the public. Although hygiene and biosecu- rity are preferred options for disease management, policy makers have become increasingly aware of the critical role that communication assumes in protecting people during outbreaks and epi- demics. This article makes the case
Infections and allergy -- helminths, hygiene and host immune regulation Rick M Maizels of allergy is not achieved through immune deviation to Th1, but is linked to expansion of regulatory T cell from an infected, allergen-naiØve animal to an uninfected, sensitized recipient. Patent allergy
Daniel A. Sachau
Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory is a popular but controversial theory of employee satisfaction. The theory was at the center of a long debate that focused on conceptual and methodological problems with the theory. Now, more than 30 years after the debate and despite multiple claims that Herzberg's theory is dead, emerging research from the field of positive psychology is surprisingly consistent
Matiukhin, V V; Iushkova, O I; Shardakova, E F; Elizarova, V V; Iampol'skaia, E G; Poroshenko, A S; Kapustina, A V; Lagutina, G N
The article tackles necessity of physiologic and ergonomic research in system of social and hygienic monitoring of workers' performance and health. A presented scheme covers physiologic and ergonimic aspects: monitoring of work process factors; monitoring of workers' performance and functional state. The authors formulated theoretic orientation of the problem and demonstrated scientific and practical importance of physiologic and ergonomic monitoring. PMID:18686638
Lemon, Sherry; Reveal, Marge
A survey of 138 dental hygiene programs gathered information on didactic and clinical experiences for preparing students to treat patients with mental illnesses. Although most curricula addressed the issue, inadequate time was allotted. Over half did not provide oral care to these patients; few felt the community's need was met. (MSE)
Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie; Phuc, Pham Duc; West, Line Gram Knudsen
In North and Central Vietnam it is common among farmers to use excreta from the family double vault composting latrine (DVC) as fertilizer in the fields. The official Vietnamese health guidelines stipulate a six-month period of composting before applying excreta to two of their three annual crops. However, farmers in this region cannot afford to follow these guidelines and this paper presents the reasons why.In their efforts to ensure optimal hygienic conditions, by providing a guideline, the Vietnamese health authorities have not put sufficient attention to the 'excreta economy' in relation to farmers' livelihoods. The free fertilizer in the household DVC represents a value of approximately US$ 15.5 per year--or the equivalent of 15 percent of the annual household income for the poorest 20 percent of farmers. For this reason, the economic benefits derived from free fertilizer outweigh the hygiene message for most Vietnamese farmers. Even at national level the excreta economy has an impact. If Vietnam were to replace human excreta with imported fertilizer, it would involve an extra national expenditure of at least US$ 83 million a year.In order to convince Vietnamese farmers to adopt different fertilizing methods when reusing human excreta, it is necessary for the Vietnamese health authorities to change their hygiene message. They need to replace their current health sector-specific approach with a holistic one that takes the premises of farmers' livelihoods into account. If they do not the hygiene message will simply be lost. PMID:20565820
In North and Central Vietnam it is common among farmers to use excreta from the family double vault composting latrine (DVC) as fertilizer in the fields. The official Vietnamese health guidelines stipulate a six-month period of composting before applying excreta to two of their three annual crops. However, farmers in this region cannot afford to follow these guidelines and this paper presents the reasons why. In their efforts to ensure optimal hygienic conditions, by providing a guideline, the Vietnamese health authorities have not put sufficient attention to the ‘excreta economy’ in relation to farmers’ livelihoods. The free fertilizer in the household DVC represents a value of approximately US$ 15.5 per year - or the equivalent of 15 percent of the annual household income for the poorest 20 percent of farmers. For this reason, the economic benefits derived from free fertilizer outweigh the hygiene message for most Vietnamese farmers. Even at national level the excreta economy has an impact. If Vietnam were to replace human excreta with imported fertilizer, it would involve an extra national expenditure of at least US$ 83 million a year. In order to convince Vietnamese farmers to adopt different fertilizing methods when reusing human excreta, it is necessary for the Vietnamese health authorities to change their hygiene message. They need to replace their current health sector-specific approach with a holistic one that takes the premises of farmers' livelihoods into account. If they do not the hygiene message will simply be lost. PMID:20565820
Finley Jr., Russell L.
that fume hoods and other protective equipment are functioning properly and for maintaining adequateChemical Hygiene Plan In Accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1450 and R325.70106 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Office of Environmental Health & Safety 5425 Woodward, Suite 300 Detroit
Huang, Cunrui; Ma, Wenjun; Stack, Susan
The transmission of bacteria is more likely to occur from wet skin than from dry skin; therefore, the proper drying of hands after washing should be an integral part of the hand hygiene process in health care. This article systematically reviews the research on the hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods. A literature search was conducted in April 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Search terms used were hand dryer and hand drying. The search was limited to articles published in English from January 1970 through March 2011. Twelve studies were included in the review. Hand-drying effectiveness includes the speed of drying, degree of dryness, effective removal of bacteria, and prevention of cross-contamination. This review found little agreement regarding the relative effectiveness of electric air dryers. However, most studies suggest that paper towels can dry hands efficiently, remove bacteria effectively, and cause less contamination of the washroom environment. From a hygiene viewpoint, paper towels are superior to electric air dryers. Paper towels should be recommended in locations where hygiene is paramount, such as hospitals and clinics. PMID:22656243
Alesbury, Roger J; Bailey, Stephen R
Thirteen member societies of the International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA), all 11 national certification bodies, and IOHA itself are now cooperating in a new international training and qualification system. The structure broadens access to occupational hygiene education and training worldwide and complements existing professional accreditation schemes. There are currently 46 Approved Training Providers in the scheme and up to the end of June 2013, approaching 200 courses had been delivered in more than 32 countries, with nearly 2400 examinations taken in 7 languages. This influx of students, particularly in developing countries, is helping to address the worldwide need to combat occupational illness and is creating the foundation for sustainable growth in provision of occupational hygiene globally. The scheme originated in 2006, when the authors were instrumental in bringing together a group of senior hygienists to review the needs of industry. The resulting position paper, reflecting the perspective of major multi-national companies, was subject to widespread consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from across the world. This led to the formation of the Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA), as a not-for-profit organization, to operate the system. It is accessible through the OHlearning website that provides free downloads of educational materials and details of training events. In this commentary, we outline the needs that brought this about, identify the key stakeholders involved, review what has been done so far, and discuss some plans for the future. PMID:24375869
Jeffrey W. Harris
Summary Suppressed Mite Reproduction (SMR) is a trait of honey bees that provides resistance to Varroa destructor. The mechanism of resistance in SMR bees is the removal of infested pupae from capped brood, so a better name is VSH bees (acronym for Varroa Sensitive Hygiene). This study compared the removal of infested brood by VSH and control bees to determine
Teacher is Space participant Christa McAuliffe is briefed on her suit and on personal hygiene equipment to be used on the STS 51-L mission. She is standing in front of a table with several of the items to be used on the flight, including one can labeled DIAL and one can labeled BAN.
Sifuentes, Laura Y; Koenig, David W; Phillips, Ronnie L; Reynolds, Kelly A; Gerba, Charles P
The goals of this study were to observe the spread of viruses in a hotel setting and to assess the effectiveness of a hygiene intervention in reducing their spread. Selected fomites in one hotel room were inoculated with bacteriophage ?x-174, and fomites in a conference center within the same hotel were inoculated using bacteriophage MS2. Cleaning of the contaminated room resulted in the spread of viruses to other rooms by the housekeeping staff. Furthermore, viruses were transferred by hotel guests to the conference center and a communal kitchen area. Additionally, conference attendees transferred viruses from the conference center to their hotel rooms and a communal kitchen area. This study demonstrated how viruses can be spread throughout a hotel setting by both housekeepers and guests. A hygiene intervention, which included providing hand hygiene products and facial tissues to the guests and disinfecting solutions with disposable wipes to the housekeeping staff, was successful in reducing the spread of viruses between the hotel guest rooms and conference center. The hygiene intervention resulted in significantly reduced transfer of the ?x-174 between the contaminated hotel room and other hotel rooms, communal areas, and the conference center (p = 0.02). PMID:25005587
Carlene A Muto; Maria G Sistrom; Barry M Farr
Objective: The objective of the study was to improve health care workers' compliance with hand hygiene after patient contact by use of an alcohol-based hand antiseptic. Design and Methods: Six commercially available alcohol-based hand antiseptics were evaluated. The one most pleasing to the evaluators' hands was selected for the study. Baseline handwashing rates were assessed on 2 medical wards. Alcohol
Purpose. This review was done to explore the impact of water treatment, hygiene, and sanitary interventions on improving child health outcomes such as absenteeism, infections, knowledge, attitudes, and practices and adoption of point-of-use water treatment. Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed and Google scholar for studies published between 2009 and 2012 and focusing on the effects of access to safe water, hand washing facilities, and hygiene education among school-age children. Studies included were those that documented the provision of water and sanitation in schools for children less than 18 years of age, interventions which assessed WASH practices, and English-language, full-text peer reviewed papers. Results. Fifteen studies were included in the final analysis. 73% (n = 11) of the studies were conducted in developing countries and were rural based (53%, n = 8). The child's age, gender, grade level, socioeconomic index, access to hygiene and sanitary facilities, and prior knowledge of hygiene practices were significantly associated with the outcomes. Nutrition practices which are key factors associated with the outcomes were rarely assessed. Conclusion. Further research is required to assess the long-term impact of such interventions in different settings. PMID:24454415
Kenneth Burke's employment with the Bureau of Social Hygiene informed his rhetorical theory in the 1930s. Between 1926 and 1930, Burke researched criminology and drug addiction and ghostwrote a book for Colonel Arthur Woods, "Dangerous Drugs". An investigation of archives indicates that this research left its mark on Burke's "Permanence and…
Piazza, Cathleen C.; Contrucci, Stephanie A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Fisher, Wayne W.
The escape-maintained destructive behavior of an 8-year-old girl with mental retardation persisted during hygiene routines with directive prompting, differential reinforcement for compliance, and extinction as treatment. Using nondirective prompting and noncontingent reinforcement, destructive behavior was reduced to near-zero levels during the…
Kenneth Burke's employment with the Bureau of Social Hygiene informed his rhetorical theory in the 1930s. Between 1926 and 1930, Burke researched criminology and drug addiction and ghostwrote a book for Colonel Arthur Woods, Dangerous Drugs. An investigation of archives indicates that this research left its mark on Burke's Permanence and Change…
Few intellectual and social movements of this century have had so pervasive an influence on the theory and practice of American education as the mental hygiene movement. This movement substantially altered ways of thinking about education, in particular, the school's responsibility for children's personality development. The movement's history is…
Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.
This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the dental hygiene technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies. Section II…
Michel Bigras-Poulin; André Ravel; Denise Bélanger; Pascal Michel
Infections by enteropathogenic microorganisms linked to agroenvironmental contamination represent a significant threat to urban and rural communities. To better characterize and manage this risk, it is necessary, not only to accurately describe enteric illnesses occurring over time or across regions, but also to correctly assess exposure attributable to this environmental pollution. New agroenvironmental hygienic pressure indicators (AHPIs) were developed to
This study was designed to use Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory to investigate the different levels of job satisfaction among adjunct college instructors at eight institutions of higher education located in southeast Texas. Differences in job satisfaction were measured by instructor gender, ethnicity, age, teaching experience, type of…
Daniel P. Askin; Mark Volkmann
The relationship between personal hygiene and blood lead levels was tested at a lead processing facility. During the workers semiannual respirator fit test, when they were confident their hands were clean, the amount of lead on their right hands was measured. Samples were obtained by cleaning one entire hand with a wiping towel treated with a proprietary mixture of alcohol,
Edmonds, Sarah L; Zapka, Carrie; Kasper, Douglas; Gerber, Robert; McCormack, Robert; Macinga, David; Johnson, Stuart; Sambol, Susan; Fricker, Christopher; Arbogast, James; Gerding, Dale N
This study determined whether surrogate organisms can predict activity against Clostridium difficile spores and compared the efficacy of hand hygiene preparations against C. difficile. Our data suggest that surrogate organisms were not predictive of C. difficile spore removal. Four preparations were significantly more effective than tap water at removing C. difficile. PMID:23388366
Curtis, V.; Kanki, B.; Cousens, S.; Diallo, I.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sangaré, M.; Nikiema, M.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. FINDINGS: After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. CONCLUSION: Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time. PMID:11436473
Messina, Michael J; Brodell, Lindsey A; Brodell, Robert T; Mostow, Eliot N
Hand hygiene is a central factor in preventing the spread of disease in the dermatologist's office. The role of hand washing and alcohol-based hand rubs is considered with emphasis on compliance, effectiveness, side effects, and cost. Specific recommendations highlight the importance of using alcohol-based hand rubs as an adjunct to traditional hand-washing methods. PMID:18848734
This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…
Katt, James A.; Condly, Steven J.
This study seeks to begin answering two simple questions: "What motivates our students?" and its corollary, "What prevents our students from being motivated?" The motivation-hygiene theory (F. Herzberg, "Work and the nature of man," World Publishing, Cleveland, OH, 1966), a well-tested theory from organizational psychology, holds that people's…
de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa
Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health. PMID:25477940
Fermentation is one of the oldest technologies used for food preservation. Over the centuries, it has evolved and been refined and diversified. Today, a variety of food products is derived from this technology in households, small-scale food industries as well as in large enterprises. Furthermore, fermentation is an affordable food preservation technology and of economic importance to developing countries. In the report of an FAO/WHO Workshop (FAO/WHO, 1996), fermentation was reviewed and the nutritional and safety aspects of fermentation technologies and their products were assessed. Fermentation enhances the nutritional quality of foods and contributes to food safety particularly under conditions where refrigeration or other foods processing facilities are not available. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) studies of some fermented products have demonstrated that depending on the process and the hygienic conditions observed during preparation, some fermented foods, e.g. togwa prepared in Tanzania, may pose a safety risk. Fermented foods must therefore be studied following HACCP principles and small-scale food industries and households must be advised on the critical control points of fermentation processes and the control measures to be applied at these points. This paper reviews the risks and benefits of fermentation and demonstrates the application of the HACCP system to some fermented foods in developing countries. PMID:12036144
Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vįzquez-Sįnchez, Daniel; Martķnez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodrķguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J.
Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products. PMID:23023749
Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L
Background Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. Methods We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Results Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9–10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Conclusions Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms. PMID:24105783
Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.
Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001). Conclusions While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487
Learn more about food chains, food webs, and how the organisms in them affect each other. In class, you have learned what food webs and food chains are. Today, you will explore how the organisms in these systems interact. Step One: Food Chains What happens when you take something out of a food chain? Go to the Chain Reaction website: Chain Reaction--Food Chains This internet site will help you ...
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (
Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K
Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226
Mitakakis, T. Z.; Wolfe, R.; Sinclair, M. I.; Fairley, C. K.; Leder, K.; Hellard, M. E.
Cases of gastroenteritis were examined to identify if dietary intake prior to an episode and food-handling and storage practices in the home were risk factors for illness. Cases and controls completed a dietary questionnaire after an event or when well, and questionnaires concerning food-handling, storage and general food-hygiene practices. Comparing cases to themselves when well. subjects were more likely to have eaten cold sliced salami, fried rice and foods cooked elsewhere, and to have had a baby in nappies in the house (OR 1.52-6.24, P< or =0.01). Cases compared to non-cases were more likely to have bought frozen poultry, have eaten foods cooked elsewhere and to have had a baby in nappies in the house (OR 1.44-2.05, P< or = 001). Although food-handling and storage practices are considered important, we were unable to detect an association in this study. PMID:15310161
Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F
Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755
Functional Foods: Any food, modified food or food ingredient that provides structural, functional or health benefits, thus promoting optimal health, longevity and quality of life, "Food products that provide specific health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients they contain". It is expected th...
Food Protection Management Program http://foodsafety.tamu.edu Relevance The Centers for Disease illnesses are attributed to improper handling of food prepared away from home. Because almost half of our food dollars is spent on food prepared outside the home, food safety is a top concern among consumers
Bandettini, Peter A.
Food Allergy An Overview NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases U;#12;National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Food Allergy An Overview U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH Is Food Allergy? 5 What Is an Allergic Reaction to Food? 8 What Is Anaphylaxis? 10 Common Food Allergies
The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.
Michael B. Batz; Michael P. Doyle; J. Glenn Morris; John Painter; Ruby Singh; Robert V. Tauxe; Michael R. Taylor; Fo Wong
Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the
Rhoda Sheryl Kagan
Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefi- nitely
Cajee, Na'eel A
By examining Islam's jurisprudential literature about oral hygiene, this paper traces the scholarly discussions of jurists in the years after the Prophet Muhammad's passing until the present day. While previous inquiries into this subject have focused on the novelty of the Prophet's use of a tooth-stick, the focus of this effort is not to serve as a material history of tools. Rather, this paper focuses on the reasons for the religious mandate in Islam to maintain optimal oral hygiene. It does so by triangulating the varioustheories of oral hygiene expounded by jurists over time and geography. PMID:23409533
Salmon, Sharon; Tran, Huu Luyen; Błi, D?c Phś; Pittet, Didier; McLaws, Mary-Louise
As part of the first hospital-wide hand hygiene campaign at Hue General Hospital, Vietnam, we audited hand hygiene compliance following health care worker education and the introduction of alcohol-based handrub. Alcohol-based handrub was chosen more frequently than plain soap and water (83% and 17%, respectively; P = .0001). Hand hygiene compliance averaged 47% (1,310 actions/2,813 opportunities; 95% confidence interval: 45%-48%) with markedly different rates among departments, ranging from 5% to 69% (P = .0001). PMID:24388472
Ganss, C; Schlechtriemen, M; Klimek, J
The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and severity of dental erosions and its association with nutritional and oral hygiene factors in subjects living on a raw food diet. As part of a larger dietary study 130 subjects whose ingestion of raw food was more than 95% of the total food intake were examined. The median duration of the diet was 39 (minimum 17, maximum 418) months. Before the clinical examination, the participants answered questionnaires and recorded their food intake during a 7-day period. Dental erosions were registered using study models. As a control 76 sex- and age-matched patients from our clinic were randomly selected. The raw food diet records showed the median daily frequency of ingesting citrus fruit to be 4.8 (minimum 0.5, maximum 16.1). The median intake of fruit was 62% (minimum 25%, maximum 96%) of the total, corresponding to an average consumption of 9.5 kg of fruit (minimum 1.5, maximum 23.7) per week. Compared to the control group subjects living on a raw food diet had significantly (p=0.001) more dental erosions. Only 2.3% of the raw food group (13.2% of the controls) had no erosive defects, whereas 37.2% had at least one tooth with a moderate erosion (55.2% of the controls) and 60.5% had at least one tooth with a severe erosion (31.6% of the controls). Within the raw food group no significant correlation was found between nutrition or oral health data and the prevalence of erosions. Nevertheless, the results showed that a raw food diet bears an increased risk of dental erosion compared to conventional nutrition. PMID:9831783
Baker, Nicole Alexis
Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...
Van Laanen, Peggy
Proper food storage can preserve food quality and prevent spoilage and food/borne illness. The specifics of pantry, refrigerator and freezer storage are given, along with helpful information on new packaging, label dates, etc. A comprehensive table...