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1

Food hygiene on the wards  

PubMed Central

A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient’s room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection. In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards: Maintenance of the cold-hot chain Not only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitors Cleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktops Cleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too.

Steuer, Walter

2007-01-01

2

Food hygiene on the wards.  

PubMed

A PROBLEM THAT IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED OR SIMPLY NOT GIVEN ENOUGH ATTENTION: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient's room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards:Maintenance of the cold-hot chainNot only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitorsCleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktopsCleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too. PMID:20200664

Steuer, Walter

2007-01-01

3

The Mass Media and Food Hygiene Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that domestic knowledge and practices relating to the prevention of food-borne disease may be inadequate and that family outbreaks of food poisoning are numerically very important. The use of the mass media can be beneficial in health education and it could provide “cues to action” helping to improve domestic food hygiene. Members of the public were questioned

C. J. Griffith; K. A. Mathias; P. E. Price

1994-01-01

4

[The hygiene of refrigerated and frozen foods].  

PubMed

Health and spoilage hazards arising from refrigerated and deep frozen foods may be due to - raw materials, e.g. pathogenic microorganisms which come from infected living animals or contaminate raw foods during handling. Psychrotrophic organisms have particular significance as pathogens or spoilage organisms as they can multiply also during refrigeration; - improper processing. Temperature abuse and incorrect time/temperature relations are main causes for microorganisms being not destroyed at the expected rate or even getting a chance of multiplying. Proper handling after refrigeration or frozen storage of foods ("hygiene of thawing") deserves also particular attention. - contamination, i.e. initial contamination of raw products which are ready for consumption without further processing (fruits, raw salads). Recontamination which follows a heat process is much more important and occurs before, during and after application of cold. In those cases, again, one has to distinguish between products which (a) are ready for consumption without a process (bakery and confectionary goods, ice cream, drinking milk) and (b) have to pass a process which reduces the bacterial load before consuming the food (ready to eat dishes or other foods ready for reheating in the home). Sites of increased hygienic hazard are a) lack of partitioning "clean" and "unclean" areas and processes, b) defects of sanitation and hygiene of personnel, c) defects of packaging, d) leakage during aseptic filling. Hazards are controlled through product and plant specific analysis of the process flow followed by continuous monitoring the "Critical Control Points". As an example, a report is given on a study on random samples taken from 180.000 prepackaged deep frozen menus which had been produced for a mass meeting. Microbiological monitoring of the process revealed time/temperature relations as critical control points of primary importance. Particular problems arose from any stoppage at the production line. Reliable means to assure food safety and protect consumer's health are HACCP concept based in plant control programs rather than sporadic microbiological monitoring of end products. PMID:2500811

Sinell, H J

1989-04-01

5

Evaluation of a food hygiene training course in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a study which investigated the effectiveness of a food hygiene training course in Scotland, and discusses the implications these may have for food safety control in the UK and elsewhere. One hundred and eighty-eight individuals who undertook the elementary food hygiene training course of the Royal Environmental Health Institute of Scotland (REHIS), and a

J. E. Ehiri; G. P. Morris; J. McEwen

1997-01-01

6

A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarises the methods and results of studies conducted worldwide on the effectiveness of food safety and food hygiene training in the commercial sector of the food industry. In particular it focuses on those studies that have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of such training. Forty-six studies of food hygiene training are included which used some outcome measure to

M. B. Egan; M. M. Raats; S. M. Grubb; A. Eves; M. L. Lumbers; M. S. Dean; M. R. Adams

2007-01-01

7

Effects of materials containing antimicrobial compounds on food hygiene.  

PubMed

Surfaces with microorganisms may transfer unwanted microorganisms to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. A high hygienic status of surfaces that come in contact with food is important in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. During the last decade, products containing antimicrobial compounds, such as cutting boards, knives, countertops, kitchen utensils, refrigerators, and conveyor belts, have been introduced to the market, claiming hygienic effects. Such products are often referred to as "treated articles." Here we review various aspects related to treated articles intended for use during preparation and processing of food. Regulatory issues and methods to assess antibacterial effects are covered. Different concepts for treated articles as well as their antibacterial activity are reviewed. The effects of products with antimicrobials on food hygiene and safety are discussed. PMID:21740725

Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

2011-07-01

8

Microbial Quality, Nutritional Knowledge and Food Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…

Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.

2011-01-01

9

Towards integrated hygiene and food safety management systems: the Hygieneomic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated hygiene and food safety management systems in food production can give rise to exceptional improvements in food safety performance, but require high level commitment and full functional involvement. A new approach, named hygieneomics, has been developed to assist management in their introduction of hygiene and food safety systems. For an effective introduction, the management systems must be designed to

Graeme D. Armstrong

1999-01-01

10

A food satiation and oral hygiene punishment program to suppress chronic rumination by retarded persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food satiation and oral hygiene punishment were used to treat the non-lifethreatening rumination of two institutionalized profoundly retarded persons. Satiation consisted of allowing the clients to eat until a satiation criterion of food refusal was achieved or until two full meal portions were consumed. The oral hygiene procedure consisted of cleansing the clients' teeth and gums with Listerine for 2

R. M. Foxx; Mary Sue Snyder; Frederick Schroeder

1979-01-01

11

[Hygienic quality of meat used in institutional food services: university cafeterias in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].  

PubMed

This present study was conducted to assess the hygienic quality of meals served in three cafeterias at the national university in Ouagadougou and the compliance of kitchen staff with good hygiene practices. Microbiological analyses assessed the hygienic quality of the raw meat and of meat-based meals. The results showed poor hygiene practices by food handlers along the food chain. These observations were confirmed by the identification of salmonella, coliform and staphylococcal bacteria in raw meat and cooked meals. Overall, 60% of the raw meat samples were unsatisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora and 6.6% for salmonella. For the cooked meat meals, on the other hand, 45% of the samples were satisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora, 100% for salmonella, 93.3% for fecal thermotolerant coliforms and 96.6% for staphylococci. These results showed poor hygiene in the handling of raw meat, but a clear improvement in hygienic quality after cooking. Raising the awareness of cafeteria staff about compliance with hygiene rules appears primordial. Moreover improvement of the food environment, the kitchen equipment, and organization as well as the introduction of a cleaning-disinfection programme would make it possible to provide more hygienic meals in these institutional facilities. PMID:20189903

Ilboudo, A J; Savadogo, A; Barro, N; Ouedraogo, M; Traore, A S

2009-01-01

12

[Programs and contents of professional hygienic training for workers of food processing industry enterprises].  

PubMed

Contents of the educational and methodic materials prepared in accordance with the recently developed programs for vocational hygienic course training of workers at food processing enterprises (engineering staff, workers, administrators) is discussed. The significance of training for shaping appropriate hygienic behavior of the workers is considered, as well as for implementing in work settings adequate sanitary, preventive and anti-epidemic measures aimed at protecting health of producers and consumers of food products. PMID:20120965

Polesski?, V A; Nemets, M G; Krasil'shchikov, M I; Ba?murunova, G O; Osipova, E M

2009-01-01

13

[Food habits and oral hygiene of students. Investigation of 150 students in university housing].  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to describe the food intake and the oral hygiene habits of 150 Senegalese students living in a university campus. According to Miller, we realised a four days survey. We noted an increase of sugar drinks; tea is the most consumed drink. The results showed also that the toothbrush as means of oral hygiene supplanted the traditional means such as "cure dents" or water rinse with finger. PMID:11484651

Cisse, D; Kane, A W; Faye, B; Toure, B; Sarr, M; Diop, M; Diallo, B

2001-03-01

14

Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers  

PubMed Central

This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8–12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls.

Wiemer, Dorothea F.; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L.; Muller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M.

2013-01-01

15

Which is a stronger indicator of dental caries: oral hygiene, food, or beverage? A clinical study.  

PubMed

Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with various risk factors. Oral hygiene and diet-specifically, the consumption of snacks and beverages with added sugars-have been shown to be risk indicators for this disease. It is critical for dental professionals to understand the relative roles of each of these food categories in the dental caries process. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 76 people living in a Southern Illinois fluoridated community. The amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, snack food consumption, plaque index, and age showed statistically significant relationships with the outcome variable-dental caries (P < 0.05). The results indicated that dietary factors and oral hygiene both contribute equally to dental caries in young adults living in a fluoridated community. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was a much stronger indicator of dental caries than snack food consumption in our study population. PMID:24784517

Jain, Poonam; Gary, Julie J

2014-01-01

16

Effect of a Manager Training and Certification Program on Food Safety and Hygiene in Food Service Operations  

PubMed Central

Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio) from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared food hygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities. Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants.

Kassa, Hailu; Silverman, Gary S.; Baroudi, Karim

2010-01-01

17

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

18

The personal and general hygiene practices of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of retail outlets in South Africa.  

PubMed

This paper presents data on personal- and general-hygiene knowledge and practices among food handlers in the delicatessens of a major retail group in the Western Cape in South Africa. Food handlers were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. Although the majority of food handlers adhered to basic hygiene principles, there is definitely a need for proper and continuous training in personal and general hygiene, not only for food handlers, but also for management. The study reported here is of importance particularly in view of new local regulations governing the application of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. Management is responsible for the implementation of this system, and where supervision is not adequate, the manager of the outlet should intervene to ensure that staff conform to the requirements. PMID:18044251

van Tonder, Izanne; Lues, Jan F R; Theron, Maria M

2007-11-01

19

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

20

The evaluation of food hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers’ in food businesses in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety issues among food handlers in Turkey, conducting face to face interview and administrating questionnaire. Of the 764 food handlers who responded, 9.6% were involved in touching or distributing unwrapped foods routinely and use protective gloves during their working activity. A majority of participants (47.8%) had

Murat Ba?; Azmi ?afak Ersun; Gökhan K?vanç

2006-01-01

21

[Evaluation of the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in food served in public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state schools, 60% had never been visited by a nutritionist and in these schools several procedures failed to comply with legal requirements. In most of the schools studied, the food served to students was within adequate standards, though the problems detected revealed the need for the implementation of Best Practices in the school environment. PMID:23670371

de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida; Capalonga, Roberta; Silveira, Joice Trindade; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema

2013-04-01

22

A comparison of traditional and recently developed methods for monitoring surface hygiene within the food industry: an industry trial.  

PubMed

A rapid, instrument-free, hygiene monitoring system, based on protein detection, was assessed as a means to evaluate the cleanliness of food contact surfaces within four different food processing environments. Its performance was compared to that of both ATP bioluminescence and a traditional agar-based microbiological method. Each surface was sampled using all three hygiene monitoring systems both before and after each of the production plants had carried out their normal cleaning procedures. In both cases, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the number of surfaces that were passed or failed using each of the tests. In general the number of surfaces that were deemed acceptable for food production increased after cleaning but the level of agreement between test methods differed depending on the type of production facility sampled. Protein detection was most likely to fail surfaces within the baking facility, whereas ATP bioluminescence and traditional microbiology were most likely to fail surfaces within a frozen ready-meal and a cheese production unit respectively. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to plant trials of hygiene monitoring systems, the cleaning process itself, failures in disinfection, as well as the need for a combined methodological approach for monitoring cleanliness. PMID:12590780

Moore, Ginny; Griffith, Chris

2002-12-01

23

[Hygienic substantiation of the permissible levels for tetracycline-group antibiotics in food].  

PubMed

For the purpose of justification of the hygienic standard for tetracycline-group antibiotics in the food production established in the Russian Federation at more rigid level, than maximum and admissible levels (MAL) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the analysis of data of literature on negative nature of impact of low concentration of these antibiotics on an organism and the environmental conditions and risk for health has been performed. Inadequacy of the accepted admissible daily dose (ADD) accepted by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) on action on selection of resistant E. coli in intestines, for the wide contingent of consumers in connection with ignoring of obvious factors of uncertainty (gastrointestinal dysbiosis, age and individual variations in the microbiota of people synergy with other antibiotics residues in food and indirect impact on an organism through microflora from the natural habitat (resistance genes, modified causative organisms with altered properties).. By the analysis of information received with the use of modern molecular and genetic methods, the role of Subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of tetracyclines as biologically active substances, signaling molecules which, without causing obvious negative consequences in a macroorganism, serve as a major factor of regulation of a transcription in microorganisms and activation of a horizontal gene transfer coding resistance, transferred on conjugative transposons of Tn916-Tn1545 family. Reasonable scientific data on a dominating contribution of minor levels of tetracyclines in globalization in the nature of the most adverse transmissive type of the antibiotic resistance interfaced to formation new bacterial pathotypes, as consequences of irrationally high scales of application in agriculture and strengthened impact on microbic ecosystems of live organisms and objects of habitat are presented. For minimization of this mediated risk for health the need of preservation of operating level of the tetracyclines residues (by < or = 0,01 mg/kg of a product), MAL which were unlike Codex MAL (< or = 0,1-1,2 mg/kg) in a zone of concentrations below 0,1 Misc not capable to initiation of the above described changes has been proved, till up to receipt of new scientific data on influence on macro - or microorganisms of the doses equal or below this value on macro - or microorganisms. PMID:23457984

Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A

2012-01-01

24

76 FR 59381 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket...Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, U.S. Department of Agriculture...Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, (USDA), and the Food and...

2011-09-26

25

78 FR 59336 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket...Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public...Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, U.S. Department of...

2013-09-26

26

75 FR 61119 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket...Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public...Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, U.S. Department of...

2010-10-04

27

Microbiological quality of take-away cooked rice and chicken sandwiches: effectiveness of food hygiene training of the management.  

PubMed

During August 2001 a microbiological study of ready-to-eat cooked rice from take-aways and of chicken sandwiches made on the premises from sandwich bars was undertaken. The intention was to identify risk factors in the production, storage and handling of cooked rice and sandwiches, and to establish their effect on microbiological quality. Examination of cooked rice revealed that the majority of samples (87%; 442 of 508) were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality; 50 (10%) were unsatisfactory, and 16 (3%) were of unacceptable quality due to Bacillus cereus and/or other Bacillus spp in excess of 10(5) cfu/g. The microbiological quality of cooked rice was associated with cuisine type (p < 0.00001), rice type (p < 0.01), cooking (p < 0.01), serving methods (p < 0.00001), and management food hygiene training (p < 0.01). Examination of chicken sandwiches found that most (75%; 335 of 449) were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality and 114 (25%) were unsatisfactory. Acceptable microbiological quality of sandwiches was associated with sandwich bars that had hazard analysis in place (p < 0.05). Smaller businesses, as indicated by Local Authority Inspectors' Consumer at Risk scores, were more likely to have samples classified as unsatisfactory or unacceptable compared to larger businesses (p < 0.001). The majority (90%) of premises had hand-washing facilities accessible and available for use, although only over half (55%) were correctly used as judged by the sampling officer. Where the manager of the premises had received some form of food hygiene training, food safety procedures such as the hazard analysis system were more likely to be in place (p < 0.0001). PMID:12564243

Little, C L; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

2002-12-01

28

Dirty money: an investigation into the hygiene status of some of the world's currencies as obtained from food outlets.  

PubMed

A total of 1280 banknotes were obtained from food outlets in 10 different countries (Australia, Burkina Faso, China, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States), and their bacterial content was enumerated. The presence of bacteria on banknotes was found to be influenced by the material of the notes, and there was a strong correlation between the number of bacteria per square centimeter and a series of indicators of economic prosperity of the various countries. The strongest correlation was found with the "index of economic freedom," indicating that the lower the index value, the higher the typical bacterial content on the banknotes in circulation. Other factors that appear to influence the number of bacteria on banknotes were the age of the banknotes and the material used to produce the notes (polymer-based vs. cotton-based). The banknotes were also screened for the presence of a range of pathogens. It was found that pathogens could only be isolated after enrichment and their mere presence does not appear to be alarming. In light of our international findings, it is recommended that current guidelines as they apply in most countries with regard to the concurrent hygienic handling of foods and money should be universally adopted. This includes that, in some instances, the handling of food and money have to be physically separated by employing separate individuals to carry out one task each; whereas in other instances, it could be advantageous to handle food only with a gloved hand and money with the other hand. If neither of these precautions can be effectively implemented, it is highly recommended that food service personnel practice proper hand washing procedures after handling money and before handling food. PMID:20704502

Vriesekoop, Frank; Russell, Cryn; Alvarez-Mayorga, Beatriz; Aidoo, Kofi; Yuan, Qipeng; Scannell, Amalia; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jiang, Xiuping; Barro, Nicolas; Otokunefor, Kome; Smith-Arnold, Cheralee; Heap, Amy; Chen, Jing; Iturriage, Montserat H; Hazeleger, Wilma; DeSlandes, Jenny; Kinley, Brandon; Wilson, Kieran; Menz, Garry

2010-12-01

29

[Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].  

PubMed

The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose. PMID:23035396

Menin, Marco

2012-01-01

30

Nail Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...

31

HACCP in the home: a framework for improving awareness of hygiene and safe food handling with respect to chemical risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. HACCP is widely accepted to be the most effective means of ensuring food safety, and HACCP principles are currently being incorporated within all commercial sectors of the food supply chain and most associated legislation. A number of potential benefits have also been

Karl Ropkins; Angus J. Beck

2000-01-01

32

Hygiene and Cleanability: A Focus on Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hygiene is a permanent concern for food industries since they must commercialize high quality products in order to comply with the legislation and the expectations of the consumers. The hygienic state of a surface is thus a critical parameter with respect to the performances of the production process and to the final quality of the product. For this reason, cleaning

Jean G. Detry; Marianne Sindic; Claude Deroanne

2010-01-01

33

Evaluation of the hygiene of ready-to-eat food preparation areas and practices in mobile food vendors in the UK.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to surfaces sampled. Surfaces that were visually dirty, wet, and chopping boards that were plastic or damaged also had high levels of these bacteria. Fifty-four percent of potable water samples were of poor microbiological quality; i.e. contained coliforms, E. coli and/or enterococci. A documented food safety management system was only evident in 40.1% of vendors and cleaning schedules were only used by 43.6%. Deficiencies in the correct use of cleaning materials, such as dilution factors and the minimum contact time for disinfectants, were identified. PMID:20183200

Little, Christine; Sagoo, Satnam

2009-12-01

34

Headache Hygiene -- What Is It?  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Headache Hygiene - What is it? Print Email Headache Hygiene - What is it? ACHE Newsletter Sign up ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Headache Hygiene - What is it? Headache hygiene is the ...

35

Clothing and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

1975-01-01

36

The Influence of Specific Foods and Oral Hygiene on the Microflora of Fissures and Smooth Surfaces of Molar Teeth: A 5–Day Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 20 students, harbouring >104 mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva, was enrolled into the study. Models for sampling, reproducibly, the dental plaque present in specific sites (fissure and smooth surface) on the dentition were developed and validated. Withdrawal of normal oral hygiene procedures for only 1 day resulted in approximately 10–fold increases in the number of micro–organisms

D. Beighton; S. R. Brailsford; E. Lynch; H. Yuan Chen; D. T. Clark

1999-01-01

37

Hand hygiene compliance system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method of encouraging compliance of hand hygiene in an environment where users move from zone to zone and are required to perform hand hygiene between the zones. Users carry a wearable zone sensor which detects zones, detects hand hygiene actions, logs time of changing zones, and hand hygiene actions. The wearable sensor can be integral with a wearable hand hygiene product dispenser and/or can operate in cooperation with a fixed dispenser configured to transmit hand hygiene actions to the wearable zone sensor. The wearable zone sensors are configured to be useable anonymously or to be associated with a user identifier, and to interface with a central computer via a docking station or communication interface to transfer data for later analysis.

2012-08-07

38

Florida Dental Hygiene Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida Dental Hygiene Association's (FDHA) mission is to advance the art and science of dental hygiene by increasing awareness as well as ensuring access to quality oral health care, promoting the highest standards of dental hygiene education, licensure and practice while promoting the interests of dental hygiene. Available on the FDHA's website is their official publication Prophyways. This is a seasonal publication covering a wide range of information in the dental hygienist field, including changes to local organizations, such as the Board of Dentistry, to upcoming events in the State of Florida and nationally. Also available on the website is a calendar of events for the entire year as well as a directory of contact information for FDHA board members.

2006-11-02

39

Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...

40

Industrial Hygiene Sampling Instructions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical guide describes air and bulk industrial hygiene sampling procedures for over 100 potentially hazardous chemical contaminants. The guide contains air volumes, sampling rates and references for IH air sampling. It addresses the types of conta...

F. Belkin R. W. Bishop

1987-01-01

41

Assessment of hygienic quality of surfaces in retail food service establishments based on microbial counts and real-time detection of ATP.  

PubMed

Clean food contact surfaces are important in reducing the likelihood of foodborne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to assess and compare baseline cleanliness of food contact and environmental surfaces in retail food establishments by using ATP bioluminescence (ATP-B), visual assessment, and surface contact plates. Four hundred eighty-nine surface samples were collected from three food service establishments at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (Minneapolis) and analyzed for either ATP (252) or total aerobic plate count bacteria (237). ATP levels ranged from a minimum of 4 relative light units (RLU; 0.60 log RLU) on a clean slicer to a maximum of 506,618 RLU (5.77 log RLU) on a dirty cutting board. The overall mean was 1,950 RLU (3.29 log RLU). Cutting boards had the highest ATP levels (mean, 5,495 RLU or 3.74 log RLU; median, 6,761 RLU or 3.83 log RLU). Of the 128 samples judged visually clean at the time of sampling, 70.3 % failed ATP-B testing. Sixty-one (26 % ) of the 237 total aerobic plate count samples yielded counts of over 125 CFU/50 cm(2) (failed), and of those that failed, 40 % were assessed as visually clean before sampling. The highest average counts in CFU/50 cm(2) were found on slicers (104) and cutting boards (87). The results of this study suggest that the current practice of evaluating food contact surface cleanliness by sight and touch to meet regulatory requirements might be inadequate. ATP-B testing may be an efficient tool to facilitate creation, implementation, and validation of more effective food contact surface cleaning in food establishments. PMID:21477489

Cunningham, Annette E; Rajagopal, Raj; Lauer, Jim; Allwood, Paul

2011-04-01

42

[New aspects of safety assessment and food contamination with antibiotics of tetracycline group in the light of harmonization of hygienic standards in Russia and Customs Union with the international standards].  

PubMed

To address the issue of harmonization of Russian MRLs for tetracycline in food and on the basis of the tasks of preserving the value of hygienic standard for the more restrictive level than similar standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in this survey we analyzed the evidences of the negative effects of subingibitory amounts of these antibiotics (lying below the MIC for clinically relevant microorganisms). The inadequacy of the microbiological JECFA ADI and the necessity of using of methodology of analyzing the effects of biological active substances in small doses for assessing the risk of food contamination of tetracycline subingibitory concentrations were demonstrated. Current scientific information on the functions of antibiotics as signaling molecules in the microbial world and the role of tetracycline as a leading factor in the regulation of transcription in microorganisms and activation of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes transferred to the family of conjugative transposons Tn916-Tn1545 also was reviewed in paper. Evidence-based data regarding the basic contribution of subingibitory concentrations of tetracycline in the spread of worst transmissible type of antibiotic resistance and the formation of new pathogens, associated with it, are represented. To reduce the risk of direct adverse effects on microbial ecosystem in the human body and its habitat, and to minimize the indirect risk of new infections, the necessity of saving the current Russian level residues of tetracycline (< or = 0.01 mg/kg of product), which is low by contrast to the Codex MRLs (< or = 0.1-1.2 mg/kg), was proved. Tetracycline concentrations in food, regulated in Russian Federation, below 0.1 MIC for clinically significant microorganisms which aren't capable to initiation of the above described negative changes. PMID:23461166

Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A

2012-01-01

43

Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Share Compartir Hygiene Fast Facts Information on Water-related Hygiene Handwashing It is estimated that washing hands with soap and water could reduce diarrheal disease-associated deaths by up ...

44

Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

45

[Parmentier hygiene and public health].  

PubMed

The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. PMID:24780835

Lafont, O

2014-05-01

46

Chemical Hygiene Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chemical Management Team is responsible for ensuring compliance with the OSHA Laboratory Standard. The program at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) evolved over many years to include training, developing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPS) for each laboratory process, coordinating with other safety and health organizations and teams at the Center, and issuing an SOP binder. The Chemical Hygiene Policy was first established for the Center. The Chemical Hygiene Plan was established and reviewed by technical, laboratory and management for viability and applicability to the Center. A risk assessment was conducted for each laboratory. The laboratories were prioritized by order of risk, higher risk taking priority. A Chemical Management Team staff member interviewed the lead researcher for each laboratory process to gather the information needed to develop the SOP for the process. A binder containing the Chemical Hygiene Plan, the SOP, a map of the laboratory identifying the personal protective equipment and best egress, and glove guides, as well as other guides for safety and health. Each laboratory process has been captured in the form of an SOP. The chemicals used in the procedure have been identified and the information is used to reduce the number of chemicals in the lab. The Chemical Hygiene Plan binder is used as a training tool for new employees. LeRC is in compliance with the OSHA Standard. The program was designed to comply with the OSHA standard. In the process, we have been able to assess the usage of chemicals in the laboratories, as well as reduce or relocate the chemicals being stored in the laboratory. Our researchers are trained on the hazards of the materials they work with and have a better understanding of the hazards of the process and what is needed to prevent any incident. From the SOP process, we have been able to reduce our chemical inventory, determine and implement better hygiene procedures and equipment in the laboratories, and provide specific training to our employees. As a result of this program, we are adding labeling to the laboratories for emergency responders and initiating a certified chemical user program.

Mayor, Antoinette C.

1999-01-01

47

HACCP in Australian food control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the reform of food hygiene legislation in Australia as an example of how Australian governments redefined their roles and responsibilities in assessing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) like systems. The paper describes the process of reform, the current hygiene legislation and the cultural change that the reforms promoted. The shift from inspection of food business

Richard Souness

2000-01-01

48

Samonellosis and meat hygiene: red meat.  

PubMed

The association between salmonellosis in man and the infection in food animals has been clearly established. There is, moreover, little doubt that abattoir by-products, effluent and solid waste may allow the recycling of infection in animals. The potential hazard posed by salmonellosis to human and animal health will be reduced only by a greater control over the slaughter of infected farm livestock, improved isolation and casualty slaughter accommodation, a stricter control of slaughterhouse hygiene and the provision and full utilisation of adequate laboratory facilities for the bacteriological examination of meat and the abattoir environment. PMID:1146147

Watson, W A

1975-04-26

49

Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…

Branson, Bonnie

50

Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate technologies for environmental hygiene usually centre on the delivery of adequate and accessible water supply, and proper treatment and disposal of excreta and refuse. In the face of the International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade of 1981-90, several research efforts are under way in the developing countries to develop technologies and approaches for improving environmental hygiene in both rural

M. G. McGarry

1980-01-01

51

Industrial Hygiene Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This breakout session is a traditional conference instrument used by the NASA industrial hygiene personnel as a method to convene personnel across the Agency with common interests. This particular session focused on two key topics, training systems and automation of industrial hygiene data. During the FY 98 NASA Occupational Health Benchmarking study, the training system under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was deemed to represent a "best business practice." The EPA has invested extensively in the development of computer based training covering a broad range of safety, health and environmental topics. Currently, five compact disks have been developed covering the topics listed: Safety, Health and Environmental Management Training for Field Inspection Activities; EPA Basic Radiation Training Safety Course; The OSHA 600 Collateral Duty Safety and Health Course; and Key program topics in environmental compliance, health and safety. Mr. Chris Johnson presented an overview of the EPA compact disk-based training system and answered questions on its deployment and use across the EPA. This training system has also recently been broadly distributed across other Federal Agencies. The EPA training system is considered "public domain" and, as such, is available to NASA at no cost in its current form. Copies of the five CD set of training programs were distributed to each NASA Center represented in the breakout session. Mr. Brisbin requested that each NASA Center review the training materials and determine whether there is interest in using the materials as it is or requesting that EPA tailor the training modules to suit NASA's training program needs. The Safety, Health and Medical Services organization at Ames Research Center has completed automation of several key program areas. Mr. Patrick Hogan, Safety Program Manager for Ames Research Center, presented a demonstration of the automated systems, which are described by the following: (1) Safety, Health and Environmental Training. This system includes an assessment of training needs for every NASA Center organization, course descriptions, schedules and automated course scheduling, and presentation of training program metrics; (2) Safety and Health Inspection Information. This system documents the findings from each facility inspection, tracks abatement status on those findings and presents metrics on each department for senior management review; (3) Safety Performance Evaluation Profile. The survey system used by NASA to evaluate employee and supervisory perceptions of safety programs is automated in this system; and (4) Documentation Tracking System. Electronic archive and retrieval of all correspondence and technical reports generated by the Safety, Health and Medical Services Office are provided by this system.

Brisbin, Steven G.

1999-01-01

52

Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...

53

Alzheimer's and the Hygiene Hypothesis  

MedlinePLUS

... it might. The findings, published in the journal Evolution, Medicine and Public Health , come from researchers in ... Hygiene and the World Distribution of Alzheimer's Disease.” Evolution, Medicine and Public Health, doi: 10.1093/emph/ ...

54

[Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].  

PubMed

National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lód?, Toru?, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Pozna? (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanis?awów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brze??/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German supervision. PZH activities were restored in 1945 with new branches in Gda?sk, Wroc?aw(1945), Olsztyn and Szczecin (1947), and Rzeszów (1950). In 1951 there were already 14 country branches of National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) in voivodeship cities and 4 minor branches in Zakopane, Radom, Czestochowa and Walbrzych. In 31th December branches of the National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) were restructured and named Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. PMID:19209733

Gromulska, Marta

2008-01-01

55

Hygiene at work: An engineering perspective on the development of hygiene science  

PubMed Central

The present article examines the work of contemporary hygiene practitioners. Discussion converges from a broad examination of hygiene at work in our society serving the common good to occupational hygiene in the workplace. The article considers the expanding role of hygiene today, juxtaposed against the lack of awareness and perceptions of hygiene. It considers some of the current social challenges facing hygiene, perceptions of risk and problems specifically encountered by occupational hygienists.

Pityn, Peter J

2008-01-01

56

Veterinary urban hygiene: a challenge for India.  

PubMed

India is confronted with many hygiene problems in urban areas that are related to animal populations. While some of these issues have been present for many years, others are only now emerging. A livestock census in 2003 and another in 2007 revealed that populations of crossbred cattle, goats and poultry are all increasing in urban areas, since this enables easy market access, which, in turn, reduces transportation costs and adds to profits. The canine population has increased along with the human population, largely due to a lack of control measures such as impounding stray animals and euthanasia. These increases in populations of both food-producing animals and stray animals in cities exacerbate such public health hazards as the transmission of zoonoses, vector-borne diseases, occcupational health hazards and environmental pollution, as well as compromising animal welfare. At present, public health hazards due to urban animal husbandry practices are considerably under-estimated. To improve veterinary-related urban hygiene and to facilitate livestock production operations in urban areas, there is an urgent need to develop sound, science-based strategies enforced through stringent regulations. The use of One Health teams may provide an answer to these highly integrated public health problems. PMID:24761721

Singh, B B; Ghatak, S; Banga, H S; Gill, J P S; Singh, B

2013-12-01

57

[Environmental hygiene tasks of the veterinarian in practice].  

PubMed

Apart from his direct tasks like treating diseased animals, preservation of animal health, recognition of mal-feeding and failures, recognition of unsuitable keeping systems and acknowledgement of animal welfare the veterinary practitioner can be the environmental-hygienic consultant of the farmer in following areas in particular: management and technique of feeding; management and technique of water supply; management and technique of air quality and ventilation; management and technique of manure handling and hygiene; cleaning and disinfection; deratting and pest control. The aim of these tasks is to diminish the risks/hazards for food products (food control act), the air (emission control act), surface water (law on the water household), ground water (waste control act, law on the water household) and vegetation and soil (waste control act, nature conservation act). Some examples will be given and comments are made on how to run a practice in an environmentally friendly way. PMID:1516545

Hartung, J

1992-07-01

58

Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Course; Course Evaluator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of 60 multiple choice questions on Industrial Hygiene Chemistry is presented for evaluation of a one week Industrial Hygiene Chemistry course. Questions relate to electrochemical reactions, spectrometry, gas chromatography, x-ray diffraction, atomic...

1975-01-01

59

Policy Manual - Employee Precautions - Hand Hygiene  

Cancer.gov

All healthcare workers shall practice good hand hygiene to reduce the risk of transmission of organisms to patients, themselves, and coworkers. General hand hygiene practices are listed in the Infection Control Policy of this notebook. See previous section.

60

Food Safety Education: What Should We Be Teaching To Consumers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety education is most effective when messages are targeted toward changing behaviors most likely to result in foodborne illness. The five major control factors for pathogens are personal hygiene, adequate cooking, avoiding cross-contamination, keeping food at safe temperatures, and avoiding foods from unsafe sources. Pathogens associated with poor personal hygiene have the highest incidence and costs. Inadequate cooking and

Lydia C. Medeiros; Virginia N. Hillers; Patricia A. Kendall; April Mason

2001-01-01

61

Food handlers' beliefs and self-reported practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an increase in the number of food handlers receiving food hygiene training, a high proportion of food poisoning outbreaks still occur as a result of poor food handling practices. This paper uses elements of social cognitive theory to examine the beliefs of food handlers towards food safety and to determine food handlers' self-reported practices. Questionnaires were completed by 137

Deborah A. Clayton; Christopher J. Griffith; Patricia Price; Adrian C. Peters

2002-01-01

62

Health & Hygiene in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School with input from employees--both workplace literacy students and nonstudents--this guide contains activities for teaching health and hygiene on the job. Flowing from a perspective of respecting cultural diversity and guided by a common thread of good work practices, the activities…

Snapp, Mary

63

Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

Hime, Kirsten

64

Parenting Education - Health and Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second in a series on parenting education for American Indians, the booklet offers information on health and hygiene for the mother-to-be and the newborn baby. Chapters include care during pregnancy, mother's weight, mother's health, feeding newborns, washing the baby, baby's early diet, and baby's health care. (ERB)

National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

65

[Hygienic handling in cardiac surgery].  

PubMed

Some points regarding the hygienic handling in cardiac surgery are mentioned. The sternal infection or mediastinitis is still one of the most important complications after cardiac operation especially when ITA is used for CABG. After we paid much attention to these points, the postoperative sternal infection has decreased obviously. PMID:8468855

Shimasaki, T; Masaoka, T; Hirooka, S; Abe, H; Watanabe, T; Washio, M

1993-04-01

66

Educational Hygiene. Bulletin, 1923, No. 33  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The early history of educational hygiene was largely the history of "school hygiene." The name was accurately indicative of character--the hygiene of the school as an environment rather than as a "community of children" learning under the leadership of teachers to know and live health. Environment bulked large; the education of individuals for…

Small, Willard S.

1923-01-01

67

The Food Safety Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive food safety strategy involves establishing risk management goals, food safety objectives and, for production systems, performance objectives and performance criteria. The working instructions for each step of the process should be validated for their effect before integration within a specific HACCP plan. The importance of realistic inactivation models to predict the hygienic equivalence of food processing operations is

M. L. Stecchini; M. Del Torre

2005-01-01

68

Effects of hygiene among the uncircumcised.  

PubMed

Recommendations against routine neonatal circumcision are based on the assumption that good penile hygiene can offer the same advantages as this procedure. The purpose of this study was to investigate hygienic practices of uncircumcised subjects and the relationship of these practices to the condition of the prepuce and glans. Outcome was related to hygiene: subjects who retracted the foreskin when bathing were less likely to have smegma accumulation, inflammation, phimosis, or adhesions than those who did not. Significant correlations were also found between early instructions concerning hygiene and the type of hygiene practiced. These results support the recommendation that good hygiene can offer many of the advantages of circumcision and highlight the need for clear, early instructions on hygiene to uncircumcised patients. PMID:3958682

Krueger, H; Osborn, L

1986-04-01

69

Variation in thermuluminescence of irradiated brands of foodstuffs: A test for hygienic quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoluminescence of irradiated foodstuffs such as herbs and spices, is mostly due to attached dust or soil particles. Different brands of the same foodstuff sometimes give thermoluminescent signals of different intensities, apparently due to different degrees of dust contamination. It is of obvious importance to choose brands of foodstuffs that appear to have less dust contamination, i.e. of better hygienic quality. Several food items were investigated with respect to their thermoluminescent (TL) emission in order to assess TL usefulness as an indicator of hygienic quality for foods prone to contamination by dust. In this regard some foodstuffs were artificially contaminated with a soil sample and their thermoluminescent emission was obtained.

Mamoon, A.; Zaheer, A.; Abu-Abdullah, S.

1996-11-01

70

How effective is good domestic kitchen hygiene at reducing diarrhoeal disease in developed countries? A systematic review and reanalysis of the UK IID study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess whether domestic kitchen hygiene is an important contributor to the development of diarrhoea in the developed world. METHODS: Electronic searches were carried out in October 2006 in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane central register of clinical trials and CINAHL. All publications, irrespective of study design, assessing food hygiene practices with an outcome measure of diarrhoea were

Anna Stenberg; Clare Macdonald; Paul R Hunter

2008-01-01

71

Skin reactions related to hand hygiene and selection of hand hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: This paper summarizes one component of the global WHO guidelines related to the impact of hand hygiene on the skin of health care personnel, including a discussion of types of skin reactions associated with hand hygiene, methods to reduce adverse reactions, and factors to consider when selecting hand hygiene products. Results: Health care professionals have a higher prevalence of

Elaine Larson; Raphaelle Girard; Carmem Lucia Pessoa-Silva; John Boyce; Liam Donaldson; Didier Pittet

72

Contaminated food, a hazard for the very young.  

PubMed

Contaminated food is responsible for much diarrhoeal disease in young children, yet the education of mothers and care-givers about the preparation of food under hygienic conditions tends to be neglected. PMID:8141985

Motarjemi, Y; Käferstein, F; Moy, G; Quevedo, F

1994-01-01

73

Hygienic hand antiseptics: Should they not have activity and label claims against viruses?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteric and respiratory viruses are among the most frequent causes of human infections, and hands play an important role in the spread of these and many other viral diseases. Regular and proper hand hygiene by caregivers and food handlers in particular is essential to decontaminate hands and potentially interrupt such spread. What would be considered a proper decontamination of hands?

Syed A. Sattar; V. Susan Springthorpe; Jason Tetro; Robert Vashon; Bruce Keswick

2002-01-01

74

[Hygiene is not cleanliness. For a new definition of hygiene promotion in emergency humanitarian aid].  

PubMed

Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation. PMID:11525045

Larose, L

2001-03-01

75

Formative research for hygiene promotion in Kyrgyzstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formative research for hygiene promotion was used to gather data relating to hygiene practices in rural Kyrgyzstan. Some of the hand-washing and faeces disposal practices observed were sub-optimal from a public health perspective. In combination with the poverty, limited medical services and poor water supply infrastructure characteristic of the study area, it is likely that these factors increase the risk

ADAM BIRAN; ANARA TABYSHALIEVA; ZUMRAT SALMORBEKOVA

2005-01-01

76

Hygiene Water Recovery Aboard the Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The system for hygiene water recovery, which is currently in operation aboard the orbital Space Station Mir, is considered. The system receives untreated hygiene water as a water/air mixture from the handwash and shower facilities, separates the mixture p...

N. M. Samsonov N. S. Farafonov L. K. Abramov S. S. Bocharov N. N. Protasov

1991-01-01

77

Evaluation of two methods for monitoring surface cleanliness-ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing.  

PubMed

The minimum bacterial detection limits and operator reproducibility of the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test and traditional hygiene swabbing were determined. Areas (100 cm2) of food grade stainless steel were separately inoculated with known levels of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Surfaces were sampled either immediately after inoculation while still wet, or after 60 min when completely dry. For both organisms the minimum detection limit of the ATP Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test was 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 (p < 0.05) and was the same for wet and dry surfaces. Both organism type and surface status (i.e. wet or dry) influenced the minimum detection limits of hygiene swabbing, which ranged from 10(2) cfu/100 cm2 to >10(7) cfu/100 cm2. Hygiene swabbing percentage recovery rates for both organisms were less than 0.1% for dried surfaces but ranged from 0.33% to 8.8% for wet surfaces. When assessed by six technically qualified operators, the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test gave superior reproducibility for both clean and inoculated surfaces, giving mean coefficients of variation of 24% and 32%, respectively. Hygiene swabbing of inoculated surfaces gave a mean CV of 130%. The results are discussed in the context of hygiene monitoring within the food industry. PMID:10398558

Davidson, C A; Griffith, C J; Peters, A C; Fielding, L M

1999-01-01

78

Personal Hygiene in the Cleanroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. The most advanced apparel cannot shield a cleanroom from human contaminants unless employees embrace proper personal hygiene and work habits. This module conveys the attitudes and behaviors that help to keep the cleanroom clean. Your learners will learn why 'clean behaviors' are even more critical in some work zones than others, and how particles generated or carried by humans can cause killer defects. Most important, perhaps, with MATEC instruction learners learn that cleanroom habits directly affect a company's success. Mastery is demonstrated in a simulated walk-through of three cleanroom work zones.

2012-12-20

79

Assessing food safety and associated food handling practices in street food vending.  

PubMed

Street vendors in the city of Bloemfontein were investigated in order to assess the microbiological quality of the food being sold as well as the level of hygiene conditions under which these food stalls operate. The food samples which were collected included beef, chicken and gravy, while surface samples were taken from the food preparation tables and the hands of the vendors. A structured questionnaire and checklist were used in interviews to determine the status of the vending sites and associated food handling practices. The overall microbiological quality of the foods served by the street vendors was found to be within acceptable safety limits, although the presence of specific microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and yeasts is indicative of a degree of ignorance on the part of the food handlers towards proper hygienic practices. PMID:16990173

Lues, Jan F R; Rasephei, Mpeli R; Venter, Pierre; Theron, Maria M

2006-10-01

80

Hand hygiene in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Healthcare-associated infections affect 1.4 million patients at any time worldwide, as estimated by the World Health Organization. In intensive care units, the burden of healthcare-associated infections is greatly increased, causing additional morbidity and mortality. Multidrug-resistant pathogens are commonly involved in such infections and render effective treatment challenging. Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of preventing healthcare-associated infections. In addition, it is equally important to stop transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, alcohol-based handrub should be used as the preferred means for routine hand antisepsis. Alcohols have excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a variety of fungi, and most viruses. Some pathogens, however, such as Clostridium difficile, Bacillus anthracis, and noroviruses, may require special hand hygiene measures. Failure to provide user friendliness of hand hygiene equipment and shortage of staff are predictors for noncompliance, especially in the intensive care unit setting. Therefore, practical approaches to promote hand hygiene in the intensive care unit include provision of a minimal number of handrub dispensers per bed, monitoring of compliance, and choice of the most attractive product. Lack of knowledge of guidelines for hand hygiene, lack of recognition of hand hygiene opportunities during patient care, and lack of awareness of the risk of cross-transmission of pathogens are barriers to good hand hygiene practices. Multidisciplinary programs to promote increased use of alcoholic handrub lead to an increased compliance of healthcare workers with the recommended hand hygiene practices and a reduced prevalence of nosocomial infections. PMID:20647787

Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Pargger, Hans; Widmer, Andreas F

2010-08-01

81

Establishing guidelines for employee dress and hygiene.  

PubMed

Can you tell your medical practice staff how you want them to look? Where in your office they can eat? Can they chew gum at work? Can they wear red nail polish or a charm bracelet? In the pages that follow, the author suggests not only that you can establish rules for employee dress and hygiene, but why you should. This article suggests several good ways to structure staff rules for wearing uniforms and street clothing. It also covers possible rules for wearing practice nametags, cosmetics, jewelry, hair styles, neatness, stowing of personal possessions, personal hygiene, drinking, eating, smoking, and gum chewing. Finally, this article offers practical suggestions for establishing your practice's dress and hygiene "first aid" kit as well as guidance for making your practice's dress and hygiene codes non-discriminatory. PMID:12971005

Hills, Laura Sachs

2003-01-01

82

Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Accreditation: The JSC Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) is a society of professionals dedicated to the health and safety of workers and community. With more than 10,000 members, the AIHA is the largest international association serving occupational and environ...

D. E. Fadner

1993-01-01

83

Physical Limitations Can Affect Oral Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Can Affect Oral Hygiene Difficulty with Hearing Visual Impairments Orthopedic Problems Chewing and Swallowing Difficulties Changes in ... smell, taste, chewing or swallowing. These challenges and impairments can affect health, including oral health. Difficulty with ...

84

May Air National Guard Industrial Hygiene Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of industrial hygiene evaluations conducted at the May Air National Guard installation. The greatest potential health hazard was ultrasonic degreasing in the Pneudraulics Shop. Recommendations and findings are presented for...

P. Diamond W. B. Lubinsky

1975-01-01

85

28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...551.6 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining...

2010-07-01

86

Detection of food treated with ionizing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of food with ionizing energy—‘food irradiation’—is finally becoming reality in many countries. The benefits include an improvement in food hygiene, spoilage reduction and extension of shelf-life. Although properly irradiated food is safe and wholesome, consumers should be able to make their own free choice between irradiated and non-irradiated food. For this purpose labelling is indispensable. In order to check

Henry Delincée

1998-01-01

87

ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

2009-01-01

88

Effects of animal welfare standards on consumers' food choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, besides the food quality characteristics – the nutritional content, hygienic standards of foods, food additives, agrochemicals – that continue to attract the interest of the consumers, additional ethical factors like animal welfare, animal rearing and origin, and environmentally friendly production are playing an important and determinant role in consumers' food choices.Thus, the main aim of this paper is to

Efthimia Tsakiridou; Helen Tsakiridou; Konstadinos Mattas; Evdoxia Arvaniti

2010-01-01

89

Food safety control system in Taiwan––The example of food service sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Trade Organization’s Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement facilitates the scrutiny of the benefits and costs of country-level regulatory programs and encourages regulatory rapprochement on food safety issues. In Taiwan, food safety control system (FSCS), which includes good hygienic practice (GHP) and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP), has been developed to embody principles of safe food processing. From 1998 to

Huei-Yann Joann Jeng; Tony J Fang

2003-01-01

90

[Issues of the support of the quality and safety of baby food].  

PubMed

In article there are presented data on hypersensibility of children to the action of contaminants and caused by it the increased requirements to hygienic safety of products of baby food. Data on the main indices of safety, of such products, regulated by hygiene legislative requirements are provided. The system of hygienic expertise of baby food products, including the offered screening methods of studying of indices of quality and safety is considered. PMID:23805691

Kon, I Ya; Konovalova, L S; Georgieva, O V

2013-01-01

91

A survey of food safety training in small food manufacturers.  

PubMed

A survey of food safety training was conducted in small food manufacturing firms in South Wales. Structured interviews with managers were used to collect information on the extent and level of food hygiene and HACCP training and the manager's perceptions of and attitude towards training. All the businesses surveyed had undertaken some hygiene training. Hygiene induction programmes were often unstructured and generally unrecorded. Low-risk production workers were usually trained on the job whilst high-care production staff were trained in hygiene to Level 1. Part-time and temporary staff received less training than full-timers. Regular refresher training was undertaken by less than half of the sample. None of the businesses made use of National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) qualifications. Over half of the managers/senior staff had undertaken higher levels of hygiene training and half had attended a HACCP course. Managers trained the workforce to operate the HACCP system. Formal training-related activities were generally only found in the larger businesses. Few of the manufacturers had made use of training consultants. Managers held positive attitudes towards training but most regarded it as operating expense rather than an investment. Resource poverty, in terms of time and money was perceived to be a major inhibiting factor to continual, systematic training. PMID:16175744

Worsfold, Denise

2005-08-01

92

Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation.

Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

2014-01-01

93

Scope on Safety: Yes, you need a Chemical Hygiene Officer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemical Hygiene Officer's (CHO) role is absolutely critical in fostering and ensuring both chemical hygiene practices and the chemical hygiene plan. OSHA defines the Chemical Hygiene Officer as an âemployee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.â The CHO position is also essential in helping to facilitate the safeguards put in place as part of the chemical hygiene plan to protect both the teacher and students.

Roy, Ken

2009-04-01

94

Ultrasonics of food  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound is well suited to the study of food materials because of the possibility of noninvasive and safe implementation which is ideal for hygienic application. New advances in the understanding of the interaction between the soft solids which comprise many foods and ultrasound mean that new data and new insights into foods have been gained using ultrasound measurement techniques. Studies of complex food materials have challenged theories of ultrasound propagation, resulting in significant theoretical developments of general importance. This review covers the use of low power ultrasound to study food materials. Both pulse echo and continuous wave interferometry are covered and the theory of ultrasound scattering in soft heterogeneous media discussed. Foods to which the ultrasound technique has been applied range from eggs through margarine to chocolate.

Povey, Malcolm J. W.

1998-06-01

95

Survey of industrial hygiene short course training.  

PubMed

Approximately 2400 short courses were presented in the U. S. for environmental health professionals from 1977 through 1979. During 1977, over 30% of these courses pertained to the field of industrial hygiene. By 1979, this had increased to 41% and the average annual growth rate in the number of such courses was over 75%. A major part of this growth is attributable to private sector companies which offered 67% of the industrial hygiene courses presented during the first half of 1979, up from 35% in 1977. Profiles of industrial hygiene course participants showed that the majority were mid-career professionals. Their average age was 37.5 years, over 86% were males, and 85% had college degrees. PMID:7395738

Moeller, D W

1980-04-01

96

Too clean, or not too clean: the Hygiene Hypothesis and home hygiene  

PubMed Central

Summary The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ as originally formulated by Strachan, proposes that a cause of the recent rapid rise in atopic disorders could be a lower incidence of infection in early childhood, transmitted by unhygienic contact with older siblings. Use of the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ has led to several interpretations, some of which are not supported by a broader survey of the evidence. The increase in allergic disorders does not correlate with the decrease in infection with pathogenic organisms, nor can it be explained by changes in domestic hygiene. A consensus is beginning to develop round the view that more fundamental changes in lifestyle have led to decreased exposure to certain microbial or other species, such as helminths, that are important for the development of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Although this review concludes that the relationship of the hypothesis to hygiene practice is not proven, it lends strong support to initiatives seeking to improve hygiene practice. It would however be helpful if the hypothesis were renamed, e.g. as the ‘microbial exposure’ hypothesis, or ‘microbial deprivation’ hypothesis, as proposed for instance by Bjorksten. Avoiding the term ‘hygiene’ would help focus attention on determining the true impact of microbes on atopic diseases, while minimizing risks of discouraging good hygiene practice.

Bloomfield, SF; Stanwell-Smith, R; Crevel, RWR; Pickup, J

2006-01-01

97

Relationship between Systems-Level Factors and Hand Hygiene Adherence  

PubMed Central

This study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of acute care hospitals in California to describe staff hand hygiene compliance and related predictors, and explore the relationship between hand hygiene adherence to health care-associated infections. Although there was a relatively small sample size, institutions with morning huddles reported a significantly higher proportion of ?95% hand hygiene compliance. Huddles are an organizational tool to improve teamwork and communication and may offer promise to influence hand hygiene adherence.

Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Cohen, Bevin; Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Jordan, Sarah; Larson, Elaine

2010-01-01

98

Prediction of socially desirable and discreet hand hygiene behaviors.  

PubMed

To investigate hand hygiene in settings with fewer policies regulating hygiene practice, self-reported hand hygiene behavior and personal orientation data were collected from 353 college students. Hypothesizing that in this context some behaviors would show more variability, 2 dimensions of hand hygiene behavior were created. This proved useful because socially desirable practices were predicted by health promotion focus and individual identity, whereas discreet practices were predicted by health prevention focus and collective identity. PMID:23685091

Fluckinger, Chris D

2013-11-01

99

Linking industrial hygiene and health records  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents methodology used in a large chemical company for linking historical industrial hygiene sampling data and employee health data through the personnel record system. The problems encountered are described to alert investigators to the need for careful planning of systems for linking the three data bases.

M. GERALD OTT; HAROLD R. HOYLE; RALPH R. LANGNER; H. C. SCHARNWEBER

1975-01-01

100

Two methods for establishing industrial hygiene priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for a method to establish industrial hygiene priorities so that our limited health resources can be directed to those chemicals and conditions of use that pose the greatest risk to employee health. The Health Team hazard rating method presented in this paper accomplishes this goal and has been used successfully for several years. Also presented is

R. R. LANGNER; S. K. NORWOOD; G. E. SOCHA; H. R. HOYLE

1979-01-01

101

Medical Emergency Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 169 dental hygiene training programs investigated the curriculum content and instruction concerning medical emergency treatment, related clinical practice, and program policy. Several trends are noted: increased curriculum hours devoted to emergency care; shift in course content to more than life-support care; and increased emergency…

Stach, Donna J.; And Others

1995-01-01

102

The Inquiry Approach in Dental Hygiene Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to assess the impact of an inquiry-oriented curriculum in a dental hygiene program is described. Two instruments, designed to measure student perception of personal and faculty inquiry and disinquiry behavior, were administered. The implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/MLW)

Scott, Ruth Lois; And Others

1985-01-01

103

Prospectus for Dental Hygiene. April 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…

American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

104

Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

Hime, Kirsten

105

Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

2006-01-01

106

North Seattle Community College Chemical Hygiene Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…

North Seattle Community Coll., WA.

107

Dental Hygiene. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide is intended for the implementation of a dental hygiene program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, describes jobs under the program, and includes a curriculum framework and student performance standards for dental hygienist…

Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

108

Oral Hygiene Products and Acidic Medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds, favors the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against

E. Hellwig; A. Lussi

2006-01-01

109

Pilot Overmyer looks over food selections and experiments with beverage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot Overmyer, using beverage container and drinking straw secured in meal tray assembly (ASSY), experiments with microgravity chararcteristics of liquid on middeck in front of forward lockers. Overmyer also looks over packages of food attached to middeck lockers in meal tray assemblies. Carry-on food warmer appears overhead and other meal tray assemblies, personal hygiene mirror assy, personal hygiene kit, and portrait of G.W.S. Abbey, JSC's Director of Flight Operations, appear on lockers.

1982-01-01

110

Coping with hygiene in South Africa, a water scarce country.  

PubMed

The burden of infectious diseases may be reduced by adopting effective infection control measures. Some of these are dependent on the provision of adequate and safe water supplies for maintenance of basic standards of personal, domestic and healthcare hygiene. Consequences of scarce, and sometimes unsafe, waters supplies in South Africa are highlighted with reference to healthcare-associated infections, community acquired infectious intestinal diseases and domestic practices as infection sources. Availability of water in more than 67% of South African municipal hospitals and primary health care facilities (delivered by water tanker in 12.5% of satellite clinics, 5% from river or dam sources, 12.4% relying on rainwater) does not necessarily guarantee that it's quality is safe for utilisation. In the Northern Province and Mpumalanga, water needs to be purified prior to usage in 14.4 and 33% of satellite clinics respectively. Simple, low maintenance and low-cost interventions to maximise use and safety of limited water resources may be implemented: micro-organism (S. dysenteriae) inactivation by direct UV-exposure in sunlight abundant environments, water purification by filtration mechanisms and making use of iron pots in the community for pasteurisation, decontamination and boiling procedures. Education is paramount in promoting healthy domestic food handling practices, changing cultural perceptions of hygiene, hand-washing technique and mechanisms of domestic environmental decontamination. Water provision cannot be separated from other inter-related factors such as sanitation. Although the present government has taken initiatives to reduce the number of people not having access to water by 50% in 2002, provision of sanitation has been slower (>38% inadequate sanitation in 2002). Adoption of integrated environmental management approaches in conjunction with community participation (WASH Campaign--2002), by the government, aims to address the sanitation problems. PMID:12775385

Duse, A G; da Silva, M P; Zietsman, I

2003-06-01

111

Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.  

PubMed

Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904

Runeman, Bo

2008-01-01

112

American Social Hygiene Posters, 1910 - 1970  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fascinating collection of social hygiene posters (designed to inculcate certain social practices regarding hygiene, friendship, prostitution, and mental health) is culled from the fine holdings of the Social Welfare History Archives at the University of Minnesota Libraries. Interestingly enough, the Archives were established in 1964 by the historian Clarke Chambers, who in his own work on voluntary associations discovered that most manuscript repositories had collected very few social welfare records. Visitors will appreciate the online search engine which features options such as a time period search, a keyword search, and the opportunity to search by the subject or theme of each poster. Each record contains an image of the original poster, information about the poster's provenance, its creation date, and the organization responsible for creating the poster. For those interested in the social history of the United States during this period, this small collection will be quite appealing.

113

How to manage water hygiene successfully.  

PubMed

According to Alan Hambidge, who has over 22 years' experience in health and safety risk management, and is an expert in legionellosis and water hygiene, 'recent developments and research' have resulted in 'an increase in the Health and Safety Executive's expectations' on the standards adopted by healthcare organisations in looking after their water systems. In our latest technical guidance article, he explores 'some of the developments, pitfalls, and traps, that indicate the requirement for improvement in competence'. PMID:23866634

Hambidge, Alan

2013-06-01

114

Oral hygiene products and acidic medicines.  

PubMed

Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds, favors the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against an erosive attack. However, when the pH is too low or when no fluoride is present these protecting effects are replaced by direct softening of the tooth surface. Xerostomia or oral dryness can occur as a consequence of medication such as tranquilizers, anti-histamines, anti-emetics and anti-parkinsonian medicaments or of salivary gland dysfunction e.g. due to radiotherapy of the oral cavity and the head and neck region. Above all, these patients should be aware of the potential demineralization effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids. Acetyl salicylic acid taken regularly in the form of multiple chewable tablets or in the form of headache powder as well chewing hydrochloric acids tablets for treatment of stomach disorders can cause erosion. There is most probably no direct association between asthmatic drugs and erosion on the population level. Consumers, patients and health professionals should be aware of the potential of tooth damage not only by oral hygiene products and salivary substitutes but also by chewable and effervescent tablets. Additionally, it can be assumed that patients suffering from xerostomia should be aware of the potential effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids. PMID:16687890

Hellwig, E; Lussi, A

2006-01-01

115

The occurrence of indicator bacteria on hands and aprons of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of a retail group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an increase in the number of food handlers receiving food hygiene training, a high number of food poisoning outbreaks still occur as a result of improper food handling practices in the retail industry. In this study, samples were collected from the hands and aprons of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of a prominent South African retail group and

J. F. R. Lues; I. Van Tonder

2007-01-01

116

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Food Handlers at Bus Terminals in the Bangkok Mass Transit Authority Bus Zone7 ??????? ??????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????? 7 ???? ???????????* ?????? ???????????* ???????? ?????* ?????? ????????????** ?????? ?????????* ??? ?????? ????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous paper concerning the surveying of food shops in the Bangkok Mass Transit Authority bus zone 7 showed that poor personal hygiene and behavior of food handlers are important factors that may be contributing factors for diarrhea and food poisoning of bus drivers. This study was aimed at examining food sanitation conditions and knowledge, attitude and practices of food

Danaya Wongsirikul; Suthida Chongpiyawarang; Duangrat Inthorn; Bhusita Intaraprasong; Chatchawal Singhakant; Orawan Kaewboonchoo

117

Making Healthy Food Choices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...

Fox, Miss

2011-12-15

118

Global status of commercialization of and developments on international trade in irradiated food  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international organizations have paid particular attention to the use of food irradiation as a method to reduce postharvest food losses, to ensure hygienic quality of foods-especially those of animal origin, and to overcome certain non-tariff barriers to trade for the following reasons: (1) The increasingly strict standards for quality and quarantine in food trade. (2) The increasingly restrictions

Paisan Loaharanu

1996-01-01

119

A Microbial Assessment Scheme to measure microbial performance of Food Safety Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Food Safety Management System (FSMS) implemented in a food processing industry is based on Good Hygienic Practices (GHP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles and should address both food safety control and assurance activities in order to guarantee food safety. One of the most emerging challenges is to assess the performance of a present FSMS. The objective of

L. Jacxsens; J. Kussaga; P. A. Luning; M. Van der Spiegel; F. Devlieghere; M. Uyttendaele

2009-01-01

120

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.  

PubMed

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer. PMID:16483706

Aruoma, Okezie I

2006-04-01

121

Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.  

PubMed

Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene. PMID:24209795

Spruce, Lisa

2013-11-01

122

Effect of chewing a mixture of areca nut and tobacco on periodontal tissues and oral hygiene status.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of chewing a quid containing areca nut and tobacco on periodontal tissue and oral hygiene status. A total of 365 subjects (168 chewers and 197 non-chewers with a mean age of 32.5 +/- 0.7 and 30.4 +/- 0.8 years, respectively) were enrolled. Clinical data on periodontal tissues, oral hygiene status, as well as information on bleeding from gums, ulcers in the oral cavity, or a burning sensation in the soft tissues, were collected as indicators of the possible presence and extent of periodontal lesions. The results indicated that a significantly higher number of quid-chewers suffered bleeding from the gums, halitosis, difficulty in opening the mouth and swallowing solid food, a burning sensation in the soft tissues, and ulcers in the oral cavity than non-chewers. There was no significant difference between quid-chewers and non-chewers with respect to oral hygiene measures adopted. However, clinical examination using the oral hygiene index score indicated that the oral hygiene status of quid-chewers was significantly deteriorated. The effect of quid-chewing on the periodontium, i.e. the occurrence of periodontal pockets, gingival lesions and gum recession, were significantly higher in quid-chewers than in non-chewers. Age, sex and smoking adjusted odds ratios for quid-chewers against non-chewers using logistic regression analysis indicated that, in general, chewers were at significantly higher risk for various oral complaints and periodontium status. The present data indicate that chewing quid comprising areca nut and tobacco has adverse effects on periodontal tissues, oral hygiene and incidence of oral lesions. PMID:18403885

Parmar, Girish; Sangwan, Pankaj; Vashi, Purvi; Kulkarni, Pradip; Kumar, Sunil

2008-03-01

123

21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872...6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed...

2009-04-01

124

21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872...6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed...

2010-04-01

125

Hygiene and health—The need for a holistic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The holistic principles of hygiene and public health have contributed substantially to an increase in life expectancy by more than 30 years and in life quality since the beginning of the 20th century. Frank, Pettenkofer, Nightingale, Pasteur, Lister, and Koch have been pioneering protagonists of the holistic approach to hygiene and public health. Socioeconomic development and related factors such as

Martin Exner; Philippe Hartemann; Thomas Kistemann

2001-01-01

126

Multi-level selection for hygienic behaviour in honeybees.  

PubMed

Disease is one of the main factors driving both natural and artificial selection. It is a particularly important and increasing threat to the managed honeybee colonies, which are vital in crop pollination. Artificial selection for disease-resistant honeybee genotypes has previously only been carried out at the colony-level, that is, by using queens or males reared from colonies that show resistance. However, honeybee queens mate with many males and so each colony consists of multiple patrilines that will vary in heritable traits, such as disease resistance. Here, we investigate whether response to artificial selection for a key resistance mechanism, hygienic behaviour, can be improved using multi-level selection, that is, by selecting not only among colonies as normal but also among patrilines within colonies. Highly hygienic colonies were identified (between-colony selection), and the specific patrilines within them responsible for most hygienic behaviour were determined using observation hives. Queens reared from these hygienic patrilines (within-colony selection) were identified using DNA microsatellite analysis of a wing-tip tissue sample and then mated to drones from a third highly hygienic colony. The resulting colonies headed by queens from hygienic patrilines showed approximately double the level of hygienic behaviour of colonies headed by sister queens from non-hygienic patrilines. The results show that multi-level selection can significantly improve the success of honeybee breeding programs. PMID:19259116

Pérez-Sato, J A; Châline, N; Martin, S J; Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W

2009-06-01

127

Follow-Up Study of 1994 Dental Hygiene Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of program graduates from 1994. Surveys were mailed to all 30 1994 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, receiving responses from 77% (n=23). Study findings included the following: (1) all…

Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

128

Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

2005-01-01

129

Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

2009-01-01

130

International trends in education and training in occupational hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries occupational hygiene has become an indispensable discipline in managing long-term risks to the health of workers. The international collaboration on education and training started with a workshop in Luxembourg in 1986 (sponsored by the EC and WHO). This meeting provided useful groundwork in defining the scope and function of training and education in occupational hygiene. Subsequent meetings

Alex Burdorf

1995-01-01

131

Industrial hygiene survey. IMC, Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at IMC Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida, on June 7-11, 1976, as part of a study of the phosphate industry. Phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. During the study 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium,

F. Stephenson; M. Cassady

1977-01-01

132

Industrial hygiene survey. CF Chemicals, Inc. , Bartow, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at CF Chemicals, Bartow, Florida on August 9-12, 1976 as part of a study of the phosphate industry. A description is given of the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs. During the study, 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and

F. Stephenson; M. Cassady

1977-01-01

133

"I wash my hands of it!?" - Trends in hand hygiene over the past decades.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene is the most important measure to protect against the spread of nosocomial infections. With the development of in vitro und in vivo test methods for evaluation of the effect of hand hygiene, there has been a sharp increase over the past 50 years in the body of knowledge relating to effective methods for removal from the hands or killing and inactivation of pathogens. In 1958 the German Society of Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) published a first "Guidelines for Testing Chemical Disinfectants" and included only those hand disinfection products on its "List of Tested Chemical Disinfectants Found To Be Effective" that had been tested as per the methods cited in the guidelines. The American Society of Testing and Materials (today: ASTM International) was next, with the first test protocols for hand disinfection products, which in 1974 were adopted by the US Food and Drug Agency as "Guidelines" in a "Tentative Final Monograph" (TFM) and in 1994, having revised it to incorporate new insights, it was published once again. Where the user is concerned, guidelines for hand disinfection containing information on indication and implementation are of course more important than methods dealing with efficacy testing of products. Such guidelines are compiled within the hospitals by the infection control teams set up during the 1970s. Written guidelines were also published by several healthcare institutions, scientific societies and associations. The guidelines formulated by the World Health Organisation (WHO), in an expert committee under the direction of Didier Pittet, proved to be the most successful of the attempts undertaken at global level to enhance hand hygiene. The most remarkable changes appear to be the efforts aimed at improving compliance among medical personnel and the increasing international acceptance of hand disinfection by using alcohols in the form of rubs; whether this will be with lotions or gels remains to be seen. PMID:20200668

Rotter, Manfred L

2007-01-01

134

CONTRIBUTION OF CHLIDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO LEAD CONTAMINATION OF FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the relationship of children's hygiene habits and food handling behaviors on lead levels on hands and handled foods for toddlers living in lead contaminated homes. Forty eight inner city toddlers who had previously been identified as having elevated blood le...

135

Video observation of hand hygiene practices at a petting zoo and the impact of hand hygiene interventions.  

PubMed

Petting zoos are popular attractions, but can also be associated with zoonotic disease outbreaks. Hand hygiene is critical to reducing disease risks; however, compliance can be poor. Video observation of petting zoo visitors was used to assess animal and environmental contact and hand hygiene compliance. Compliance was also compared over five hand hygiene intervention periods. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used for analysis. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 58% (340/583). Two interventions had a significant positive association with hand hygiene compliance [improved signage with offering hand sanitizer, odds ratio (OR) 3·38, P<0·001; verbal hand hygiene reminders, OR 1·73, P=0·037]. There is clearly a need to improve hand hygiene compliance at this and other animal exhibits. This preliminary study was the first to demonstrate a positive impact of a hand hygiene intervention at a petting zoo. The findings suggest that active, rather than passive, interventions are more effective for increasing compliance. PMID:21371366

Anderson, M E C; Weese, J S

2012-01-01

136

Mapping the literature of dental hygiene.  

PubMed Central

Despite the long history of the dental hygiene profession, little research has been conducted on the characteristics of its literature. In this study, the bibliometric method was used to identify the core journals in the discipline and the extent of indexing of these journals. The study was a part of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section's project to map the allied health literature. Five journals were found to provide one-third of all references studied. Forty-two journals yielded an additional one-third of the references. MEDLINE had the best indexing coverage with 87% of the journals receiving indexing for at least one-half of the articles included. Limited coverage was provided by EMBASE/Excerpta Medica (11%) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (9%). The findings identified titles that should be added by indexing services as well as those that should have more complete coverage.

Haaland, A

1999-01-01

137

Manager's guide to reducing dental hygiene turnover.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of dental hygiene turnover and provide managers with strategies for preventing and reducing turnover. Employee turnover is a problem which affects dental health care delivery and the health of the public. Employee turnover is costly to work settings and creates a stressful working environment which has an impact on professional-client relationships. To reduce or prevent turnover in a private practice setting, office managers must be informed about the causes and effects of this problem and be able to implement solutions. Some strategies managers can use to reduce turnover are hiring employees who have the same goals as the organization; improving the working climate; rewarding longevity; encouraging the active participation of all staff members in office management; improving office communication; and providing opportunities for self-growth, recognition, and greater responsibilities. PMID:2637341

Loiacono, C

1989-09-01

138

[MRSA - hygiene management, diagnostics and treatment].  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphyococcus aureus strains remain a challenge to both patient care and infection control efforts. In addition to the defining resistance to beta-lactams several other antibiotic classes may be ineffective. Some resistance phenotypes exhibit a characteristic distribution pattern between healthcare-associated, community-associated, and livestock-associated MRSA strains. For patients with defined risk factors a search-, destroy-, follow-up-strategy is recommended in order to identify and eliminate MRSA colonization. Mupirocin nasal ointment and extensive hygiene measures are the mainstays of decolonization efforts. Besides vancomycin several other antimicrobials such as rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol, clindamycin, linezolid, and daptomycin are used to treat specific MRSA infections. PMID:24648177

Wagener, J; Seybold, U

2014-03-01

139

Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.  

PubMed

To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was important when making hiring decisions; accreditation became an important factor only when a program's reputation was not known. Graduates strongly supported ongoing accreditation but did not apply or attend on the basis of accreditation. PMID:19204864

Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

2009-05-01

140

[Food poisoning--importance of international perspective].  

PubMed

It is important to obtain the information on food security in the countries other than Japan since more than 60 % of the food consumed come from these countries. Food security is now considered as a global issue. A global trend persuading us to provide safe food to humans is based on the concept of human security development associated with a sense of human mission to sustain one's life. Another global tendency pushing us to secure safety and hygiene of food is driven by the economic pressure coming from the rules in international trade established by Codex Committee under FAO/WHO. In contrast to these trends under globalization requesting safe and hygienic food, food habits based on tradition or religion are maintained locally in various parts of the world. These local habits include eating raw or improperly cooked foods, which may become a risk of being exposed to food poisoning pathogens. This issue may be adequately solved by a risk assessment approach based on the concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP). Like or not, people in some local areas live in the unhygienic environment where they are unintentionally and frequently exposed to enteric pathogens or immunologically cross-reacting microorganisms through which they may acquire specific immunity to the pathogens and escape from infection by the pathogens. There are therefore many areas in the world where people understand the necessity to provide safe food at the international level (globalization) but actually consume food in varying hygienic conditions from area to area due in part to traditional food habits or living environments (localization); we call this situation as glocalization (global+local). PMID:22894059

Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

2012-08-01

141

Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Faculty and student respondents agreed on the effectiveness of educational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices. PMID:24882769

Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

2014-06-01

142

Measuring effectiveness of food quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery sector.<\\/o:p><\\/span>

hygiene program and the profession of dental hygiene must be included in the overall marketing plan. Results of an effective marketing plan should increase the number of quality students graduating from the dental hygiene program, ultimately contributing to the quality of oral health care in the community. PMID:2637340

Nielsen, C

1989-09-01

144

[Guidelines on hand hygiene in health care institutions].  

PubMed

Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) are huge problem all over the world, and 5-10% of all hospitalized patients will develop infection during hospitalization. From the times of I. P. Semelweiss we know that clean hands are the most important single factor that can decrease the number of HCAI. World Health Organization (WHO) has recognised this problem and developed Guidelines for hand hygiene in healthcare institutions. This also was the reason of developing Croatian national Guidelines. The main goal of the Guidelines was to decrease number of HCAI associated with the hands of healthcare workers. These Guidelines are meant for all healthcare workers and other hospital staff who come to the direct contact with patients. An interdisciplinary team of experts developed these Guidelines using WHO Guidelines, other existing guidelines and literature reviews for hand hygiene. Grades of evidence for specific recommendations were determined using CDC/HICPAC grading system. Categorization is based on existing data, theoretical basis, applicability and economic impact. After a broad discussion in different professional societies, Guidelines were accepted. Guidelines include recommendations for hand hygiene indications, hand hygiene technique, surgical hand preparation, choosing hand hygiene preparations, skin care, nails, glove use, patients and visitors hand hygiene, role of education, as well as role of healthcare institution and role of government. Furthermore, in the Guidelines the concept of "Five moments for hand hygiene" is explained in detail, and main literature data are presented. PMID:21888080

Kaleni?, Smilja; Budimir, Ana; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Acketa, Lorena; Belina, Drazen; Benko, Ivan; Bosnjak, Danica; Culo, Marija; Jaji?, Ines; Kis, Marina; Kos, Karmela; Koscák, Darko; Kuzman, Ilija; Leki?, Dusica; Prugovecki, Danijela; Juraga, Ana Tomi?

2011-01-01

145

[Hygienic aspects in radiology: what the radiologist should know].  

PubMed

Hospital hygiene is of pivotal importance in radiology departments, where patient throughput is high and staff come into direct contact with both inpatients and outpatients. Every member of the medical and technical team should be aware of all the general and specific hygiene requirements and ensure that they are considered during the daily routine. Failure to do so on the part of just one individual can result in bacterial contamination in the department, exposing both patients and staff to the risk of infection. For the purposes of performing examinations and interventions in infectious patients, the hospital hygienist and medical hygiene officer should introduce appropriate organisational structures to ensure that an appropriate level of hygiene is guaranteed and can be adapted to each patient. This will ensure a minimal degree of disruption to work flow in the radiology department. It is of particular importance that medical and technical staff receive regular hygiene training and instruction. Such training ensures that members of staff are fully aware of the hygiene requirements, are responsibly engaged and that they each possess the expertise and confidence to deal with general and specific hygiene issues in any particular case. PMID:23203446

Buerke, B; Mellmann, A; Kipp, F; Heindel, W; Weßling, J

2012-12-01

146

Recovery of hygiene water by multifiltration. [in space shuttle orbiters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multifiltration hygiene water reclamation process that utilizes adsorption and particulate filtration techniques is described and evaluated. The applicability of the process is tested using a simulation of a 4-man subsystem operation for 240 days. It is proposed the process has a 10 year life, weighs 236 kg, and uses 88 kg of expendable filters and adsorption beds to process 8424 kg of water. The data reveal that the multifiltration is an efficient nonphase change technique for hygiene water recovery and that the chemical and microbiological purity of the product water is within the standards specified for the Space Station hygiene water.

Putnam, David F.; Jolly, Clifford D.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Price, Don

1989-01-01

147

[Hygienic characteristics of diet of schoolchildren in the Altai region].  

PubMed

Actual nutrition of pupils in Altai Krai was studied. Decreased supply of proteins, fats, vitamins, mineral substances was revealed. Hygienic recommendations on improvement of nutrition of children and adolescents were given. PMID:8076849

Istomin, A V; Rumiantseva, L A

1994-04-01

148

Industrial Hygiene Technician Program, Western Wisconsin Technical Institute.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the fall of 1978, 12 students enrolled in the Industrial Hygiene Program at the Western Wisconsin Technical Institute program; 74 enrolled in the fall of 1981. Course requirements include studies in technical mathematics, general chemistry, technical p...

G. W. Skewes W. G. Welch C. G. Richardson

1982-01-01

149

Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Course. Instructor Manual: Lesson Number 12.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instructor manual for a one week 'Industrial Hygiene Chemistry' course designed to give program graduates expertise in environmental sampling and analysis. Lesson 12 is titled an introduction to chromatography, including variety, conditions, and sampling ...

R. D. Pepler P. A. Brainin E. A. King

1975-01-01

150

Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.  

PubMed

Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates. PMID:23180223

Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A

2013-01-01

151

Hygiene of the skin: when is clean too clean?  

PubMed Central

Skin hygiene, particularly of the hands, is a primary mechanism for reducing contact and fecal-oral transmission of infectious agents. Widespread use of antimicrobial products has prompted concern about emergence of resistance to antiseptics and damage to the skin barrier associated with frequent washing. This article reviews evidence for the relationship between skin hygiene and infection, the effects of washing on skin integrity, and recommendations for skin care practices.

Larson, E.

2001-01-01

152

Industrial hygiene survey. IMC, Agricultural Operation Division, Bartow, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Agricultural Operations Division, IMC, Bartow, Florida, on July 19-22, 1976, as part of the industry-wide study of the phosphate fertilizer industry. The phosphate ore mining operations, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. The beneficiation plant was surveyed to determine the 8-hour time weighted averages of cadmium,

F. Stephenson; M. Cassady

1977-01-01

153

Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

2012-12-01

154

Routine hand hygiene audit by direct observation: has nemesis arrived?  

PubMed

Infection prevention and control experts have expended valuable health service time developing and implementing tools to audit health workers' hand hygiene compliance by direct observation. Although described as the 'gold standard' approach to hand hygiene audit, this method is labour intensive and may be inaccurate unless performed by trained personnel who are regularly monitored to ensure quality control. New technological devices have been developed to generate 'real time' data, but the cost of installing them and using them during routine patient care has not been evaluated. Moreover, they do not provide as much information about the hand hygiene episode or the context in which hand hygiene has been performed as direct observation. Uptake of hand hygiene products offers an inexpensive alternative to direct observation. Although product uptake would not provide detailed information about the hand hygiene episode or local barriers to compliance, it could be used as a continuous monitoring tool. Regular inspection of the data by infection prevention and control teams and clinical staff would indicate when and where direct investigation of practice by direct observation and questioning of staff should be targeted by highly trained personnel to identify local problems and improve practice. PMID:21316122

Gould, D J; Drey, N S; Creedon, S

2011-04-01

155

Prevalence of Salmonella enterica and the hygienic indicator Escherichia coli in raw meat at markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

This study investigated the hygienic status and prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in retail meat sold at open markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 150 samples of beef meat (n = 45), beef intestine (n = 45), mutton (n = 30), and chicken (n = 30) were collected from four local markets for investigation. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica was 9.3%, and six serotypes, all previously unreported in Burkina Faso, were identified: Derby, Tilene, Hato, Bredeney, Agona, and Senftenberg. Most of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to the 12 antimicrobial drugs tested. The prevalence of E. coli was 100% in all the meat types. An assessment of hygiene practices for the production, transportation, display, and vending of the meat revealed unhygienic conditions. Meat sellers had a low education level and poor knowledge of foodborne pathogens and their transmission routes. The findings showed that foodstuff handlers were in dire need of education about safe food handling practices. PMID:21902926

Kagambèga, Assèta; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas

2011-09-01

156

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your immune system ... Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Food Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Allergic reactions to food normally ...

157

The hygienic quality of vegetables grown in or imported into the Netherlands: a tentative survey.  

PubMed Central

Samples of 61 home grown and 199 imported vegetables of different varieties were examined for Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci and, when E. coli was present, for salmonellas. Eleven per cent of samples contained greater than 10(4) E. coli per 100 g, and 14% greater than 10(6) faecal streptococci per 100 g. Salmonellas were isolated from 23 out of 103 samples examined. Salmonellas were isolated from 8% of 76 samples with E. coli less than 10(4)/100 g, but from 63% of 27 samples with E. coli exceeding 10(4)/100 g; from 6% of 65 samples containing less than 10(6) faecal streptococci/100 g but from 51% of 37 samples containing more than 10(6)/100 g. S. typhi was isolated from one sample of vegetables imported from the tropics. To our knowledge this is the first isolation of S. typhi from food in the Netherlands. Products from tropical countries were found to present the highest level of contamination. The hygienic quality of Dutch products is sometimes inferior to that of similar imported products, although the different seasons of sampling may have influenced the result. For the prevention of risk to the consumer of vegetables, good kitchen hygiene would appear to be the most important factor.

Tamminga, S. K.; Beumer, R. R.; Kampelmacher, E. H.

1978-01-01

158

Academic integrity violations: a national study of dental hygiene students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of academic integrity violations reported by a national sample of dental hygiene students as compared to general undergraduate students. This study also examined the influence of student variables such as gender, age, and level of education, along with honor codes and other contextual factors, on academic integrity. A total of 2,050 surveys were mailed to a random selection of the schools with dental hygiene degree programs in each of the twelve American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) districts. A total of 794 usable surveys were returned for an overall response rate of 39 percent. The respondents were predominantly twenty to twenty-nine years of age (85 percent), and 97.7 percent were female. The largest percentage of respondents (38.5 percent) had completed four or more years of undergraduate education at the time of the survey, with the majority of the coursework taken in a community college setting (39 percent). Approximately 53 percent were from associate programs and 47 percent from baccalaureate programs. Of those responding, 11.3 percent reported cheating during their dental hygiene program, and 30.2 percent were aware of someone cheating in their program. A comparison of academic violations for dental hygiene students to students in other undergraduate programs reveals that a smaller proportion of dental hygiene students report violations. PMID:20203325

Honny, Jean M; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Overman, Pamela R; Wilkins, Kristi; Petersen, Floyd

2010-03-01

159

[Social hygiene aspects of abortion in Odessa].  

PubMed

The birth rate is a major concern in contemporary society today. Socialist countries having the material wherewithal and cultural wealth to maintain their populations have a genuine interest in population growth and maternity is therefore encouraged. The decision to have children lies with each individual family and does not involve society directly, except for the significant number of women who regulate their family size by having an abortion. In connection with the severity of such an intervention, a study of social and hygienic aspects of induced abortion was conducted in Odessa. The information was gathered anonymously among women who came to the gynecological department of a city hospital. 6.1% of the women were under age 20 and this figure may increase in the future. In the U.S. that figure already constitutes 1/3 of all abortions. 47.5% said they had had 3 previous abortions. 13.4% had no children, and 48.8% had 1 child. None of the women with no children thought of that as being the ideal. As reason for the abortion 31.7% gave irregular housing and living conditions, 12.2% unsatisfactory material well-being, 17.1% health reasons, 7.3% enough children already in the family, and 7.3% sickness of children and husband. In 24.4% of cases the husband was indifferent, and in 35.4% insisted on, and in 40.1% was against the woman having an abortion. 60% were thus probably poorly informed about the harmfulness of the operation. 39% of women did not use any contraception. Only 20% had received any information regarding contraceptives. Only 1/3 of obstetricians regularly instruct their patients about the use of contraceptives. Half of the nurses do not touch upon the subject due to lack of time and since instruction in birth control methods is not considered obligatory. Nevertheless it is important for women's health that during clinical examinations risk factors of abortion and the purposefulness of contraception are pointed out. PMID:3367727

Zakharchenko, E M; Popov, V E

1988-02-01

160

Oral Health and Hygiene Content in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to describe the quantity and quality of oral hygiene content in a representative sample of before-licensure nursing fundamentals textbooks. Seven textbooks were examined. Quantity was operationalized as the actual page count and percentage of content devoted to oral health and hygiene. Quality of content was operationalized as congruency with best mouth care practices. Best mouth care practices included evidence-based and consensus-based practices as published primarily by the American Dental Association and supported by both published nursing research and review articles specific to mouth care and published dental research and review articles specific to mouth care. Content devoted to oral health and hygiene averaged 0.6%. Although the quality of the content was highly variable, nearly every textbook contained some erroneous or outdated information. The most common areas for inaccuracy included the use of foam sponges for mouth care in dentate persons instead of soft toothbrushes and improper denture removal.

Jablonski, Rita A.

2012-01-01

161

SAFETY, SECURITY, HYGIENE AND PRIVACY IN MIGRANT FARMWORKER HOUSING  

PubMed Central

Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed.

Arcury, Thomas A.; Weir, Maria M.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F.; Bischoff, Werner E.; Quandt, Sara A.

2013-01-01

162

Association Between Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Medical Students  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among demographics, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. As hypothesized, medical students’ sleep quality was significantly worse than a healthy adult normative sample (t = 5.13, p < .001). Poor sleep quality in medical students was predicted by several demographic and sleep hygiene variables, and future research directions are proposed.

Brick, Cameron A.; Seely, Darbi L.; Palermo, Tonya M.

2013-01-01

163

Hand hygiene improvement in the community: a systems approach.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene compliance, which is influenced in part by human behaviour, is central to infection prevention in all care settings. This article focuses specifically on the importance of a multimodal strategy for continued hand hygiene improvement, and its relevance to community nursing. Additionally, the article addresses the challenges and opportunities of infection prevention and control in a community context, and highlights current national and international guidelines that offer a framework and set of principles for implementation and sustainability with a specific focus on the multimodal strategy associated with the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care (2009). The authors conclude with some considerations for community nurses when addressing translation of these principles into their everyday working context. PMID:22584181

Storr, Julie; Kilpatrick, Claire

2012-03-01

164

New discoveries and directions for medical, dental and dental hygiene research: low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma.  

PubMed

The study of plasma integrates physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering, and has recently engaged medicine and dental hygiene in research efforts. The study of plasma holds promise for a myriad of applications ranging from lasers and electronics, hazardous waste management, decontamination, sterilization and disinfection of foods, soil, water, instruments, to medical uses in wound healing and treating certain types of tumours and cancers. Plasma represents a new state-of-the-art sterilization and disinfection treatment for certain oral and enviornmental pathogens, heat-sensitive materials, contaminated medical waste, hard and soft surfaces, and ventilation systems may assist health care facilities in the management of various health concerns. The role that Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (LTAPP) could play in the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms might prove to be a new, faster, noncorrosive, more economical alternative, as well as support green healthcare. PMID:20096076

McCombs, G B; Darby, M L

2010-02-01

165

[Economic transformations and their significance for occupational medicine and hygiene].  

PubMed

Poland's accession to the European Union entails the need to formulate our strategic goals also in occupational medicine. The most important trends, as well as the changes in world economy are presented with special reference to their impact on occupational medicine. The changing goals of occupational medicine and occupational hygiene in the Polish economy during the period of transition are discussed. The research priorities and the EU policy in these areas are highlighed. The intention of this paper is to initiate a general discussion in "Medycyna Pracy" on the future of occupational health service and occupational hygiene in Poland. PMID:12051152

Rydzy?ski, Konrad; Michalak, Jacek

2002-01-01

166

Keeping Up Appearances: Perceptions of Street Food Safety in Urban Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food—not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as ‘purity’, ‘contamination’, ‘hygiene puzzles’, and ‘impression behaviors’ from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives.

Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

2008-01-01

167

Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.  

PubMed

The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as 'purity', 'contamination', 'hygiene puzzles', and 'impression behaviors' from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives. PMID:18821020

Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

2008-11-01

168

Bacterial contamination of stored water and stored food: a potential source of diarrhoeal disease in West Africa.  

PubMed Central

The food and water hygiene in two Liberian communities was studied in a house-to-house diarrhoea survey. The level of contamination with enterobacteria of drinking water stored in the households was significantly higher than at the water sources. Food hygiene standards were low, particularly in the urban slum where storage of cooked food for long periods led to bacterial multiplication at high levels. Infant foods were particularly heavily contaminated. It is concluded that when water supply programmes are planned, the presence of other risk factors for water-related diseases should be investigated. To ensure maximum health benefits, water projects should as a rule be accompanied by other interventions.

M?lbak, K.; H?jlyng, N.; Jepsen, S.; Gaarslev, K.

1989-01-01

169

An Analysis of Public Health Policy and Legal Issues Relevant to Mobile Food Vending  

PubMed Central

Mobile food vending is a component of the food environment that has received little attention in the public health literature beyond concerns about food sanitation and hygiene issues. However, several features of mobile food vending make it an intriguing venue for food access. We present key components of mobile vending regulation and provide examples from 12 US cities to illustrate the variation that can exist surrounding these regulations. Using these regulatory features as a framework, we highlight existing examples of “healthy vending policies” to describe how mobile food vending can be used to increase access to nutritious food for vulnerable populations.

Stevens, Stephanie A.; Yen, Irene H.; Laraia, Barbara L.

2010-01-01

170

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...

171

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

172

Thought for Food: A Starting Point for Children's Nutritional Meals. Accreditation and Beyond Series, Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to assist early childhood providers, cooks, and parents in hygienic food preparation and a healthy diet provision for young children in Australian child care. The guide recommends nutritional requirements for children, using the five food groups as a guide for meal planning. The Australian dietary guidelines are also…

Nicol, Debbie

173

Quantitative exposure model for the transmission of norovirus in retail food preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely recognized that the human noroviruses (HuNoV) are responsible for a large proportion of the world's foodborne disease burden. These viruses are transmitted by human fecal contamination and frequently make their way into foods because of poor personal hygiene of infected food handlers. This paper describes a probabilistic exposure assessment which models the dynamics of the transmission of

Amirhossein Mokhtari; Lee-Ann Jaykus

2009-01-01

174

Street food vending in Latin America.  

PubMed

Despite occasional attempts to repress it, street food vending in Latin America appears to be on the rise--encouraged by growing marginal urban populations, the unemployed status of innumerable potential street vendors, lengthening commutes for workers, public demand for cheap and culturally appropriate food near workplaces, and a shortage or absence of regular establishments serving such food. Besides placing a hidden burden on public services, the generally unregulated and quasi-clandestine street food industry tends to observe poor hygienic practices and to pose significant public health problems. Within this context, Latin America's cholera epidemics have drawn increasing attention to street food's potential for disease transmission and have created growing support for attempts to resolve these troubles. What appears needed at this point, rather than futile attempts at abolition, is a new and more positive approach wherein countries change their regulations so as to permit peaceful and constructive adaptation of street food vending to a new style of Latin American social life. This implies legal reorganization directed at structurally developing street food vending and permitting application of measures--especially provision and use of safe water--that will foster good hygiene and safe foods. It also implies creating programs to provide appropriate training for inspectors as well as health education for both vendors and consumers of street food; and it implies promoting and adopting improved methods for preparing and selling such food. There is no reason to suppose these measures will provide an immediate panacea for the street food vending problem; but there is good reason to think they can immensely improve the situation that exists today. PMID:7858648

Arámbulo, P; Almeida, C R; Cuéllar, J; Belotto, A J

1994-12-01

175

Significance of biogenic amines to food safety and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic amines are natural antinutrition factors and are important from a hygienic point of view as they have been implicated as the causative agents in a number of food poisoning episodes, and they are able to initiate various pharmacological reactions. Histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, ?-phenylethylamine, spermine, and spermidine are considered to be the most important biogenic amines occurring in

Ali R. Shalaby

1996-01-01

176

Food, Environment and Health: A Guide for Primary School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book for primary school teachers provides a practical collection of facts, advice, projects, games, stories, and sample questions for use in teaching children the importance of healthy habits. Food, personal hygiene, and the home environment are areas of particular concern. Details range from advice on ways to start a school garden or design…

Williams, Trefor; And Others

177

"Take time. Save lives. Clean hands protect." A comparison of two hand hygiene health promotion posters.  

PubMed

Two posters were designed to encourage hospital staff hand hygiene. One focused on broad benefits of hand hygiene to patients and staff, and the other highlighted hand hygiene as a long-known measure to infection control. The former was better received in terms of attention, likability, and potential to promote hand hygiene. A third-person effect, the perception of stronger impact of communication messages on others, was observed. Implications on health promotion message design were discussed. PMID:24773789

Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Champlin, Sara; Liang, Ming-Ching; Mabry, Amanda; Stroever, Stephanie; Guadagno, Marie; Watkins, Lynda

2014-05-01

178

Training field workers to observe hygiene-related behaviour.  

PubMed

A study is reported from Nigeria on the training of field workers in the making of structured observations on hygiene-related behaviour with a view to improving the control of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme led to a high degree of consistency in the perception and description of such behaviour by the participants. PMID:1821119

Oladepo, O; Oyejide, C O; Oke, E A

1991-01-01

179

Industrial Hygiene Survey with Cover Memo and Cover Letter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several area and personal air samples were taken at various locations throughout the plants, during production of asbestos paper. From his/her earlier review, the writer stated that it would be important to have more industrial hygiene exposure data in th...

1982-01-01

180

Correlates of Performance in the Dental Hygiene Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of measures used in the admissions process to predict performance in and/or graduation from a University of Minnesota dental hygiene program is examined. Students in classes entering from Fall 1977 through Winter 1979 were studied, and predictor and performance measures to be studied were identified by the program. Predictor…

Roesler, Jon S.; Armstrong, Roberta A.

1981-01-01

181

Non-Surgical Gingival Curettage in Dental Hygiene Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 156 dental hygiene education programs, a majority in community colleges, investigated whether and to what extent they taught nonsurgical gingival curettage. Faculty attitudes about teaching the technique, reasons for not teaching it, and reasons for wanting to include it in their programs were also elicited. (MSE)

DeVore, Cheryl H.; And Others

1993-01-01

182

Focusing on Hand Hygiene with a Promotional Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: Improved adherence to hand hygiene has been shown to terminate outbreaks in healthcare facilities, reduce transmission of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, and reduce overall infection rates. In addition to handwashing with soap and water, the CDC now recommends that healthcare personnel also use alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs). ABHRs address some of the obstacles that healthcare personnel face when taking care of

K. Petersen; K. Crossno; D. Brudon; A. Herman; C. Friedman; C. Chenoweth

2004-01-01

183

Use of sleep hygiene in the treatment of insomnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep hygiene (SH) refers to a list of behaviors, environmental conditions, and other sleep-related factors that can be adjusted as a stand-alone treatment or component of multimodal treatment for patients with insomnia. This paper presents a review of SH, how this concept has been applied and often modified over the past 24 years, and how it relates to the modern

Edward J Stepanski; James K Wyatt

2003-01-01

184

Industrial Hygiene Technology: A Curriculum Planning Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum resource guide, one of seven developed by the State of Illinois to present information on new and emerging curricula existing in the nation, can be used as a basis for local educators to determine the resources needed to offer industrial hygiene technician curricula and to initiate curriculum development at the local level.…

Heath, Walter D.; Spetz, Sally H.

185

Dental hygiene students' attitudes toward ethical dilemmas in practice.  

PubMed

This article reports the findings of a survey-based study conducted in 2006 to determine graduating dental hygiene students' attitudes toward ethical dilemmas in eight areas of practice: substandard care, overtreatment of patients, scope of practice, fraud, confidentiality, impaired professionals, sexual harassment, abuse, and health status. The findings, based on responses from 1,165 students at 141 U.S. dental hygiene programs, indicate that many dental hygiene students do not understand what behaviors in the patient care environment are consistent with ethical practice and which are not. Responding students believed that hygienists have a strong duty to report, intercede, or educate in areas of abuse, sexual harassment, detection of cancer, and smoking cessation. However, they were less likely to report concerns about ethical transgressions such as fraud, inadequate infection control, exceeding practice scope, and failure to diagnose disease when such disclosures could potentially threaten their employment status. Based on the results, we recommend that dental hygiene programs explore curriculum enhancements to improve students' comprehension of what constitutes fraud and other ethical transgressions and the proper reporting mechanisms. PMID:19289724

Duley, Susan I; Fitzpatrick, Peter G; Zornosa, Ximena; Lambert, Cynthia A; Mitchell, Ashlie

2009-03-01

186

Process Hygiene Control in Beer Production and Dispensing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Process hygiene plays a major role in the production of high quality beer. Knowledge of microorganisms found in the brewery environment and the control of microbial fouling are both essential in the prevention of microbial spoilage of beer. The present st...

E. Storgards

2000-01-01

187

Hygiene-Related Diseases: Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Digg Google Bookmarks Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete’s Foot ( tinea pedis ) Athlete’s foot, or tinea pedis , is an infection of the skin and feet ... caused by a variety of different fungi. Although tinea pedis can affect any portion of the foot, the ...

188

Preliminary Industrial Hygiene Survey Report of Conley Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July, 1984, a preliminary industrial hygiene survey was performed at Conley Corporation (SIC-3079) Tulsa, Oklahoma, where 4,4'-methylene-dianiline (101779) (4,4'-MDA) is used as a hardening agent in manufacturing fiberglass epoxy pipe and pipe fittings...

M. Boeniger

1986-01-01

189

External Evaluation of CDC Homestudy Course 3010-G "Community Hygiene."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study designed to determine if successful completion of a community hygiene course by sanitarians resulted in measurable changes in acquired knowledge and behavior and skills related to job performance. Results indicated that both knowledge and skills improved significantly and that both participants and supervisors perceived an…

Gnatt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.

1987-01-01

190

External Evaluation of CDC Homestudy Course 3010-G, "Community Hygiene."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of the Centers for Disease Control's home study course in community hygiene on the job performance of 45 sanitarians in 30 districts throughout North Carolina. Data were collected from: (1) pre- and post-tests that evaluated the sanitarians' mastery of knowledge in such areas as water supply, sewage disposal, solid…

Gantt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.

191

Evidence-based practice and the professionalization of dental hygiene.  

PubMed

The application of knowledge is fundamental to human problem solving. In health disciplines, knowledge utilization commonly manifests through evidence-based decision making in practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in health professions in general, and dental hygiene in particular, and to examine its relationship to the professionalization agenda of dental hygiene in Canada. EBP means integrating practitioner expertise with the best available external evidence from research. Proponents of EBP believe that it holds promise for reducing a research-practice gap by encouraging clinicians to seek current research results. Both the Canadian and American Dental Hygienists Associations support practice based on current research evidence, yet recent studies show variation in practice. Professionalization refers to the developmental stages through which an organized occupation passes as it develops traits that characterize it as a profession. The status conferred by professionalization privileges a group to make and monitor its own decisions relative to practice. Dental hygiene's success in acquiring attributes of a profession suggests that transformation to a profession is occurring. This paper compares the assumptions and challenges of both movements, and argues the need for a principal focus on the development of a culture of evidence-based dental hygiene practice. PMID:16451489

Cobban, Sandra J

2004-11-01

192

Group Oral Hygiene Intervention for Older Periodontal Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A five-session group oral hygiene intervention program was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 107 older periodontal patients, ages 50 to 70, over a 30-month follow-up period. Measures included pocket depth and attachment level using a Florida Pr...

J. F. Hollis V. J. Stevens S. J. Little J. Mullooly B. Johnson

1995-01-01

193

Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 1990. (1990 annual report on air hygiene).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 1990 annual report on air hygiene constitutes an extension of reporting by the environmental agency of the land Hessen. It is planned to submit in the future in the first quarter of each year a survey of the nuisance situation in Hessen for the prece...

M. Baltrusch, K. Hanewald, A. Siegmund, W. Stec-Lazaj, W. Wunderlich

1991-01-01

194

Desalinated water hygiene and scientific bases for its investigation.  

PubMed

In view of the increasing scarcity of fresh water reserves in many countries of the world, a thorough hygienic evaluation of the different methods of desalinating highly mineralized underground and sea waters for economic and drinking purpose becomes indispensable. In addition to generally accepted hygienic criteria (favourable organoleptic properties, innocuous chemical composition and epidemiological safety), introduction of supplementary criteria for the assessment of the characteristic of the quality of freshened drinking water is necessary, i.e., its full value in the physiological sense and stability of drinking properties. The necessity of hygienic tests concerned with the study and regulation of the mineral and microelement composition of desalinated drinking water as well as of its microbial composition, structural peculiarities, the so-called "deuterium number" and the presence of various organic substances in desalinated water was pointed out. A certain degree of priority should be given to the study of the mentioned indices in hygienic assessment of the different methods of water desalination (distillation, freezing out, ion exchange, electrodialysis, inverse osmosis and others). PMID:570985

Sidorenko, G I; Rakhmanin YuA

1978-01-01

195

Follow-Up Study of 1993 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXII, Number 17, June 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Palatine, Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of its dental hygiene students. The survey instrument was mailed to all 31 1993 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, and a response rate of 97% (n=30) was attained. Results of the…

Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

196

Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview  

PubMed Central

Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS) and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48) and the creation of legislation (n = 44); response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6%) of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2%) for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6%) of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44). The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44) of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5%) declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6%) and 39 (81.3%) authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48) of the responding authorities and 20.8% (10 out of 48) of the port authorities of other countries. Conclusion This study revealed a diversity of approaches and practices in the conduct of inspections, differences in the qualifications/knowledge/experience of inspectors, the legislation applied during inspections, and the lack of communication and training among many EU countries. An integrated European inspection programme involving competent expert inspectors in each EU Member States and special training for ship hygiene delivered to crew members and inspectors would help to minimize the risk of communicable diseases. Common inspection tools at a European level for hygiene inspection practices and port-to-port communication are needed.

2010-01-01

197

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

198

Randomized trial of "bleach baths" plus routine hygienic measures vs. routine hygienic measures alone for prevention of recurrent infections.  

PubMed

Children with probable community-associated Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue or invasive infections were randomized to routine daily hygienic measures with or without "bleach baths" twice a week for 3 months. Within 12 months, a medically attended recurrence occurred in 84 of 495 (17%) children using bleach baths compared to 103 of 492 (21%) of control participants (P = .15). PMID:24265356

Kaplan, Sheldon L; Forbes, Andrea; Hammerman, Wendy A; Lamberth, Linda; Hulten, Kristina G; Minard, Charles G; Mason, Edward O

2014-03-01

199

Microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation.  

PubMed

The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place. PMID:22488059

Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M

2012-04-01

200

An Investigation of the Safety of High Risk Sandwich Bar Foods Through the Application of Microbial Analysis, Temperature Monitoring and Microbial Predictive Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising incidents of food poisoning may be related to growing evidence of unsatisfactory temperature and hygiene practices in preparing and storing ready-to-eat foods. Four sandwich bar outlets in Dublin city center were observed regarding the quality of food handling and storage practices of chilled vacuum packed cooked chicken breast. A pilot microbial sampling plan proved Staphylococcus aureus was the major

Marie-Clare Maher

2002-01-01

201

Baseline evaluation of hand hygiene compliance in three major hospitals, Isfahan, Iran.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene is the mainstay of nosocomial infection prevention. This study was a baseline survey to assess hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers by direct observation in three major hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. The use of different hand hygiene products was also evaluated. In 3078 potential opportunities hand hygiene products were available on 2653 occasions (86.2%). Overall compliance was 6.4% (teaching hospital: 7.4%; public hospital: 6.2%; private hospital: 1.4%). Nurses (8.4%) had the highest rates of compliance. Poor hand hygiene compliance in Isfahan hospitals necessitates urgent interventions to improve both hospital infrastructure and staff knowledge. PMID:23910401

Ataei, B; Zahraei, S M; Pezeshki, Z; Babak, A; Nokhodian, Z; Mobasherizadeh, S; Hoseini, S G

2013-09-01

202

Food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy). Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

2012-01-01

203

Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water to meet all domestic demands. Domestic water supply must be accompanied by appropriate sanitation and hygienic education.

Peter, Graciana

204

Effects of student participation in hand hygiene monitoring on knowledge and perception of infection control practices.  

PubMed

Studies report that students in health care professions do not retain knowledge of infection control and demonstrate poor hand hygiene compliance. This study describes the effect of a multifaceted approach (education, skills training, and monitoring) on nursing students' knowledge of infection control principles, opinions, hand hygiene practices, and value of nursing research in evidence-based practice. Students participated in hand hygiene monitoring of health care workers with 900 observations. Students demonstrated strong knowledge of hand hygiene principles: 63% reported that hand hygiene monitoring positively influenced their own compliance. Although posters have been identified as effective prompts, students did not perceive poster reminders as effective in prompting handwashing. Students reported that hand hygiene activities helped them value the role of the nurse in research and evidence-based practice. This study may help educators clarify misconceptions that result in student noncompliance in hand hygiene practices. PMID:21366164

Waltman, Patricia A; Schenk, Laura K; Martin, Tina M; Walker, Jean

2011-04-01

205

Food and waste management biotechnology for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.

Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.

1979-01-01

206

Sleep hygiene intervention for youth aged 10 to 18 years with problematic sleep: a before-after pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background The current study aimed to examine the changes following a sleep hygiene intervention on sleep hygiene practices, sleep quality, and daytime symptoms in youth. Methods Participants aged 10–18 years with self-identified sleep problems completed our age-appropriate F.E.R.R.E.T (an acronym for the categories of Food, Emotions, Routine, Restrict, Environment and Timing) sleep hygiene programme; each category has three simple rules to encourage good sleep. Participants (and parents as appropriate) completed the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), and wore Actical® monitors twice before (1 and 2 weeks) and three times after (6, 12 and 20 weeks) the intervention. Anthropometric data were collected two weeks before and 20 weeks post-intervention. Results Thirty-three youths (mean age 12.9 years; M/F?=?0.8) enrolled, and retention was 100%. ASHS scores significantly improved (p?=?0.005) from a baseline mean (SD) of 4.70 (0.41) to 4.95 (0.31) post-intervention, as did PSQI scores [7.47 (2.43) to 4.47 (2.37); p?hygiene education programme might be effective in improving sleep in children and adolescents. However because this was a before and after study and a pilot study with several limitations, the findings need to be addressed with caution, and would need to be replicated within a randomised controlled trial to prove efficacy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000649819

2012-01-01

207

Campylobacter contamination in broiler carcasses and correlation with slaughterhouses operational hygiene inspection.  

PubMed

This study investigates factors associated with Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses, using survey data collected from nine Belgian slaughterhouses in 2008 in accordance with a European Union baseline study. Campylobacter were detected in 51.9% (202/389) (95% confidence interval, 46.8%-56.9%) of broiler carcasses. Campylobacter concentration was <10 CFU/g in 49.6% of carcasses, while 20.6% were contaminated with ? 1000 CFU/g. The mean Campylobacter concentration, as calculated by maximum likelihood estimation for left-censored data, was 1.8 log(10) CFU/g, with a standard deviation of 1.9 log(10) CFU/g. There was statistically significant variation among slaughterhouses in prevalence and concentrations of Campylobacter in their sampled carcasses. Campylobacter prevalence (but not concentrations) was positively associated with increase in broilers age. Both Campylobacter prevalence and concentration were significantly higher in carcasses sampled during June and September (but not in July and August) than carcasses sampled in January. We also investigated the correlation (Spearman's rank correlation test) between the scores of official control inspections and Campylobacter prevalence for eight out of the nine slaughterhouses. The control inspections were routinely performed by the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, and the concluded inspection scores were used as a general numerical indicator for the status of operational hygiene and quality of management in the slaughterhouses. Ranking of slaughterhouses based on their inspection scores was statistically correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.857) with their ranking based on prevalence of Campylobacter. In the present study we demonstrate how the outcomes from a routine baseline survey could be coupled with other readily available data from national control authorities in order to enable a better insight over Campylobacter contamination status in broiler slaughterhouses. Findings from this work call for subsequent in-depth investigations on technical and hygiene management factors that could impact Campylobacter contamination across broiler slaughterhouses. PMID:22029924

Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven; Dierick, Katelijne; Van Huffel, Xavier; Speybroeck, Niko; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2012-02-01

208

The ‘delayed infection’ (aka ‘hygiene’) hypothesis for childhood leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common variant of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (cALL) is the most frequent paediatric cancer subtype. Its incidence\\u000a rate appears to have increased substantially in Western societies during the mid-20th century and continues to increase at\\u000a ?1%\\/year. Worldwide cALL appears to track with affluence of societies. The ‘delayed infection’ hypothesis, first formulated\\u000a in 1988, parallels the hygiene hypothesis and has

Mel Greaves

209

Family violence content in dental hygiene curricula: a national survey.  

PubMed

Dental personnel are in an excellent position to recognize suspected abuse of dental patients because 65-75 percent of abuse occurs in the head and neck area. While most dental and dental hygiene curricula include the topic of child abuse, it has previously been unknown if other types of abuse, such as intimate partner abuse, elder abuse, and abuse of disabled persons, are addressed. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which dental hygiene programs have incorporated these family violence topics into the curriculum. Specific data on content, teaching methods, faculty, and resources were collected. Reasons for not including family violence in the curricula, attitudes on mandatory continuing education, and support services available for abuse victims were also examined. A fifteen-item survey was sent to all 229 U.S. accredited dental hygiene programs. Surveys were returned from 173 programs for a response rate of 77.5 percent. Child abuse was taught in most programs (N=122, 70.5 percent), while elder abuse (N=95, 54.9 percent), intimate partner abuse (N=81, 46.8 percent), and abuse of individuals with disabilities (N=80, 46.2 percent) were taught in fewer programs. Reasons for not including family violence in the curricula (N=31, 18 percent) varied. The need is critical for increased curriculum attention in U.S. dental hygiene programs to help stem the epidemic of family violence. Raising dental hygienists' awareness of the problem and potentially increasing the number of reports of and referrals for suspected violence may help more victims. PMID:12374275

Gutmann, Marylou E; Solomon, Eric S

2002-09-01

210

Hygienic Cleaning Products used in the kitchen; Exposure and risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study it was examined how people are exposed to compounds\\u000acontained in hygienic cleaning products used in the kitchen. The\\u000aproducts for which exposure was assessed are dishwashing liquids,\\u000ahygienic cleaning napkins, spray cleaners and bleach containing products\\u000a(abrasive, all purpose cleaner and bleach). For each product type,\\u000aexposure was assessed for one sample compound while performing one

Weerdesteijn MCH; Bremmer HJ; Zeilmaker MJ; Veen MP van

2007-01-01

211

[The hygienic evaluation of a local unit for sewage treatment].  

PubMed

A complex of hygienic criteria was proposed to assess a Bioclere local unit for sewage treatment. These included: the effects of the organoleptic properties of sewage, better sanitary and chemical parameters, lower levels of inorganic and organic chemicals, surfactants, microbiological parameters, stability of treatment regimens. The Bioclere unit has some advantages over the similar ones and may be useful when an object cannot be connected to the sewage network. PMID:9190350

Zholdakova, Z I; Kustova, E V; Sinitsyna, O O; Nedachin, A E; Sidorenko, S G

1997-01-01

212

Oral hygiene in elderly people in hospitals and nursing homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data SourcesSearches were made using Medline, the Cochrane Library, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation database and, by hand, of relevant articles' reference lists.Study selectionThe search was limited to studies conducted in humans only. The predetermined inclusion criteria were: clinical studies and randomised controlled trials (RCT) that linked oral hygiene with healthcare-associated pneumonia or respiratory tract infection in elderly people.

Sophie Arpin

2009-01-01

213

Vaginal Hygiene and Douching: Perspectives of Hispanic Men  

PubMed Central

Vaginal douching is widely practiced by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction, and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women, and none has included the perspective of men, though limited data suggests that women may douche to please male partners. The present study seeks to identify the socially and culturally shaped beliefs and attitudes that influence douching practices from the perspective of Latino men. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews in English or Spanish with adult Latino men seeking primary care at a community health centre in New York City (USA). Results indicate that these Latino men (mostly of Caribbean descent) are emphatic about the role of cleanliness in vaginal health, reporting that it substantially influences their choice of partner. Most are very supportive of douching, which they consider a necessary hygiene activity. Vaginal health is perceived as a state that must be attained and maintained through proactive hygiene measures that remove seminal residue, menstrual blood, sweat and bacteria that contaminate the vagina. The implications of these findings for interventions with Latina women are discussed.

Mckee, M Diane; Baquero, Maria; Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison

2009-01-01

214

The 'hygiene hypothesis' for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update  

PubMed Central

According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, the decreasing incidence of infections in western countries and more recently in developing countries is at the origin of the increasing incidence of both autoimmune and allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis is based upon epidemiological data, particularly migration studies, showing that subjects migrating from a low-incidence to a high-incidence country acquire the immune disorders with a high incidence at the first generation. However, these data and others showing a correlation between high disease incidence and high socio-economic level do not prove a causal link between infections and immune disorders. Proof of principle of the hygiene hypothesis is brought by animal models and to a lesser degree by intervention trials in humans. Underlying mechanisms are multiple and complex. They include decreased consumption of homeostatic factors and immunoregulation, involving various regulatory T cell subsets and Toll-like receptor stimulation. These mechanisms could originate, to some extent, from changes in microbiota caused by changes in lifestyle, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Taken together, these data open new therapeutic perspectives in the prevention of autoimmune and allergic diseases.

Okada, H; Kuhn, C; Feillet, H; Bach, J-F

2010-01-01

215

Observing and Improving Hand Hygiene Compliance: Implementation and Refinement of an Electronic-Assisted Direct-Observer Hand Hygiene Audit Program  

PubMed Central

We implemented a direct-observer hand hygiene audit program that used trained observers, wireless data entry devices, and an intranet portal. We improved the reliability and utility of the data by standardizing audit processes, regularly retraining auditors, developing an audit guidance tool, and reporting weighted composite hand hygiene compliance scores.

Chen, Luke F.; Carriker, Charlene; Staheli, Russell; Isaacs, Pamela; Elliott, Brandon; Miller, Becky A.; Anderson, Deverick J.; Moehring, Rebekah W.; Vereen, Sheila; Bringhurst, Judie; Rhodes, Lisa; Strittholt, Nancy; Sexton, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

216

Street vended food in developing world: hazard analyses.  

PubMed

Street food vending has become an important public health issue and a great concern to everybody. This is due to widespread food borne diseases, due to the mushrooming of wayside food vendors who lack an adequate understanding of the basic food safety issues. Major sources contributing to microbial contamination are the place of preparation, utensils for cooking and serving, raw materials, time and temperature abuse of cooked foods and the personal hygiene of vendors. Various studies have identified the sources of food safety issues involved in street foods to be microorganism belonging to the genus Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Vibrio, Campylobacter, Listeria, Salmonella. Application of sound risk analysis policies is being advocated to provide a scientific base to the host of risk management option which India may need to explore to ensure public health and safety. PMID:22282636

Rane, Sharmila

2011-01-01

217

Domestic refrigeration practices with emphasis on hygiene: analysis of a survey and consumer recommendations.  

PubMed

A Web-enabled survey was conducted to improve knowledge of home refrigeration practices of French consumers (n = 809), with an emphasis on hygiene, and this information was used to establish recommendations. The survey targeted a convenience sample of working people. Analysis of the survey responses revealed that efforts should be directed toward improvement of microbiological control measures. Only 37% of respondents made sure the temperature in their refrigerator was 4 degrees C or below. Only 37% of respondents reported that they systematically wrapped food. Sponges, known to be frequently highly contaminated, were used by 89% of the respondents to clean their refrigerator, which indicates the need to recommend disinfection of sponges before they are used for cleaning. Twenty-seven percent of respondents used sodium hypochlorite (bleach), but it was applied without previous cleaning (21% of the users) or in the commercial concentrated form (7% of the users). The permanent presence of water condensation on the shelves was noted by 2% of respondents, suggesting imperfect closure of the door, with a consequence of higher energy consumption and water available for microbial circulation and growth. Thus, an important recommendation is to check the door gaskets and to ensure the tight closure of the door. Seventy percent of the respondents declared that they never put warm or hot food in the refrigerator. However, many people, when orally questioned, acknowledged that they leave dishes at ambient temperature overnight before putting them in the refrigerator. It therefore is essential to recommend that perishable food not be left for more than 2 h at ambient temperature. PMID:18810875

Lagendijk, Emmanuelle; Asséré, Adrien; Derens, Evelyne; Carpentier, Brigitte

2008-09-01

218

Food Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\

Robert Gottlieb; Anupama Joshi

2010-01-01

219

Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail.  

PubMed

Cooked meat ready-to-eat products are recognized to be contaminated during slicing which, in the last years, has been associated with several outbreaks. This work aimed to find out possible relation between the hygiene practice taking place at retail point during slicing of cooked meat products in small and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) and large-sized establishments (LEs) and the microbiological quality of sliced cooked meat products. For that, a checklist was drawn up and filled in based on scoring handling practice during slicing in different establishments in Cordoba (Southern Spain). In addition, sliced cooked meats were analyzed for different microbiological indicators and investigated for the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that SMEs showed a more deficient handling practices compared to LEs. In spite of these differences, microbiological counts indicated similar microbiological quality in cooked meat samples for both types of establishments. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Positive samples for Listeria spp. were found in establishments which showed acceptable hygiene levels, though contamination could be associated to the lack of exclusiveness of slicers at retail points. Moreover, Listeria spp presence could not be statistically linked to any microbiological parameters; however, it was observed that seasonality influenced significantly (P<0.05) L. monocytogenes presence, being all samples found during warm season (5/5). As a conclusion, results suggested that more effort should be made to adequately educate handlers in food hygiene practices, focused specially on SMEs. PMID:20573456

Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Castro, R; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Valero, A; Carrasco, E; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

2010-10-01

220

Food safety at home: knowledge and practices of consumers.  

PubMed

AIM: To define food safety and risk perception of foodborne diseases in the private home setting and identify specific behaviours during food purchase, storage and preparation in a large survey study. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A large sample of individuals (n?=?1,000) living in the area of Cassino, Italy, volunteered to participate in the study. All participants were randomly recruited and underwent a questionnaire-based interview at their home regarding food-safety measures. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for correlations between demographic characteristics and knowledge/behaviours of food diseases. Risks of hazardous practices in the home were calculated according to educational, physical, occupational and marital status. All analyses were performed using the EPIINFO 3.5 statistical program. RESULTS: Our data showed that there was an insufficient amount of knowledge regarding foodborne diseases and pathogens. In most families, we found that there was a lack of correct adherence to food hygiene, mainly due to errors during both food preparation and storage. There was a higher risk for food safety errors in families with children, older persons and pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the home environment represents an important site for the spread of pathogens responsible for foodborne diseases. In order to adopt good hygiene practices in the home setting, consumers need to be informed about safety procedures of domestic food handling, storage and preparation. PMID:22347771

Langiano, Elisa; Ferrara, Maria; Lanni, Liana; Viscardi, Viviana; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; De Vito, Elisabetta

2012-02-01

221

Food allergies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food\\u000a proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies,\\u000a implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young\\u000a children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in

Paula F. G. O’Leary; Fergus Shanahan

2002-01-01

222

Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance  

PubMed Central

Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a component of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Improving the infection control culture in veterinary medicine would facilitate future campaigns and studies in this area, as well as overall patient and staff safety.

2014-01-01

223

Culture change in infection control: applying psychological principles to improve hand hygiene.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene occurs at the intersection of habit and culture. Psychological and social principles, including operant conditioning and peer pressure of conforming social norms, facilitate behavior change. Participatory leadership and level hierarchies are needed for sustainable patient safety culture. Application of these principles progressively and significantly improved hand hygiene compared with the hospital aggregate control. Changes to hand hygiene auditing and response processes demonstrate ability to improve and sustain adherence rates within a clinical microsystem. PMID:23669615

Cumbler, Ethan; Castillo, Leilani; Satorie, Laura; Ford, Deborah; Hagman, Jan; Hodge, Therese; Price, Lisa; Wald, Heidi

2013-01-01

224

Problems of equipment creation for hygienic treatment of textiles (underwear, garments, hygienic towels and napkins) for long-term space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impossibility of just in time stocks delivery to the International Space Station ISS because of Shuttle space flights absence has led to forced changing of standards of underwear garments and personal hygiene means using Therefore hygienic treatment of textiles underwear garments towels and napkins are necessary for long-term space flight missions Investigations into the ways of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply are prepared The resent equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply were created for space flight conditions with an opportunity of stocks updating This investigations are confirm necessity of new generation system creation for cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply and special designing of hygienic treatment laundry drying equipment and technologies for long-term space flights without an opportunity of stocks updating in particular for martian mission One from main requirements for equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply is full safety for human organisms under systematic and long-term application in space flight conditions small energy consumption and combining with space Life-Support Systems Method and program of experimental investigations of textiles laundry with application of washing means for long-term space flight conditions are prepared It is necessary to estimate opportunity and efficiency of washing means application for textiles laundry for space flight missions also to estimate compatibility of washing means for textiles laundry and for washing

Shumilina, I.

225

The status of oral hygiene in cleft lip, palate patients after surgical correction.  

PubMed

The cleft lip and palate patients usually present a number of problems viz. altered oral anatomy leading to changes in oral physiology diminishing the self-cleansing ability of individual. The handicapped children are unable to maintain their oral hygiene properly. The present study was formulated with the aim that does normalization of oral anatomy have its effect on improvement of oral hygiene? An assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified was performed between preoperative and postoperative values in the same patient at KGMU and KGDU. A total of 50 cases were recorded in two groups of 25 each: (i) 6 years. The observations are statistically analyzed by paired 't' test to get the significance of results. Results: The data analyzed showed the significant decrease in oral hygiene indices observed in both groups. A relative significance in oral hygiene status following surgery was observed. Both groups expressed greater significance when compared pre and postoperatively which is indicative of considerable improvement of oral hygiene after surgical correction. The study concludes that oral hygiene improves more in older cleft lip-palate cases following reconstruction of palatal vault, premaxilla and anterior lip seal by secondary bone grafting method when compared with oral hygiene indices results in primary periosteoplasty cases. The surgical correction of cleft lip palate enhances self-cleaning ability and better compliance to maintain oral hygiene in children as the age advances. PMID:16327139

Pandey, S C; Pandey, R K

2005-01-01

226

Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability.  

PubMed

As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled 'Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability'. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today's environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes - particularly in developing and emerging countries - imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public-private partnerships. PMID:23530770

Newson, Rachel S; Lion, Rene; Crawford, Robert J; Curtis, Valerie; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Feunekes, Gerda I J; Hicks, Cheryl; van Liere, Marti; Lowe, C Fergus; Meijer, Gert W; Pradeep, B V; Reddy, K Srinath; Sidibe, Myriam; Uauy, Ricardo

2013-01-01

227

Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability  

PubMed Central

As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public–private partnerships.

2013-01-01

228

Assessing the thoroughness of hand hygiene: "Seeing is believing".  

PubMed

The thoroughness of hand hygiene (HH) was evaluated using a simulation method in which health care workers (HCWs) rubbed their hands with a fluorescent substance, washed with water, and placed their hands under an ultraviolet detector to identify areas missed. Most residue points were located in the tips of the nails (38.6%), followed by fingertips (17.4%). This stress-free "seeing is believing" program can encourage HCWs' active participation in sustaining the HH culture of health care institutions. PMID:24767574

Pan, Sung-Ching; Chen, Evelyn; Tien, Kuei-Lien; Hung, I-Chen; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shan-Chwen

2014-07-01

229

[The organic carbon--issues of hygienic regulation and harmonization].  

PubMed

This study is devoted to the investigation of possibility to use the total organic carbon as regulated index in drinking water as well as to the issues of hygienic regulation and harmonizing this index with the standards of other countries. Basing on the results of 3 years lasting investigation carried out by Municipal Unitary Enterprise "Vodokanal" of Yekaterinburg city permits to propose as the most informative and reliable index of the presence of organic substances in drinking water the content of total organic carbon in comparison with currently regulated permanganate oxidability, chemical and biochemical oxygen consumption. PMID:24624824

Kuz'mina, E A; Kuznetsov, E O; Smagina, N V; Slyshkina, T V; Akramov, R L; Brusnitsina, L A; Nitsak, G B; Nikonova, S V

2013-01-01

230

Food Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a IgE-mediated food allergies are part of a spectrum of adverse reactions to foods including immune and nonimmune mechanisms.\\u000a Anaphylaxis is the most serious and life-threatening manifestation of food allergy. Asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and\\u000a urticaria\\/angioedema also result from IgE-mediated reactions to foods. Not only ingestion of an allergenic food, but inhalation\\u000a of food allergens may cause reactions. There are many

Oscar L. Frick

231

Food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise.

Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.

2011-01-01

232

Establishment of microbiological safety criteria for foods in international trade. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods.  

PubMed

Microbiological safety is achieved by applying good hygienic practices throughout the food chain, "from farm to fork". Governmental food control is traditionally based on inspection of the facilities where foods are handled, and on testing food samples. Testing is usually applied to imported foods, when no information concerning the safety of a consignment is available. The microbiological safety is judged by means of microbiological criteria. Such criteria should, in the context of the WTO/SPS measures, be scientifically justified, and established according to the principles described by the Codex Alimentarius. However, microbiological testing is not a very reliable tool for consumer protection; the emphasis is currently shifting to the application of food safety management tools such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP). PMID:9282394

1997-01-01

233

[Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil].  

PubMed

In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this study is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates. PMID:24897213

Bezerra, Aída Couto Dinucci; Mancuso, Ana Maria Cervato; Heitz, Sarah Jeanne Jorge

2014-05-01

234

Direct observation of hygiene in a Peruvian shantytown: not enough handwashing and too little water  

PubMed Central

Summary OBJECTIVE To document frequency of hygiene practices of mothers and children in a shantytown in Lima, Peru. METHODS Continuous monitoring over three 12-h sessions in households without in-house water connections to measure: (i) water and soap use of 32 mothers; (ii) frequency of interrupting faecal-hand contamination by washing; and (iii) the time until faecal-hand contamination became a possible transmission event. RESULTS During 1008 h of observation, 55% (65/119) of mothers’ and 69% (37/54) of children's faecal-hand contamination events were not followed within 15 min by handwashing or bathing. Nearly 40% (67/173) of faecal-hand contamination events became possible faecal-oral transmission events. There was no difference in the time-until-transmission between mothers and children (P = 0.43). Potential transmission of faecal material to food or mouth occurred in 64% of cases within 1 h of hand contamination. Mean water usage (6.5 l) was low compared to international disaster relief standards. CONCLUSIONS We observed low volumes of water usage, inadequate handwashing, and frequent opportunities for faecal contamination and possible transmission in this water-scarce community.

Oswald, William E.; Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Lescano, Andres G.; Cabrera, Lilia; Leontsini, Elli; Pan, William K.; Soldan, Valerie Paz; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

235

How do we assess hospital cleaning? A proposal for microbiological standards for surface hygiene in hospitals.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. The public has linked the so-called 'superbugs' with their experience of dirty hospitals, but the precise role of cleaning in the control of these organisms in unknown. Hence the importance of a clean environment is likely to remain speculative unless it becomes an evidence-based science. This proposal is a call for bacteriological standards with which to assess clinical surface hygiene in hospitals, based on those used by the food industry. The first standard concerns any finding of a specific 'indicator' organism, the presence of which suggests a requirement for increased cleaning. Indicators would include Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Clostridium difficile, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and various Gram-negative bacilli. The second standard concerns a quantitative aerobic colony count of <5 cfu/cm(2) on frequent hand touch surfaces in hospitals. The principle relates to modern risk management systems such as HACCP, and reflects the fact that pathogens of concern are widespread. Further work is required to evaluate and refine these standards and define the infection risk from the hospital environment. PMID:14706265

Dancer, S J

2004-01-01

236

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... length) }} Forward {{/if}} What's New in NIAID Food Allergy Research New Mouse Model Developed for Eosinophilic Esophagitis ...

237

Food additives  

MedlinePLUS

... appealing Direct additives may be man-made or natural. Natural additives include: Adding herbs or spices to foods ... appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, bring out the taste ...

238

Space Food.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-...

1994-01-01

239

Dental visits, oral hygiene behaviour, and orthodontic treatment in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Since the first survey in 1992/93, the Swiss Health Survey (SHS) has been repeated every 5 years (1997, 2002 and 2007). In the present study, dental visits (dental care utilisation within the last 12 months), oral hygiene measures and the frequency of orthodontic treatments in the Swiss population in 2002 were examined and dental visits were compared with the years 1992/93, 1997 and 2007. Weighted data were analysed regarding different sociodemographic factors. From 1992 to 2002, dental visits among the 15-74-year-old declined continuously (1992/93: 70%, 1997: 66%, 2002: 63%), whereas in 2007 a slight increase (66%) was documented. In the survey from 2002, a large proportion (74%) of the population stated to clean their teeth or prostheses several times a day, predominantly with a manual toothbrush, whereas 28% applied an electric toothbrush and almost half of the respondents also used dental floss or toothpicks. Fewer visits and less intensive oral hygiene measures were observed among the elderly, men, weak social strata, smokers, persons with more than 8 missing teeth and in the group with removable dentures. Almost a quarter of the population had orthodontic treatment with the highest proportion among the 15-24-year-old (56%). PMID:22362135

Stadelmann, Pascale; Zemp, Elisabeth; Weiss, Carine; Weiger, Roland; Menghini, Giorgio; Zitzmann, Nicola U

2012-01-01

240

[Hygienic requirements for work organization of full-day schools].  

PubMed

Physiological and hygienic studies under the conditions of a natural hygienic experiment were conducted to examine different variants of the organization of work of new types of general educational establishments--full-day schools. Over 580 pupils from 5 full-day schools were followed up. Organization of teaching children at full-day schools was found to mainly correspond to the age-related capabilities of pupils from primary and secondary classes. Of vital importance for maintenance of mental performance, good emotional and psychosomatic states are the organization of the intraschool environment, including a school plot, as well as the conditions for realization of additional education, motor activity of children, and recess. Health keeping in pupils from full-day schools is favored by the reduction in the duration of lessons to 35 minutes and day sleep for first-form children, the decrease in the number of pupils in a class, outdoor physical exercises in the middle of a school day (a primary school) and strolls after lessons, three meals a day, balanced additional education, medicopsychological accompaniment, optimization of studies and rest in children during a school year. PMID:19514287

Stepanova, M I; Sazaniuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Aleksandrova, I E; Berezina, N O; Laponova, E D; Lashneva, I P; Polenova, M A; Sedova, A S; Shumkova, T V

2009-01-01

241

CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

Son, Chang H.

2011-01-01

242

Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea  

PubMed Central

Background Ever since John Snow’s intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality. Methods We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta disposal, respectively. The estimated effect on diarrhoea mortality was determined by applying the rules adopted for this supplement, where appropriate. Results The striking effect of handwashing with soap is consistent across various study designs and pathogens, though it depends on access to water. The effect of water treatment appears similarly large, but is not found in few blinded studies, suggesting that it may be partly due to the placebo effect. There is very little rigorous evidence for the health benefit of sanitation; four intervention studies were eventually identified, though they were all quasi-randomized, had morbidity as the outcome, and were in Chinese. Conclusion We propose diarrhoea risk reductions of 48, 17 and 36%, associated respectively, with handwashing with soap, improved water quality and excreta disposal as the estimates of effect for the LiST model. Most of the evidence is of poor quality. More trials are needed, but the evidence is nonetheless strong enough to support the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene for all.

Cairncross, Sandy; Hunt, Caroline; Boisson, Sophie; Bostoen, Kristof; Curtis, Val; Fung, Isaac CH; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

2010-01-01

243

Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981  

SciTech Connect

Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J. (comps.)

1982-10-01

244

[Food allergy or food intolerance?].  

PubMed

Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management. PMID:24834642

Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

2014-04-16

245

Articles on Major Official Materials Concerning the Problems of Food Hygiene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Standards of human daily vitamin requirements; Standards for vitamin-enrichment of foodstuffs (in milligram-percents); Lump sugar vitamin-enriched with ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Technical specifications STU; Flour milling production. MRTU. Vita...

M. G. Shevchenko

1965-01-01

246

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

247

Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.

2009-10-21

248

Hygienic and health characteristics of donkey milk during a follow-up study.  

PubMed

For its characteristics, donkey milk has been proposed as an alternative to goat or artificial milk to feed allergic infants. Therefore, it is important to increase our knowledge on health and immunological characteristics of donkey milk. Ten donkeys, bred as companion animals, were enrolled in this study and sampled once a month, for eight months. Milk (10 ml) was collected from each half udder for somatic cell count (SCC), bacteriological analysis and total bacteria count (TBC). The major pathogens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were further genotyped by nanoarray analysis. Whey lysozyme and NAGase (NAG) activities were also assessed. Overall, 101 half-udder milk samples were taken. They showed very low values of TBC (<250 cfu/ml) and SCC (<50 000 cells/ml) and a minor prevalence of pathogens: Staph. aureus was isolated only from 5 milk samples (3 animals), Streptococcus equi from 2 samples and Str. equisimilis from a single sample. All the isolates were sensitive to all antibiotic classes used in veterinary medicine. None of the Staph. aureus isolates were shown to harbour genes coding for any enterotoxin, toxic-shock syndrome toxin or antibiotic resistance. Lysozyme levels were always very high (4000-5000 U/ml), while NAG values were mostly low (<50 U/ml), out of the last part of lactation. The results of this study confirmed the low prevalence of intramammary infections in donkey and the absence of food-borne pathogens, suggesting that donkey milk could be a safe food, if the mammary gland is healthy and the animals are milked in proper hygienic conditions. PMID:20883563

Pilla, Rachel; Daprà, Valentina; Zecconi, Alfonso; Piccinini, Renata

2010-11-01

249

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)

2006-10-31

250

Food Sources  

Cancer.gov

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

251

Food Scorecard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

252

Applying statistical process control to monitor and evaluate the hazard analysis critical control point hygiene data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid hygiene testing systems employing the ATP Bioluminescence Technique are widely used to assess the hygiene status of various Control Points (CPs) in any Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. The measurement in Relative Light Units (RLU) is then used to give a Pass\\/Fail status to the CP tested. This paper highlights the potential benefits of applying appropriate Statistical

G. D. Hayes; A. J. Scallan; J. H. F. Wong

1997-01-01

253

Hygienic quality of head lettuce: Effects of organic and mineral fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hygienic quality of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was investigated after different fertilizer treatments (fresh farmyard manure, composted farmyard manure, stinging nettle extract and calcium ammonium nitrate) in a 2-year field experiment with two trials per year, respectively. For assessment of the hygienic quality the total aerobic bacterial counts, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella were investigated in

S. Wießner; B. Thiel; J. Krämer; U. Köpke

2009-01-01

254

Follow-Up Study of 1992 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXII, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1992 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois. Surveys were mailed to all 29…

Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

255

Follow-Up Study of 1987 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XVII, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1988, a follow-up study was performed of the 1987 graduates of the Dental Hygiene program of William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, in order to determine the quality of the program and the need for changes, and to substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards. A survey was mailed to all of the 1987 dental hygiene

Holt, Marianne; Flaherty, Toni

256

Follow-Up Study of 1990 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XX, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1990 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper (WRHC) College in Palatine, Illinois. A survey was mailed to all 30…

Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

257

Follow-Up Study of 1989 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XIX, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1989 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC). A survey was mailed to all 29 associate degree…

Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

258

Follow-Up Study of 1991 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXI, No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1991 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois. Surveys were mailed to all 28…

Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

259

Early Childhood Special Education. Dental and Oral Hygiene Procedures for Young Children with Special Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that children with special needs often require specific considerations with regard to dental care. Discusses some of the physical disabilities and how they interfere with dental hygiene, and how child caregivers can modify daily routines and assist disabled children with areas of hygiene the children may find difficult. (HTH)

Sluder, R. S.; Luder, Linda C.

1995-01-01

260

Formative research on the feasibility of hygiene interventions for influenza control in UK primary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Interventions to increase hand washing in schools have been advocated as a means to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza and other infections. However, the feasibility and acceptability of effective school-based hygiene interventions is not clear. METHODS: A pilot study in four primary schools in East London was conducted to establish the current need for enhanced hand hygiene interventions,

Wolf-Peter Schmidt; Catherine Wloch; Adam Biran; Val Curtis; Punam Mangtani

2009-01-01

261

Reactivity and repeatability of hygiene behaviour: Structured observations from Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

If interventions promoting improved hygiene behaviour to prevent childhood diarrhoea are to be implemented and evaluated, valid methods for measuring this behaviour will be required. This paper presents findings from a study to investigate the use of structured observations to measure hygiene behaviour in Burkina Faso.Two hundred mothers with young children (2–36 months) were observed on several occasions, with particular

Simon Cousens; Bernadette Kanki; Seydou Toure; Ibrahim Diallo; Valerie Curtis

1996-01-01

262

Penile Hygiene: Puberty, Paraphimosis and Personal Care for Men and Boys with an Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Supporting men and boys with an intellectual disability (ID) to meet their penile hygiene needs is perhaps one of the least acknowledged but most confronting issues facing care staff. The delivery of intimate hygiene can be a challenging topic particularly as it has been drawn into the emerging sexuality discourse and the ongoing abuse…

Wilson, N. J.; Cumella, S.; Parmenter, T. R.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Shuttleworth, R. P.

2009-01-01

263

Effect of Brood Type on Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene by Worker Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) have been selectively bred for varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of pupae that are infested by Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman from capped brood cells. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells are inspected, and then brood is either removed or recapped. Previous

Jeffrey W. Harris

2008-01-01

264

Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) process. Health programs: industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and

Hubis

1982-01-01

265

Determinants of personal and household hygiene among college students in New York City, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Although several studies have characterized the hygiene habits of college students, few have assessed the determinants underlying such behaviors. Objectives Our study sought to describe students' knowledge, practices, and beliefs about hygiene and determine whether there is an association between reported behaviors and frequency of illness. Methods A sample of 299 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, personal and household hygiene behaviors, beliefs and knowledge about hygiene, and general health status. Results Variation in reported hygiene habits was noted across several demographic factors. Women reported “always” washing their hands after using the toilet (87.1%) more than men (65.3%, P = .001). Similarly, freshmen reported such behavior (80.4%) more than sophomores (71.9%), juniors (67.7%), or seniors (50%, P = .011). Whereas 96.6% of participants thought that handwashing was either “very important” or “somewhat important” for preventing disease, smaller proportions thought it could prevent upper respiratory infections (85.1%) or gastroenteritis (48.3%), specifically. There was no significant relationship between reported behaviors and self-reported health status. Conclusion The hygiene habits of college students may be motivated by perceptions of socially acceptable behavior rather than scientific knowledge. Interventions targeting the social norms of incoming and continuing students may be effective in improving hygiene determinants and ultimately hygiene practices.

Miko, Benjamin A.; Cohen, Bevin; Conway, Laurie; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

2013-01-01

266

The development of a 'clean sheep policy' in compliance with the new Hygiene Regulation (EC) 853/2004 (Hygiene 2).  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to identify the risk factors associated with the transfer of bacterial contamination from the fleece to the ovine carcass thereby providing the scientific basis for the development and validation of a clean sheep policy. Two hundred sheep in lairage were graded into five categories each consisting of 40 sheep. The categories were as follows; (A) clean and dry; (B) clean and wet; (C) dirty and dry; (D) dirty and wet and (E) visible dags (dung-clotted tufts of wool) categorized by the chief veterinary inspector at the slaughter plant based on the visual inspection of the hygienic status of the fleece. Microbiological evaluations of the carcasses were conducted using swab sampling methods. Total viable counts (TVCs), Enterobacteriaceae and coliform counts were obtained from 40 animals per category at four separate sites (brisket, shoulder, flank and rump) immediately after pelt removal. Statistical analysis of TVC data obtained from the carcass indicated that the dirt level of the fleece had a significant effect on contamination levels when the fleece was dry. Enterobacteriaceae and coliform counts suggest that dirt was a contributing risk factor regardless of wetness or dryness of the animal. The clean sheep policy should therefore differentiate between clean and dirty sheep and mandate additional hygiene measures for the latter. PMID:17188209

Byrne, B; Dunne, G; Lyng, J; Bolton, D J

2007-05-01

267

The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.  

PubMed

Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration. PMID:24188543

Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

2014-09-01

268

Agglomeration of pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical and food powders — Similarities and differences of materials and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product developers tend to make a distinction between different types of agglomerated powders depending on whether they are produced by the pharmaceutical, detergent, chemical or food industry. This is perfectly valid for the hygiene, quality, safety or economical aspects of processes and products. However, from a process engineering point of view a different classification is needed in order to identify

St. Palzer

2011-01-01

269

The Impact of EU Accession on the Export Competitiveness of the Estonian Food Processing Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to answer the question whether the investments made by Estonian food processing companies to meet the EU's strict hygiene and structural requirements have enhanced their competitiveness and opened up better export opportunities to the EU-15 market. Enhanced competitiveness means not only larger export volumes but also redirection of exports towards higher value added products. The current study

Kristina Toming

2007-01-01

270

The Relationship Between Reported Sleep Quality and Sleep Hygiene in Italian and American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and sleep hygiene in Italian and American adolescents and to assess whether sleep-hygiene practices mediate the relationship between culture and sleep quality. Methods Two nonprobability samples were collected from public schools in Rome, Italy, and Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Students completed the following self-report measures: Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale, Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, Pubertal Developmental Scale, and Morningness/Eveningness Scale. Results The final sample included 776 Italian and 572 American adolescents 12 to 17 years old. Italian adolescents reported much better sleep hygiene and substantially better sleep quality than American adolescents. A moderate-to-strong linear relationship was found between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples. Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed on both samples. Demographic and individual characteristics explained a significant proportion of the variance in sleep quality (Italians: 18%; Americans: 25%), and the addition of sleep-hygiene domains explained significantly more variance in sleep quality (Italians: 17%; Americans: 16%). A final hierarchical multiple regression analysis with both samples combined showed that culture (Italy versus United States) only explained 0.8% of the variance in sleep quality after controlling for sleep hygiene and all other variables. Conclusions Cross-cultural differences in sleep quality, for the most part, were due to differences in sleep-hygiene practices. Sleep hygiene is an important predictor of sleep quality in Italian and American adolescents, thus supporting the implementation and evaluation of educational programs on good sleep-hygiene practices.

LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Giannotti, Flavia; Cortesi, Flavia; Wolfson, Amy R.; Harsh, John

2014-01-01

271

Creation of Integrated System of Cosmonauts Sanitary-Hygienic Supply: Researches, Problems and Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.

Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.

272

[Infrastructure and adherence to hand hygiene: challenges to patient safety].  

PubMed

Considering the importance of hands in the chain of transmission of microorganisms, this observational research investigated the material infrastructure and compliance of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit in the south of Brazil in 2010. The data was collected by direct non-participant observation and through the use of self-administered questionnaires to be completed by the 39 participants, which was analyzed with the assistance of the chi2 Test, descriptive statistics and quantitative discourse analysis. Although health professionals overestimate compliance rates, recognize the practice as relevant to the prevention of infection and refer there are no impeding factors, of the 1,277 opportunities observed, compliance was 26% and significantly lower before patient contact and the use of aseptic procedures than after patient contact: infrastructure was shown to be deficient. The results indicate risk to patient safety, and thus, the planning of corrective actions to promote hand washing is relevant. PMID:24015465

Bathke, Janaína; de Cunico, Priscila Almeida; Maziero, Eliane Cristina Sanches; Cauduro, Fernanda Leticia Frates; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; de Cruz, Elaine Drehmer Almeida

2013-06-01

273

Medicalized social hygiene? Tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic.  

PubMed

This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911

Harsch, Donna

2012-01-01

274

[Control of industrial waste consumption residues: ecological and hygienic aspects].  

PubMed

The problem in the provision of safe handling of industrial waste and consumption residues is relatively current. According with the United Nations Organization's data, 25 to 33% of the world's notified diseases are directly associated with the low quality of the human environment. Up to now, a list of chemicals encountered in the waste and residues is unavailable in Russia and foreign countries. By keeping in mind the ubiquitous spread of industrial waste and consumption resides due to human vital activity, their huge formations and their very wide diversity in composition, type, and pattern of a possible dangerous effect, it is important to consider the problem associated with waste handling, by evaluating their environmental and hygienic hazard. PMID:18159741

Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Solov'eva, A V; Shemiakina, Iu V

2007-01-01

275

[Hygienic aspects of the production of asbestos substitutes].  

PubMed

Due to the high level aggressiveness of asbestos, more attempts have been made in the recent years to replace asbestos by other artificial mineral fibres. In this connection, the labour conditions were studied in the basalt and carbon fibres processing sites. The major occupational hazards of these sites included basalt and carbon fibres dusts, heating microclimate in some working zones and physical overload. An intratracheal experiment revealed a lower degree of fibrinogenicity of the basalt and carbon fibres as compared to chrysotile asbestos. The number of the induced mesothelioma in the intraperitoneal introduction of basalt and carbon fibres was markedly lower than in case with chrysotile asbestos. Hygienically, asbestos should be replaced wherever possible, and the dust control measures should by no means be inferior to those with asbestos. PMID:2175726

Nikitina, O V; Troitskaia, N A; Kogan, F M; Velichkovski?, B T; Blokhin, V A; Kuznetsova, Z M; Vanchugova, N N

1990-01-01

276

Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome  

PubMed Central

Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market.

Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

2013-01-01

277

Indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of industrial scale operating Biowaste Composting Plants.  

PubMed

The hygienic performance of biowaste composting plants to ensure the quality of compost is of high importance. Existing compost quality assurance systems reflect this importance through intensive testing of hygienic parameters. In many countries, compost quality assurance systems are under construction and it is necessary to check and to optimize the methods to state the hygienic performance of composting plants. A set of indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of normal operating biowaste composting plants was developed. The indicator methods were developed by investigating temperature measurements from indirect process tests from 23 composting plants belonging to 11 design types of the Hygiene Design Type Testing System of the German Compost Quality Association (BGK e.V.). The presented indicator methods are the grade of hygienization, the basic curve shape, and the hygienic risk area. The temperature courses of single plants are not distributed normally, but they were grouped by cluster analysis in normal distributed subgroups. That was a precondition to develop the mentioned indicator methods. For each plant the grade of hygienization was calculated through transformation into the standard normal distribution. It shows the part in percent of the entire data set which meet the legal temperature requirements. The hygienization grade differs widely within the design types and falls below 50% for about one fourth of the plants. The subgroups are divided visually into basic curve shapes which stand for different process courses. For each plant the composition of the entire data set out of the various basic curve shapes can be used as an indicator for the basic process conditions. Some basic curve shapes indicate abnormal process courses which can be emended through process optimization. A hygienic risk area concept using the 90% range of variation of the normal temperature courses was introduced. Comparing the design type range of variation with the legal temperature defaults showed hygienic risk areas over the temperature courses which could be minimized through process optimization. The hygienic risk area of four design types shows a suboptimal hygienic performance. PMID:15869987

Martens, Jürgen

2005-01-01

278

Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN

2007-01-01

279

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... by common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli. ... cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants ...

280

Maternal effects on the hygienic behavior of Russian x Ontario hybrid honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

Strains and hybrids of Russian and Ontario honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) were evaluated for hygienic behavior at both colony and individual levels. The objectives were to determine phenotypic and genotypic variability and to study the inheritance of this behavior. At the colony level, Russian bees uncapped and removed significantly more freeze-killed brood than Ontario bees. The most hygienic Russian colonies and the least hygienic Ontario colonies were selected to perform reciprocal crosses between the strains. Bees from the hybrid colonies as well as from the parental colonies were tagged and introduced into observation hives, where hygienic behavior was directly observed on a piece of frozen brood comb. Russian and hybrid bees of Russian mother had the highest percentages of workers uncapping cells and removing brood. Conversely, Ontario and hybrid bees of Ontario mother had the lowest percentages of individuals for these variables. Differences were also observed among the 4 genotypes for their degree of specialization on hygienic tasks. Russian and hybrid bees of Russian mother showed a significantly higher uncapping frequency per individual than Ontario and hybrid bees of Ontario mother. These results demonstrate phenotypic and genotypic variability for hygienic behavior and are suggestive of maternal effects in the inheritance of hygienic traits. PMID:19889722

Unger, Peter; Guzmán-novoa, Ernesto

2010-01-01

281

Varroa destructor infestation in untreated honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies selected for hygienic behavior.  

PubMed

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of"Starline" stock. Colonies bred for hygienic behavior are able to detect, uncap, and remove experimentally infested brood from the nest, although the extent to which the behavior actually reduces the overall mite-load in untreated, naturally infested colonies needed further verification. The results indicate that hygienic colonies with queens mated naturally to unselected drones had significantly fewer mites on adult bees and within worker brood cells than Starline colonies for up to 1 yr without treatment in a commercial, migratory beekeeping operation. Hygienic colonies actively defended themselves against the mites when mite levels were relatively low. At high mite infestations (>15% of worker brood and of adult bees), the majority of hygienic colonies required treatment to prevent collapse. Overall, the hygienic colonies had similar adult populations and brood areas, produced as much honey, and had less brood disease than the Starline colonies. Thus, honey bees bred for hygienic behavior performed as well if not better than other commercial lines of bees and maintained lower mite loads for up to one year without treatment. PMID:11332821

Spivak, M; Reuter, G S

2001-04-01

282

Overview of the Development of the Temporary Sleep Station Hygiene Liner Aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the beginning of manned operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the crew had performed hygiene activities within the aisle way (the habitable volume, not including the sleep areas) of the ISS. The Crew used wet towels, re-hydrated body soap, and "no-rinse" shampoo to cleanse themselves amongst the stowage and systems hardware, referred to as "racks", even without a designated area to dry the wet items. Performing hygiene in this manner became an accepted method; no isolated location was available to the Crew. After several years of hygiene operations, some of the fabric-covered racks began to grow biological material (generically described as mold) and soon became a Crew health concern. Hygiene has one of the strongest impacts on Crew morale, and mandating changes to the Crew routine would have been met with strong resistance. The answer to the conundrum was to develop a liner to be placed within the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS), one of the Crew s sleeping racks. This liner provided the Crew a means to perform hygiene activities within a private, enclosed area that also significantly decreased the potential to grow mold. This paper will describe the development of the TeSS Hygiene Liner, its impacts on the ISS and Crew, as well as its contribution to hygiene activities used in space today.

Reid, Ethan A.

2010-01-01

283

A Qualitative Study of Tobacco Dependence Treatment in 19 US Dental Hygiene Programs  

PubMed Central

Introduction The US Public Health Service calls for health professionals to provide tobacco dependence counseling for patients. The purpose of this study was to understand how dental hygiene programs make decisions about and provide training for tobacco dependence counseling to help them graduate more fully competent hygienists. Methods We conducted interviews (N = 32) with mainly program and clinic directors from 19 US dental hygiene education programs for this qualitative case study. We explored fluoride therapy training and tooth whitening training for comparison. Two analysts summarized the transcripts into a case study for each program. Results All programs reported a similar process of learning about and choosing a method for teaching the topics explored. The programs used a common process, ADPIE (assess, diagnose, plan, implement, evaluate), to structure students’ clinical encounters. Almost all programs train students to ask about tobacco use and to advise quitting, but few programs train students to effectively help patients to quit and only 2 programs evaluated the competence of all students to provide such training. ADPIE shows promise for integrating tobacco dependence treatment more fully into the clinical training of dental hygiene students. Comparison to tooth whitening and fluoride therapy training indicated that complexity of the treatment and alignment with dental hygiene’s mission were themes related to training decisions. Conclusion Full implementation of tobacco dependence counseling into dental hygiene education requires a commitment by dental hygiene educators to train students and faculty in counseling techniques and their evaluation. We identified an existing clinical structure as showing promise for facilitating improvement.

Davis, Joan M.; Newton, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

284

Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behaviour: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT).  

PubMed

Previous observational measures of healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour (HHB) fail to provide adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs), accounts of inter-rater agreement testing or evidence of sensitivity to change. This study reports the development of an observational tool in a way that addresses these deficiencies. Observational categories were developed systematically, guided by a clinical guideline, previous measures and pilot hand-hygiene behaviour observations (HHOs). The measure, a simpler version of the Geneva tool, consists of HHOs (before and after low-risk, high-risk or unobserved contact), HHBs (soap, alcohol hand rub, no action, unknown), and type of HCW. Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units. Raw agreement (%) and Kappa were 77% and 0.68 for HHB; 83% and 0.77 for HHO; and 90% and 0.77 for HCW. Inter-observer agreement for overall compliance of a group of HCWs was assessed by observation of 1191 HHOs and HHBs by two pairs of independent observers. Overall agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). Sensitivity to change was examined by autoregressive time-series modelling of longitudinal observations for 8 months on the intensive therapy unit during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak and subsequent strengthening of infection control measures. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated by a rise in compliance from 80 to 98% with an odds ratio of increased compliance of 7.00 (95% confidence interval: 4.02-12.2) P < 0.001. PMID:18478625

McAteer, J; Stone, S; Fuller, C; Charlett, A; Cookson, B; Slade, R; Michie, S

2008-03-01

285

Causes, symptoms and prevention of food allergy  

PubMed Central

Currently, food allergy is considered to be one of the diseases of civilization, which occurs as a result of the changing conditions of life and environmental changes (e.g. increased popularity of cesarean delivery, excessive hygienic regime during the neonatal-infantile period). Based on medical statistics, it can be concluded that this problem will be intensified. Consumption of food is one of the main activities in human life. What and how one eats affects our health. Meals eaten regularly provide the components necessary for the energy metabolism. Multicultural society, travel, and new trends affect the diversity of food consumed. The mechanism of food allergy reaction covers all 4 types of the immune response of the classical division of Gell and Coombs. The percentage of the immune response was assessed by Chandra as follows: type I – 48%, type II – 6%, type III – 10%, and type IV – 18%. The article presents the risk factors for food allergy, most common symptoms, preventive measures and characteristics of food products that are potential allergens.

Wroblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Kopczynski, Przemyslaw

2013-01-01

286

Causes, symptoms and prevention of food allergy.  

PubMed

Currently, food allergy is considered to be one of the diseases of civilization, which occurs as a result of the changing conditions of life and environmental changes (e.g. increased popularity of cesarean delivery, excessive hygienic regime during the neonatal-infantile period). Based on medical statistics, it can be concluded that this problem will be intensified. Consumption of food is one of the main activities in human life. What and how one eats affects our health. Meals eaten regularly provide the components necessary for the energy metabolism. Multicultural society, travel, and new trends affect the diversity of food consumed. The mechanism of food allergy reaction covers all 4 types of the immune response of the classical division of Gell and Coombs. The percentage of the immune response was assessed by Chandra as follows: type I - 48%, type II - 6%, type III - 10%, and type IV - 18%. The article presents the risk factors for food allergy, most common symptoms, preventive measures and characteristics of food products that are potential allergens. PMID:24278058

Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta Agnieszka; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Kopczy?ski, Przemys?aw

2013-04-01

287

[Study on the revision of hygiene standard for fresh-cream cake].  

PubMed

In order to revise the hygiene standard for fresh-cream cake, 44 samples were examined. With regard to the specific selling condition and the results inspected, a reference for acid value, peroxide value, bacterial colony forming efficiency and mould count was proposed. Moreover the yeast count was suggested as one of the hygienic standard for GB7099 too. The result of this study could be used as a reference for developing the law on the hygienic inspection and control of fresh-cream cake. PMID:12520969

Wang, S; Huang, W; Han, L; Lin, M

2000-11-01

288

Food Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

Schwenk, Nancy E.

1991-01-01

289

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

290

Hand hygiene and risk of influenza virus infections in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Community-based prevention strategies for seasonal and pandemic influenza are essential to minimize their potential threat to public health. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of hand hygiene interventions in reducing influenza transmission in the community and to investigate the possible modifying effects of latitude, temperature and humidity on hand hygiene efficacy. We identified 979 articles in the initial search and 10 randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. The combination of hand hygiene with facemasks was found to have statistically significant efficacy against laboratory-confirmed influenza while hand hygiene alone did not. Our meta-regression model did not identify statistically significant effects of latitude, temperature or humidity on the efficacy of hand hygiene. Our findings highlight the potential importance of interventions that protect against multiple modes of influenza transmission, and the modest efficacy of hand hygiene suggests that additional measures besides hand hygiene may also be important to control influenza. PMID:24572643

Wong, V W Y; Cowling, B J; Aiello, A E

2014-05-01

291

Hygiene and other early childhood influences on the subsequent function of the immune system.  

PubMed

The current 'Darwinian' synthesis of the hygiene (or 'Old Friends') hypothesis suggests that the increase in chronic inflammatory disorders that started in Europe in the mid-19th century and progressed until the late 20th century is at least partly attributable to immunodysregulation resulting from lack of exposure to microorganisms that were tasked by co-evolutionary processes with establishing the 'normal' background levels of immunoregulation, a role that they perform in concert with the normal microbiota. This is an example of 'evolved dependence'. The relevant organisms co-evolved with mammals, already accompanied early hominids in the Paleolithic era and are associated with animals, mud and faeces. These organisms often establish stable carrier states, or are encountered continuously in primitive environments as 'pseudocommensals' from mud and water. These organisms were not lost during the first epidemiological transition, which might even have resulted in increased exposure to them. However, the crucial organisms are lost progressively as populations undergo the second epidemiological transition (modern urban environment). Recently evolved sporadic 'childhood infections' are not likely to have evolved immunoregulatory roles, and epidemiology supports this contention. The consequences of the loss of the Old Friends and distortion of the microbiota are aggravated by other modern environmental changes that also lead to enhanced inflammatory responses (obesity, vitamin D deficiency, pollution (dioxins), etc.). The range of chronic inflammatory disorders affected may be larger than had been assumed (allergies, autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease, but also coeliac disease, food allergy, vascular disease, some cancers, and depression/anxiety when accompanied by raised inflammatory cytokines). PMID:21734378

Rook, Graham A W

2011-01-01

292

[Hygienic appraisal on apartment houses in the western district of Beijing].  

PubMed

A survey on the essential factors of building hygiene of 12 apartment houses in the Western District of Beijing was presented. The site environment layout of rooms, illumination, ventilation, microclimate, indoor air quality, floor area per person, necessary equipped facilities etc, in the apartment, and its hygienic appraisal were assessed. The results and appraisal of the study showed that almost all the essential factors of building hygiene complied with the requirements of the national hygienic standards for air pollutants in indoors and in hotels. On the other hand, there existed some shortcomings, such as the gas appliance for heating water produced large amount of pollutants in the kitchen it there was no proper ventilation for it. Suggestions for their improvements were put forward. The appraisal is useful for improving the living conditions in apartment houses and also useful for the design and construction. PMID:12016995

Liu, J; Shi, J; Wang, Q; Shao, Q

1999-11-01

293

Effects of an Oral Hygiene Punishment Procedure on Chronic Rumination and Collateral Behaviors in Monozygous Twins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When an oral hygiene punishment procedure was introduced, rumination (regurgitation) of profoundly retarded monozygous adolescent twins was dramatically reduced. The decrease was maintained over a 6 month period and was accompanied by increased rates of socially appropriate behavior. (CL)

Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

1982-01-01

294

[Hygienic characteristics of work conditions at large Hydroelectric Power Plants with mechanization and automatization].  

PubMed

The article touches upon hygienic problems associated with mechanization and automation of major hydroelectric power stations. The authors present criteria to evaluate work conditions of the main occupations participating in the technologic process of hydroelectric power stations. PMID:9190273

Iakimova, L D

1997-01-01

295

Implementation of a chemical hygiene plan at an R&D facility  

SciTech Connect

Implementation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan at an R&D facility is accomplished in an integrated approach with other programs. While the laboratory standard specifies the requirements of a Chemical Hygiene Plan, implementation requires innovation and creativity to effectively comply with the standard and to support R&D activities. While the Chemical Hygiene Plan is a unique entity, it must be integrated with other programs (e.g., Hazard Communication Program, Hazardous Waste Management Program, and Waste Minimization Program) so that complementary activities can minimize duplication of effort. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has implemented a Chemical Hygiene Plan using an integrated approach. The overall plan is described, and decisions on key issues and the criteria used to determine the implementation approach are discussed.

Kovach, J.J.

1994-08-01

296

The Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on the Oral Hygiene and Periodontal Health of Naval Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of mass, rountine penicillin and sulfadiazine prophylaxis on the oral hygiene and periodontal health of young male adults was assessed. No differences referrable to the drug regime could be discerned between experimental and control groups. (Au...

L. A. Counsell

1972-01-01

297

21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device intended to be used manually to stimulate and massage the gums to promote good periodontal (gum) condition. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2013-04-01

298

Industrial Hygiene Survey Report of Dorchester Refining Company, Mt. Pleasant, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An industrial hygiene survey at Dorchester Refining Company (SIC-1799), Mount Pleasant, Texas was conducted in September and October, 1981. The purpose of the survey was to determine exposure of the workers in turn around operations at the thermal catalyt...

C. Cox D. Marlow D. Roberts R. Phillips V. Ringenburg

1984-01-01

299

Industrial Hygiene Survey of Marquette Cement Co., Rockmart, Georgia. Cement Workers Morbidity Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Cement Workers Morbidity Study, an industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Marquette Cement Company in Rockmart, Georgia. Environmental sampling was conducted to determined respirable and total dust concentrations of various contamin...

C. Davidson W. T. Sanderson

1982-01-01

300

Characteristics of Hygiene Practice in Non-Traditional Settings, Phase 2. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main area of interest of this study was clinical hygiene practice. Data acquisition focused on developing a profile of hygienists' clinical and clinically related practice and not on administrative or managerial functions. Therefore, this report made ...

1984-01-01

301

Industrial Hygiene Walk-Through Survey Report of Lord Corporation, Chemical Products Group, Sagertown, Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to determine possible occupational exposure to acrylates or methacrylates at the Saegertown facility of Lord Corporation (SIC-2851) located in Saegertown, Pennsylvania, a walk through industrial hygiene survey was conducted. Radiation curable coa...

C. S. McCammon E. R. Krishnan R. J. Goodman

1986-01-01

302

Varroa destructor Infestation in Untreated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies Selected for Hygienic Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of \\

Marla Spivak; Gary S. Reuter

2001-01-01

303

Industrial Hygiene Surveys of Occupational Exposures to Wood Preservative Chemicals, May 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of an industry wide evaluation of worker exposure to wood preservative chemicals, industrial hygiene studies were conducted at 12 wood treating facilities and two manufacturing operations. Airborne exposure levels were determined and work practice...

C. Y. Timbie A. S. Todd

1981-01-01

304

Food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

2011-01-01

305

Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P?=?0.002, P?hygiene is not performed properly among students and reported time constraints as a barrier to frequent hand washing. Conclusions Adding hand hygiene instruction to existing hand hygiene practices improved attendance at public elementary schools during the flu season. Standardized and brief repetitive instruction in hand hygiene holds potential to significantly reduce absenteeism.

2012-01-01

306

Developing dental hygiene students as future leaders in legislative advocacy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of a legislative advocacy project on the knowledge, values, and actions of dental hygiene students enrolled in a leadership course. A quasi-experimental design was employed with a convenience sample of twenty-one undergraduate and seventeen graduate students. The data collection instrument was designed by the authors with three scales (knowledge, values, and actions), a section on barriers to future advocacy actions, and two open-ended questions. Content validity of the instrument was established before it was administered with an online survey tool. Students scored their pre-project and post-project status on the three scales. Cronbach's alphas revealed internal consistency of the three scales at 0.95 or higher. Pre-project scores and post-project scores were analyzed by parametric tests and confirmed using nonparametric tests. Knowledge, values, and actions statements were statistically significant; however, actions were rated the lowest. Multiple barriers for future advocacy actions were identified. Implementation of a legislative advocacy project in an undergraduate and graduate leadership course can positively influence the development of knowledge, values, and actions; however, mentorship in the professional association is needed after graduation to continue the development of future leaders. PMID:24706683

Rogo, Ellen J; Bono, Leciel K; Peterson, Teri

2014-04-01

307

Nursing the tropics: nurses as agents of imperial hygiene  

PubMed Central

Background Mrs Francis Piggott proposed the Colonial Nursing Association in 1895 as a means of supplying Britain's colonies and dominions with trained professional nurses, who would support the health of white colonists abroad. Over 8400 nurses were placed between 1896 and the Association's end in 1966. Despite the burgeoning of scholarship on gender and empire over the last few decades, there is still more research to be done examining nurses as professional, working women, who present a fascinating variation on the figure of the woman traveler. Methods This essay focuses on 1896–1927, exploring how nurses were prepared for their labor abroad and how these skills were challenged and adapted within a foreign environment. We contextualize this discussion with examples from literary tales of exploration and adventure and discourses of empire. Results/conclusions Though the sources of disease against which nurses fought changed during this period, we assert that the underlying role of the nurse continued the same: she was meant to use the tools of personal as well as public ‘hygiene’ to create both physical and cultural boundaries around her white patients and herself, setting colonists apart from their colonial setting.

Howell, J.; Rafferty, A.M.; Wall, R.; Snaith, A.

2013-01-01

308

[Results of health education in preputial hygiene of boys].  

PubMed

The education to clean the prepuce is a part of education in cleanliness of the boys and had international succeeded against the general circumcision of newborns. While 15 school years from 1969/70 to 1983/84 we could point out the driving back of the retention of smegma, especially when heavy. To the farther correction the chief educators of health, the parents, must be motivated to teach their boys this cleaning with perfect technic. Physicians and teachers should reinforce this. Near by we must take in consideration that only parents and physicians could inspect the prepuce of boys. Every visible retention of smegma should provoke the education in washing this region. It was proposed anew to admit the inspection of the prepuce of the penis from the third year of life into the standard programme of mass examination in GDR during infancy and youth. It was referred to the danger of the early traumatism of the foreskin by the newborns and the babies and also to the problems of the late education in the hygiene of the prepuce only while and after the puberty. Also in the further life of all men this region should be inspected at every medical examination. PMID:2284819

Pfefferkorn, A

1990-10-01

309

Hygienic quality of faeces treated in urine diverting vermicomposting toilets.  

PubMed

On-site sanitation solutions have gained much interest in recent years. One such solution is the urine diverting vermicomposting toilet (UDVT). This study evaluated the hygienic quality of the composted material in six UDVTs in operation in France. Samples were taken from three sampling positions in each toilet, with increasing distance from the fresh material. The concentration of Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp., thermotolarent coliforms and coliphages were analysed and plotted against a number of variables. The variables found to have the greatest impact was the pH (for Enterococcus spp. and thermotolarent coliforms (TTC)) and time since last maintenance (coliphages). The pH was found to correlate with the material maturity. The current practise of maintenance can cause recontamination of the stabilised material and increase the risk of regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms. A modification in the maintenance procedure, in which a fourth maturation point is introduced, would eliminate this risk. UDVTs were found to be a good on-site sanitation option as the maintenance requirement is small and the system effectively reduced odour and concentration of pathogen and indicator organisms in human waste while keeping the accumulation of material down to a minimum. If the vermicompost is to be used for crops consumed raw, an additional sanitisation step is recommended. PMID:23932466

Lalander, Cecilia H; Hill, Geoffrey B; Vinnerås, Björn

2013-11-01

310

Welch, Sedgwick, and the Hopkins model of hygiene.  

PubMed Central

William H. Welch and William T. Sedgwick, two of the founding fathers of American public health, were both early generation "Hopkins Men." Sedgwick was part of the first group of graduate students to attend Johns Hopkins University, and Welch was part of the initial faculty at the University's medical school. While they never worked together as colleagues at Hopkins, both became interested in the exciting new discoveries of the microbial nature of human disease and developed similar public health programs based on this information. Sedgwick expanded upon these investigations in the new sanitary science program at MIT, where academic public health first emerged in the United States following Sedgwick's appointment in 1883. Welch, who had been exposed to European research in microbiology, promoted microbial research in pathology in Baltimore in 1884. His laboratory-based investigations expanded until they led to the formation of the country's first school of public health in 1916. Thus, a "Hopkins Model" for hygiene and public health emerged from the efforts of both Welch and Sedgwick.

Benson, K. R.

1999-01-01

311

Hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment.  

PubMed

Infection prevention and control nurses (IPCNs) have an extremely wide remit in relation to the facilitation of appropriate infection prevention and control practice within healthcare environments. In order to be effective IPCNs need to be involved at all stages of healthcare service delivery and need to form close working relationships with staff at all levels and in all departments within their organisation. The provision of the necessary facilities within the clinical environment, along with the ongoing training and support of staff are essential prerequisites to changing the behaviour of staff in order to consistently deliver effective hand hygiene and other infection prevention and control practices. Auditing of practice and the investigation of incidents enable the identification of areas of practice requiring improvement, which subsequently informs the continual development of training programmes and initiatives with a view to improving patient and staff safety. IPCNs need to be able to react swiftly to the emergence of new infectious organisms and/or evidence to identify what is required in order to ensure that staff are compliant with anticipated practice to maintain the safety of the patients in their care, themselves and their colleagues. PMID:24037392

Wyeth, Jenny

312

Use of industrial hygiene and safety professionals: a survey of South Carolina manufacturing plants.  

PubMed

There has been considerable debate about manpower adequacy in industrial hygiene and safety, but little indication as to which industries make use of these professionals and to what extent. This paper presents the results of a survey of manufacturing industry in South Carolina, which suggest that plants not only make less use of the services of industrial hygiene and safety engineers than might seem desirable, but have only a limited perception of the need. PMID:6741790

Chovil, A; Alexander, G R

1984-06-01

313

Food contaminants  

PubMed Central

With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed the contamination of flour with an epoxy resin hardener; organic mercury poisoning in an Arab country involved more than 6000 people who had eaten bread made from grain treated with a methyl mercury fungicide. The hazard which may arise from heavy metal accumulation in the body is discussed.

Kazantzis, G.

1974-01-01

314

Food Grab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

315

Space Food  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

1994-01-01

316

Food Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students' attention is drawn to the issue of food spoilage and the different methods that are traditionally used to prolong the freshness of food. Using a number of online resources, they learn about how Chilean fruit and lettuce for salad are carefully harvested, treated, packaged, and transported in refrigerated vessels to maintain their freshness. Students are then introduced to the canning, drying, freezing, and vacuum-sealing processes that are commonly used by food producers and in the home.

Science Netlinks;

2004-04-05

317

Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

Bornmann, Priscilla G.

1973-01-01

318

Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179

García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

2012-11-01

319

Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. PMID:23043518

Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C

2013-09-01

320

Knowledge of Oral Hygiene among Hemophilic Patients Referred to Iranian Hemophilia Society  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Hemophilic patients are faced with poor oral hygiene due to concerns about their dental care. The present study assessed the knowledge of hemophilic patients about oral hygiene and the effect of oral hygiene instruction in patients referred to Iranian Hemophilia Society. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 hemophilic patients randomly selected from volunteer patients referred to Iran Hemophilia Center. The study was performed by means of a questionnaire submitted to subjects before and after the instructional brochure submission. The questionnaire included demographic data and items regarding hemophilia and oral hygiene. Data was analyzed with McNemar test and paired t-test. Results The mean age of the patients was 21 years; 27 (90%) were males and 3 ones (10%) were females. They were mostly A hemophilia infected. Most patients enjoyed fair knowledge of oral hygiene. Changes in knowledge after reading the bro-chure were significant regarding the appropriate time to replace the toothbrush (P < 0.01), necessary visits for tooth examina-tions (P < 0.04), adjunctive methods of caries prevention (P < 0.001) and factors related to bleeding (P < 0.01); other factors improved slightly without significant changes. Conclusion The knowledge of hemophilic patients was fair regarding oral hygiene while some relevant factors improved after instructions. However, more instruction is needed in order to attain more improvement in some behaviors.

Abrisham, Mohammad; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi; Ghateh, Alireza

2009-01-01

321

Factors for Increasing Adoption of E-Courses Among Dental and Dental Hygiene Faculty Members  

PubMed Central

The incorporation of web-based learning into the dental curriculum has been consistently recommended in the literature on reform in dental education. There has been growing support for web-based learning in dental and dental hygiene education as demonstrated by deans’ identifying this as a planned curricular innovation. The purpose of our study was to explore characteristics of e-courses that may serve to increase adoption among dental and dental hygiene faculty members. Eight ninety-minute focus groups (three dental; five dental hygiene) were conducted with dental (n=27) and dental hygiene (n=23) faculty members from six academic institutions. The resulting data were analyzed to identify two overarching themes and associated subthemes with regard to benefits and barriers influencing adoption of e-courses. A working conceptual framework, based on the Diffusion of Innovations, was developed from these themes to understand the characteristics that may influence the rate of adoption of e-courses among dental and dental hygiene faculty members. Analysis of the data revealed four main adoption barriers: 1) low perceived relative advantage to faculty members; 2) low compatibility with current curriculum; 3) high perceived time commitment; and 4) complexity of e-course development. This exploratory assessment identifies leverage points for facilitating the adoption and sustainability of e-courses in dental and dental hygiene education.

DeBate, Rita D.; Cragun, Deborah; Severson, Herbert H.; Shaw, Tracy; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

2011-01-01

322

The clinical and histological response of periodontal pockets to root planing and oral hygiene.  

PubMed

The study evaluated, clinically and microscopically, the soft tissue response of suprabony periodontal pockets treated by root planing and oral hygiene or by oral hygiene measures alone. The participants were 22 adults beginning treatment for inflammatory periodontal disease. For each patient, three clinically similar labial or lingual pockets were scored for gingival inflammation, pocket depth, and the extent of plaque and calculus. One pocket in each patient served as a control, and a gingival biopsy was obtained to determine the pretreatment level of inflammation. The second pocket was treated by root planing and by the patient's oral hygiene measures. The third pocket was treated only by the patient's daily oral hygiene measures. Fifty-six to 63 days later, treated areas were reevaluated clinically, and biopsies were secured. Each type of therapy reduced the mean pocket depth and the incidence and severity of gingivitis; however, root planing accompanied by oral hygiene measures resulted in a statistically greater improvement than did oral hygiene measures alone. PMID:1099189

Tagge, D L; O'Leary, T J; El-Kafrawy, A H

1975-09-01

323

Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.  

PubMed

Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives. PMID:21914711

Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

2013-07-01

324

Food jags  

MedlinePLUS

... defiant, you may just start an unnecessary war. Children mimic adult behavior, and if another family member will not eat new foods, you cannot expect your child to experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. ...

325

Pet Food  

MedlinePLUS

... dog food, or box of dog treats or snacks in your pantry. The FDA’s regulation of pet ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top

326

Food Justice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this adaptation of a video that high school students created in collaboration with the Environmental Justice League of Rhode Island, learn what's whack about our current food systems and the many actions individuals can take to address these issues.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-07-08

327

"Convenience Food."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

Lemieux, Colette

1980-01-01

328

Effect of hygiene promotion on the risk of reinfection rate of intestinal parasites in children in rural Uzbekistan.  

PubMed

A controlled prospective cohort study was designed to assess the effectiveness of hygiene promotion on the risk of reinfection by intestinal parasites in children in 276 rural Uzbek households over a 1-year period. The study included three groups: seasonality (no medicine, no hygiene promotion activity), treatment (medicine provided, no hygiene promotion activity) and hygiene promotion (medicine provided and hygiene promotion activity). The Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation methodology was utilized as the key tool in hygiene promotion activities. Three hygiene behaviors were targeted: hand washing with soap, safe feces disposal and boiling drinking water. On average, more than 80% of all children tested were infected with Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba coli. There were statistically significant differences between the three groups for the risk of reinfection rate: the risk of reinfection by parasites was 30% lower in the hygiene promotion group than in the treatment group and 37% lower than in the seasonality group. If properly designed and carried out, hygiene promotion is an effective tool in reducing the risk of intestinal parasite reinfection in children, thus improving children's health in rural communities. PMID:17418321

Gungoren, Billur; Latipov, Renat; Regallet, Gabriel; Musabaev, Erkin

2007-06-01

329

Food Allergies in Schools  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Food Allergies in Schools Food allergies are a growing food ... Guidelines FAQs [PDF - 163KB] What is a Food Allergy? A food allergy occurs when the body has ...

330

[Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].  

PubMed

Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rati

Poplinger, A

2010-04-01

331

Can Control Banding be better than traditional Industrial Hygiene?  

SciTech Connect

The answer to this question should be 'no' if you can afford it and 'yes' if you cannot. However, Control Banding (CB) is proving itself in areas with uncertainties. This could be either a lack of knowledge--as with nanomaterials or when lacking an OEL--or with the lack or expertise, as can be seen with SMEs and in Economically Developing Countries (EDCs). Over 90% of the world's workers do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods to achieve prevention from acquiring work-related illness and injury. Although risk factors for work-related illness and disease are well known, until the recent growth of CB there had yet to be designed and implemented a comprehensive OSHH process that focuses on achieving minimization of these occupational risk factors for the vast majority of the global workforce. This problem exists for three primary reasons: (1) There are not a sufficient number of trained and qualified OSHH professionals worldwide to attempt to offer comparable levels of traditional services necessary to achieve prevention; (2) The vast majority of OSHH professionals, and the funds to afford their conventional approaches, are concentrated in Developed Countries, such as those in the EU and the US, whereas the greatest need for work-related disease, illness, and injury prevention lies within EDCs; and (3) Even within Developed Countries, the funding to acquire the services of OSHH professionals sits primarily within the largest of industries and governmental institutions. This problem renders a void of occupational risk management for the professions and trades within EDCs and similarly the SMEs within even the richest of Developed Countries. Further, conventional means to achieve such prevention rely heavily on exposure assessment sampling strategies that, although proven successful, are cost-prohibitive in these arenas.

Zalk, D

2009-01-27

332

The FINUT Healthy Lifestyles Guide: Beyond the Food Pyramid.  

PubMed

The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

2014-05-01

333

Valuing Integrated Public Health Interventions: Combined Household-level Clean Energy, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placing poor households at the center of energy, sanitation, and hygiene interventions offers opportunities to effectively address multiple development priorities simultaneously using integrated approaches. Understanding and quantifying the health benefits of integrated household energy-sanitation-hygiene interventions is a key ingredient in the decision making process. Using a test case of a latrine-connected biogas digester accompanied by hygiene education, this study estimates

Mary Renwick; Ian Monroe

2006-01-01

334

Students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups entering the dental hygiene profession.  

PubMed

African American, Hispanic/Latina, and American Indian/Alaska Native persons are markedly underrepresented racial and ethnic groups (UREG) in the dental hygiene profession. The purpose of this study was to survey UREG dental hygiene students to determine their perceptions of the barriers and facilitators that influenced their decision to enter the dental hygiene profession. Participants were eighty-four UREG students attending entry-level dental hygiene programs across the state of California. We conducted face-to-face interviews using a survey guide that consisted of forty-two mostly closed-ended questions. Most (57 percent) participants reported that they had either perceived or experienced barriers: primarily costs associated with the program and the lack of role models in their race/ethnicity. Almost all participants reported that there had been a person, mainly a dental professional, who influenced them to become a dental hygienist; 62 percent of these individuals were reported to be from a similar UREG group as the participant. Funding (57 percent) and emotional support from family and friends (87 percent) were the predominant facilitators employed by the participants to overcome barriers. Based on these results, we recommend three strategies to recruit more UREG students into the dental hygiene profession: more extensive outreach programs, enhanced mentoring by UREG dental professionals, and a modified admission process. PMID:24609348

Sandino, Alma H; Rowe, Dorothy J

2014-03-01

335

Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms.

Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Ka?uska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

2013-06-01

336

Establishing dental hygiene education in Germany: current facts and future perspectives.  

PubMed

As there is a marked need to increase the number of dental hygienists (DHs) working in German dental practices, efforts are being made to establish dental hygiene education in accordance with international standards. However, as current German legislation does not envisage a perennial full-time training programme, dental hygiene education may currently be provided within a modular concept only. The basic qualification for enrollment in a modular hygienist training programme of this kind is accredited vocational training as a dental assistant (DA), followed by board-certified continuing education as an oral prophylaxis assistant. Thus, the current system of advanced training for qualification as a DH is subject to at least 6 years' work experience in the field of dentistry. A 950-h full-time advanced training course, meeting all the requirements of this concept, was established by the Westphalia-Lippe Dental Association in cooperation with the University of Münster. The curriculum underlying this programme was outlined considering the recommendations for dental hygiene education issued by the European Federation of Periodontology, although reduced in standards to comply with current German legislation. In addition, the recommendations for American Dental Hygiene education by the American Dental Association were used as a guide for programme development. The contents and implementation of the Münster Dental Hygienist Curriculum may allow the professional competence generated during practical work experience to be linked with international requirements of dental hygiene education. PMID:16451467

Petersilka, G J; Neuhoff, D; Flemmig, T F

2004-05-01

337

Judgement of hygienic quality of roughage in horse stables in Switzerland.  

PubMed

In 46 horse farms all over Switzerland, the hygienic quality of the roughage (including silages) was investigated. Therefore, a macroscopic examination as well as the microbial counts (bacteria, yeasts and moulds) was carried out. Further, the contents of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON) were determined. In all roughages, the dry matter (DM) content was measured and in silages additionally the pH was measured. Predominantly, the straw showed a lower hygienic quality than hay and silages. The LPS contents were significantly higher in straw than those in hay samples. The macroscopic examination and the microbial counts showed a tendency in the same direction. Eight straw samples and one hay sample with DON contamination were found. The silages showed a DM content with a median of 65.8%. The pH of those silages was between 4.3 and 5.9. Despite the high values of DM and pH, the silages showed mainly a high hygienic quality. In total, the hygienic standard of straw was worse than that of hay. This should be taken into account also in straw used as bedding as much as the hygienic quality of hay. PMID:18662352

Wichert, B; Nater, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Wolf, P; Meyer, K; Wanner, M

2008-08-01

338

Beyond Douching: Use of Feminine Hygiene Products and STI Risk Among Young Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Use of feminine hygiene products (feminine wipes, sprays, douches, and yeast creams) is common, yet understudied. Aim We examine the association among these genital hygiene behaviors, condom use, and STI. Methods We recruited 295 adolescent young women from primary care clinics as part of a larger longitudinal study of STI among high risk adolescents. Participants completed face-to-face interviews every three months, and provided vaginal swabs for STI testing. Main Outcome Measures Using the interview as our unit of analysis, we examined associations between genital hygiene behaviors (use of feminine wipes, feminine sprays, douches, or yeast creams), STI risk factors, and infection with C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis. Data were analyzed with repeated measures logistic models to control for multiple observations contributed by each participant. Results Participants reported douching in 25% of interviews, feminine sprays in 29%, feminine wipes in 27%, and yeast creams in19% of interviews. We observed a co-occurrence of douching, spraying and wiping. A past STI (6 months or more prior) was associated with increased likelihood of yeast cream use, and a recent STI (3 months prior) was associated with increased likelihood of feminine wipe use. Condom use was modestly associated with increased likelihood of douching. Conclusions Young women frequently use feminine hygiene products, and it is important for clinicians to inquire about use as these products may mimic or mask STI. We found no associations between douching and STI, but instead modest associations between hygiene and STI prevention, suggesting motivation for self-care.

Ott, Mary A.; Ofner, Susan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

2010-01-01

339

Food Anxieties: Issues for the Food Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have become obsessed with the harmful effects of eating (Rozin, 1999) and are experiencing ‘food anxiety’, a by-product of modern food. The aim of this research was to explore the nature of food anxiety in Ireland and the potential implications for the food sector. The research objectives were to determine the range of issues causing food anxiety in Irish

Denise Kelly

2009-01-01

340

Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India  

PubMed Central

First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral.

Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

2011-01-01

341

Challenges in achieving food security in India.  

PubMed

First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

2011-12-01

342

Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.  

PubMed

This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24425418

Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

2014-08-01

343

Testing Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the relative amounts of oils in food. They then apply their understanding to an additional situation. The task assesses students' abilities to make simple observations, make generalized inferences from their observations, and apply their understanding to an additional situation.

Project, New Y.

2012-02-03

344

Food Factory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Food production in a future automated society is going to be done in factories, not on farms as we do now. There is no reason why plants or animals have to be exposed to climate changes, to pollution, to predators or to disease. The problems we have now i...

M. Bloomfield

1995-01-01

345

Food Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

Barkman, Susan J.

1996-01-01

346

Food Deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deserts and accessibility represent a new frontier in the assault of life-threatening, dietrelated diseases, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Scholars represent the research literature from diverse disciplines, such as anthropology, agriculture, sociology, economics, marketing, public policy, sociology, and social epidemiology. Applied sociology has not contributed to this important conversation. Applied sociology's integration and use of theory, methods, and

Anthony Troy Adams; Monika J. Ulrich; Amanda Coleman

2010-01-01

347

Avicenna's Educational Views with Emphasis on the Education of Hygiene and Wellness.  

PubMed

Today, on the contrary of the last ten decades, the necessity of teaching hygienic issues, and caring the children's health, is pretty obvious. Avicenna (10 AC), the famous Iranian physician and philosopher, scrutinized the health and hygiene with a deep insight to the matter. He considered the wellness not only as the recovery from the disease, but emphasized the maintenance of health by suggesting special points and instructions. In Islamic education, paying attention to cleanliness, health and physical strength is very important and considered as the intermediate goals for the achievement of "pure life", which is the ultimate goal. Avicenna paid special attention to physical purity, health and wellness, and devoted the major parts of his book to them. The present article analyzes the Avicenna's educational opinions, specially his viewpoints regarding hygiene and health in three stages of childhood, teenage years, and youth. PMID:24596865

Borhani Nejad, Mohadeseh; Rashidi, Mohammad; Oloumi, Mohammad Mehdi

2013-09-01

348

[Provision of integrity and reliability in hygienic examination of investment projects for human capital development].  

PubMed

To reach normal competitiveness in world division of labour, investment projects should stimulate development of human capital towards advance of modern technologies and organizational development of all types of labour. At present time there are only separate calculations of certain types of people's health damage and completely disparate matters of damage compensation exceptionally for chemical contamination effects. The purpose of the paper is development of algorithms to provide hygienic welfare of human capital in investment projects. For this purpose in investments assessment and hygienic examination it is necessary to apply complete and comprehensive (systematic) evaluation of all factors that influence human capital welfare and practical hygienic and research institutions should be focused on systematic elimination of possible dangers and risks of investment projects. PMID:23243734

Tarkhov, P V; Matsenko, A M; Krugliak, A P; Derkach, Zh V

2012-01-01

349

[Products for hand hygiene and antisepsis: use by health professionals and relationship with hand eczema].  

PubMed

Hand hygiene is the most important measure for the prevention of nosocomial infection. We describe the different products available for hygiene and antisepsis of the hands and the use of these products in daily practice. Hand hygiene products such as soaps and detergents are a cause of irritant dermatitis in health professionals. This irritation is one of the principal factors affecting their use in clinical practice. Alcohol-based products are better tolerated and less irritant than soap and water; irritation should not therefore be a limiting factor in the use of these products and they are to be recommended in place of soap and water. Informative and continued education programs could increase their use. PMID:21903187

Batalla, A; García-Doval, I; de la Torre, C

2012-04-01

350

[Means and methods of personal hygiene in the experiment with 520-day isolation].  

PubMed

Six volunteers (3 Russians, a Frenchman, an Italian and a Chinese) participated in assessment of the input of sanitation and housekeeping provisions to their wellbeing during 520-day isolation and confinement. Subject of the study was quality and sufficiency of housekeeping agents and procedures as well as more than 60 names of personal hygiene items. The sanitation and housekeeping monitoring involved the clinical, hygienic and microbiological methods, and also consideration of crew comments on the items at their disposal and recommended procedures. Based on the analysis of the functional condition of the integument and oral cavity and entries in the questionnaires, i.e. objective data and subjective feelings, all test subjects remained in the invariably good state. Owing to the application of the selected hygienic means and methods the microbial status of the crew was stable throughout 520-day isolation. PMID:23814895

Shumilina, G A; Shumilina, I V; Solov'eva, S O

2013-01-01

351

Hygienic quality and antibiotic resistance profile of sliced butchery.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the microbiological quality of different meat products on the Greek market, 200 samples were collected from the following preparations: boiled turkey (n=50), boiled pork ham (n=50), smoked turkey (n=50) and smoked pork ham (n=50). In all cold meat preparations Clostridium perfringens vegetative and spore forms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and other Clostridium sp lec(-), as well as Lactobacillus, Bacillus sp. and Salmonella sp. were recovered. For instance Bacillus cereus was present in 6% of the samples. L. monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were rarely present (1-4%) while Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter lari were absent. Differences in the occurrence of S. aureus, Salmonella sp., E. coli and spore forms of C. perfringens in boiled and smoked samples, reflects either the differences in the processing of the foods or could be associated to the extensive handling by the personnel during the purchasing (storage, slicing, wrapping). Antibiotic resistance on specific antibiotics for each pathogen was also studied. A multiresistance antibiotic profile was effective for most bacterial strains, and pronounced resistance profiles were observed for the commonly used antibiotics as ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin followed by ceftriaxone and gentamycin. Albeit this high observed resistance profile, the tested strains generally conserved their susceptibility to amikacin, aztreonam, chloramphenicol and tylosin conserved an almost absent resistance. Antibiotics commonly used for therapeutic purposes, as well as antibiotics added to feed stuff of animals for increasing animal flesh production should contribute to the extensive spreading of antibiotic resistance in food and the environment. Systematically monitoring of the microbiological quality of cold butchery preparations must be done, in order to preserve food quality, optimizing the processing and elaboration methods of the product and safeguard the public health. PMID:21722746

Voidarou, C; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I; Bezirtzoglou, E

2011-12-01

352

Space shuttle food system summary, 1981-1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All food in the Space Shuttle food system was precooked and processed so it required no refrigeration and was either ready-to-eat or could be prepared for consumption by simply adding water and/or heating. A gun-type water dispenser and a portable, suitcase-type heater were used to support this food system during the first four missions. On STS-5, new rehydratable packages were introduced along with a needle-injection water dispenser that measured the water as it was dispensed into the packages. A modular galley was developed to facilitate the meal preparation process aboard the Space Shuttle. The galley initially flew on STS-9. A personal hygiene station, a hot or cold water dispenser, a convection oven, and meal assembly areas were included in the galley.

Stadler, Connie R.; Rapp, Rita M.; Bourland, Charles T.; Fohey, Michael F.

1988-01-01

353

Safety evaluation of irradiated foods in China: A condensed report  

SciTech Connect

Eight trials, with 439 human volunteers who consumed irradiated foods including rice, potatoes, mushrooms, peanuts, and Chinese sausages, as well as diets composed of multiple irradiated foods (irradiated at dosages of 0.2 to 8 kGy) that accounted for 60-66% of the entire diet, were carried out for 2-3 months according to a unified protocol. No adverse effects on body weight, blood pressure, ECG, hematology, blood enzyme activities, serum lipids or blood or urine 17-hydroxycortisol contents and no chromosomal aberration of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found. It is especially worthwhile to note that there was no change in the polyploidy after consumption of irradiated diets. On the basis of these results and a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of irradiated foods, temporary hygienic standards for irradiated rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, Chinese sausages, peanuts, and mushrooms were promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Public Health.

Yin, D. (Institute of Food Safety Control and Inspection, Beijing (China))

1989-03-01

354

Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Results Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%). The majority (67.5%) of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18–39?years. One hundred ninety four (97%) of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5%) food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8%) was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%), Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5), Taenia species 1(0.5%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%). Conclusion The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler’s training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

2012-01-01

355

India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.  

PubMed

The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it. PMID:21505773

Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

2012-05-01

356

[Ways of maintaining oral hygiene in disabled and chronically ill patients--review of the literature].  

PubMed

Disabled and chronically ill patients face many obstacles in maintaining oral hygiene at an appropriate level. Such a situation is caused, inter alia, by the fact that those people are less predisposed manually, but also by a lack of understanding of the need for carrying out systematic hygienic measures by disabled themselves as well as their parents or caregivers. Technical difficulties during the procedure of teeth cleaning are also a problem. Currently, specialized products designed to help disabled and chronically ill patients and their caregivers to perform daily preventive treatments are available on the market. PMID:23789303

Gerreth, Karolina

2013-01-01

357

Presidential addresses of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: 1907-2013  

PubMed Central

Presidents have been required to give an inaugural address on commencing office at the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) since its foundation in 1907. All presidential addresses were identified, sourced and assembled into an annotated bibliography. The majority of presidential addresses have been published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Unpublished and in some cases ‘lost’ contributions have now been sourced where possible and archived at the RSTMH. This unique, rich and rewarding archive provides a vista into the development of the RSTMH and the discipline of tropical medicine. The archive is freely available to all.

Hay, Simon I.; McHugh, Gerri M.

2013-01-01

358

Food Allergy Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... of food allergy. back to top Oral food challenge Caution Because oral food challenges can cause a severe allergic reaction, they should ... who has experience performing them. An oral food challenge is the final method healthcare professionals use to ...

359

Food allergy: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed

This review focuses on advances and updates in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergy over the past 3 years since our last comprehensive review. On the basis of numerous studies, food allergy likely affects nearly 5% of adults and 8% of children, with growing evidence of an increase in prevalence. Potentially rectifiable risk factors include vitamin D insufficiency, unhealthful dietary fat, obesity, increased hygiene, and the timing of exposure to foods, but genetics and other lifestyle issues play a role as well. Interesting clinical insights into pathogenesis include discoveries regarding gene-environment interactions and an increasing understanding of the role of nonoral sensitizing exposures causing food allergy, such as delayed allergic reactions to carbohydrate moieties in mammalian meats caused by sensitization from homologous substances transferred during tick bites. Component-resolved diagnosis is being rapidly incorporated into clinical use, and sophisticated diagnostic tests that indicate severity and prognosis are on the horizon. Current management relies heavily on avoidance and emergency preparedness, and recent studies, guidelines, and resources provide insight into improving the safety and well-being of patients and their families. Incorporation of extensively heated (heat-denatured) forms of milk and egg into the diets of children who tolerate these foods, rather than strict avoidance, represents a significant shift in clinical approach. Recommendations about the prevention of food allergy and atopic disease through diet have changed radically, with rescinding of many recommendations about extensive and prolonged allergen avoidance. Numerous therapies have reached clinical trials, with some showing promise to dramatically alter treatment. Ongoing studies will elucidate improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24388012

Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A

2014-02-01

360

Steps to the Future. Dental Hygiene Education and Practice Workshop II Proceedings (Louisville, Kentucky, April 25-27, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the second in a series of workshops on dental hygiene education and practice are presented. The opening remarks are by Cheryl Westphal. Papers categorized as "Considerations for the Professionalization of Dental Hygiene" are as follows: "Socio-Economic Viewpoint" (Gary Gaumer); "Political Science Viewpoint" (Lelia Helms);…

American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

361

Water quality and improving hygienic practices of the rural community in the vicinity of Ramallah, West Bank, Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to increase community awareness at the household level about certain hygienic practices and water quality in order to develop an effective program that will target improving specific hygiene-related behavior. The study was carried out in two Palestinian villages and applies a quasi-experimental design where chemical and biological water quality analysis as well as residential behavioral aspects related

Ziad A. Mimi; Rand Salman

2008-01-01

362

The Impact of a Health Campaign on Hand Hygiene and Upper Respiratory Illness among College Students Living in Residence Halls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their…

White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha

2005-01-01

363

Food safety and foodborne disease in 21st century homes  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade there has been a growing recognition of the involvement of the home in several public health and hygiene issues. Perhaps the best understood of these issues is the role of the home in the transmission and acquisition of foodborne disease. The incidence of foodborne disease is increasing globally. Although foodborne disease data collection systems often miss the mass of home-based outbreaks of sporadic infection, it is now accepted that many cases of foodborne illness occur as a result of improper food handling and preparation by consumers in their own kitchens. Some of the most compelling evidence has come from the international data on Salmonella species and Campylobacter species infections. By its very nature, the home is a multifunctional setting and this directly impacts upon the need for better food safety in the home. In particular, the growing population of elderly and other immnocompromised individuals living at home who are likely to be more vulnerable to the impact of foodborne disease is an important aspect to consider. In addition, some developed nations are currently undergoing a dramatic shift in healthcare delivery, resulting in millions of patients nursed at home. Other aspects of the home that are unique in terms of food safety are the use of the home as a daycare centre for preschool age children, the presence of domestic animals in the home and the use of the domestic kitchen for small-scale commercial catering operations. At the global level, domestic food safety issues for the 21st century include the continued globalization of the food supply, the impact of international travel and tourism, and the impact of foodborne disease on developing nations. A number of countries have launched national campaigns to reduce the burden of foodborne disease, including alerting consumers to the need to practice food safety at home. Home hygiene practice and consumer hygiene products are being refined and targeted to areas of risk, including preventing the onward transmission of foodborne illness via the inanimate environment. It has been said that food safety in the home is the last line of defense against foodborne disease, and it is likely that this will remain true for the global population in the foreseeable future.

Scott, Elizabeth

2003-01-01

364

Food-borne infections and intoxications in Europe*  

PubMed Central

Any attempt to evaluate the prevalence of food-borne diseases in Europe is fraught with difficulty, partly because in some countries such diseases, if reported, are not clearly designated as food-borne, and partly because of the variety in terminology and methods of classification. Nevertheless, it is apparent that, although certain food-borne infections have decreased in prevalence, others have increased during the past decade. This increase has been shown to be related in some countries to the import of certain foodstuffs and fodder from tropical and subtropical regions and has resulted in a general spread of Salmonella infections by a wide variety of serotypes. Food-borne intoxications are predominantly caused by the ingestion of the toxins elaborated by the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in food and by spore-forming bacilli. Botulism is now rare in Europe. While the recent increase in the prevalence of these diseases calls for strict supervision of food products and improved measures of ensuring food hygiene, the efficacy of such steps as may be taken will depend on close co-operation between public health and veterinary public health authorities.

Seeliger, H. P. R.

1960-01-01

365

Staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom, 1969-90.  

PubMed Central

Between 1969 and 1990 strains of Staphylococcus aureus from 359 outbreaks and sporadic cases of staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom were examined in the PHLS Food Hygiene Laboratory for the production of enterotoxin. In a number of instances the incriminated foods were also examined for the presence of enterotoxin. Strains from 79% of incidents produced enterotoxin A alone or together with another enterotoxin. The level of S. aureus present in the foods ranged from no viable S. aureus detected to 1.5 x 10(10) c.f.u./g with a median of 3.0 x 10(7) c.f.u./g. Enterotoxin was detected in foods in the absence of viable S. aureus in only two outbreaks and in both cheese was the implicated food. Meat, poultry or their products were the vehicle in 75% of incidents with ham and chicken most frequently implicated. Other foods included fish and shellfish (7%) and milk and milk products (8%). Most contamination took place in the home followed by restaurants and shops. Seventy-one percent of the incident strains were lysed by phages of group III or I/III.

Wieneke, A. A.; Roberts, D.; Gilbert, R. J.

1993-01-01

366

Food, Globalization and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These

P. J. M. Oosterveer; D. A. Sonnenfeld

2011-01-01

367

"Dictating the suitable way of life": mental hygiene for children and workers in socialist Mexico, 1934-1940.  

PubMed

After the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), an ambitious project of national reconstruction began in which education and health were two priorities in the consolidation of a new nation. In this context of social, cultural, and political transformation, mental hygiene was a field that made it possible to articulate the professional practice of psychiatrists with the project of the nation promoted by postrevolutionary governments. In Mexico, the mental hygiene movement was headed by the same doctors who professionalized the practice of psychiatry and made it a specialized field of knowledge. The first generation of psychiatrists managed to integrate mental hygiene into health and education policies during the socialist administration of president Lázaro Cárdenas; a phenomenon that made evident the articulation between mental hygiene, social medicine, and nationalist discourse. Discussion will focus on proposals made from the perspective of mental hygiene as a function of two social sectors regarded as priorities by the Cárdenas government: children and workers. PMID:23423842

Molina, Andrés Ríos

2013-01-01

368

New border control system for food originating from third world countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The global distribution of food products has created a requirement for inspection and testing of imported goods at national\\u000a and outer European borders. Problems that are generally not encountered with local produce arise when dealing with imports\\u000a from third world countries. These may include excessive levels of heavy metals, insufficient hygiene, unapproved veterinary\\u000a pharmaceuticals in animal-derived foodstuffs or excessive levels

Matthias Heinzler; Doris Gerlach; Hubertus Brunn

2011-01-01

369

ACCESSION TO THE EU: DID IT BOOST THE EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS OF THE ESTONIAN FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to answer the question about whether the investments made by Estonian food processing companies to meet the EU’s strict hygiene and structural requirements have enhanced their competitiveness and opened up better export opportunities to the EU-15 market. Enhanced competitiveness means not only larger export volumes, but also redirection of exports towards higher value-added products. The current study

Kristina Toming

2006-01-01

370

Will food safety jeopardize food security?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By a new definition proposed here, food safety is not just about safe food but the safe consumption of food. This draws attention to the issue of overeating as well as undernourishment. With the transition of diets and a rapid rise in obesity, worldwide, chronic illnesses join acute illness (from microbiological contamination) as health issues related to food consumption. The

Jean Kinsey

2005-01-01

371

Observational trial of safe food handling behavior during food preparation using the example of Campylobacter spp.  

PubMed

Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ?10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ?60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases. PMID:23462086

Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U

2013-03-01

372

Dental Hygiene Students' Perceptions of Themselves and Their Professional Role in Regard to Feminism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental hygiene students' perceptions of themselves and the "typical dental hygienist" were assessed in relation to feminist attitudes at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Dempewolff's (1972) 56-item Feminism II Scale was administered to all first-year, second-year, and post-certificate dental…

Berg, Christine M.

373

Conceptual Design of an Expert System for Planning Afloat Industrial Hygiene Surveys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial hygienists need to have access to up-to-date information from numerous and varied sources to perform thorough shipboard industrial hygiene surveys. This paper describes an expert system designed to provide U.S. Navy industrial hygienists with i...

L. A. Hermansen W. M. Pugh

1996-01-01

374

Industrial Hygiene Report, In-depth Study of American Cyanamid Company, Warners Plant, Linden, New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An in-depth industrial hygiene survey was conducted at American Cyanamid Company in Linden, New Jersey on February 1-3, 1984. A portion of this plant produces acrylamide, N-methylolacrylamide, and polyacrylamides. Acrylamide is manufactured by the hydrati...

B. Hills

1985-01-01

375

[Hygienic and ergonomic analysis of the technology for sinking main and subsidiary mine shafts].  

PubMed

The labour conditions in mine shafts do not correspond to the existing ergonomic and hygienic norms. Drilling and blasting techniques are most hazardous as to the gravity and duration of the factors involved. Working conditions normalization should be based on the elaboration of specifically innovative technologies which should envisage the workers' periodic staying in the mine shaft area during the work shift. PMID:2628227

Menia?lo, N I; Tyshlek, E G; Gritsenko, V S; Shemiakin, G M

1989-01-01

376

Industrial hygiene evaluation of f-111 fuel tank sealant process. Final report, January-October 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an informative, inclusive and concise evaluation of a new tank sealant process. Recommendations are made based on air sampling results and current industrial hygiene practices. This report will aid those bases implementing this new process in selecting the proper protective equipment for workers and in determining where and what to sample for when documenting worker exposure.... Fuel Tank Sealant Process.

Walton, R.

1992-12-01

377

Effectiveness of hand hygiene for removal of Clostridium difficile spores from hands.  

PubMed

This study determined whether surrogate organisms can predict activity against Clostridium difficile spores and compared the efficacy of hand hygiene preparations against C. difficile. Our data suggest that surrogate organisms were not predictive of C. difficile spore removal. Four preparations were significantly more effective than tap water at removing C. difficile. PMID:23388366

Edmonds, Sarah L; Zapka, Carrie; Kasper, Douglas; Gerber, Robert; McCormack, Robert; Macinga, David; Johnson, Stuart; Sambol, Susan; Fricker, Christopher; Arbogast, James; Gerding, Dale N

2013-03-01

378

Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. FINDINGS: After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. CONCLUSION: Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time.

Curtis, V.; Kanki, B.; Cousens, S.; Diallo, I.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sangare, M.; Nikiema, M.

2001-01-01

379

Follow-Up Study of 1988 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XVII, No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1988 graduates of William Rainey Harper College's (WRHC's) Dental Hygiene program in order to measure the quality of the program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards. A survey was mailed to all 27 associate degree graduates, requesting…

Holt, Marianne; Flaherty, Toni

380

[Vibroacoustic factors hygienic regulation principles in Russia and abroad evolution and succession].  

PubMed

Brief historical summary about Institute' vibroacoustic factors investigations development in the XXth century is presented. There are shown the data of noise, vibration, ultra- and infrasound hygienic rating in comparison with international approaches; the ways of its international harmonization in modern social and economic situation are selected. PMID:24341033

Prokopenko, L V; Kravchenko, O K; Ermolenko, A E; Kurierov, N N; Lagutina, A V; Tseitlina, G S

2013-01-01

381

The Impact of Long-Term Dental Health Education on Oral Hygiene Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated the impact of five years' exposure to a dental health curriculum on the oral hygiene of fifth-grade students. Findings of the study indicate that a well-designed dental health curriculum based on cognitive and behavioral objectives can result in a greater accumulation of dental health knowledge. (JN)

Houle, Bonnie A.

1982-01-01

382

Effectiveness of a training programme to improve hand hygiene compliance in primary healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is the most effective measure for preventing infections related to healthcare, and its impact on the reduction of these infections is estimated at 50%. Non-compliance has been highlighted in several studies in hospitals, although none have been carried out in primary healthcare. MAIN OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the effect of a \\

Carmen Martín-Madrazo; Miguel Angel Salinero-Fort; Juan Carlos Abanades-Herranz; Rosa Arnal-Selfa; Inmaculada García-Ferradal; Flora Espejo-Matorral; Enrique Santa-Pau; Sonia Soto-Diaz

2009-01-01

383

The hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

The transmission of bacteria is more likely to occur from wet skin than from dry skin; therefore, the proper drying of hands after washing should be an integral part of the hand hygiene process in health care. This article systematically reviews the research on the hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods. A literature search was conducted in April 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Search terms used were hand dryer and hand drying. The search was limited to articles published in English from January 1970 through March 2011. Twelve studies were included in the review. Hand-drying effectiveness includes the speed of drying, degree of dryness, effective removal of bacteria, and prevention of cross-contamination. This review found little agreement regarding the relative effectiveness of electric air dryers. However, most studies suggest that paper towels can dry hands efficiently, remove bacteria effectively, and cause less contamination of the washroom environment. From a hygiene viewpoint, paper towels are superior to electric air dryers. Paper towels should be recommended in locations where hygiene is paramount, such as hospitals and clinics. PMID:22656243

Huang, Cunrui; Ma, Wenjun; Stack, Susan

2012-08-01

384

The mechanism of silver dissolution for biomedical devices and hygienic coating applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the mechanism of silver dissolution for biomedical and hygienic coating applications. The research work began from the investigation of silver dissolution behaviour from pure silver and silver-platinum alloys in solutions with or without chloride using the technique of cyclic volammetry (CV). A zero resistance amperometry (ZRA) measurement was carried out to study the effect of platinum

Yanmei Ma

2008-01-01

385

Hygiene Self-Care of Older Adults in West Virginia: Effects of Gender  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated whether oral hygiene self-care behavior differs between genders in older adults in Appalachia, a geographic area with significant oral health concerns. Identifying the practices of older adults may provide valuable information for designing interventions, and improving overall oral health outcomes. Methods As part of a larger, on-going study on cognition and oral health in later life in Appalachia, a sample of dentate, older adults without dementia aged 70 and above (n =245, 86 men and 159 women) received an oral assessment by either a dentist or dental hygienist. Psychometricians assessed cognition using a standardized battery of neuropsychological tests. They also administered the General Oral Health Assessment Index and conducted structured interviews concerning diet, oral hygiene practices, oral health, social support, income, and years of education. Results Over 80% of women (n = 128) and 52.3% of men (n = 45) reported brushing their teeth twice daily. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, controlling for socioeconomic status, social support (i.e., frequency of contacting friends and relatives), general oral health assessment items, number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces, plaque index, and having regular dental visits. The results showed that women reported more frequent toothbrushing than their male counterparts (OR=4.04, 95% CI:1.93,8.42). Conclusion Older women in West Virginia had significantly better oral hygiene practices than older men, particularly regarding toothbrushing. Interventions are needed to improve older men’s dental hygiene behaviors to improve overall oral health outcomes.

Wiener, R. Constance; Wu, Bei; Crout, Richard J.; Plassman, Brenda L.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Wiener, Michael A.; Kao, Elizabeth C.; Caplan, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

386

A Data Based Multidimensional Oral Hygiene Curriculum for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multidimensional oral hygiene curriculum appropriate for the moderately to profoundly retarded and composed of tooth brushing, flossing, and gum stimulation/massage is proposed. Task analyses are included for manual tooth brushing, utilizing an oral irrigation appliance, manual flossing, and use of an adaptive aid for flossing. Also provided are…

Feldman, David; Elliott, Thomas A.

387

Effects of Minimal Personal Hygiene and Related Procedures During Prolonged Confinement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-six healthy male subjects were studied under closely confined conditions in nine 6-week experiments over a 2-year period. The effects of minimal personal hygiene and related procedures were evaluated. No major problems resulted from the lack of bat...

A. R. Slonim

1966-01-01

388

Addressing the needs for international training, qualifications, and career development in occupational hygiene.  

PubMed

Thirteen member societies of the International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA), all 11 national certification bodies, and IOHA itself are now cooperating in a new international training and qualification system. The structure broadens access to occupational hygiene education and training worldwide and complements existing professional accreditation schemes. There are currently 46 Approved Training Providers in the scheme and up to the end of June 2013, approaching 200 courses had been delivered in more than 32 countries, with nearly 2400 examinations taken in 7 languages. This influx of students, particularly in developing countries, is helping to address the worldwide need to combat occupational illness and is creating the foundation for sustainable growth in provision of occupational hygiene globally. The scheme originated in 2006, when the authors were instrumental in bringing together a group of senior hygienists to review the needs of industry. The resulting position paper, reflecting the perspective of major multi-national companies, was subject to widespread consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from across the world. This led to the formation of the Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA), as a not-for-profit organization, to operate the system. It is accessible through the OHlearning website that provides free downloads of educational materials and details of training events. In this commentary, we outline the needs that brought this about, identify the key stakeholders involved, review what has been done so far, and discuss some plans for the future. PMID:24375869

Alesbury, Roger J; Bailey, Stephen R

2014-03-01

389

A Quarter Century of Industrial Hygiene Surveys in the Fibrous Glass Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings of industrial hygiene surveys in the fibrous glass industry made over a period of 24 years are presented. These were surveys made of the various substances used in the manufacture of fibrous glass. The amounts of such contaminants which might be encountered have not previously been published. What were probably the first measurements of the particle size of

HAVEN L. WILLIAMS

1970-01-01

390

Workplace Simulations: An Alternative to On-Site Industrial Hygiene Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous hazardous agents are present in the workplaces of the construction industries. Conducting an on-site industrial hygiene survey in some phases of these industries can be difficult, if not impossible. An example is the evaluation of hazards arising in the cutting of epoxy-coated steel reinforcing rod (coated rod) in the structural steel erection industry (SIC 1791). When necessary, coated rod

Herbert L. Venable; Eric J. Esswein; Dawn G. Tharr; Howard S. Brightman

1994-01-01

391

The Diversity Dilemma: A National Study of Minorities in Dental Hygiene Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the predicted shortages of minority dental healthcare providers in the United States and the expanding diversity of the general population, it is important to recruit and retain an ethnically and culturally diverse allied dental workforce. The objectives of this study were to explore why the profession of dental hygiene exhibits minimal…

Moore, Tracye A.

2012-01-01

392

Microbiological carcass sampling methods to achieve compliance with 2001\\/471\\/EC and new hygiene regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of excision versus swabbing as methods for the assessment of bovine and ovine carcass hygiene. Microbiological evaluation of bovine and ovine carcasses was performed by obtaining total viable counts (TVCs) and total Enterobacteriaceae counts (TECs) using excision and a swab (polyurethane) sampling method. Four anatomical locations were sampled on 30

Brian Byrne; Gemma Dunne; James Lyng; Declan J. Bolton

2005-01-01

393

ENUMERATION OF AEROMONAS FOR VERIFICATION OF THE HYGIENIC ADEQUACY OF SWINE CARCASS DRESSING PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of Aeromonas spp. and aerobic bacteria fiom dehairing equipment and fiom carcasses passing through diferent processing steps in a swine slaughtering plant were evaluated to identi& the hygienic risks of each operation. Sponge samples were taken fiom the scraper jlails in dehairing machines and the surface of the shackling table at pre- and post-operation times, with 20 samples porn

SHEW-LING YU; SAMUEL A. PALUMBO

2000-01-01

394

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Dental Hygiene Technology (Program CIP: 51.0602--Dental Hygienist). Postsecondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the dental hygiene technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies. Section II…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

395

Implementation of Portfolio Assessment in a Competency-based Dental Hygiene Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the implementation of a portfolio assessment program in the dental hygiene program at the University of Missouri School of Dentistry. Tables provide examples of program competencies and related portfolio entries, the complete scoring rubric for portfolios, and the student portfolio evaluation survey. Concludes that although portfolio…

Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C.; Holt, Lorie P.; Overman, Pamela R.; Schmidt, Colleen R.

2000-01-01

396

Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

Ma, Xin

2007-01-01

397

THE USE OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SAMPLERS FOR SOIL-GAS MEASUREMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a field evaluation of a passive-sampling technique for soil-gas surveying. The system uses a sampler, consisting of an industrial hygiene organic vapor monitor inside a metal sampling manifold, buried at a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (1 foot). Samplers...

398

A Preliminary Study of Classroom Motivators and De-Motivators from a Motivation-Hygiene Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to begin answering two simple questions: "What motivates our students?" and its corollary, "What prevents our students from being motivated?" The motivation-hygiene theory (F. Herzberg, "Work and the nature of man," World Publishing, Cleveland, OH, 1966), a well-tested theory from organizational psychology, holds that people's…

Katt, James A.; Condly, Steven J.

2009-01-01

399

Industrial Hygiene Survey of Texas Smelting and Refining Division of National Lead Industries, Laredo, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Worker exposure to arsenic (7440382) and antimony (7440360) was determined at Texas Smelting and Refining, Division of National Lead Industries (SIC-3339), in Laredo, Texas on March 1 to 5, 1976. The company had full time medical, hygiene, and safety pers...

H. Donaldson

1976-01-01

400

"The Piety of Degradation": Kenneth Burke, the Bureau of Social Hygiene, and "Permanence and Change"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kenneth Burke's employment with the Bureau of Social Hygiene informed his rhetorical theory in the 1930s. Between 1926 and 1930, Burke researched criminology and drug addiction and ghostwrote a book for Colonel Arthur Woods, "Dangerous Drugs". An investigation of archives indicates that this research left its mark on Burke's "Permanence and…

Jack, Jordynn

2004-01-01

401

"The Piety of Degradation": Kenneth Burke, the Bureau of Social Hygiene, and "Permanence and Change"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kenneth Burke's employment with the Bureau of Social Hygiene informed his rhetorical theory in the 1930s. Between 1926 and 1930, Burke researched criminology and drug addiction and ghostwrote a book for Colonel Arthur Woods, Dangerous Drugs. An investigation of archives indicates that this research left its mark on Burke's Permanence and Change…

Jack, Jordynn

2004-01-01

402

Assessing core competencies and their training demands for industrial safety and hygiene professional engineers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was set out to investigate the contents of core competences and their training demands for industrial safety and hygiene professional engineers (ISHPEs). The contents of 7 core and 35 sub-core competences were developed and used to conduct field surveys to safety and health managers (SHMs) from two types of industry of the high-tech and traditional, respectively. Both the

F.-M. Hsieh; Y.-C. Yu; Y.-C. Lin; P.-J. Tsai

2010-01-01

403

Listeria spp. in Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods.  

PubMed

Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ?10(3)?CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, and products of plant origin). Most of the samples contaminated by L. monocytogenes had high levels of total viable bacterial counts. The results obtained may help to clarify the epidemiology of listeriosis in the country and draw the attention of the decision makers to issue hygienic regulations for food processing industries as well as street vendors in order to ensure safe street-vended ready-to-eat food. PMID:22194742

El-Shenawy, Moustafa; El-Shenawy, Mohamed; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose M

2011-01-01

404

Importance of disinfection as a means of prevention in our changing world hygiene and the home  

PubMed Central

Contrary to expectation, the risks of infection are growing rather than declining, even in everyday life. After all, who is able to make a distinction between cleanliness and hygiene? This situation is further compounded by the growing number of persons who are susceptible to infections. If one wants to combat infectious diseases in an economically feasible and consistent manner, public support must be sought. In turn, the public have a right to be informed in a proper and responsible manner. The difference between “dirt” and “contamination” must be highlighted once again. To create a forum for everyday hygiene, an international expert working group was set up (http://www.ifh-homehygiene.org). The hallmark of this group is its holistic view of hygiene in the family setting, something that is not true in the case of most public health sectors. Based on the latest study results, the International Forum for Hygiene (IFH) has coined a new motto “Selective Hygiene”, and evaluates the causes of infection so as to be able to react in an appropriate manner. The aim cannot be routine, daily repetitive decontamination of all potentially dangerous microbes that are found in a normal household, but rather selective reaction to important transmission processes, i.e. hands and foodstuffs, kitchen, bathroom and toilet. The motto can be summarized as follows: “Do the right thing at the right time”. This, however, calls for an understanding of the risks and of effective procedures for microbial reduction. Depending on the respective circumstances, hands can be washed with running water or by using a hand disinfectant. Even experts must learn that hygiene in the home must be evaluated differently from that of the hospital setting. The comparatively lower risk is offset by markedly less awareness of the risks involved. These risks can be significantly increased by any members of the household who are ill. Hence in some cases it is advisable to use disinfectants in the home too – even if it is claimed in certain quarters that we have become “too clean”, and have thus lower immunity. Study data demonstrate that disinfectants have become indispensable in the household in the context of “selective hygiene strategies” so as to prevent infectious diseases.

Bloomfield, Sally F.

2007-01-01

405

Implementation of the world health organization hand hygiene improvement strategy in critical care units  

PubMed Central

Background To determine hand hygiene compliance before and after an intervention campaign in critical care units, this study was carried out in the Intensive care unit (ICU), Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Burns unit (BU) and the Kidney unit of the King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia. The observation using the WHO hand hygiene protocol took place in four phases with phase I, between April 24-May 06 2010 and phase II from May 29-June 09 2010. An educational intervention took place between the Phases I and II. Follow-up Phases III and IV were from 01–15 October 2010 and 15–30 March 2011 respectively. Findings 1,975 hand hygiene opportunities comprising of 409 in Phase I, 406 in Phase II, 620 in Phase III and 540 Phase IV were observed. Compliance rate was 67% pre-intervention, 81% in phase II, declining to 59% and 65% in phases III and IV. Increased compliance in the ICU from 39% in Phase I to 81% in Phase IV (p?hygiene were before patient contact, after touching patient’s surrounding and before aseptic techniques. Team-work and leadership were identified as enhancing factors for compliance. Conclusion The WHO hand hygiene strategy combined with health education, continuous evaluation and team approach resulted in increased compliance but this was not sustained in certain critical care areas.

2013-01-01

406

[Hygiene in schools - an important issue for the public health services].  

PubMed

According to the Protection against Infection Act (IfSG), schools have to identify their arrangements of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for hygienic conditions, and the public health departments are obliged to check the hygienic conditions in schools. Here, practical experience with these topics in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, is presented.Although all schools had been informed about their duties according to IfSG in 2001, only 44% (80/180 schools) of them were able to present their SOPs when requested to do so by the public health department in 2006. Complaints about bad sanitary hygiene in schools have to be confirmed, often even in recently redeveloped facilities, because of vandalism. The equipment of washing basins was improved very well during the influenza pandemic in 2009. In 2010, however, a tendency to deterioration had been observed. With data on high levels on indoor contamination (particles and CO2) in class rooms in 2006, the city increased the frequency of cleaning and launched a programme on proper ventilation in classrooms. However, a study on ventilation in 29 schools in 2009 resulted in very high levels of CO2; obviously the recommendation to ventilate the classrooms every break are neglected. Large studies on drinking water quality exhibited good data, with the exception of high Legionella contaminations in hot water systems supplying the showers in gymnasiums. Major redevelopment measures were necessary.Hygienic conditions in schools should be improved urgently. The public health departments should increase their consulting services as well as their control visits in schools - with the aim to improve hygiene in schools. Responsibility of the schools as well as of the individuals in the schools is demanded as well. More public attention to this topic seems mandatory, may be via a "signal light - red-yellow-green" for schools? PMID:22113381

Heudorf, U; Voigt, K; Eikmann, Th; Exner, M

2011-11-01

407

Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?  

PubMed Central

Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001). Conclusions While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously.

Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

2012-01-01

408

Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water.  

PubMed

Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755

Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F

2008-03-01

409

Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (hygiene behaviour. As a conclusion, the cross-national data on oral and hand hygiene behaviour from four Southeast Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population.

Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

2014-01-01

410

The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health.

2014-01-01

411

The Food Guide Pyramid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food Guide Pyramid Automated Analysis System (FGPAAS) would classify foods under the appropriate categories of the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP). Further, it would provide an estimation of the serving size(s) of the food group(s) for the food being analyzed, per the FGP guidelines provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). In the development of this automated analysis

J. Muthukannan

1995-01-01

412

[Scientific rationale for a scheme for the environmental and hygienic assessment of a solid domestic waste burial ground].  

PubMed

A scheme for the environmental and hygienic assessment of a functioning solid domestic waste (SDW) burial ground was experimentally tested, by taking into account regional features. The study involved the assessment of climatic, geological, and hydrogeological features of the region, the sanitary-and-hygienic assessment of the activity of a SDW burial ground, and the hygienic assessment of ambient air, soil, and water in the SDW burial ground functioning area. The developed scheme may be used to modify a manufacturing inspection program. PMID:20491268

Latyshevskaia, N I; Bobunova, G A

2010-01-01

413

[Assessment of the relationship of properties of chemical compounds and their toxicity to a unified hygienic standardization for chemicals].  

PubMed

The connection of thermodynamic properties and parameters of toxicity of chemical substances was determined. Obtained data are used for the evaluation of toxicity and hygienic rate setting of chemical compounds. The relationship between enthalpy and toxicity of chemical compounds has been established. Orthogonal planning of the experiment was carried out in the course of the investigations. Equation of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism is presented. Prospects of determination of toxicity and methodology of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism are presented PMID:24003710

Trushkov, V F; Perminov, K A; Sapozhnikova, V V; Ignatova, O L

2013-01-01

414

Improving street food vending in South Africa: achievements and lessons learned.  

PubMed

Until the late 1990s there were limited scientific data on the microbiological quality and safety of street-vended foods in South Africa, while information was already available in other developing countries, including those within the African region. At that time street-vended foods were perceived as unsafe and street food vending in South Africa was regarded as a practice, which should be outlawed. The first comprehensively documented scientific research into the safety of street-vended foods in South Africa was carried out through university-based research. This research found that street food vendors in South Africa were capable of producing relatively safe foods, with low bacterial counts, although there was still a need for proper hygiene conditions and access to basic sanitary facilities. The Department of Health of South Africa, when coordinating an FAO Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) project on Improving Street Foods in South Africa, drew similar conclusions. This article provides information of the efforts by universities and health authorities in South Africa towards improving the safety and promoting the sale of street-vended foods. It is shown that a successful transition from street food vending being perceived as a nuisance by health authorities can be made to these authorities promoting and improving street food vending instead. PMID:16857283

von Holy, A; Makhoane, F M

2006-09-01

415

Immunomodulation by food: promising concept for mitigating allergic disease?  

PubMed Central

The importance of a properly functioning and well-balanced immune system for maintaining health has become strikingly evident over the past decades. Roughly since World War II, there has been an apparent decrease in the prevalence of “traditional” infectious diseases, with a concomitant increase in immune-related disorders, such as allergies. Causally, a relationship with changes in life-style-related factors such as the increasing use of hygienic practices seems likely. Diet and nutrition can affect the functioning of various immune parameters. This concept can be utilised in attempts to prevent or mitigate allergic reactions via the development of targeted food products or ingredients. This review describes recent findings with respect to food products and ingredients that show potential in this respect, with special emphasis on pro- and prebiotics, ?-glucans and fungal immunomodulatory proteins. What all of these approaches have in common is that they appear to strengthen Th1-mediated immunity, thus possibly restoring defective immune maturation due to overly hygienic living conditions: a little bit of dirt does not seem bad!

2009-01-01

416

International Food Patterns for Space Food.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to obtain basic data on ethnic foods by studying dietary patterns and multicultural foods, and to determine nutritional status of multicultural space explorers by evaluating dietary, clinical, biochemical, and socioeconomi...

S. Ahmed A. Cox P. V. Cornish

1989-01-01

417

Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... intolerance. On this page: Lactose intolerance Food additives Gluten intolerance Food poisoning Histamine toxicity Other conditions Lactose ... are listed on ingredient labels. back to top Gluten intolerance Gluten is a part of wheat, barley, ...

418

Food Safety in Fast Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that health department inspections of fast-food restaurants may not be sufficient to ensure compliance with food safety regulations, managers must be vigilant in ensuring conformity with practices that safeguard public health. This case study of one fast-food employee's experience at three different fast-food restaurants suggests that employees' training and supervision require more attention to safety procedures. Greater manager accountability

Lauren Dundes; Tamiko Swann

2008-01-01

419

Long-term Impact of Integration of Household Water Treatment and Hygiene Promotion with Antenatal Services on Maternal Water Treatment and Hygiene Practices in Malawi  

PubMed Central

A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants.

Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

2013-01-01

420

Long-term impact of integration of household water treatment and hygiene promotion with antenatal services on maternal water treatment and hygiene practices in Malawi.  

PubMed

A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants. PMID:23243106

Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

2013-02-01

421

Comparative Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Ozone Treatment on Hygienic Quality of Korean Red Ginseng Powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen doanting activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

1998-06-01

422

Application of the human needs conceptual model to dental hygiene practice.  

PubMed

The Human Needs Conceptual Model is relevant to dental hygiene because of the need for dental hygienists to be client focused, humanistic, and accountable in practice. Application of the Human Needs Conceptual Model provides a formal framework for identifying and understanding the unique needs of the client that can be met through dental hygiene care. Practitioners find that the Human Needs Conceptual Model can not only help them in assessment and diagnosis, but also in client education, decision-making, care implementation, and the evaluation of treatment outcomes. By using the model, the dental hygienist is able to manage client care humanistically and holistically, and ensure that care is client-centered rather than task-oriented. With the model, a professional practice can be made operational. PMID:11314643

Darby, M L; Walsh, M M

2000-01-01

423

[Hygienic evaluation of technological, design and sanitary-technical solutions for large-scale chemical plants].  

PubMed

Complexes of technologic solution for the construction of large-scale plants producing ammonia, nitric and sulfuric acids, ammonium nitrate, carbomide and caprolactam , are characterized by both positive and negative hygienic features. The hygienic shortcomings reveal themselves in sporadic increases of hazardous ingredients in concentrations up to the MAC and higher levels, as well as in unfavorable labour conditions when dealing with catalysts, storage operations, inter-enterprise transportation, dispatching of raw materials and finished products, in the contamination of the in-going ventilation air, and in the compound influence of low temperatures and toxic substances. The concentration of several large-capacity enterprises in the same area entails large-scale discharges in the atmosphere with subsequent contamination of the surrounding protection areas. The author proposes a set of major preventive measures. PMID:2150391

Mikha?luts, A P

1990-01-01

424

Seven suggestive quantitative trait loci influence hygienic behavior of honey bees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1964, Walter Rothenbuhler proposed a two-gene model to explain phenotypic variance in the remarkable behavior in which honey bee workers remove dead brood from their colonies. Rothenbuhler's model proposed that one locus controls the uncapping of brood cells containing dead pupae, while a second controls the removal of the cell contents. We show here, through molecular techniques and quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage mapping, that the genetic basis of hygienic behavior is more complex, and that many genes are likely to contribute to the behavior. In our cross, we detected seven suggestive QTLs associated with hygienic behavior. Each detected QTL controlled only 9-15% of the observed phenotypic variance in the character.

Lapidge, Keryn; Oldroyd, Benjamin; Spivak, Marla

2002-10-01

425

[Pressing problems of labor hygiene and occupational pathology among office workers].  

PubMed

Northwest public health research center, Ministry of health and social affairs, St.-Petersburg. The article substantiates the conception of "office room", "office worker", estimates the basic diseases and symptoms among office workers (SBS-syndrome, BRI-illnesses, BRS-symptoms). Complex of indoor factors of office environment are analyzed, which influence the health status of personnel--indoor air quality (microclimate, aerosols, chemical, biological pollution, air ionization), external physical factors, ergonomics, intensity and tension of work, psychosocial factors. Comparison of Russian and foreign approaches to the hygienic estimation and rating of these factors was carried out. Owing to inadequacy of Russian hygienic rules to modern requirements, the necessity of working out of a complex of sanitary rules focused particularly on office workers is proved. PMID:22724346

2012-01-01

426

[Hygiene control visits in medical practices - topics to be focused on].  

PubMed

According to the "Protection against Infection Act", public health services are obliged to supervise and consult the hygienic conditions not only in hospitals but also in ambulatory medical practices in Germany. Firstly, in this paper basic principles on transmission routes of pathogenic germs and general remarks on the infection control visits as well as on the special regulations (i.e., German commission on hospital hygiene and infection prevention) are described. Secondly, crucial points to be considered in all medical practices are mentioned. Finally, special issues in different practices are reported, such as dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, paediatrics etc. This article aims to support the public health departments in their task to prevent infections in patients and personnel in medical practices.· PMID:24285157

Heudorf, U

2013-11-01

427

State of Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Five Year Plan, Fiscal Years 1978-1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A five-year plan covers fiscal years 1978 through 1982 for Maryland's Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The department is charged with the responsibility for providing or monitoring health, mental health, juvenile, and related services to the peopl...

1976-01-01

428

Grenzwertliste 1994. Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit. (The 1994 list of limiting values. Safety and hygiene at work).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book contains the most important limiting values for chemical, biological and physical effects on persons relevant to safety and hygiene at work. The section on chemical effects falls into two chapters: maximum working site concentrations of hazardou...

W. Pflaumbaum H. Kleine A. Barig E. Nies H. Blome

1994-01-01

429

[Hygienic quality of feedstuffs for small mammals sent to the consultation service].  

PubMed

Objective: Evaluation of the hygienic status of feedstuffs for small mammals, including rabbits, guinea pigs and chinchilla, kept as pets. Material and methods: A total of 356 feedstuffs that had been sent to the consulting service of the institute with a usable case history between January 2000 and April 2011 were analysed by sensory testing and microbiological examination. The interpretation of the microbiological results was performed with regard to benchmarks given by the working group "feed microbiology of section VI of the VDLUFA" for hay, straw and further feedstuffs. Results: Within the sensory evaluation, the parameters "texture" (indicating the moisture content of a feed) and "smell" (mouldy or yeasty nuances) provided the first important information on feed quality. Deviations in these parameters were observed in 29.0% and 41.2%, respectively, of the analysed roughages and in 27.4% and 15.1% of mixed feeds, respectively. In about 10% of the feeds, pests (mites, Psocoptera as an indicator of mould infestation) were diagnosed microscopically. Using the differentiation of the germs as described above, faults in the hygienic quality could be detected mainly in roughage (hay, straw) and the so-called coloured feed (mixed feed based on ingredients including oat, barley or corn) whereas they occurred rarely in commercial pelleted mixed feeds based on green meal. Conclusion and clinical relevance: In cases of hygienic deficits in feedstuffs, it was often unclear whether the reduced hygienic quality resulted from the production conditions (i.e. in the factory) or by improper storage of the feedstuffs by traders or pet owners. A general recommendation should be given to the owner to check the feed using a critical sensory evaluation to avoid health disorders in pets due to higher levels of germs or poisonous plants. PMID:24737185

Wolf, P; Siesenop, U; Verspohl, J; Kamphues, J

2014-04-16

430

Assessment & Efficacy of an M-Learning Course in Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project involved the creation of 20 introductory industrial hygiene and safety video modules specifically for an M-Learning\\u000a environment. Testing was performed on 9 modules to determine whether this M-Learning content and presentation was as educationally\\u000a effective as a traditional lecture presentation. Comparison of test scores and key concepts between two groups of college\\u000a sophomores and juniors was made. The

T. J. Ryan

2008-01-01

431

Hygiene and Other Early Childhood Influences on the Subsequent Function of the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current ‘Darwinian’ synthesis of the hygiene (or ‘Old Friends’) hypothesis suggests that the increase in chronic inflammatory disorders that started in Europe in the mid-19th century and progressed until the late 20th century is at least partly attributable to immunodysregulation resulting from lack of exposure to microorganisms that were tasked by co-evolutionary processes with establishing the ‘normal’ background levels

Graham A. W. Rook

2011-01-01

432

Raw milk for sale in Pisa province: biosecurity of dairy farms and hygienic evaluation of milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selling raw milk by automatic dispenser on the farm is a good way to increase income. The aim of the present research is to\\u000a evaluate both the biosecurity of dairy farms in the Pisa province and the hygienic quality of raw milk. Two farms, chosen\\u000a because of previously analyzed results carried out on animals and milk, were monitored for 9 months

F. Fratini; R. Nuvoloni; V. V. Ebani; L. Faedda; F. Bertelloni; G. Fiorenza; D. Cerri

2010-01-01

433

Facemasks, Hand Hygiene, and Influenza among Young Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited vaccine availability and the potential for resistance to antiviral medications have led to calls for establishing the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical measures for mitigating pandemic influenza. Our objective was to examine if the use of face masks and hand hygiene reduced rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza in the natural setting. A cluster-randomized intervention trial was designed involving

Allison E. Aiello; Vanessa Perez; Rebecca M. Coulborn; Brian M. Davis; Monica Uddin; Arnold S. Monto

2012-01-01

434

Persistence of Antimicrobial Effect of Antiseptics in Surgical Hand Hygiene Regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the persistence of antimicrobial effect of antiseptic solutions used in surgical hand hygiene procedure, and the in-house preparation was compared to the commercial solution for its efficacy. Material and Method: The present study was performed in a 150-bed hospital involving 19 staff from general, orthopedics, KUB, and OB-GYN surgical teams in 48 operations. The antimicrobial effects from

Wilai Noparat; Chanwit Tribuddharat; Somwang Danchaivijitr

435

Industrial-hygiene survey, Bachmeier and Company, Kearny, New Jersey, November 4-8, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at Bachmeier and Company, Incorporated, Kearny, New Jersey. This was a dye-distribution facility which blended and repackaged imported and domestic dyes for resale. Possible worker exposure to benzidine congener dyes was the purpose of the visit. Exposure to o-dianisidine-based dye, an o-tolidine based dye and a benzidine based dye were evaluated. Air samples and surface

B. Hills; T. F. Bloom

1988-01-01

436

Industrial-hygiene survey, Stauffer Chemical Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 16-25, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Stauffer Chemical Company, Salt Lake City, Utah on July 16-25, 1975 as part of a study of variations in worker exposures in different wet chemical operations. The operation evaluated was the cleaning of a large phosphoric acid reactor vessel. Samples taken for an 8-hour time-weighted average exposures for cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric

F. Wolf; M. E. Cassady

1975-01-01

437

Prevalence of Upper Extremity Symptoms and Disorders among Dental and Dental Hygiene Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders are common among dental professionals. The natural history of these disorders is not well-understood. These disorders are more common in older workers, but the prevalence among younger workers has not been well-studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if dental\\/dental hygiene students had a similar prevalence of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders compared

Robert A. Werner; Alfred Franzblau; Nancy Gell; Curt Hamann; Pamela A. Rodgers; Timothy J. Caruso; Frank Perry; Courtney Lamb; Shirley Beaver; David Hinkamp; Kathy Eklund; Christine P. Klausner

2005-01-01

438

Examination of social networking professionalism among dental and dental hygiene students.  

PubMed

Becoming a dental professional requires one to apply ethical decision making skills and demonstrate high standards of professionalism in practice, including the way professionals present themselves to the public. With social media as an evergrowing part of personal and professional communications, this study aimed to determine the accessibility, amount, and type of unprofessional content on Facebook profiles of dental hygiene and dental students in a college of dentistry. The authors evaluated the online profiles of all 499 dental and dental hygiene students at The Ohio State University using objective measures that included existence of a profile, current privacy settings, and access to personally identifiable information. A sample of profiles were evaluated for unprofessional content including photos, comments, and wall posts. The majority of these students were found to use Facebook, with 61 percent having Facebook profiles. Dental hygiene students were more likely to have a Facebook profile than were dental students: 72.6 percent and 59.1 percent, respectively (p=0.027). The majority of the students' profiles had some form of privacy setting enabled, with only 4 percent being entirely open to the public. Fewer than 2 percent of the students allowed non-friends access to personal information. Based on in-depth analysis of the profiles, fourteen (5.8 percent) instances of unprofessionalism were recorded; the most common unprofessional content involved substance abuse. This study found that these dental and dental hygiene students frequently possessed an identifiable Facebook account and nearly half had some kind of personal information on their profile that could potentially be shared with the public. In some instances, the students gave patients, faculty, and potential employers access to content that is not reflective of a dental professional. Academic institutions should consider implementing policies that bring awareness to and address the use of social media in a professional environment. PMID:24192407

Henry, Rachel K; Molnar, Amy L

2013-11-01

439

Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P < .001) for the exam room with the sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC. PMID:24679575

Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

2014-04-01

440

“The Bug Investigators” : Assessment of a school teaching resource to improve hygiene and prudent use of antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this study is to measure the effectiveness of the “Bug Investigators” pack in improving children's knowledge about micro-organisms, hygiene and antibiotics when it is used within the National Curriculum in junior schools. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Teaching, using the “Bug Investigators” pack, was given by Gloucestershire primary school teachers. Children's general knowledge about hygiene, micro-organisms and antibiotics

Cliodna A. M. McNulty; Jo Bowen; David Gelb; Andre Charlett

2007-01-01

441

Poor Dental Hygiene in Pregnancy Leading to Submandibular Cellulitis and Intrauterine Fetal Demise: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Ludwig's angina is an infectious process involving submandibular, sublingual, and submental spaces that can rapidly progress to hemodynamic instability and airway obstruction. A 38-year-old unbooked multipara of low socioeconomic status with a poor oral and dental hygiene presented with bilateral submandibular cellulitis and intrauterine fetal demise. She delivered vaginally, and subsequently drainage was done for cellulitis. The report highlights the importance of dental hygiene during pregnancy, lest life-threatening complications like Ludwig's angina occur, complicating the course of pregnancy.

Mukherjee, Soma; Sharma, Surbhi; Maru, Laxmi

2013-01-01

442

Hand hygiene promotion and the participation of infection control link nurses: an effective innovation to overcome campaign fatigue.  

PubMed

Campaign fatigue was evident in a large hospital in Hong Kong when hand hygiene compliance remained just above 50% after 4 years of aggressive and varied promotional activities. A new innovative strategy was developed that directly involved the infection control link nurses both in formulating the strategy and in implementing the various proposed programs. The new strategy was successful in increasing hand hygiene compliance to 83%. PMID:23890375

Seto, Wing Hong; Yuen, Shanny W S; Cheung, Christina W Y; Ching, Patricia T Y; Cowling, Benjamin J; Pittet, Didier

2013-12-01

443

Salmon as a food-poisoning vehicle--two successive Salmonella outbreaks.  

PubMed Central

Gastroenteritis due to Salmonella montevideo occurred amongst guests attending two social functions held within 24 h, food for both having been provided by the same catering firm. Salmon was the most likely vehicle of infection in each case, although cross-contamination of other foods occurred. There were no deaths; four patients were admitted to hospital, one of whom underwent appendicectomy. A review of salmon-associated food-poisoning outbreaks suggests that fresh salmon is an infrequent cause of food poisoning in the United Kingdom. The two outbreaks described here resulted from a failure of simple kitchen hygiene measures at a time of high ambient temperatures. Some current cooking instructions for salmon are inadequate.

Cartwright, K. A.; Evans, B. G.

1988-01-01

444

Improvement of oral hygiene habits: a psychological approach. 2-year data.  

PubMed

The present communication attempts to determine the effects of individual interviews, conducted by a psychologist, on unmotivated patients' oral hygiene habits. For this investigation, 26 subjects were selected according to the following main criteria: (a) patients with good motor skills (to make sure that poor hygiene was due to poor compliance and not to poor dexterity); (b) patients suffering from periodontitis of Cl II and Cl III of the Modified Nomenclature of the American Academy of Periodontology; (c) patients, who had never been taught toothbrushing techniques prior to attending 4 routine sessions on oral hygiene, and who in spite of understanding the pathogenic relation between plaque and disease, were unable to reach a plaque index score beneath the 50% level. The 26 selected patients were divided randomly into 2 equal groups. Subjects assigned to the 1st group were submitted to interviews with a psychologist, whereas those of the 2nd group were not (control group). Throughout the investigation period, the plaque indices were scored for both groups at 3-month intervals. Results revealed a decrease of plaque index scores in the interviewed group, from 68% to 49%. During the same period, the non-interviewed group exhibited virtually no change. PMID:3198778

Alcouffe, F

1988-11-01

445

[Access to information on oral hygiene and tooth loss due to caries among adults].  

PubMed

This study sought to establish the association between tooth loss due to dental caries and variables related to access to information on oral health in adults aged 35-44 years (n = 780) who participated in a large epidemiological study. The dependent variable was total tooth loss due to caries. The independent variables were grouped into blocks: demographic and socio-economic characteristics, use of dental service, access to oral health information (about how to prevent oral problems; oral hygiene; and diet), and behaviors. The analysis was conducted using hierarchical multiple linear regression. The mean number of lost teeth due to caries was 7.03. High numbers of lost teeth were higher among females and older adults; low levels of education; adults who rarely/never received oral hygiene information; those who brushed their teeth once a day or less; and those adults who did not use dental floss (p < 0.05). Adults who rarely/never received oral hygiene information from dental services lost 2.15 more teeth due to caries than those who always/often received such information (p = 0,000). Thus, it is suggested that access to information should be encouraged to contribute to greater equity in oral health. PMID:24473625

Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Aguiar, Pedro Henrique Soares; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e

2014-01-01

446

A preliminary microbiological assessment of process hygiene of traditional outdoor camel slaughter in Sahrawi refugee camps.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the hygiene performance of a camel (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtering process as carried out with the traditional method in the Sahrawi refugee camps located in southwestern Algeria. The camel slaughtering process in this region differs significantly from that carried out in commercial abattoirs. Slaughtering is performed outdoors in desert areas, and dehiding of the carcass is approached via the dorsoventral route rather than the classic ventrodorsal route. Samples were taken from 10 camel carcasses from three different areas: the hide, the carcass meat immediately after dehiding, and the meat after final cutting. Enterobacteriaceae counts (EC) were enumerated employing conventional laboratory techniques. Carcass meat samples resulted in EC below the detection limit more frequently if the hide samples from the same carcass had also EC counts below the detection limit. Because of the low number of trials, the calculation of statistical significance of the results was not possible. Further experimental research is needed in order to validate the results presented in this study. The comparison of the microbiological hygiene performance between dorsal dehiding and traditional ventral dehiding of slaughtered animals could serve to validate the hypothesis of the potential positive impact of the dorsal dehiding method in carcass meat hygiene. PMID:23043838

Corrò, M; Saleh-Mohamed-Lamin, S; Jatri-Hamdi, S; Slut-Ahmed, B; Mohamed-Lejlifa, S; Di Lello, S; Rossi, D; Broglia, A; Vivas-Alegre, L

2012-10-01

447

Severe Preeclampsia and Maternal Self-Report of Oral Health, Hygiene, and Dental Care  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal periodontal disease diagnosed by a detailed oral health examination is associated with preeclampsia. Our objective was to measure the association between maternal self-report of oral symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, and/or dental service utilization prior to or during pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. Methods A written questionnaire was administered to pregnant women at the time of prenatal ultrasound, and outcomes ascertained by chart abstraction. Chi square test compared maternal oral symptoms/problems, hygiene practices, and dental service utilization between women with severe preeclampsia versus normotensive women. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for severe preeclampsia. Results: 48 (10%) of 470 women reported ? 2 oral symptoms/problems in the 6 months prior to pregnancy and 77 (16%) since pregnancy. 51(11%) reported prior periodontal treatment. 28 (6%) of 470 developed severe preeclampsia. Women with a history of periodontal treatment were more likely to develop severe preeclampsia (aOR, 95%CI: 3.71, 1.40-9.83) than women without a prior history of periodontal treatment. Self-reported oral health symptoms/problems, oral hygiene practices, or dental service utilization prior to or during pregnancy were not associated with severe preeclampsia when considered in the context of other maternal risk factors. Conclusion: Maternal self report of previous periodontal treatment prior to pregnancy is associated with severe preeclampsia.

Boggess, Kim A.; Berggren, Erica K.; Koskenoja, Viktoria; Urlaub, Diana; Lorenz, Carol

2013-01-01

448

Hand hygiene in rural Indonesian healthcare workers: barriers beyond sinks, hand rubs and in-service training.  

PubMed

Few attempts to increase healthcare workers' hand hygiene compliance have included an in-depth analysis of the social and behavioural context in which hand hygiene is not undertaken. We used a mixed method approach to explore hand hygiene barriers in rural Indonesian healthcare facilities to develop a resource-appropriate adoption of international guidelines. Two hospitals and eight clinics (private and public) in a rural Indonesian district were studied for three months each. Hand hygiene compliance was covertly observed for two shifts each in three adult wards at two hospitals. Qualitative data were collected from direct observation, focus group discussions and semistructured in-depth and informal interviews within healthcare facilities and the community. Major barriers to compliance included longstanding water scarcity, tolerance of dirtiness by the community and the healthcare organisational culture. Hand hygiene compliance was poor (20%; 57/281; 95% CI: 16-25%) and was more likely to be undertaken after patient contact (34% after-patient contact vs 5% before-patient contact, P<0.001) and 'inherent' opportunities associated with contacts perceived to be dirty (49% 'inherent' vs 11% 'elective' opportunities associated with clean contacts, P<0.001). Clinicians frequently touched patients without hand hygiene, and some clinicians avoided touching patients altogether. The provision of clean soap and water and in-service training will not overcome strong social and behavioural barriers unless interventions focus on long term community education and managerial commitment to the provision of supportive working conditions. PMID:20850197

Marjadi, B; McLaws, M-L

2010-11-01

449

Water quality and improving hygienic practices of the rural community in the vicinity of Ramallah, West Bank, Palestine.  

PubMed

The study aims to increase community awareness at the household level about certain hygienic practices and water quality in order to develop an effective program that will target improving specific hygiene-related behavior. The study was carried out in two Palestinian villages and applies a quasi-experimental design where chemical and biological water quality analysis as well as residential behavioral aspects related to some hygiene practices were assessed before and after envisaged intervention applications. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the housewives' knowledge, and practices in regard to hygienic practices and water use, followed by face-to-face health education and awareness sessions to the selected housewives. After 3 months, another assessment was conducted using the same questionnaire to measure improvement in their knowledge and practices. On the first visit, in addition to collecting data related to the questionnaire, the water quality in the selected houses was tested to ensure the quality aspects of the hygiene practices. Based on these findings, the chosen methodology was able to promote a real change in improving the water quality on household taps and in improving hygienic practices and knowledge. PMID:18821376

Mimi, Ziad A; Salman, Rand

2008-10-01

450

Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlating the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodour. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 277 male and female students. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, caries and bleeding gums, dryness of the mouth, smoking and tongue coating. Results: The results indicate female students had better oral hygiene practices. Significantly less self-reported oral bad breath (P = 0.007) was found in female dental students (40%) as compared to their male counterparts (58%). It was found that smoking and dryness of mouth had statistically significant correlation with halitosis (P = 0.026, P = 0.001). Presence of other oral conditions such as tongue coating and dental caries and bleeding gums also showed higher prevalence of halitosis in dental students. Conclusion: A direct correlation exists between oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions with halitosis. Females exhibited better oral hygiene practices and less prevalence of halitosis as compared to male students.

Setia, Saniya; Pannu, Parampreet; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Galhotra, Virat; Ahluwalia, Pooja; Sofat, Anjali

2014-01-01

451

21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

2013-04-01

452

Physician 'defiance' towards hand hygiene compliance: Is there a theory-practice-ethics gap?  

PubMed Central

Background The theory–practice gap has always existed [1,2]. This gap is often cited as a culmination of theory being idealistic and impractical, even if practical and beneficial, is often ignored. Most of the evidence relating to the non-integration of theory and practice assumes that environmental factors are responsible and will affect learning and practice outcomes, hence the gap. Therefore, the author believes that to ‘bridge the gap’ between theory and practice, an additional dimension is required: ethics. A moral duty and obligation ensuring theory and practice integrate. In order to effectively implement new practices, one must deem these practices as worthy and relevant to their role as healthcare providers (HCP). Hence, this introduces a new concept which the author refers to as the theory–practice–ethics gap. This theory–practice–ethics gap must be considered when reviewing some of the unacceptable outcomes in healthcare practice [3]. The literature suggests that there is a crisis of ethics where theory and practice integrate, and healthcare providers are failing to fulfill our duty as patient advocates. Hypothesis Physician hand hygiene practices and compliance at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Centre (KACC) are consistent with those of other physicians in the global healthcare arena. That is one of noncompliance to King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) organizational expectations and the World Health Organization (WHO) requirements? Methods An observational study was conducted on the compliance of cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and nurses in the authors’ cardiac center from January 2010 to December 2011. The hand hygiene (HH) compliance elements that were evaluated pertained to the WHO’s five moments of HH recommendations. The data was obtained through direct observation by KAMC infection prevention and control practitioners. Results Physician hand hygiene compliance at KACC was consistently less than 60%, with nurses regularly encouraging physicians to be diligent with hand hygiene practices in the clinical area. Conclusion Hand hygiene compliance will not improve unless evidence-based recommendations are adopted and endorsed by all healthcare professionals and providers.

Mortell, Manfred; Balkhy, Hanan H.; Tannous, Elias B.; Jong, Mei Thiee

2013-01-01

453

The role of the student professional association in mentoring dental hygiene students for the future.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the Student American Dental Hygienists' Association (SADHA) in mentoring/developing dental hygiene students for the future. This project also assessed attitudes and practices of SADHA advisors towards the utilization of SADHA as a mechanism for mentoring dental hygiene students' professional development to meet the oral health needs of the public, and the goals of the ADHA. These goals include promotion of education beyond the baccalaureate level to develop qualified faculty, encouraging dental hygiene research, and promoting leadership. The study also evaluated if geographic region and academic setting impacted the utilization of SADHA. After IRB exemption, a pilot-tested questionnaire was administered using Survey Monkey, an online survey website, to 277 individual contacts at Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) accredited dental hygiene programs. A response rate of 68% was achieved with 186 individual responses. Eighty percent of respondents indicated offering no mentoring opportunities outside of the curriculum, while incongruously, 58.3% felt they actively mentor through SADHA. When asked what the main focus of SADHA should be, SADHA advisors ranked community service/philanthropy as number one. SADHA chapters at institutions that offer a Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene (BSDH) degree completion program offer more mentoring opportunities (p= or <.001). Programs offering the BSDH offer a wider variety of topics from guest speakers (p=.038). SADHA chapters in Western states have a higher graduate membership conversion rate than other regions (p=.018). SADHA advisors do not agree on how SADHA should be utilized. The majority of SADHA chapters are not offering mentoring opportunities outside of the traditional curriculum for leadership and career development. What is clear is that both students and advisors desire more interaction with the local ADHA components and constituents. In order to address these issues, efforts should be made to provide networking support among SADHA advisors and increase faculty perception of the importance of the professional association and the role of students in its future. The ADHA should consider developing a mentoring program that builds strong partnerships among all state constituent and components and SADHA. PMID:18269810

Furgeson, Danielle; George, Mary; Nesbit, Samuel; Peterson, Charlotte; Peterson, Diane; Wilder, Rebecca S

2008-01-01

454

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

455

Food Business Entrepreneurship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

Weber, Peter

456