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1

Food Hygiene Standard Satisfaction of Singaporean Diners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines issues related to food hygiene and non-hygiene attributes of the foodservice industry, food safety knowledge of diners, and their satisfaction with a food hygiene disclosure system. Using data collected at four food courts and four hawker centers in Singapore, the results of this study indicate that food hygiene attributes are a key driver when dining out. Significant

Hwansuk Chris Choi; Tanya MacLaurin; Ju-Eun Cho; Sung-Pil Hahm

2010-01-01

2

Scientific report Salmonella, Listeria and food hygiene.  

E-print Network

Scientific report Salmonella, Listeria and food hygiene. Scientific report of a collaborative, 75015 Paris, France Foods are potential vehicles of pathogenic bacteria. Nontyphi Salmonella are among, meningoencephalitis, septicemia), with a relatively low incidence. Salmonella and Listeria are also pathogenic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

Food hygiene and travel at sea  

PubMed Central

The incidence of gastroenteritis on a passenger ship is reviewed and discussed in relation to the agents of infection from stool specimens, the bacteriological condition of food samples, and the practice of galley hygiene. PMID:1208291

Hobbs, Betty C.; Colbourne, M. J.; Mayner, P. E.

1975-01-01

4

A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarises the methods and results of studies conducted worldwide on the effectiveness of food safety and food hygiene training in the commercial sector of the food industry. In particular it focuses on those studies that have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of such training. Forty-six studies of food hygiene training are included which used some outcome measure to

M. B. Egan; M. M. Raats; S. M. Grubb; A. Eves; M. L. Lumbers; M. S. Dean; M. R. Adams

2007-01-01

5

Sanitation and Hygiene Deficiences As Contributing Factors in Contamination of Imported Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imports of agricultural products into the United States represent a significant share of many foods consumed in the United States today. Inadequacy and problems of sanitation and hygiene deficiencies in exporting countries can lead to contamination in imported foods and pose a food safety risk. We focus on the sanitation and hygiene deficiencies in imported food. Generally, these problems are

Fengxia Dong; Helen H. Jensen

2008-01-01

6

Food Hygiene Education in UK Secondary Schools: A Nationwide Survey of Teachers' Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: A nationwide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of food hygiene in UK secondary schools. Previous studies have focused on effective strategies in consumer food hygiene training but there is little research focusing on school-based education. Design: The questionnaire was developed based on the results of in-depth interviews…

Egan, M. B.; Bielby, G.; Eves, A.; Lumbers, M. L.; Raats, M. M.; Adams, M. R.

2008-01-01

7

Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2007, Pages 661666 Factors Related to Food Worker Hand Hygiene Practices  

E-print Network

, worker food safety training, and the physical and social environment. Results indicated that hand washing in restaurants whose food workers received food safety training, with more than one hand sink, and with a hand that food worker hand hygiene improvement requires more than food safety education. Instead, improvement

8

Survey of Food-hygiene Practices at Home and Childhood Diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio=2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11–7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam. PMID:19902795

Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C.

2009-01-01

9

The hygiene training of food handlers at a teaching hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-related infection is an important health problem in many countries. This study was designed as an interventional study and carried out between December 1999 and August 2000. All 83 staff, handling food at the kitchens, were included in the study. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the level of information and self-reported behaviours of the participants before and after the

Cengiz Han Acikel; Recai Ogur; Hakan Yaren; Ercan Gocgeldi; Muharrem Ucar; Tayfun Kir

2008-01-01

10

Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices.

Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E. C.

2014-01-01

11

Hygienic food handling behaviours. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes, perceived behavioural control (PBC), subjective norm, intentions and past behaviour. Behaviour was measured 4 weeks later. The TPB predicted a high proportion of variance in both intentions and behaviour, and past behaviour/habit was found to be the strongest predictor of behaviour. The results of the present study suggest interventions aimed at increasing safe food handling intentions should focus on the impact of normative influences and perceptions of control over their food handling environment; whereas interventions to change actual behaviour should attempt to increase hygienic food handling as a habitual behaviour. PMID:19501776

Mullan, Barbara A; Wong, Cara L

2009-06-01

12

Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas  

PubMed Central

Background Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12–59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child’s defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother’s and child’s hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child’s bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Results Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged?food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children?

2013-01-01

13

Essential veterinary education in food safety, food hygiene and biosecurity: a global perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A big challenge for veterinary educators is to stimulate interest in public health medicine and make the curriculum interesting, and relevant, to veterinary students. Veterinary public health encompasses many areas, including zoonosis control, food safety, animal health and biosecurity, animals as sentinels of environmental hazards and the contribution of animal waste to pollution of food and water, so there

P. G. Wall

14

Essential veterinary education in food safety, food hygiene and biosecurity: a global perspective.  

PubMed

A big challenge for veterinary educators is to stimulate interest in public health medicine and make the curriculum interesting, and relevant, to veterinary students. Veterinary public health encompasses many areas, including zoonosis control, food safety, animal health and biosecurity, animals as sentinels of environmental hazards and the contribution of animal waste to pollution of food and water, so there is no shortage of ammunition for the veterinary educator in the competition for students' attention. Veterinary educators, not the students, will have failed if graduates complete their studies without being convinced of the importance and relevance of veterinary public health. PMID:20128456

Wall, P G

2009-08-01

15

Toward harmonization of the European food hygiene/veterinary public health curriculum.  

PubMed

Prompted by developments in the agri-food industry and associated recent changes in European legislation, the responsibilities of veterinarians professionally active in veterinary public health (VPH), and particularly in food hygiene (FH), have increasingly shifted from the traditional end-product control toward longitudinally integrated safety assurance. This necessitates the restructuring of university training programs to provide starting competence in this area for veterinary graduates or a sub-population of them. To date, there are substantial differences in Europe in the way in which graduate programs in FH/VPH are structured and in the time allocated to this important curricular group of subjects. Having recognized this, the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE) recently instituted a working group to analyze the current situation, with a view to produce standard operating procedures allowing fair and transparent evaluations of universities/faculties constituting its membership and in concurrence with explicit European legislation on the professional qualifications deemed necessary for this veterinary discipline. This article summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations of the working group and seeks to contribute to the international efforts to optimize veterinary training in FH/VPH. PMID:22718004

Smulders, Frans J M; Buncic, Sava; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Huey, Robert J; Korkeala, Hannu; Prieto, Miguel; Steinhauserova, Iva

2012-01-01

16

The effects of food safety education on adolescents' hand hygiene behavior: an analysis of stages of change  

PubMed Central

The hand hygiene behavior of 400 middle school students (grades 1-3) in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do was studied to determine how stages of change were affected by food safety education, focusing on hand hygiene and general food safety. Subjects were 51.3% male and 44.3% of study subjects were first graders of middle school. Approximately 40% of subjects were at the stage of action, 42.7% were at the stage of contemplation, and 16.4% were at pre-contemplation. The most important factor that influenced proper hand washing was self efficacy (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing was also correlated significantly with positive belief (P < 0.01) and stages of change (P < 0.01). After food safety education by high-school mentors, middle-school students who were in the stages of pre-contemplation (11.1%) and contemplation (88.9%) showed significant progression toward the action stage (P < 0.001). Proper hand washing (P < 0.01) and food safety knowledge (P < 0.05) were also significantly increased after educational intervention. PMID:22586507

Kim, Eun Joo; Pai, Andrew J.; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Soon; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

2012-01-01

17

Computational fluid dynamics approaches in quality and hygienic production of semisolid low-moisture foods: a review of critical factors.  

PubMed

Low-moisture foods have been responsible for a number of salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide over the last few decades, with cross contamination from contaminated equipment being the most predominant source. To date, actions have been focused on stringent hygienic practices prior to production, namely periodical sanitization of the processing equipment and lines. Not only does optimum sanitization require in-depth knowledge on the type and source of contaminants, but also the heat resistance of microorganisms is unique and often dependent on the heat transfer characteristics of the low-moisture foods. Rheological properties, including viscosity, degree of turbulence, and flow characteristics (for example, Newtonian or non-Newtonian) of both liquid and semisolid foods are critical factors impacting the flow behavior that consequently interferes heat transfer and related control elements. The demand for progressively more accurate prediction of complex fluid phenomena has called for the employment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model mass and heat transfer during processing of various food products, ranging from drying to baking. With the aim of improving the quality and safety of low-moisture foods, this article critically reviewed the published literature concerning microbial survival in semisolid low-moisture foods, including chocolate, honey, and peanut butter. Critical rheological properties and state-of-the-art CFD application relevant to quality production of those products were also addressed. It is anticipated that adequate prediction of specific transport properties during optimum sanitization through CFD could be used to solve current and future food safety challenges. PMID:25224872

Mondal, Arpita; Buchanan, Robert L; Lo, Y Martin

2014-10-01

18

75 FR 61119 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket...Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public...Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, U.S. Department of...

2010-10-04

19

Are street foods safe? A critical analysis of hygienic and sanitary practices of street food vendors in Nairobi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Information received from the study shows that vendors lacked training on food preparation. About 62% obtained food preparation skills through observation while 33% were taught by their parents. The preparation surfaces used for the preparation of raw foods were not washed regularly. Cooked foods were stored at ambient temperature in cupboards; plastic bowls and others were just left in

Kilungu Onesmus M

20

Multicenter study of street foods in 13 towns on four continents by the food and environmental hygiene study group of the international network of pasteur and associated institutes.  

PubMed

An international multicenter study of ready-to-eat foods, sandwiches, and ice creams or sorbets sold in the streets and their vendors was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of these foods and to identify characteristics of the vendors possibly associated with pathogens. Thirteen towns in Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania were involved in the study. A single protocol was used in all 13 centers: representative sampling was by random selection of vendors and a sample of foods bought from each of these vendors at a time and date selected at random. Microbiological analyses were carried out using standardized Association Française de Normalisation methods, and the use of a standardized questionnaire to collect data concerning the characteristics of the vendors. Fifteen surveys were carried out, with 3,003 food samples from 1,268 vendors. The proportion of unsatisfactory food samples was between 12.7 and 82.9% for ice creams and sorbets and between 11.3 and 92% for sandwiches. For ice creams and sorbets, the sale of a large number of units (>80 per day) increased the risk of unsatisfactory food by a factor of 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 5.1), lack of training in food hygiene by 6.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 50). and by a factor of 2.8 (95% CI: 1.4 to 5.4) for mobile vendors. These risk factors were not identified for sandwiches, this difference may be due to the presence of a cooking step in their preparation. These results show that the poor microbiological quality of these street foods constitutes a potential hazard to public health, that the extent of this hazard varies between the cities studied, and that vendors' health education in food safety is a crucial factor in the prevention of foodborne infections. PMID:11808786

Garin, B; Aïdara, A; Spiegel, A; Arrive, P; Bastaraud, A; Cartel, J L; Aissa, R Ben; Duval, P; Gay, M; Gherardi, C; Gouali, M; Karou, T G; Kruy, S L; Soares, J L; Mouffok, F; Ravaonindrina, N; Rasolofonirina, N; Pham, M T; Wouafo, M; Catteau, M; Mathiot, C; Mauclere, P; Rocourt, J

2002-01-01

21

Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…

Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

2010-01-01

22

Foodservice hygiene factors—The consumer perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety is important to today's food industry operators as consumers have become increasingly concerned about risks related to food. Unlike foodservice operators or health inspectors, consumers can only rely on the visible cues, particularly those associated with food hygiene to judge the level of food safety in eating establishments. While previous research highlighted the influence of foodservice hygiene perception

Ungku Zainal Abidina Ungku Fatimah; Huey Chern Boo; Murali Sambasivan; Rosli Salleh

2011-01-01

23

Synthesis of nonionic-anionic colloidal systems based on alkaline and ammonium ?-nonylphenol polyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20) propionates/dodecylbenzenesulfonates with prospects for food hygiene  

PubMed Central

Background The main objective of this work was to obtain a binary system of surface-active components (nonionic soap – alkaline and/or ammonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) with potential competences in food hygiene, by accessing a scheme of classical reactions (cyanoethylation, total acid hydrolysis and stoichiometric neutralization with inorganic alkaline and/or organic ammonium bases) adapted to heterogeneously polyethoxylated nonylphenols (n?=?3-20). In the processing system mentioned, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, initially the acid catalyst for the exhaustive hydrolysis of ?-nonylphenolpolyethyleneoxy (n?=?3-20) propionitriles, becomes together with the nonionic soap formed the second surface-active component of the binary system. Results In the reaction scheme adopted the influence of the main operating (duration, temperature, molar ratio of reagents) and structural parameters (degree of oligomerization of the polyoxyethylene chain) on the processing yields for the synthetic steps was followed. The favorable role of the polyoxyethylene chain size is remarked, through its specific conformation and its alkaline cations sequestration competences on the yields of cyanoethylation, but also the beneficial influence of phase-transfer catalysts in the total acid hydrolysis step. The chemical stability of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSH) at the temperature and strongly acidic pH of the reaction environment is confirmed. The controlled change of the amount of DBSH in the final binary system will later confer it potential colloidal competences in food hygiene receipts. Conclusions The preliminary synthetic tests performed confirmed the prospect of obtaining a broad range of useful colloidal competences in various food hygiene scenarios. PMID:22958389

2012-01-01

24

9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a...and local requirements for food processing...

2010-01-01

25

Nail Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

26

Body Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

27

Development of microbiological field methodology for water and food-chain hygiene analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia spp. in Burkina Faso, West Africa.  

PubMed

Field-adaptable research methods for identifying Campylobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and other pathogenic and indicator bacteria were designed in Finland and tested in Burkina Faso. Several bacterial groups were also validated from artificially contaminated samples. Campylobacter strains were cultivated using an innovative gas generation system: The 'Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit' (PMEU) which provides microaerobic gas flow into the enrichment broth. This enhanced cultivation system produced rapid growth of several isolates of campylobacteria from water and chicken samples. The latter were obtained from local marketplace samples. No yersinias were found in the field studies, whereas they were readily recovered from the spiked samples, as well as Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli strains. The PMEU method turned out to be reliable for monitoring of water and food hygiene in remote locations. PMID:25156815

Hakalehto, Elias; Nyholm, Outi; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kagambega, Assèta; Rissanen, Kari; Heitto, Anneli; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

2014-09-01

28

Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir ... your family by following these steps Hygiene and Sanitation From the CDC Water-Related Emergencies and Outbreaks ...

29

Auditing hand hygiene practice.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene is regarded as the most effective way of preventing healthcare-associated infections. Thus hand hygiene audits are frequently undertaken by infection prevention and control teams. Although apparently straightforward, hand hygiene audit requires careful planning and conduct. Healthcare professionals need to understand the principles that underpin effective hand hygiene audit to improve their own practice and help patients, carers and the public to interpret the findings. PMID:20949824

Gould, Dinah

30

Clothing and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

1975-01-01

31

Efficacy of an extended theory of planned behaviour model for predicting caterers' hand hygiene practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to determine the factors which influence caterers' hand hygiene practices using social cognitive theory. One hundred and fifteen food handlers from 29 catering businesses were observed carrying out 31,050 food preparation actions in their workplace. Caterers subsequently completed the Hand Hygiene Instrument (HHI), which ascertained attitudes towards hand hygiene using constructs from the

Deborah A. Clayton; Christopher J. Griffith

2008-01-01

32

[Psychology of everyday hygiene].  

PubMed

The present publication discusses the following hypotheses: 1) With a continual increase in the state of scientific knowledge and the hygienic risk factors (infectious diseases, multi-resistant pathogens, age structure of the population with increasing risk of infection, etc.) a hygiene behaviour with increasing deficits develops. 2) Essential hygiene behaviour is blocked by irrational psychological defensive strategies: (a) hygiene biases (childhood illnesses as stabilisers for health development; hygiene as a health risk; overrating chemical-physical environmental risks as e.g. triggers for causing illness), (b) one's own personal risk balance: objective risks are minimised in the likelihood of their occurrence. 3) Hygiene education: the development of a prophylaxis-oriented lifestyle lies (a) in the model behaviour of parents, (b) in conveying the reasons for sensible behaviour, (c) in continually checking behaviour and (d) in appropriate sanctioning when deficits are perceived. 4) Conveying hygiene knowledge is an essential but inadequate prerequisite for corresponding hygiene behaviour. Motivators for hygiene behaviour are the following: (a) parental model behaviour and development of personal responsibility, (b) establishing simple, short, understandable and--for specific risk areas--specific rules of behaviour, (c) conveying hygiene information in the language of the target group, (d) integrating hygiene behaviour in a preventive lifestyle which must be inspired by the quality of life and well-being occurring and being experienced. PMID:19043754

Bergler, R

2008-11-01

33

10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27...Specific Program Requirements § 850.27 Hygiene facilities and practices. (a) General...regard to the use of respirators: (1) Food or beverage and tobacco products are...

2010-01-01

34

SCHOOL OF DENTAL HYGIENE Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF DENTAL HYGIENE Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Program Applicant are seeking admission to studies leading to the Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene, (BScDH) with a description of the selection procedures for the School of Dental Hygiene at the University of Manitoba

Major, Arkady

35

Keep Food and Water Safe After a Disaster or Power Outage  

MedlinePLUS

... Effects Food & Water Safety Food Safety Water Quality Sanitation & Hygiene Diseases & Health Concerns Information for Clinicians Response & ... Food Safety Office, CDC (Comprehensive food safety information) Sanitation and Hygiene (Tips to help protect yourself from ...

36

Adult feminine hygiene practices.  

PubMed

Adult feminine hygiene practices are the focus of this exploratory descriptive study. In a sample of 193 women, the typical respondent lived in the Southeast and was a single student who was 23 years of age, and White. Body cleansing, feminine hygiene, and menses management practices were examined. It was found that handwashing varied according to bodily involvement or specific feminine hygiene practices. Assorted menses management products were used for menses management and were used when the woman was not menstruating. The results of this study suggest that it might be possible for health care providers to teach women safe and economical health care practices, such as not douching and handwashing before and after use of menses management products to prevent infections. PMID:8771856

Czerwinski, B S

1996-08-01

37

Chemical Hygiene Plan i January 2013 Chemical Hygiene Plan  

E-print Network

Chemical Hygiene Plan i January 2013 Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) (Appendix C in Lab Safety Manual........................................................................................................................1-1 Chapter 2: Chemical Hazard Communication....................................................................................2-1 Chapter 3: Classes of Hazardous Chemicals

Nizkorodov, Sergey

38

FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food  

E-print Network

1 FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food Home made hot food may not be served at events conditions must be adhered to: · The caterer must have HSE Food Hygiene Certification, which is to be approved by the College Catering Manager two weeks in advance of any event. · The provider of the food

O'Mahony, Donal E.

39

Undergraduate Dental Hygiene  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Dental Hygiene Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry #12;bristol.ac.uk/study Dental hygienists work as part of a dental team playing a pivotal role in the prevention, treatment and management and using a variety of instruments to remove deposits from the teeth, the dental hygienist ensures

Bristol, University of

40

[Research on radiation hygiene problems].  

PubMed

The author presents brief historical reference on research in radiation hygiene problems, initiated by scientists in Central Institute for Occupational hygiene and Preventive hygiene (now--Federal State Budgetary Institution "Research Institute of Occupational Health" with Russian Academy of Medical Sciences). PMID:23986952

Kirillov, V F

2013-01-01

41

[Parmentier hygiene and public health].  

PubMed

The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. PMID:24780835

Lafont, O

2014-05-01

42

Assessment of hygiene standards and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points implementation on passenger ships.  

PubMed

The level of hygiene on ferries can have impact on travellers' health. The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene standards of ferries in Greece and to investigate whether Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation contributes to the hygiene status and particularly food safety aboard passenger ships. Hygiene inspections on 17 ferries in Greece were performed using a standardized inspection form, with a 135-point scale. Thirty-four water and 17 food samples were collected and analysed. About 65% (11/17) of ferries were scored with >100 points. Ferries with HACCP received higher scores during inspection compared to those without HACCP (p value <0.001). All 34 microbiological water test results were found negative and, from the 17 food samples, only one was found positive for Salmonella spp. Implementation of management systems including HACCP principles can help to raise the level of hygiene aboard passenger ships. PMID:22852776

Mouchtouri, Varavara; Malissiova, Eleni; Zisis, Panagiotis; Paparizou, Evina; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2013-01-01

43

A natural history of hygiene  

PubMed Central

In unpacking the Pandora's box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease. PMID:18923689

Curtis, Valerie A

2007-01-01

44

Dental Hygiene Program 2014 Admission Application Instructions  

E-print Network

Dental Hygiene Program 2014 Admission Application Instructions These instructions have been prepared for applicants to The Ohio State University Dental Hygiene Program. Please read these instructions carefully before completing the online application. Complete information about the dental hygiene program

45

[Hygienic aspects of the hot water supply].  

PubMed

Hygienic significance of hot water-supply was demonstrated. In the case of the sanitary inspection deficiency it may be the complaints appearance. Hygiene of hot water-supply seems as an independent scientific branch of hygiene. PMID:1937089

Dergacheva, T S

1991-08-01

46

Samonellosis and meat hygiene: red meat.  

PubMed

The association between salmonellosis in man and the infection in food animals has been clearly established. There is, moreover, little doubt that abattoir by-products, effluent and solid waste may allow the recycling of infection in animals. The potential hazard posed by salmonellosis to human and animal health will be reduced only by a greater control over the slaughter of infected farm livestock, improved isolation and casualty slaughter accommodation, a stricter control of slaughterhouse hygiene and the provision and full utilisation of adequate laboratory facilities for the bacteriological examination of meat and the abattoir environment. PMID:1146147

Watson, W A

1975-04-26

47

Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

48

Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

49

Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

2008-01-01

50

EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study 1 EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol Summary Good hand hygiene is of critical importance in preventing-ill controls (Hennessy et al, 1998; Kassenborg et al, 1998). Research has also indicated that good hand hygiene

51

Food poisoning (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... on people, but when allowed to grow in food this bacteria can produce a toxin that causes illness such as vomiting and diarrhea. Proper hygiene and handwashing can prevent this bacteria from entering ...

52

SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

53

Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This entire issue is devoted to the problem of producing enough food for the world population and of distributing it equitably. Areas covered include reports on the latest agricultural research, biological research concerned with more efficient photosynthesis, nutrition, and the world social structure, politics, and economics of food. (MA)

Science, 1975

1975-01-01

54

Assessment of Hand Washing Facilities, Personal Hygiene and the Bacteriological Quality of Hand Washes in Some Grocery and Dairy Shops in Alexandria, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food produced with satisfactory hygienic standards is one of the essential conditions for promoting and preserving health. A total of 15 grocery and dairy shops were randomly selected from Alexandria, Egypt to assess their hand washing facilities and personal hygiene of food handlers using a pre-designed sanitation checklist. Also the bacteriological profile of the handlers' hand washes was determined. Only

Mohamed Fawzi; Naglaa F. Gomaa; Wafaa M. K. Bakr

55

[Comprehensive hygienic assessment of solaria].  

PubMed

The paper gives data on the positive and negative effects of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It provides the hygienic characteristics of solaria used to produce an artificial tan. This device has been found to present a high health risk to its users. There are considerable problems in the hygienic assessment of this type of exposure. The ways of solving the arising problems in developing the metrological monitoring of UVR and compiling a document regulating the sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance of solaria are defined. PMID:22250385

Kravchenko, O K

2011-01-01

56

Foodborne viruses 1 1 A concise version of this paper was discussed by the Codex Alimentarius, committee on food hygiene, 1999. FAO\\/WHO document CX\\/FH 99\\/11, Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foodborne and waterborne viral infections are increasingly recognized as causes of illness in humans. This increase is partly explained by changes in food processing and consumption patterns that lead to the worldwide availability of high-risk food. As a result, vast outbreaks may occur due to contamination of food by a single foodhandler or at a single source. Although there are

Marion Koopmans; Carl-Henrik von Bonsdorff; Jan Vinjé; Dario de Medici; Steve Monroe

2002-01-01

57

Hand hygiene among neurologists attending a congress.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene is effective in preventing health care-associated infections, but hand hygiene compliance is low among health care workers in different hospital settings. Less is known about hand hygiene among physicians in a nonhospital setting. We evaluated handwashing behavior among 200 neurologists (100 males and 100 females) attending a world congress. Overall, 74.0% performed proper hand hygiene using soap and water, and there were significant differences between sex and handwashing behavior. PMID:24485383

Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Sundseth, Antje; Altmann, Marianne

2014-02-01

58

Assessing food safety and associated food handling practices in street food vending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street vendors in the city of Bloemfontein were investigated in order to assess the microbiological quality of the food being sold as well as the level of hygiene conditions under which these food stalls operate. The food samples which were collected included beef, chicken and gravy, while surface samples were taken from the food preparation tables and the hands of

Jan F. R. Lues; Mpeli R. Rasephei; Pierre Venter; Maria M. Theron

2006-01-01

59

CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION  

E-print Network

___________________________________ 7 MRI Laboratory___________________________________ 10 IR/Raman & QCM Laboratory______________________19 #12;3 Introduction 10/23/09 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research to be replaced. #12;7 Materials Research Laboratory University of California at Santa Barbara Spectroscopy

Bigelow, Stephen

60

CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION  

E-print Network

___________________________ 7 MRI and NMR Laboratory__________________________ 10 IR/Raman and QCM-D Laboratory____________________19 #12;3 Introduction 12/4/2013 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research;7 Materials Research Laboratory University of California at Santa Barbara Spectroscopy Department Chemical

Sideris, Thomas C.

61

CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION  

E-print Network

___________________________ 7 MRI and NMR Laboratory__________________________ 10 IR/Raman and QCM-D Laboratory____________________19 #12;3 Introduction 12/4/2013 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research extinguisher is used it must be reported as it will need to be replaced. #12;7 Materials Research Laboratory

Bigelow, Stephen

62

ORAL HYGIENE AND INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral hygiene of institutionalized elders is poor. This population exhibits an increased risk of oral infections such as periodontal disease, caries, inflammatory mucosal disorders, and denture-related problems. Poor oral health has been associated with systemic infections, such as respiratory infections, and nutritional inadequa- cies. Thus the maintenance of oral health among institu- tionalized elders is of significant value as

ALNAR ALTANI; C. C. L. WYATT

2002-01-01

63

Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

Hime, Kirsten

64

Health & Hygiene in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School with input from employees--both workplace literacy students and nonstudents--this guide contains activities for teaching health and hygiene on the job. Flowing from a perspective of respecting cultural diversity and guided by a common thread of good work practices, the activities…

Snapp, Mary

65

Occupational Hygiene around the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

To conduct a retrospective exposure assessment for a study of silica, silicosis, and lung cancer, current exposure measurements and techniques were compared with industrial hygiene data that had been systematically collected in Chinese industries over the past three decades. Historically, sampling was usually confined to total dust evaluation and bulk silica determinations. For comparison, from 1988 through 1989, several special

Zhien Wu; Frank J. Heart; Kailiang Peng; Michael A. McCawley; Anluo Chen; John Palassis; Mustafa Dosemeci; Jingqiong Chen; Joseph K. McLaughlin; Suzanne H. Rexing; William J. Blot

1992-01-01

66

Chemical Hygiene Plan 1.0 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chemical Hygiene Plan 1.0 Introduction Satisfying Cal-OSHA (Title 8 CCR 5191) and campus regulations, this Chemical Hygiene Plan includes safety information specific to the Center for Nano and Micro chemicals and gasses available. If you have any questions about this Chemical Hygiene Plan, please email

Yoo, S. J. Ben

67

A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

2000-01-01

68

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN  

E-print Network

Plan (CHP) 1.3 Chemical Hygiene Plan Coverage and Availability 1.4 Changes in MSDS Chemical HazardsCHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN AND HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals and Safety Numbers Research Safety 2723 Environmental Health/Safety Chemical Hygiene Officer Radiation Safety

Kim, Duck O.

69

Food Safety Education: What Should We Be Teaching To Consumers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety education is most effective when messages are targeted toward changing behaviors most likely to result in foodborne illness. The five major control factors for pathogens are personal hygiene, adequate cooking, avoiding cross-contamination, keeping food at safe temperatures, and avoiding foods from unsafe sources. Pathogens associated with poor personal hygiene have the highest incidence and costs. Inadequate cooking and

Lydia C. Medeiros; Virginia N. Hillers; Patricia A. Kendall; April Mason

2001-01-01

70

Meeting the need for robotic handling of food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies the need for a new range of end effectors suitable for handling non-rigid products in the food industry. The mechanical properties and handling difficulties of food products are introduced. Hygiene and the hygienic requirements in the food industry are discussed in detail from a consumer health and a safety point of view. The usage of automation and

F. Erzincanli; J. M. Sharp

1997-01-01

71

Food handlers' beliefs and self-reported practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an increase in the number of food handlers receiving food hygiene training, a high proportion of food poisoning outbreaks still occur as a result of poor food handling practices. This paper uses elements of social cognitive theory to examine the beliefs of food handlers towards food safety and to determine food handlers' self-reported practices. Questionnaires were completed by 137

Deborah A. Clayton; Christopher J. Griffith; Patricia Price; Adrian C. Peters

2002-01-01

72

Chemical Hygiene Plan The purpose of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) is to outline laboratory work  

E-print Network

Chemical Hygiene Plan I. Policy The purpose of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) is to outline community are protected from health hazards associated with chemicals with which they work. II. Authority The Chemical Hygiene Plan, required to comply with provisions of CCR Title 8 �5191 et al: A. Standard Operating

de Lijser, Peter

73

Issues in Dental Hygiene Education and Practice: Perceptions and Concerns of Dental Hygiene Program Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted by the League for Innovation in the Community College and Johnson County Community College to determine the state of the dental hygiene profession. The study sought the opinions of all dental hygiene program administrators in the United States and Canada regarding the principal concerns facing dental hygiene education and…

League for Innovation in the Community Coll., Los Angeles, CA.

74

[Hygiene is not cleanliness. For a new definition of hygiene promotion in emergency humanitarian aid].  

PubMed

Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation. PMID:11525045

Larose, L

2001-03-01

75

Chemical Hygiene Plan For University of Florida  

E-print Network

Chemical Hygiene Plan For University of Florida Laboratories This is a site specific Chemical Reviewed August 2007 Revised August 2007 #12;2 I. Introduction This Chemical Hygiene Plan has been with UF laboratory chemical operations and is intended to meet the requirements of the OSHA Laboratory

Slatton, Clint

76

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY FACILITIES Practice Controls 49 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 52 General Standard Operating Procedures 55 Record Keeping 82 Appendix I: Chemical Hygiene at the 90-day Accumulation Facility 84 Appendix II: List

Li, Jiali

77

Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

Woodring, J.L.

1993-08-01

78

Model Teacher - School Dental Hygiene Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study, which was carried out during the 1972-73 school year at three parochial schools in the Houston area, was to determine the effectiveness of the Toothkeeper Program, a multimedia program of oral hygiene training carefully developed and packaged to establish effective long-term dental hygiene practice. The study population…

Smith, Lowell W.

79

UCR Chemical Hygiene Plan, ver 2012.09.10 page 1 of 55 UCR Chemistry Department Chemical Hygiene Plan  

E-print Network

UCR Chemical Hygiene Plan, ver 2012.09.10 page 1 of 55 UCR Chemistry Department Chemical Hygiene Plan UCR CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN.................................... 4 Responsibilities of All Personnel Who Handle Hazardous Chemicals

Reed, Christopher A.

80

Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research

A. Pickering; A. Boehm; J. Davis

2008-01-01

81

Hygienic hand antiseptics: Should they not have activity and label claims against viruses?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteric and respiratory viruses are among the most frequent causes of human infections, and hands play an important role in the spread of these and many other viral diseases. Regular and proper hand hygiene by caregivers and food handlers in particular is essential to decontaminate hands and potentially interrupt such spread. What would be considered a proper decontamination of hands?

Syed A. Sattar; V. Susan Springthorpe; Jason Tetro; Robert Vashon; Bruce Keswick

2002-01-01

82

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

Berkner, K.

1992-08-01

83

A model of hygiene practices and consumption patterns in the consumer phase.  

PubMed

A mathematical model is presented, which addresses individual hygiene practices during food preparation and consumption patterns in private homes. Further, the model links food preparers and consumers based on their relationship to household types. For different age and gender groups, the model estimates (i) the probability of ingesting a meal where precautions have not been taken to avoid the transfer of microorganisms from raw food to final meal (a risk meal), exemplified by the event that the cutting board was not washed during food preparation, and (ii) the probability of ingesting a risk meal in a private home, where chicken was the prepared food item (a chicken risk meal). Chicken was included in the model, as chickens are believed to be the major source of human exposure to the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the probability of ingesting a risk meal was highest for young males (aged 18-29 years) and lowest for the elderly above 60 years of age. Children aged 0-4 years had a higher probability of ingesting a risk meal than children aged 5-17 years. This difference between age and gender groups was ascribed to the variations in the hygiene levels of food preparers. By including the probability of ingesting a chicken meal at home, simulations revealed that all age groups, except the group above 60 years of age, had approximately the same probability of ingesting a chicken risk meal, the probability of females being slightly higher than that of males. The simulated results show that the probability of ingesting a chicken risk meal at home does not only depend on the hygiene practices of the persons preparing the food, but also on the consumption patterns of consumers, and the relationship between people preparing and ingesting food. This finding supports the need of including information on consumer behavior and preparation hygiene in the consumer phase of exposure assessments. PMID:15787756

Christensen, Bjarke B; Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle M; Nielsen, Niels L; Fagt, Sisse; Andersen, Niels L; Nørrung, Birgit

2005-02-01

84

Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Methods 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Results While the vast majority of study participants (n?=?461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p?=?.002) and after using the toilet (p?=?.001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n?=?367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting. Further research into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate whether surface decontamination is an effective target of hygiene interventions in this population. PMID:24312303

Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

2013-01-01

85

TECHNICAL STANDARDS Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL STANDARDS Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene Students admitted to the dental hygiene concepts from biomedical, psychosocial and dental hygiene sciences to clinical dental hygiene procedures. 3 the ability to bend, twist, reach, push and pull, operate dental equipment and execute client care. 10

86

9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT SANITATION § 416.5 Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product,...

2014-01-01

87

Health and Hygiene in Evacuation Centers  

E-print Network

People who are staying in temporary shelters and evacuation centers may be at risk for diseases that spread in crowded conditions. Maintaining personal hygiene is one way to protect yourself. Keeping the facility clean is also very important....

Norman, Lisa

2005-09-30

88

ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

2009-01-01

89

Public health campaign to promote hand hygiene before meals in a college of veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (p<.01). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 2/42 samples, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 4/42 samples. A short-term public health campaign targeting veterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals. PMID:24981423

Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J

2014-01-01

90

Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

2011-01-01

91

PERSONAL HYGIENIC BEHAVIORS AND BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Vaginal douching is consistently associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), but whether it is a cause or result of BV remains unknown. The association between BV and other feminine hygienic behaviors is less studied; if BV symptoms caused behavior change then all hygiene behaviors might be more common among women with BV. Lack of association between non-douching hygiene behavior and BV would argue against reverse causation. METHODS In the Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora 3620 women had 13,517 visits where BV (Nugent score) was assessed. Associations between hygienic behavior and BV were assessed by Poisson regression. RESULTS After adjusting for demographic and sexual behavior factors, neither type of underwear (nylon vs. cotton Prevalence Ratio (PR) 1.05, 95% CI:0.97–1.13), menstrual protection (tampons vs. pads; PR:1.04, 95% CI:0.95–1.12; pads and tampons vs. pads 1.00, 95% CI:0.92–1.07), use of pads or panty liners when not menstruating (PR:0.99, 95% CI:0.95 – 1.05), nor weekly or greater use of hygiene spray (PR:1.01, 95% CI:0.94–1.09), powder (PR:1.02, 95% CI:0.96–1.07) or towlettes (PR:1.03, 95% CI:0.94–1.13) were strongly associated with BV. PR for daily vs. less than daily bathing and showering were 1.06 (95% CI:1.02–1.12) and 1.04 (95% CI:1.00–1.09). Douching remained associated with BV (PR for weekly or greater vs. never 1.17, 95% CI:1.09–1.26) and was not substantially impacted by adjustment for other hygienic behavior. CONCLUSIONS Douching, but not other feminine hygiene behaviors, is significantly associated with BV, providing additional evidence that douching may be causally associated with BV and is not simply a response to BV symptoms. PMID:19823112

Klebanoff, Mark A.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Kai-Fun; Schwebke, Jane R.; Andrews, William W.

2009-01-01

92

Scope on Safety: Yes, you need a Chemical Hygiene Officer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemical Hygiene Officer's (CHO) role is absolutely critical in fostering and ensuring both chemical hygiene practices and the chemical hygiene plan. OSHA defines the Chemical Hygiene Officer as an "employee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan." The CHO position is also essential in helping to facilitate the safeguards put in place as part of the chemical hygiene plan to protect both the teacher and students.

Roy, Ken

2009-04-01

93

Too clean, or not too clean: the Hygiene Hypothesis and home hygiene  

PubMed Central

Summary The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ as originally formulated by Strachan, proposes that a cause of the recent rapid rise in atopic disorders could be a lower incidence of infection in early childhood, transmitted by unhygienic contact with older siblings. Use of the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ has led to several interpretations, some of which are not supported by a broader survey of the evidence. The increase in allergic disorders does not correlate with the decrease in infection with pathogenic organisms, nor can it be explained by changes in domestic hygiene. A consensus is beginning to develop round the view that more fundamental changes in lifestyle have led to decreased exposure to certain microbial or other species, such as helminths, that are important for the development of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Although this review concludes that the relationship of the hypothesis to hygiene practice is not proven, it lends strong support to initiatives seeking to improve hygiene practice. It would however be helpful if the hypothesis were renamed, e.g. as the ‘microbial exposure’ hypothesis, or ‘microbial deprivation’ hypothesis, as proposed for instance by Bjorksten. Avoiding the term ‘hygiene’ would help focus attention on determining the true impact of microbes on atopic diseases, while minimizing risks of discouraging good hygiene practice. PMID:16630145

Bloomfield, SF; Stanwell-Smith, R; Crevel, RWR; Pickup, J

2006-01-01

94

[Housing conditions and hygiene control in nutria breeding].  

PubMed

Diseases in farm raised nutria (Myocastor coypus) often depend on hygienic fatalities in the different housing systems of the farms. The principle ways of accomodation for nutria are briefly described with reference to the specific hygienic problems. PMID:4024068

Röder, B

1985-01-01

95

Investigation and recommendations concerning prevention and treatment of infectious diseases and promotion of hygiene in earthquake-stricken areas.  

PubMed

In order to identify all public hygiene problems in the Wenchuan quake-affected areas, and also to provide relevant recommendations to local governments, the quake areas were entered for field investigation and consultation. The current situation and hidden dangers and problems of epidemic surveillance, planned immunization, drinking water hygiene, nutrition and food hygiene, environmental hygiene are discussed in the article. Some suggestions are also provided for government public hygiene policy: (i) launch a patriotic health campaign among the population; (ii) study on green agricultural policy of changing dung into manure; (iii) start from quake-affected area to develop rural environmental hygiene work; (iv) prolong treatment of infectious diseases free of charge, and draw up a policy of free vaccination for earthquake victims; and (v) realize reform of the CDG funding system in the quake-affected area. At last, meaning and judgment criteria of 'no big epidemic after a great disaster' are interpreted. The observation period is divided into three phases: forthcoming summer and autumn phase, forthcoming winter and next spring phase, and comprehensive recovery phase. PMID:21348966

Zeng, Guang

2008-11-01

96

Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygiene compliance and perceptions toward hand hygiene among medical personnel were compared between the second quarter of 2009 (before the start of a hand hygiene promotion program) and the second quarter of 2012. We assessed adherence to hand hygiene among medical personnel quarterly according to the WHO recommended method for direct observation. Also, we used a modified self-report questionnaire to collect perception data. Results Hand hygiene compliance among physicians and nurses improved significantly from 19.0% in 2009 to 74.5% in 2012 (P < 0001), and from 52.3% to 91.2% (P < 0.001), respectively. These improvements were observed in all professional status or all medical specialties that were compared between two periods, regardless of the level of the risk for cross-transmission. Hand hygiene compliance among the medical personnel continued to improve, with a slight decline in 2013. Perceptions toward hand hygiene improved significantly between 2009 and 2012. Specifically, improvements were evident in intention to adhere to hand hygiene, knowledge about hand hygiene methods, knowledge about hand hygiene indications including care of a dirty and a clean body site on the same patient, perceived behavioral and subjective norms, positive attitude toward hand hygiene promotion campaign, perception of difficulty in adhering to hand hygiene, and motivation to improve adherence to hand hygiene. Conclusions The examined hand hygiene promotion program resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. The improved perception increased hand hygiene compliance. Especially, the perception of being a role model for other colleagues is very important to improve hand hygiene compliance among clinicians. PMID:25298905

Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

2014-01-01

97

Relationship between Systems-Level Factors and Hand Hygiene Adherence  

PubMed Central

This study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of acute care hospitals in California to describe staff hand hygiene compliance and related predictors, and explore the relationship between hand hygiene adherence to health care-associated infections. Although there was a relatively small sample size, institutions with morning huddles reported a significantly higher proportion of ?95% hand hygiene compliance. Huddles are an organizational tool to improve teamwork and communication and may offer promise to influence hand hygiene adherence. PMID:20489659

Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Cohen, Bevin; Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Jordan, Sarah; Larson, Elaine

2010-01-01

98

Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Dental Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of five learning modules to instruct dental patients and the general public in the fundamental principles of dental hygiene. The first module, "Identify the Responsibilities for Your Oral Health" by Floyd R. Tanner, discusses the respective roles of the dentist and the patient in…

Tanner, Floyd R.; And Others

99

Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating

Bo Runeman

2008-01-01

100

Community Living Skills Guide: Looking Good: Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Looking Good: Hygiene. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…

Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

101

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN  

E-print Network

://ors.uchc.edu An electronic copy of this plan is distributed to all investigator laboratories. #12;SAFETY INFORMATION (Fire.1.2 Personal Hygiene 5.1.3 Protective Clothing and Equipment ­ Disposable Glove Selection 5.1.4 Housekeeping 5 Reactive and Pyrophoric Chemicals 5.2.10 Peroxidizable Compounds 5.3 Control Measures and Equipment 5

Kim, Duck O.

102

Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

Hime, Kirsten

103

Prospectus for Dental Hygiene. April 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…

American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

104

LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE & TROPICAL TERMS & CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS  

E-print Network

LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE & TROPICAL MEDICINE TERMS & CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS October 2003 #12 of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine · "School Purchasing Officer" shall mean the Postholder, Mr Keith Flanders in accordance with these Terms and Conditions; · "School" shall mean the London School of Hygiene & Tropical

Maizels, Rick

105

Promoting Critical Thinking among Dental Hygiene Students: Strategies for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…

Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.

2011-01-01

106

Improving Hand Hygiene in the Johns Hopkins Hospital  

E-print Network

Improving Hand Hygiene in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Adult Emergency Department Compliance with hand hygiene before and after every patient interaction in the hospital is an integral component to indicate that hand hygiene reduces healthcare-associated infections.The CDC and the World Health

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

107

[Hygienic evaluation of environment, morbidity among pregnant women and newborns within social hygienic monitoring system].  

PubMed

Hygienic evaluation covered health state of pregnant women and newborns, subjected to chemical pollution of environment by aluminium industrial enterprises. The data obtained helped to suggest methodic approach to selection of priority territories, environmental and health state parameters within social hygienic monitoring system, to form recommendations on creation of system supporting management decisions to lower negative influence of chemical environmental factors on health of pregnant women and newborns. PMID:25282805

Kuz'min, D V

2014-01-01

108

MalariaCentreReport2010-11LondonSchoolofHygiene&TropicalMedicine London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine  

E-print Network

MalariaCentreReport2010-11LondonSchoolofHygiene&TropicalMedicine London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Keppel Street London WC1E 7HT http://malaria.lshtm.ac.uk/ malaria@lshtm.ac.uk Copies of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine's Malaria Centre has led the way in bring- ing together researchers expert

Maizels, Rick

109

Effect of hygiene and medication on preweaning survival and growth of Djallonké sheep in Atacora, Benin.  

PubMed

Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonké sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested hygienic measures and medication in improved housing. The effect of the two treatments and their combination on lamb performance and the internal rate of return (IRR) were compared to a control. For each treatment, survival and growth were observed in 20 lambs, living in 38 herds. Good housing and hygiene (daily cleaning and fortnightly disinfection of stable and water and feed troughs) reduced mortality and increased growth of suckling lambs until 3 months. Good housing plus medication (unique injection of vitamins and amino acids and with ivermectine for deworming, weekly tick treatment by spraying, and in case of diarrhea, antibiotic treatment) reduced mortality, but growth was not higher than the control. Accounting labor opportunity, the IRR was about equal for both, but capital investment was lower for the hygiene treatment which is thus more accessible to poor farmers. The combination of both treatments increased growth and benefits compared with the hygiene treatment, but decreased the IRR. PMID:22644730

Doko, Sanni Y; Degla, Pamphile; Edoun, Gilbert O; Bosma, Roel H

2012-12-01

110

Sleep hygiene and sleep quality in Italian and American adolescents.  

PubMed

This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12-17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was observed between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples (Italians: R =.40; Americans: R =.46). Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that sleep hygiene accounted for significant variance in sleep quality, even after controlling for demographic and health variables (Italians: R(2) =.38; Americans: R(2) =.44). The results of this study suggest that there are cultural differences in sleep quality and sleep hygiene practices, and that sleep hygiene practices are importantly related to adolescent sleep quality. PMID:15251909

LeBourgeois, Monique K; Giannotti, Flavia; Cortesi, Flavia; Wolfson, Amy; Harsh, John

2004-06-01

111

Food Sanitation and Safety Self-assessment Instrument for Family Day-Care Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-assessment instrument for family day care providers is designed to help caregivers provide safe food to children. The eight sections of the instrument, presented in checklist format, concern: (1) personal hygiene; (2) purchasing and inspecting of food; (3) food storage; (4) kitchen equipment; (5) food preparation; (6) infant food

1990

112

Food Sanitation and Safety Self-assessment Instrument for Child Care Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-assessment instrument for day care center staff is designed to help caregivers provide safe food to children. The nine sections of the instrument, presented in checklist format, concern: (1) personal hygiene; (2) purchasing, receiving, and inspecting of food; (3) food storage; (4) food service equipment; (5) food preparation; (6) infant…

1990

113

Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.  

PubMed

Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904

Runeman, Bo

2008-01-01

114

[All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].  

PubMed

The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined. PMID:21899111

Kuzybaeva, M P

2011-01-01

115

A missing link in the hygiene hypothesis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a The incidence of childhood Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has risen in parallel with that of childhood asthma,\\u000a and the hygiene hypothesis proposes that this is due to reduced stimulation of the immune system by early intercurrent infection.\\u000a If so, this protective effect is probably mediated by regulatory T lymphocytes. Co-evolutionary partners might have contributed\\u000a to the development of

E. A. M. Gale

2002-01-01

116

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN  

E-print Network

://ors.uchc.edu An electronic copy of this plan is distributed to all investigator laboratories. #12;SAFETY INFORMATION (Fire.1 General Standard Operating Procedures 5.1.1 General Rules 5.1.2 Personal Hygiene 5.1.3 Protective Clothing.2.10 Peroxidizable Compounds 5.3 Control Measures and Equipment 5.3.1 Ventilation 5.3.2 Flammable Liquid Storage 5

Kim, Duck O.

117

Dental hygiene regulation: a global perspective.  

PubMed

Occupational regulation of health personnel is important to professional associations and their members, the public that relies on their services and the regulatory agencies responsible for their conduct. There is increasing interest in ensuring that dental hygiene regulation fosters the continuing evolution of the profession and its contribution to oral health. The keynote address for the 2007 Regulatory Forum on Dental Hygiene, this paper discusses the rationale for and issues pertaining to occupational regulation, outlines the evolvement of dental hygiene and identifies regulatory options for the profession. Professional regulation exists to ensure public safety, health and welfare. However, negative political-economic side effects coupled with environmental pressures have resulted in increased scrutiny for health professionals. One such profession is dental hygiene. Its evolution has been dramatic, in particular over the past few decades, as illustrated by its rapidly increasing numbers and broader distribution globally, gradual shift to the baccalaureate as the entry-level educational requirement and increase in postgraduate programs and expanding scope of practice and increased professional autonomy. Regulatory changes have been more gradual. Regulation is mandatory for the vast majority of dental hygienists. Of the options available, the practice act - the most rigorous type, is predominant. Globally, regulation tends to be administered directly by the government (n = 9 countries) more so than indirectly through a dental board (n = 4) or self-regulation (n = 3). Whether regulated directly or indirectly, dental hygienists increasingly are seeking a greater role in shaping their professional future. Self-regulation, its responsibilities, misperceptions and challenges, is examined as an option. PMID:18768027

Johnson, P M

2008-08-01

118

[Occupational hygiene topics in ferroalloys production].  

PubMed

Hygienic evaluation covered work conditions of main occupations in ferroalloys production on a plant in Ural regions. The occupations are: ferroalloy furnace operator, ferroalloy furnace worker and crane operator. The findings proved that the workers are exposed to a complex of occupational hazards among which dust and unfavorable microclimate play major role. At the enterprise, occupational dust disease cases (silicosis from exposure to silicon-containing dust) are registered, with average development duration of 28.7 +/- 6.2 years. PMID:25282808

Kudriashov, I N; Fedoruk, A A

2014-01-01

119

Pilot Overmyer looks over food selections and experiments with beverage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot Overmyer, using beverage container and drinking straw secured in meal tray assembly (ASSY), experiments with microgravity chararcteristics of liquid on middeck in front of forward lockers. Overmyer also looks over packages of food attached to middeck lockers in meal tray assemblies. Carry-on food warmer appears overhead and other meal tray assemblies, personal hygiene mirror assy, personal hygiene kit, and portrait of G.W.S. Abbey, JSC's Director of Flight Operations, appear on lockers.

1982-01-01

120

Industrial Hygiene Group 1985 annual research report  

SciTech Connect

Studies relating to the performance of respiratory protective equipment have (1) developed new automated fit test methods, (2) determined the performance of respirators under temperature and humidity extremes, (3) assisted in evaluating the performance characteristics of a new military mask being developed, (4) evaluated alternate nondestructive respirator fit test methods, and (5) examined the performance of sorbents. Investigations of the use of personal protective clothing (PPC) have identified potential alternate field test methods and evaluated a potential simple screening test to be used as a PPC selection guide. Aerosol research has (1) evaluated instrumentation characteristics relative to respirator fit testing, (2) developed special aerosols for inhalation toxicology studies involving fibers and highly toxic chemical agents, and (3) defined the relative efficiency of alternate field-sampling cassette designs used for industrial hygiene personal sampling. Air-cleaning studies have resulted in the development of new filter test methods for respirator and space filters and evaluated the feasibility of a filtration system using liquid barriers. Applied industrial hygiene studies have evaluated the health hazards at a coal gasification facility, investigated the testing and use of chemical fume hoods, helped evaluate special DOE industrial hygiene concerns, and examined uranium solubility.

Ettinger, H.J. (ed.)

1986-08-01

121

Dental Erosions in Subjects Living on a Raw Food Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and severity of dental erosions and its association with nutritional and oral hygiene factors in subjects living on a raw food diet. As part of a larger dietary study 130 subjects whose ingestion of raw food was more than 95% of the total food intake were examined. The median duration

C. Ganss; M. Schlechtriemen; J. Klimek

1999-01-01

122

Significance of microbial biofilms in food industry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms have been of considerable interest in the context of food hygiene. Of special significance is the ability of microorganisms to attach and grow on food and food-contact surfaces under favourable conditions. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process and different mechanisms are involved in their attachment and growth. Extracellular polymeric substances play an important role in the attachment and colonization

C. Ganesh Kumar; S. K Anand

1998-01-01

123

[Definition of "Safety and Hygiene Packages" as a management model for the Hospital Hygiene Service (HHS)].  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to identify and formalize the Hospital Hygiene Service activities and products, evaluating them in a cost accounting management view. The ultimate aim, is to evaluate the financial adverse events prevention impact, in an Hospital Hygiene Service management. A three step methodology based on affinity grouping activities, was employed. This methodology led us to identify 4 action areas, with 23 related productive processes, and 86 available safety packages. Owing to this new methodology, we was able to implement a systematic evaluation of the furnished services. PMID:25008222

Raponi, Matteo; Damiani, Gianfranco; Vincenti, Sara; Wachocka, Malgorzata; Boninti, Federica; Bruno, Stefania; Quaranta, Gianluigi; Moscato, Umberto; Boccia, Stefania; Ficarra, Maria Giovanna; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Posteraro, Brunella; Berloco, Filippo; Celani, Fabrizio; Ricciardi, Walter; Laurenti, Patrizia

2014-01-01

124

Food Chain & Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

B, Ms.

2011-10-27

125

Oral hygiene in the special needs classroom.  

PubMed

School nurses are faced with so many child health concerns that they may feel overwhelmed with meeting needs. Once a need is identified and a simple plan for daily oral hygiene is set up within the classroom, this intervention (with appropriate supports) can make a major contribution to the overall health of many students. It is an excellent opportunity for school nurses to have a major impact in carrying out one of the key objectives of The Healthy People Initiatives in the pediatric special needs school setting. PMID:24392505

Oliva, Linda

2013-11-01

126

21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872...6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed...

2010-04-01

127

21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid,...

2011-04-01

128

The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

Bowers, Denise E.

2012-01-01

129

Dirt, disgust and disease: a natural history of hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of

Valerie A Curtis

2007-01-01

130

The Intimacy of Commodities: Social Control, Subjectivity and Feminine Hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines one instance of the sexual oppression of women, that which is found in the emergence of the feminine hygiene market. It is demonstrated that certain forms of commodities, with specific application for feminine hygiene, were developed and introduced at times when women entered the paid labour force in large numbers. It is argued, however, that the correspondence

Berkeley Kaite

1981-01-01

131

Faculty of Dentistry School of Dental Hygiene Supplemental Application Form  

E-print Network

to the Admissions Officer, Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, PO Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2Faculty of Dentistry · School of Dental Hygiene Supplemental Application Form Name hygiene which places you in a position of special trust, the Faculty of Dentistry requires you to answer

Lotze, Heike K.

132

dentAl hygiene College of Rural and Community Development  

E-print Network

dentAl hygiene College of Rural and Community Development Community and Technical College 907 The registered dental hygienist is a licensed oral health educator and clinical operator who uses preventive. The dental hygiene AAS degree is a three-year program with one year of prerequisite science and general

Hartman, Chris

133

MCRP 4-11.1D FIELD HYGIENE  

E-print Network

FM 21-10 MCRP 4-11.1D FIELD HYGIENE AND SANITATION HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DC, 21 June 2000 FIELD HYGIENE AND SANITATION TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE-33 CHAPTER 4. UNIT FIELD SANITATION TEAM Field Sanitation Team Concept

US Army Corps of Engineers

134

NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE  

E-print Network

NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE Thomas Farley, MD, MPH Commissioner New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) 2014 Mental Health Scholarship Program One Year MENTAL HEALTH SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM: Letter of Intent due February 14, 2014 DEADLINE FOR SSSW AT HUNTER

Qiu, Weigang

135

Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Among Children. United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene

National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

136

Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

2005-01-01

137

Intra-laboratory reproducibility of the hand hygiene reference procedures of EN 1499 (hygienic handwash) and EN 1500 (hygienic hand disinfection)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bactericidal efficacy of hand antiseptic products is determined in Europe using two norms—EN1499 (hygienic handwash), and EN 1500 (hygienic hand disinfection) based on reducing the counts of bacteria on artificially contaminated hands. Each requires 12–15 data sets per test and comparison with a reference procedure. Recent research using EN 1500 suggested that most alcohol-based hand gels are significantly less

G. Kampf; C. Ostermeyer

2002-01-01

138

Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Faculty and student respondents agreed on the effectiveness of educational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices. PMID:24882769

Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

2014-06-01

139

Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Parasites among Food Handlers in Yebu Town, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background As a result of urbanization, eating and drinking from food service establishments is becoming a common practice in developing countries like Ethiopia, which increases the chances of food borne diseases. The health status and hygiene practices of food handlers are the major determinants of food contamination. In developing countries where there are poor regulatory systems for food hygiene, food handlers are often appointed without screening for possible infections associated with poor hygiene like intestinal parasites. Objective This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites and assessing the hygiene practices among food handlers in Yebu Town, southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 118 food handlers in Yebu Town in January 2011. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using both direct wet mount and Formol ether concentration techniques. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects was 44.1% (52/118). Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm spp were the predominant parasites identified from the stool of study participants. Age above 35 years (AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 21.8), no regular practice of washing hands before a meal (AOR: 7.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 24.8), and untrimmed finger nail (AOR: 14.7, 95% CI: 2.8, 75.4) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. Conclusion The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects. The study also revealed poor personal hygiene like poor practice of hand washing and poor finger nail hygiene. Therefore, much has to be done to improve the personal hygiene of the food handlers. Pre-placement and periodic screening of food handlers for parasites and prompt treatment, and health education on regular trimming or cleaning of fingernails would be the way forward for prevention of food borne diseases. PMID:25329050

Tefera, Tamirat; Mebrie, Getye

2014-01-01

140

[Retrospection on Hygiene Congress organisation in Opatija 1950].  

PubMed

In years following to the second world war the convention organisator was faced with major technical difficulties due to universal shortage of resources. During the 50's, two conventions of health workers with topics related to preventive medicine were held in Opatija. On both occasion Sanitary Bureau of Rijeka (Institute of Hygiene) was the main organisator. Reviewing the correspondance in Institute of Hygiene archive, one can monitor the preparations for the congress. In order to meet the participant's expectation, director of Institute of Hygiene, requested from the local entrepreneur adequate supply of postcard and cigarettes. PMID:23607176

Bakasun, Vjekoslav; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir

2013-01-01

141

CONTRIBUTION OF CHLIDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO LEAD CONTAMINATION OF FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the relationship of children's hygiene habits and food handling behaviors on lead levels on hands and handled foods for toddlers living in lead contaminated homes. Forty eight inner city toddlers who had previously been identified as having elevated blood le...

142

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES IN GM CROP AND FOOD PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays quality control is essential in the food industry, and efficient quality assurance has become increasingly important. Instrumentation and food safety practices are of central importance, with particular emphasis on very high sanitary and hygienic operating standards. In this context, labelling can help con- sumers take up their political responsibility. As citizens, consumers have certain sensible cares that can reasonable

GIULIANA VINCI; GIUSEPPE ANELLI; SARA LETIZIA MARIA; DONATELLA RESTUCCIA

2008-01-01

143

Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children  

MedlinePLUS

... permanent teeth and lead to future dental problems. Teaching Good Dental Habits The best way to protect ... Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) Teaching Package Food Fights Raising Twins Healthy Living Nutrition ...

144

Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene. PMID:12163918

Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

2002-01-01

145

Paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene: a Japanese mothers' view.  

PubMed

This paper analyses the views of 20 Japanese mothers concerning paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene. In Japan, routine male circumcision has never been implemented for newborns and children, and adult males are mostly circumcised at aesthetic clinics. However, media reports indicate a trend of Japanese mothers willing to have their sons circumcised. In discussing penile hygiene and male circumcision, the construct of a 'sexual script' becomes relevant to understanding how linguistic and gender barriers made references to male genitalia and penile hygiene largely appear as 'vulgar' and 'unfeminine' in daily life conversations. Peers were often identified as the main source of information and only mothers who have struggled with their children's penile infections have learnt about male genital hygiene, a domain of knowledge largely transmitted by men. Male circumcision becomes a double-edged sword that could help prevent penile infections but also an embarrassing conversational topic that could elicit discrimination because most Japanese children are uncircumcised. PMID:24152018

Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

2013-01-01

146

Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Course. Instructor Manual: Lesson Number 12.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instructor manual for a one week 'Industrial Hygiene Chemistry' course designed to give program graduates expertise in environmental sampling and analysis. Lesson 12 is titled an introduction to chromatography, including variety, conditions, and sampling ...

R. D. Pepler, P. A. Brainin, E. A. King

1975-01-01

147

Use of Distance Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed dental hygiene programs to determine the prevalence of distance education use. Found that 22 percent have distance education, and that most were satisfied with it as an adequate alternative to traditional approaches. (EV)

Grimes, Ellen B.

2002-01-01

148

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Research Management Assistant Research  

E-print Network

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Research Management Assistant Research Operations Finance Officer X1 Simina Sacuiu Research Operations Contracts Officer X1 Under Recruitment 0.2 Under Recruitment Shajna Rehan (Interim) Research Operations Administrator X2 Senait Berhe

Maizels, Rick

149

Pilot Overmyer completes hygiene activities / demostrates IVA foot restraint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On middeck, Pilot Overmyer, drying his face with a towel from forward single tray personal item stowage locker, completes personal hygiene activities (shaving) and demostrates use of intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraint on floor.

1982-01-01

150

Safety Guidelines for Fieldwork Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Safety Department  

E-print Network

Safety Guidelines for Fieldwork Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Safety Department Environmental Safety Division University of Georgia Adapted from the Safety Guidelines for Field Researchers published by the Office of Environment, Health & Safety at University of California, Berkeley #12;Safety Guidelines

Arnold, Jonathan

151

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment PI: _________________________________ Date: ______________________________________ Inspection Finding Categories: A. No items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. B. Items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. C

152

HEALTHCARE SCIENCES Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene,  

E-print Network

HEALTHCARE SCIENCES Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene, Health can I do with these majors? PHYSICAL THERAPY Physical therapy involves treatment through physical means for people disabled by illness, accident, or congenital handicap. Physical therapy seeks

New Hampshire, University of

153

ALLIED HEALTH Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene,  

E-print Network

Public Health Service Veterans Administration Universities and colleges OCCUPATIONALTHERAPY OccupationalALLIED HEALTH Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene, Health Information, etc. after gaining severalyearsofgeneralexperience. AREAS EMPLOYERS #12;EMPLOYERSAREAS (Allied Health

Kaminsky, Werner

154

Measuring effectiveness of food quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery sector.<\\/o:p><\\/span>

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161

Hut Bistro Lead Hand -Internship Why you'll love working in Food & Beverage  

E-print Network

service. To ensure that food is received, stored, handled, prepared, and presented in a timely hygienicHut Bistro Lead Hand - Internship Why you'll love working in Food & Beverage: Best meal benefits and direction to food service employees in any assigned outlet. Assist with all inventory controls

162

The impact of home-prepared diets and home oral hygiene on oral health in cats and dogs.  

PubMed

Many factors influence the oral health status of cats and dogs. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of feeding home-prepared (HP) food v. commercial pet food on oral health parameters in these animals and to investigate the effect of home oral hygiene on oral health. The study surveyed 17,184 dogs and 6371 cats visiting over 700 Polish veterinary surgeries in 2006-7 during a Pet Smile activity organised by the Polish Small Animal Veterinary Association. All animals underwent conscious examinations to assess dental deposits, size of mandibular lymph nodes and gingival health. An oral health index (OHI) ranging from 0 to 8 was calculated for each animal by combining examination scores, where 0 indicates good oral health and 8 indicates poorest oral health. Information was collected on age, diet and home oral hygiene regimens. There was a significant effect of diet on the OHI (P < 0.001) whereby feeding the HP diet increased the probability of an oral health problem in both cats and dogs. There was a significant beneficial effect of feeding only commercial pet food compared with the HP diet when at least part of the diet was composed of dry pet food. Daily tooth brushing or the offering of daily dental treats were both effective in significantly reducing the OHI in both cats and dogs compared with those receiving sporadic or no home oral hygiene. Feeding only a dry diet was beneficial for oral health in cats and dogs. Tooth brushing and the offering of dental treats were very effective in maintaining oral health, provided they were practised daily. PMID:22005407

Buckley, Catherine; Colyer, Alison; Skrzywanek, Michal; Jodkowska, Katarzyna; Kurski, Grzegorz; Gawor, Jerzy; Ceregrzyn, Michal

2011-10-01

163

Contribution of children's activities to lead contamination of food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the relationship of children's hygiene habits and food-handling behaviors on lead levels on hands and handled foods for toddlers living in lead-contaminated homes. Forty-eight inner city toddlers previously identified as having elevated blood lead levels participated in three consecutive days of designated food-handling activities. During the visits, duplicate diets were obtained, the child handled a banana, a

NATALIE C G FREEMAN; LINDA SHELDON; MARTA JIMENEZ; LISA MELNYK; EDO PELLIZZARI; MAURICE BERRY

2001-01-01

164

Dirt, disgust and disease: a natural history of hygiene  

PubMed Central

Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease throughout history. Purification ritual, miasma, contagion, zymotic and germ theories of disease are ideas that spread through society because they are intuitively attractive, because they are supported by evidence either from direct experience or from authoritative report and because they are consistent with existing beliefs. In contrast to much historical and anthropological assertion, I argue that hygiene behaviour and disgust predate culture and so cannot fully be explained as its product. The history of ideas about disease thus is neither entirely socially constructed nor an “heroic progress” of scientists leading the ignorant into the light. As an animal behaviour the proper domain of hygiene is biology, and without this perspective attempts at explanation are incomplete. The approaches of biological anthropology have much to offer the practice of cultural history. PMID:17630362

Curtis, Valerie A

2007-01-01

165

SAFETY, SECURITY, HYGIENE AND PRIVACY IN MIGRANT FARMWORKER HOUSING  

PubMed Central

Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed. PMID:22776578

Arcury, Thomas A.; Weir, Maria M.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F.; Bischoff, Werner E.; Quandt, Sara A.

2013-01-01

166

Caries prevalence and oral hygiene in Lithuanian children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Contrary to what is observed in many Western societies, the caries prevalence among children and adolescents in the Baltic States remains high. The aims of the present study were to describe the caries prevalence and oral hygiene among 7-, 12-, and 15-year-old Lithuanians and to correlate the caries prevalence with fluoride content in the drinking water, oral hygiene, gender, ethnicity, and pattern of sugar consumption. The investigation was based on cluster samples, and the clinical investigation was performed in accordance with criteria defined by WHO. High DMFT values were registered (mean DMFT = 1.3 among 7-year-olds; DMFT = 4.9 among 12-year-olds and 7.0 among 15-year-olds) and were associated with low fluoride content in the drinking water and poor oral hygiene. Girls showed higher DMFT values than boys. No correlation between pattern of sugar consumption and caries prevalence could be disclosed. PMID:8669245

Aleksejuniene, J; Arneberg, P; Eriksen, H M

1996-02-01

167

Assessment of tobacco dependence curricula in Italian dental hygiene schools.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the level of tobacco dependence education offered by Italian dental hygiene programs. A fifty-question survey was mailed to the thirty-one active public and private dental hygiene programs in Italy during the 2008-09 academic year. The survey assessed faculty confidence in teaching tobacco treatment, which courses contained tobacco dependence content, the number of minutes spent on specific content areas, and the level of clinical competence that dental hygiene graduates should be able to demonstrate. Surveys were returned by sixteen programs for a response rate of 52 percent. Respondents indicated tobacco dependence education was included in clinic or clinic seminar (56 percent), periodontics (44 percent), oral pathology (31 percent), and prevention (19 percent). All programs reported including the effects of tobacco on general and oral diseases in courses. However, more in-depth topics received less curriculum time; these included tobacco treatment strategies (63 percent) and discussion of cessation medications (31 percent). Interestingly, 62 percent of the respondents indicated they expected dental hygiene graduates to demonstrate a tobacco treatment competency level of a moderate intervention or higher (counseling, discussion of medications, follow-up) rather than a brief intervention in which patients are advised to quit then referred to a quitline. The results of this study indicated that Italian dental hygiene students are not currently receiving adequate instruction in tobacco treatment techniques nor are they being adequately assessed. This unique overview of Italian dental hygiene tobacco dependence education provides a basis for further discussion towards a national competency-based curriculum. PMID:23929577

Pizzo, Giuseppe; Davis, Joan M; Licata, Maria E; Giuliana, Giovanna

2013-08-01

168

Do Peer Effects Improve Hand Hygiene Adherence among Healthcare Workers?  

PubMed

Objective.?To determine whether hand hygiene adherence is influenced by peer effects and, specifically, whether the presence and proximity of other healthcare workers has a positive effect on hand hygiene adherence. Design.?An observational study using a sensor network. Setting.?A 20-bed medical intensive care unit at a large university hospital. Participants.?Hospital staff assigned to the medical intensive care unit. Methods.?We deployed a custom-built, automated, hand hygiene monitoring system that can (1) detect whether a healthcare worker has practiced hand hygiene on entering and exiting a patient's room and (2) estimate the location of other healthcare workers with respect to each healthcare worker exiting or entering a room. Results.?We identified a total of 47,694 in-room and out-of-room hand hygiene opportunities during the 10-day study period. When a worker was alone (no recent healthcare worker contacts), the observed adherence rate was 20.85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.78%-21.92%). In contrast, when other healthcare workers were present, observed adherence was 27.90% (95% CI, 27.48%-28.33%). This absolute increase was statistically significant (P < .01). We also found that adherence increased with the number of nearby healthcare workers but at a decreasing rate. These results were consistent at different times of day, for different measures of social context, and after controlling for possible confounding factors. Conclusions.?The presence and proximity of other healthcare workers is associated with higher hand hygiene rates. Furthermore, our results also indicate that rates increase as the social environment becomes more crowded, but with diminishing marginal returns. PMID:25203182

Monsalve, Mauricio N; Pemmaraju, Sriram V; Thomas, Geb W; Herman, Ted; Segre, Alberto M; Polgreen, Philip M

2014-10-01

169

[Cell phone communication: hygienic characteristics, biological action, standardization (a review)].  

PubMed

The paper considers the topical issues concerning the functioning of the cellular communication system. It provides the hygienic characteristics of its individual elements. The factors influencing the size of an electromagnetic field generated by mobile phones are stated. Research data on the impact of electromagnetic radiation from a mobile phone on users' health are reviewed. The pivots of present-day Russian hygienic rating regarding the permissible exposures to nonionizing electromagnetic energy generated by the elements of the cellular communication system are identified. PMID:20873268

Gudina, M V; Volkotrub, L P

2010-01-01

170

Enhanced hygiene measures and norovirus transmission during an outbreak.  

PubMed

Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We analyzed norovirus outbreaks in 7 camps at an international scouting jamboree in the Netherlands during 2004. Implementation of hygiene measures coincided with an 84.8% (95% predictive interval 81.2%-86.6%) reduction in reproduction number. This reduction was unexpectedly large but still below the reduction needed to contain a norovirus outbreak. Even more stringent control measures are required to break the chain of transmission of norovirus. PMID:19116045

Heijne, Janneke C M; Teunis, Peter; Morroy, Gabriella; Wijkmans, Clementine; Oostveen, Sandy; Duizer, Erwin; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco

2009-01-01

171

The effect of automated monitoring and real-time prompting on nurses' hand hygiene performance.  

PubMed

Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data. PMID:23924823

Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

2013-10-01

172

Testing for Hygienic Behavior University of Minnesota Instructional Poster #162, Gary S. Reuter and Marla Spivak, Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

to mate with >50% drones from other hygienic colonies for her colony to be hygienic. That is, over 50% of the workers in a colony need to have hygienic genes from both the queen and drones for the colony

Delaplane, Keith S.

173

London School of Hygiene & Tropical The School is a world-leading centre for  

E-print Network

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine The School is a world-leading centre for research information Registry London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Keppel Street London WC1E 7HT UNITED KINGDOM

Maizels, Rick

174

[Emerging issues concerning hygiene in the Russian aluminum industry].  

PubMed

In this study the data of multiyear investigations of occupational and environmental hazards at different enterprises of the Russian aluminum industry are presented. Basing on these data, we have been elaborated the algorithm and methodological approaches on management of the occupational and ecology-related risks using hygienic safety criteria, risk evaluation technique, epidemiological and economic analysis. PMID:23479952

Rosly?, O F; Gurvich, V B; Plotko, É G; Kuz'min, S V; Fedoruk, A A; Roslaia, N A; Iarushin, S V; Kuz'min, D V

2012-01-01

175

Menstrual Hygiene among Adolescent Schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning about menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. This study among 664 schoolgirls aged 14–18 in Mansoura, Egypt, asked about type of sanitary protection used, frequency of changing pads or cloths, means of disposal and bathing during menstruation. Girls were selected by cluster sampling technique in public secondary schools in urban and rural areas.

Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Karima Badawi; Sanaa El-Fedawy

2005-01-01

176

Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

Notgarnie, Howard M.

2011-01-01

177

DESIGNING A HAND DRYER: HYGIENE AND COMPARATIVE HAND DRYING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a strong perception that hand drying is an important step in hand washing and in particular, the sanitization process. The next generation of manual, semi automatic and automatic hand drying systems will be heavily influenced by their capability to enhance personal hygiene. The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the historical and current research

Arthur Bono; Jia Wang

178

Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: Forgotten Foundations of Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the first article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Jamie Bartram and Sandy Cairncross argue that the massive burden of ill health associated with poor hygiene, sanitation, and water supply demands more attention from health professionals and policymakers.

Jamie Bartram; Sandy Cairncross

2010-01-01

179

Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: What Needs to Be Done?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the final article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation, and water for all.

Sandy Cairncross; Jamie Bartram; Oliver Cumming; Clarissa Brocklehurst

2010-01-01

180

External Evaluation of CDC Homestudy Course 3010-G, "Community Hygiene."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of the Centers for Disease Control's home study course in community hygiene on the job performance of 45 sanitarians in 30 districts throughout North Carolina. Data were collected from: (1) pre- and post-tests that evaluated the sanitarians' mastery of knowledge in such areas as water supply, sewage disposal, solid…

Gantt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.

181

Constructing female identities through feminine hygiene TV commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the results of a qualitative multimodal analysis of a corpus of Spanish and British TV ads featuring female hygiene products such as tampons, liners and sanitary towels\\/pads. We contend that advertisers of menstruation-related products employ a wide range of strategies to convey both overt information about the products advertised, as well as to – and

Ma Milagros Del Saz-Rubio; Barry Pennock-Speck

2009-01-01

182

MMPI STUDY OF NEGRO MENTAL HYGIENE CLINIC PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

COMPARED MMPI DATA FOR 100 NEGRO AND 100 WHITE PATIENTS IN A MENTAL HYGIENE CLINIC. THE 2 GROUPS WERE SIMILAR IN EDUCATIONAL LEVEL, BUT THE NEGROES WERE AT A SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER OCCUPATIONAL LEVEL. THE MEAN PROFILES FOR THE 2 GROUPS WERE SIMILAR. ORDERING THE MMPIS BY THE HIGHEST AND 2 HIGHEST CLINICAL SCALE SCORES SHOWED DIFFERENCES ON FEMININE INTERESTS AND

CHRISTINE MILLER; SARAH C. KNAPP; CLARA W. DANIELS

1968-01-01

183

Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

1990-01-01

184

Coping with hygiene in South Africa, a water scarce country  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden of infectious diseases may be reduced by adopting effective infection control measures. Some of these are dependent on the provision of adequate and safe water supplies for maintenance of basic standards of personal, domestic and healthcare hygiene. Consequences of scarce, and sometimes unsafe, waters supplies in South Africa are highlighted with reference to healthcare-associated infections, community acquired infectious

AG DUSE; MP da SILVA; I. Zietsman

2003-01-01

185

Understanding practice: factors that influence physician hand hygiene compliance.  

PubMed

Objective.?To identify the behavioral determinants-both barriers and enablers-that may impact physician hand hygiene compliance. Design.?A qualitative study involving semistructured key informant interviews with staff physicians and residents. Setting.?An urban, 1,100-bed multisite tertiary care Canadian hospital. Participants.?A total of 42 staff physicians and residents in internal medicine and surgery. Methods.?Semistructured interviews were conducted using an interview guide that was based on the theoretical domains framework (TDF), a behavior change framework comprised of 14 theoretical domains that explain health-related behavior change. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis involving a systematic 3-step approach: coding, generation of specific beliefs, and identification of relevant TDF domains. Results.?Similar determinants were reported by staff physicians and residents and between medicine and surgery. A total of 53 specific beliefs from 9 theoretical domains were identified as relevant to physician hand hygiene compliance. The 9 relevant domains were knowledge; skills; beliefs about capabilities; beliefs about consequences; goals; memory, attention, and decision processes; environmental context and resources; social professional role and identity; and social influences. Conclusions.?We identified several key determinants that physicians believe influence whether and when they practice hand hygiene at work. These beliefs identify potential individual, team, and organization targets for behavior change interventions to improve physician hand hygiene compliance. PMID:25419774

Squires, Janet E; Linklater, Stefanie; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Graham, Ian D; Sullivan, Katrina; Bruce, Natalie; Gartke, Kathleen; Karovitch, Alan; Roth, Virginia; Stockton, Karen; Trickett, John; Worthington, Jim; Suh, Kathryn N

2014-12-01

186

Current Status and Future Trends in Dental Hygiene Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the state of dental hygiene education looks at the practitioner supply and demand, enrollment trends, student characteristics, changes in admissions and program design, necessary curriculum expansion, financial pressures on institutions, manpower shortages in dentistry in general, and lack of innovation in recent years. (MSE)

Burke, Sherry W.

1991-01-01

187

Fault tree analysis on handwashing for hygiene management  

Microsoft Academic Search

FTA (fault tree analysis) of the handwashing process was performed to investigate the causes for faults in hygiene management. The causes were deductively identified as the events causing every possible hazard by constructing a fault tree. The fault tree was constructed in a hierarchical structure with a single top event (occurrence of faults in hand washing), seven intermediate events, and

Aeri Park; Seung Ju Lee

2009-01-01

188

HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR OF HONEY BEES IN RELATION TO CHALKBROOD DISEASE  

E-print Network

HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR OF HONEY BEES IN RELATION TO CHALKBROOD DISEASE Martha GILLIAM, Stephen TABER III U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, 2000 SUMMARY Colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, tested for uncapping and removal of dead brood were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Safety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN  

E-print Network

Safety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Section 0030 Table of Contents Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated a final rule for occupational exposure to hazardous standard operating procedures for safety and health, criteria for the implementation of control measures

Saidak, Filip

190

Use of sleep hygiene in the treatment of insomnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep hygiene (SH) refers to a list of behaviors, environmental conditions, and other sleep-related factors that can be adjusted as a stand-alone treatment or component of multimodal treatment for patients with insomnia. This paper presents a review of SH, how this concept has been applied and often modified over the past 24 years, and how it relates to the modern

Edward J Stepanski; James K Wyatt

2003-01-01

191

Vaginal hygiene and douching: perspectives of Hispanic men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal douching is widely practised by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women and none has included the perspective of

Diane McKee; María Baquero; Matthew Anderson; Alison Karasz

2009-01-01

192

Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

193

Comparison of hand hygiene evaluations: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Because our hands are the most common mode of transmission for bacteria causing hospital acquired infections, hand hygiene practices are the most effective method of preventing the spread of these pathogens, limiting the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections and reducing transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms. Yet, compliance rates are below 40% on the average. ^ Objective. This culminating experience project

Judy Tran

2009-01-01

194

Hygiene-Related Diseases: Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Share Compartir Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete’s Foot ( tinea pedis ) Athlete’s foot, or tinea pedis , is an infection of the skin and ... caused by a variety of different fungi. Although tinea pedis can affect any portion of the foot, ...

195

Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

1992-01-01

196

Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

197

Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview  

PubMed Central

Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS) and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48) and the creation of legislation (n = 44); response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6%) of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2%) for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6%) of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44). The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44) of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5%) declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6%) and 39 (81.3%) authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48) of the responding authorities and 20.8% (10 out of 48) of the port authorities of other countries. Conclusion This study revealed a diversity of approaches and practices in the conduct of inspections, differences in the qualifications/knowledge/experience of inspectors, the legislation applied during inspections, and the lack of communication and training among many EU countries. An integrated European inspection programme involving competent expert inspectors in each EU Member States and special training for ship hygiene delivered to crew members and inspectors would help to minimize the risk of communicable diseases. Common inspection tools at a European level for hygiene inspection practices and port-to-port communication are needed. PMID:20219097

2010-01-01

198

Sleep Hygiene Rules for Insomnia Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 1  

E-print Network

Sleep Hygiene Rules for Insomnia Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 1 Revised 04/11/12 Sleep hygiene refers to "cleaning up" sleep habits that interfere with good sleep. These habits often develop in response to insomnia, but are counterproductive. Practicing good sleep hygiene

Yener, Aylin

199

An evidence-based oral hygiene education program for nursing staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence shows strong statistical correlations between improved oral hygiene and reduction in the incidence, and mortality, from health care-associated pneumonia among elderly. Therefore, it is important that nursing staff are well educated in oral hygiene. The objective was to describe the design of a new oral hygiene educational program for nursing staff, where the theoretical parts of the education

Marianne Forsell; Erika Kullberg; Janet Hoogstraate; Olle Johansson; Petteri Sjögren

2011-01-01

200

Behavior-change interventions to improve hand-hygiene practice: a review of alternatives to education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the role of hand hygiene in preventing infectious disease, compliance remains low. Education and training are often cited as essential to developing and maintaining hand-hygiene compliance, but generally have not produced sustained improvements. Consequently, this literature review was conducted to identify alternative interventions for compelling change in hand-hygiene behavior. Of those, interventions employing social pressures have demonstrated varying influence

Sarah Wilson; Casey J. Jacob; Douglas Powell

2011-01-01

201

Control of Mastitis in the Dairy Herd by Hygiene and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination has been made of the value of hygiene systems in the control of mastitis and how this control can be improved by changes in hygiene and milk- ing machines and by better use of therapy. A comprehensive hygiene scheme for controlling mastitis has two objectives: prevention of intramammary infection during milking and prevention of infec- tion between one

F. K. Neave; F. H. Dodd; R. G. Kingwill; D. R. Westgarth

1969-01-01

202

PRE-DENTAL HYGIENE Undergraduate Credit Required: 66 hours undergraduate course work  

E-print Network

PRE-DENTAL HYGIENE Undergraduate Credit Required: 66 hours undergraduate course work Entrance Exam: None Professional Schooling Required: 2 years dental hygiene school; B.S. Dental Hygiene Local Professional Schools: UNMC College of Dentistry Professional Organization Websites: adea.org (American Dental

Logan, David

203

The public hand hygiene practices of New Zealanders: a national survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To survey hand hygiene practices of the New Zealand public. Method Hand hygiene practices of subjects after they had used the toilet were observed in the washrooms of shopping malls in the cities of Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, and Christchurch. The frequency and duration of hand hygiene were recorded by gender-appropriate observers. Results A total of 1200 subjects were observed.

Claire Garbutt; Greg Simmons; Daniel Patrick; Thomas Miller

204

Poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections: any relationship?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3-12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was determined by using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index of Greene and Vermillion. The scores of 0-1 were classified as low, and of 2-3 as high oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The low OHI-S was taken as the control group (30 patients). The high OHI-S was taken as the study group (29 patients). The effusion scores, the compliance values and the middle ear pressure values in the two groups were compared. The difference between the effusion score values of the control and study groups was found to be statistically meaningful (p = 0.338, and the ?(2) = 2.167). The compliance values of the control and study groups did not differ meaningfully statistically (p = 0.671). However, there was a statistically meaningful low middle ear pressure (p = 0.044, ?(2) = 4.069) in the control group. Since this finding is expected in the study group, instead of the control group, we did not make an issue of this result. We conclude from these clinical results that there is no statistically meaningful relation between the oral hygiene index and the middle ear. PMID:24427560

Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

2013-04-01

205

Microbial processes in frozen food  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep freezing of food and storage at -19 degC is a standard conservation procedure in food technology. The lower limit of growth of bacteria in food is from about -5 degC to about -8 degC, whereas the reproduction limit of yeasts is 2 to 3 degC lower. Storage temperatures above -10 degC should therefore not be used. At -18 degC, a commonly used storage temperature, no growth of microorganisms will occur. The microorganisms mainly found at the lower growth limit are Pseudomonas sp. and basidiomycete yeasts. The reduction in the number of microorganisms due to freezing, storage, and thawing is not of practical importance. Microbial enzymes, in particular lipases and proteases, are still active at -18 degC. Therefore, the quality of raw products and good hygiene at the production site are most important.

Geiges, O.

206

Randomized trial of "bleach baths" plus routine hygienic measures vs. routine hygienic measures alone for prevention of recurrent infections.  

PubMed

Children with probable community-associated Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue or invasive infections were randomized to routine daily hygienic measures with or without "bleach baths" twice a week for 3 months. Within 12 months, a medically attended recurrence occurred in 84 of 495 (17%) children using bleach baths compared to 103 of 492 (21%) of control participants (P = .15). PMID:24265356

Kaplan, Sheldon L; Forbes, Andrea; Hammerman, Wendy A; Lamberth, Linda; Hulten, Kristina G; Minard, Charles G; Mason, Edward O

2014-03-01

207

Bacterial contamination of stored water and stored food: a potential source of diarrhoeal disease in West Africa.  

PubMed

The food and water hygiene in two Liberian communities was studied in a house-to-house diarrhoea survey. The level of contamination with enterobacteria of drinking water stored in the households was significantly higher than at the water sources. Food hygiene standards were low, particularly in the urban slum where storage of cooked food for long periods led to bacterial multiplication at high levels. Infant foods were particularly heavily contaminated. It is concluded that when water supply programmes are planned, the presence of other risk factors for water-related diseases should be investigated. To ensure maximum health benefits, water projects should as a rule be accompanied by other interventions. PMID:2703024

Mølbak, K; Højlyng, N; Jepsen, S; Gaarslev, K

1989-04-01

208

Bacterial contamination of stored water and stored food: a potential source of diarrhoeal disease in West Africa.  

PubMed Central

The food and water hygiene in two Liberian communities was studied in a house-to-house diarrhoea survey. The level of contamination with enterobacteria of drinking water stored in the households was significantly higher than at the water sources. Food hygiene standards were low, particularly in the urban slum where storage of cooked food for long periods led to bacterial multiplication at high levels. Infant foods were particularly heavily contaminated. It is concluded that when water supply programmes are planned, the presence of other risk factors for water-related diseases should be investigated. To ensure maximum health benefits, water projects should as a rule be accompanied by other interventions. PMID:2703024

M?lbak, K.; H?jlyng, N.; Jepsen, S.; Gaarslev, K.

1989-01-01

209

Keeping Up Appearances: Perceptions of Street Food Safety in Urban Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food—not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as ‘purity’, ‘contamination’, ‘hygiene puzzles’, and ‘impression behaviors’ from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives. PMID:18821020

Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

2008-01-01

210

Food safety  

MedlinePLUS

Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and ... Poor food handling and inadequate food safety can cause infection ... include stomach problems. Foodborne illness may be severe and ...

211

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

212

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...

213

Food allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Allergy to food ... contain gluten (See: Celiac disease ) A true food allergy is much less common. Normally, your body's immune ... releases substances that cause the symptoms of food allergies. Any food can cause an allergic reaction, but ...

214

Design and development of flexible robotic gripper for handling food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary result in the design and development of flexible robotic gripper for hygienically handling of unpacked food products. A review focuses on research and projects concerning robotic grippers and gripping technologies for food industry are presented. A details description of the design and mathematical model of the gripper are also included in this paper.

Rosidah Sam; Samia Nefti

2008-01-01

215

Food Safety and Sanitation Audiovisuals. January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The citations in this annotated bibliography focus on hygiene and sanitation in the preparation of food and standards for food service to the public. Materials cited can be obtained through interlibrary loan through a local library or directly from the National Agricultural Library. The bibliography was derived from online searches of the AGRICOLA…

Updegrove, Natalie

216

Thought for Food: A Starting Point for Children's Nutritional Meals. Accreditation and Beyond Series, Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to assist early childhood providers, cooks, and parents in hygienic food preparation and a healthy diet provision for young children in Australian child care. The guide recommends nutritional requirements for children, using the five food groups as a guide for meal planning. The Australian dietary guidelines are also…

Nicol, Debbie

217

Significance of biogenic amines to food safety and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic amines are natural antinutrition factors and are important from a hygienic point of view as they have been implicated as the causative agents in a number of food poisoning episodes, and they are able to initiate various pharmacological reactions. Histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, ?-phenylethylamine, spermine, and spermidine are considered to be the most important biogenic amines occurring in

Ali R. Shalaby

1996-01-01

218

Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

219

Hygiene behaviour and hospitalized severe childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between personal and domestic hygiene behaviour and hospitalized childhood diarrhoea was examined in a case-control study of 356 cases and 357 controls from low-income families in metropolitan Manila. Indices of hygiene behaviour were defined for overall cleanliness, kitchen hygiene, and living conditions. Only the indices for overall cleanliness and kitchen hygiene were significantly associated with diarrhoea. An increasing excess risk of hospitalization with severe diarrhoea was noted as the ratings for standards of hygiene became lower, and this excess risk persisted even after controlling for confounding variables. The implications of our findings for the control of diarrhoeal disease are discussed. PMID:8324851

Baltazar, J. C.; Tiglao, T. V.; Tempongko, S. B.

1993-01-01

220

An Analysis of Public Health Policy and Legal Issues Relevant to Mobile Food Vending  

PubMed Central

Mobile food vending is a component of the food environment that has received little attention in the public health literature beyond concerns about food sanitation and hygiene issues. However, several features of mobile food vending make it an intriguing venue for food access. We present key components of mobile vending regulation and provide examples from 12 US cities to illustrate the variation that can exist surrounding these regulations. Using these regulatory features as a framework, we highlight existing examples of “healthy vending policies” to describe how mobile food vending can be used to increase access to nutritious food for vulnerable populations. PMID:20864711

Stevens, Stephanie A.; Yen, Irene H.; Laraia, Barbara L.

2010-01-01

221

Effects of student participation in hand hygiene monitoring on knowledge and perception of infection control practices.  

PubMed

Studies report that students in health care professions do not retain knowledge of infection control and demonstrate poor hand hygiene compliance. This study describes the effect of a multifaceted approach (education, skills training, and monitoring) on nursing students' knowledge of infection control principles, opinions, hand hygiene practices, and value of nursing research in evidence-based practice. Students participated in hand hygiene monitoring of health care workers with 900 observations. Students demonstrated strong knowledge of hand hygiene principles: 63% reported that hand hygiene monitoring positively influenced their own compliance. Although posters have been identified as effective prompts, students did not perceive poster reminders as effective in prompting handwashing. Students reported that hand hygiene activities helped them value the role of the nurse in research and evidence-based practice. This study may help educators clarify misconceptions that result in student noncompliance in hand hygiene practices. PMID:21366164

Waltman, Patricia A; Schenk, Laura K; Martin, Tina M; Walker, Jean

2011-04-01

222

Sleep hygiene intervention for youth aged 10 to 18 years with problematic sleep: a before-after pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background The current study aimed to examine the changes following a sleep hygiene intervention on sleep hygiene practices, sleep quality, and daytime symptoms in youth. Methods Participants aged 10–18 years with self-identified sleep problems completed our age-appropriate F.E.R.R.E.T (an acronym for the categories of Food, Emotions, Routine, Restrict, Environment and Timing) sleep hygiene programme; each category has three simple rules to encourage good sleep. Participants (and parents as appropriate) completed the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), and wore Actical® monitors twice before (1 and 2 weeks) and three times after (6, 12 and 20 weeks) the intervention. Anthropometric data were collected two weeks before and 20 weeks post-intervention. Results Thirty-three youths (mean age 12.9 years; M/F?=?0.8) enrolled, and retention was 100%. ASHS scores significantly improved (p?=?0.005) from a baseline mean (SD) of 4.70 (0.41) to 4.95 (0.31) post-intervention, as did PSQI scores [7.47 (2.43) to 4.47 (2.37); p?hygiene education programme might be effective in improving sleep in children and adolescents. However because this was a before and after study and a pilot study with several limitations, the findings need to be addressed with caution, and would need to be replicated within a randomised controlled trial to prove efficacy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000649819 PMID:23216856

2012-01-01

223

Motivational interviewing in dental hygiene education: curriculum modification and evaluation.  

PubMed

Motivational interviewing (MI) is a person-centered, goal-directed method of communication for eliciting and strengthening intrinsic motivation for behavior change. Originally developed in the field of addiction therapy, MI has been increasing applied in the health professions with a growing body of successful outcomes for tobacco cessation and diabetic control, which can significantly impact oral health. MI has shown preliminary value for impacting oral behaviors that reduce early childhood caries, plaque, and gingival inflammation. While the training in and use of MI by oral health providers is emerging, full integration into dental and dental hygiene curricula has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the full implementation of MI in the classroom and clinic of a dental hygiene curriculum. PMID:24319138

Bray, Kimberly Krust; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Liston, Robin; Williams, Karen B

2013-12-01

224

Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board. PMID:24385532

Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

2014-01-01

225

Analysis of curricular units of a graduate industrial hygiene program  

E-print Network

and with the Association must and will be maintained. Fears are openly expressed that the massive recruit- ment by OSHA and NIOSH has already resulted in bring- ing "new" people into positions that carry the title of industrial hygiene. These people may later make claim... performance objectives. The authors assert: The performance objectives are individually and collec- tively important since they provide a cohesiveness and direction not always apparent in a group of task/ac- tivity statements. In this project, the term...

Collier, Stephen Ward

2012-06-07

226

The ‘delayed infection’ (aka ‘hygiene’) hypothesis for childhood leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common variant of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (cALL) is the most frequent paediatric cancer subtype. Its incidence\\u000a rate appears to have increased substantially in Western societies during the mid-20th century and continues to increase at\\u000a ?1%\\/year. Worldwide cALL appears to track with affluence of societies. The ‘delayed infection’ hypothesis, first formulated\\u000a in 1988, parallels the hygiene hypothesis and has

Mel Greaves

227

Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

2008-12-01

228

[Quality of ecologically produced foods of animal origin].  

PubMed

The production of organic (ecological) food of animal origin is done in many ways and uses many different breeds. Therefore a real comparison with conventionally produced food is difficult. From the limited number of published data it appears, that the characteristics of quality of the products, the nutritional, hygienic, sensorial and technological factors, are not very different in both systems of production. In some factors organic food gets better marks, in others the conventionally produced food. The differences are in the production system (process quality) during lifetime of the animals. PMID:9763737

Honikel, K O

1998-08-01

229

Dental plaque - associated infections and antibacterial oral hygiene products.  

PubMed

Synopsis Dental plaque accumulates on hard non-shedding surfaces such as teeth, dentures and orthodontic appliances. This accumulation is facilitated by the absence of adequate oral hygiene procedures. The term 'plaque' describes a mass of microorganisms embedded in an organic matrix of host and microbial origin. In addition to the aesthetic desirability of 'clean teeth, healthy gums and fresh breath' associated with the absence of plaque, obvious consequences of the presence of plaque include tooth decay (dental caries), gingivitis and periodontal (gum) disease and denture associated problems. Thus the prevention of plaque formation, the reduction of plaque accumulation and the effective removal of plaque are considerations of the cosmetic and health professions alike. There are many oral hygiene products available to the general public - toothpastes, mouthwashes, denture cleaners, and, more recently, chewing gums and novel mouthwashes. Several of these products have antimicrobial components. This paper reviews the microbiology of plaque and plaque associated problems, and surveys the type of products currently available for maintenance of good oral hygiene. Potential areas for future development are also explored. PMID:19291039

Verran, J

1991-02-01

230

Measuring hygiene and health perfomance of buildings: a multidimensional approach.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an innovative and transparent methodology to support the "ASL Milano" (Local Health Agency) in the hygiene and health evaluation of construction projects, in order to highlight their positive and negative performance beyond the requirements imposed by the current laws and regulations regarding buildings' hygiene performance, which are too old and therefore unsuitable to ascertain the real quality of indoor environments. The compliance with laws or regulations, mostly out of date, and the assessment of performance involving only a part of the current emerging needs and problems, in fact, should be considered as a necessary, although not a sufficient step, to ensure high quality indoors. Consequently, it is necessary to identify and test an assessment tool which could provide an effective and flexible support for the development of hygiene and health statements regarding projects at building scale (new construction, conversion of the existing, rehabilitation, extension, change of use, etc). The assessment tool suggested by this paper is tailored for the metropolitan area of the city of Milan, but its evaluation framework could be developed and applied to other contexts. PMID:23471453

Capolongo, S; Buffoli, M; Oppio, A; Rizzitiello, S

2013-01-01

231

Cultivating professional responsibility in a dental hygiene curriculum.  

PubMed

To prepare dental hygienists for future roles in the health care system, dental hygiene education must prepare graduates with skills, ethics, and values that align with professional responsibility. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of curricular changes designed to develop professional identity and responsibility over the entire span of the dental hygiene curriculum. Twenty-four dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed about their attitudes toward access to dental care, society's and health professionals' responsibility to care for the underserved, and their personal efficacy to provide care for the underserved. Surveys were conducted at three time points in the curriculum. The Attitudes Toward Health Care instrument adapted by Holtzman for dental use was used to survey the students. The findings indicate that this institution's curricular changes were effective in cultivating professional responsibility among these students. Their attitude scores increased across the six-semester curriculum, and students in their last semester of the program believed that all individuals have a right to dental care and that society has an obligation to provide dental care. These students' sense of obligation to care for the needy became stronger and their perceptions of their own ability to impact the community and act as an agent of change also increased. PMID:23929574

Blue, Christine M

2013-08-01

232

Oral Health and Hygiene Content in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to describe the quantity and quality of oral hygiene content in a representative sample of before-licensure nursing fundamentals textbooks. Seven textbooks were examined. Quantity was operationalized as the actual page count and percentage of content devoted to oral health and hygiene. Quality of content was operationalized as congruency with best mouth care practices. Best mouth care practices included evidence-based and consensus-based practices as published primarily by the American Dental Association and supported by both published nursing research and review articles specific to mouth care and published dental research and review articles specific to mouth care. Content devoted to oral health and hygiene averaged 0.6%. Although the quality of the content was highly variable, nearly every textbook contained some erroneous or outdated information. The most common areas for inaccuracy included the use of foam sponges for mouth care in dentate persons instead of soft toothbrushes and improper denture removal. PMID:22567224

Jablonski, Rita A.

2012-01-01

233

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

234

An Investigation of the Safety of High Risk Sandwich Bar Foods Through the Application of Microbial Analysis, Temperature Monitoring and Microbial Predictive Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising incidents of food poisoning may be related to growing evidence of unsatisfactory temperature and hygiene practices in preparing and storing ready-to-eat foods. Four sandwich bar outlets in Dublin city center were observed regarding the quality of food handling and storage practices of chilled vacuum packed cooked chicken breast. A pilot microbial sampling plan proved Staphylococcus aureus was the major

Marie-Clare Maher

2002-01-01

235

Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: The broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Man has moved rapidly from the hunter–gatherer environment to the living conditions of the rich industrialized countries. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that the resulting changed and reduced pattern of exposure to microorganisms has led to disordered regulation of the immune system, and hence to increases in certain inflammatory disorders. The concept began with the allergic disorders, but there are now good reasons for extending it to autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease, neuroinflammatory disorders, atherosclerosis, depression associated with raised inflammatory cytokines, and some cancers. This review discusses these possibilities in the context of Darwinian medicine, which uses knowledge of evolution to cast light on human diseases. The Darwinian approach enables one to correctly identify some of the organisms that are important for the ‘Hygiene’ or ‘Old Friends’ hypothesis, and to point to the potential exploitation of these organisms or their components in novel types of prophylaxis with applications in several branches of medicine. PMID:19120493

Rook, Graham A W

2009-01-01

236

Food system galley for Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galley, a 42 man-day meal preparation facility (with flexibility to accomodate 210 man-days) is described. The facility is designed for minimum meal preparation and clean-up time in zero g and ease of servicing, maintenance, and removal in one gravity. The Galley provides a centralized location for performing all of the food-related functions (except dining) within the orbiter. Consideration is given to the oven-water heater, personal hygiene station, water dispensers, and water supply subsystem. The Galley is positioned in the orbiting mid deck, interfacing with rehydratable food packages and the waste collector subsystem.

Murray, R. W.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.; Turner, T. R.

1979-01-01

237

Food and waste management biotechnology for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.

Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.

1979-01-01

238

Salt and peroxide compared with conventional oral hygiene. I. Clinical results.  

PubMed

The purposes of this 2-year longitudinal study were to: compare the clinical effectiveness of patient applied sodium bicarbonate, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride (S/P) to the use of conventional oral hygiene methods and to investigate the motivational effect of using phase-contrast microscopy in teaching effective oral hygiene. Initially, 972 subjects were screened for signs of periodontitis. From these, 347 with early to moderate periodontitis were selected and each was randomly assigned to one of four home treatment regimens after scaling and root planing. The four treatment regimens included: conventional oral hygiene procedures, conventional oral hygiene procedures plus phase-contrast demonstration of subgingival microbial forms for oral hygiene motivation, S/P oral hygiene, and S/P oral hygiene plus phase-contrast demonstration of subgingival microbial forms for oral hygiene motivation. Plaque, bleeding, gingival inflammation, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline, 8, 16, and 24 months. Subjects were recalled for reinforcement of oral hygiene and periodontal prophylaxis at various intervals. Data were analyzed based on disease severity, location of index sites and compliance. The results indicated that both conventional oral hygiene procedures and the S/P regimen were effective in reducing clinical signs of disease when combined with professional care. There were no differences between the two regimens in clinical effectiveness and trends favoring microscopic viewing of subgingival plaque for motivational purposes were not statistically significant. PMID:3035164

Pihlstrom, B L; Wolff, L F; Bakdash, M B; Schaffer, E M; Jensen, J R; Aeppli, D M; Bandt, C L

1987-05-01

239

Impact of a hygiene curriculum and the installation of simple handwashing and drinking water stations in rural Kenyan primary schools on student health and hygiene practices.  

PubMed

School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half ("intervention schools"). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention. PMID:22869631

Patel, Minal K; Harris, Julie R; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

2012-10-01

240

Impact of a Hygiene Curriculum and the Installation of Simple Handwashing and Drinking Water Stations in Rural Kenyan Primary Schools on Student Health and Hygiene Practices  

PubMed Central

School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half (“intervention schools”). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention. PMID:22869631

Patel, Minal K.; Harris, Julie R.; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

2012-01-01

241

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

242

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... More Information Health and Nutrition Information for Preschoolers Food Safety Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. This makes ... That's why it's important to follow the recommended food safety guidelines. Keep food safe to eat by following ...

243

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Resources My Membership About the AAAAI Food Allergy Conditions & Treatments Acute Severe Asthma Allergen Allergic Asthma ... Agammaglobulinemia (XLA) Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your ...

244

Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance  

PubMed Central

Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a component of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Improving the infection control culture in veterinary medicine would facilitate future campaigns and studies in this area, as well as overall patient and staff safety. PMID:24885304

2014-01-01

245

[Hygienic studies of the manufacture of pasteurized and sterilized canned meat products].  

PubMed

Studied was microbiologically the hygiene condition of premises, equipment, glassware and containers, instruments and tools, raw meat, the hands of workers and work clothing, canned products prior to sterilization, and air along all technologic lines for the production of pasteurized and sterilized canned meat: In case of underestimating the measures of industrial hygiene. In case of permanent and severe control on the measures of industrial hygiene. Determined were the total counts of bacteria--of coliforms, Salmonellae, anaerobes and staphylococci. Results made it clear that the observation of hygiene along all technologic lines of production is an immediate task. Strictly observed hygiene in meat production has given very good results up to 90-100 per cent of the washings prove sterile. Experiments have pointed to the necessity of observing the measures of industrial hygiene that guarantee the high quality of canned meat. PMID:906310

Marinova, Ts

1977-01-01

246

Effect of Hand Hygiene on Infectious Disease Risk in the Community Setting: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

To quantify the effect of hand-hygiene interventions on rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses and to identify interventions that provide the greatest efficacy, we searched 4 electronic databases for hand-hygiene trials published from January 1960 through May 2007 and conducted meta-analyses to generate pooled rate ratios across interventions (N=30 studies). Improvements in hand hygiene resulted in reductions in gastrointestinal illness of 31% (95% confidence intervals [CI]=19%, 42%) and reductions in respiratory illness of 21% (95% CI=5%, 34%). The most beneficial intervention was hand-hygiene education with use of nonantibacterial soap. Use of antibacterial soap showed little added benefit compared with use of nonantibacterial soap. Hand hygiene is clearly effective against gastrointestinal and, to a lesser extent, respiratory infections. Studies examining hygiene practices during respiratory illness and interventions targeting aerosol transmission are needed. PMID:18556606

Aiello, Allison E.; Coulborn, Rebecca M.; Perez, Vanessa; Larson, Elaine L.

2008-01-01

247

Food Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

248

Food Packaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

Engineering K-Phd Program

249

Keeping Up Appearances: Perceptions of Street Food Safety in Urban Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities\\u000a for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the\\u000a urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been\\u000a linked

Thilde Rheinländer; Mette Olsen; John Abubakar Bakang; Harriet Takyi; Flemming Konradsen; Helle Samuelsen

2008-01-01

250

Four-year investigation of salt and peroxide regimen compared with conventional oral hygiene.  

PubMed

This study of 171 subjects compared the effectiveness of a patient-applied salt and peroxide oral hygiene regimen with the use of conventional oral hygiene methods on clinical measures of periodontal disease, and determined patient compliance with and acceptance of using these two oral hygiene regimens. Results indicated that both regimens, when combined with professional care, were effective in changing clinical measures of periodontal disease to a state favoring periodontal health. PMID:2536410

Wolff, L F; Pihlstrom, B L; Bakdash, M B; Schaffer, E M; Aeppli, D M; Bandt, C L

1989-01-01

251

Effect of Hand Hygiene on Infectious Disease Risk in the Community Setting: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To quantify the effect of hand-hygiene interventions on rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses and to identify interventions that provide the greatest ef- ficacy, we searched 4 electronic databases for hand-hygiene trials published from January 1960 through May 2007 and conducted meta-analyses to generate pooled rate ratios across interventions (N=30 studies). Improvements in hand hygiene resulted in reductions in gastrointestinal

Allison E. Aiello; Rebecca M. Coulborn; Vanessa Perez; Elaine L. Larson

252

Culture change in infection control: applying psychological principles to improve hand hygiene.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene occurs at the intersection of habit and culture. Psychological and social principles, including operant conditioning and peer pressure of conforming social norms, facilitate behavior change. Participatory leadership and level hierarchies are needed for sustainable patient safety culture. Application of these principles progressively and significantly improved hand hygiene compared with the hospital aggregate control. Changes to hand hygiene auditing and response processes demonstrate ability to improve and sustain adherence rates within a clinical microsystem. PMID:23669615

Cumbler, Ethan; Castillo, Leilani; Satorie, Laura; Ford, Deborah; Hagman, Jan; Hodge, Therese; Price, Lisa; Wald, Heidi

2013-01-01

253

Problems of equipment creation for hygienic treatment of textiles (underwear, garments, hygienic towels and napkins) for long-term space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impossibility of just in time stocks delivery to the International Space Station ISS because of Shuttle space flights absence has led to forced changing of standards of underwear garments and personal hygiene means using Therefore hygienic treatment of textiles underwear garments towels and napkins are necessary for long-term space flight missions Investigations into the ways of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply are prepared The resent equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply were created for space flight conditions with an opportunity of stocks updating This investigations are confirm necessity of new generation system creation for cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply and special designing of hygienic treatment laundry drying equipment and technologies for long-term space flights without an opportunity of stocks updating in particular for martian mission One from main requirements for equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply is full safety for human organisms under systematic and long-term application in space flight conditions small energy consumption and combining with space Life-Support Systems Method and program of experimental investigations of textiles laundry with application of washing means for long-term space flight conditions are prepared It is necessary to estimate opportunity and efficiency of washing means application for textiles laundry for space flight missions also to estimate compatibility of washing means for textiles laundry and for washing

Shumilina, I.

254

Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability.  

PubMed

As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled 'Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability'. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today's environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes - particularly in developing and emerging countries - imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public-private partnerships. PMID:23530770

Newson, Rachel S; Lion, Rene; Crawford, Robert J; Curtis, Valerie; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Feunekes, Gerda I J; Hicks, Cheryl; van Liere, Marti; Lowe, C Fergus; Meijer, Gert W; Pradeep, B V; Reddy, K Srinath; Sidibe, Myriam; Uauy, Ricardo

2013-01-01

255

DETERMINANTS OF GOOD ORAL HYGIENE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN IBADAN, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a south-western Nigerian locality. Methodology: Four hundred and five pregnant Nigerian women were assessed for their oral hygiene status using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified. Demographic and pregnancy statistics were also obtained and the relationships between these and oral hygiene status were determined. Results: The mean age was 25.35 ± 5.02 years. Most of the women (96.0%) had never visited a dentist or any other oral health care provider and only 12.5% of those who had been attended by dental care givers have ever had professional dental cleaning. The oral hygiene status appeared to worsen as parity increased (p=0.047) while the use of the toothbrush and paste was associated with good oral hygiene (p=0.007). Higher education was associated with use of the tooth brush and paste (p=0.046) and good oral hygiene (p= 0.001). Conclusion: The positive effect of education on oral hygiene practices is highlighted in this study. However there is still need for proper health enlightenment in this population with regards to use of the available oral health care facilities. PMID:25161475

Ifesanya, Joy U.; Ifesanya, Adeleke O.; Asuzu, Michael C.; Oke, Gbemisola A.

2010-01-01

256

[Fungal contamination of dwelling and public buildings: hygienic aspects].  

PubMed

Dwelling and public buildings underwent comprehensive hygienic studies for fungal contamination. Human allergization associated with fungal contamination within the building envelopes and with the viable fungal spores in the air of enclosed spaces was found to be prevalent. The leading factors determining the extent to which the internal environment of premises was exposed to fungal contamination: their increased air humidity due to leakages and inlets, the affected area of building envelopes, and a temperature factor were revealed. The criteria showing it necessary to undertake specific measures to optimize the living conditions of the population were defined. PMID:21344696

Gubernski?, Iu D; Nel'nikova, A I; Kalinina, N V; Chuprina, O V

2010-01-01

257

[Bacteriological control of various methods of sewage sludge hygienization].  

PubMed

As a result of extensive parallel investigations in a water treatment plant it was found that the fresh sludge pasteurization or prepasteurization with ensuing sludge digestion gives a product which is unobjectionable from an epidemiological hygienic point of view. The result were confirmed by investigations in a second plant. Similarly satisfactory results were obtained with the composting of previously desiccated sludge, with the aerobic-thermophilic fermentation of liquid sludge or with the drying of sewage sludge. An alternative to these thermal processes is the application of gamma rays or accelerated electrons. PMID:6649990

Breer, C

1983-09-01

258

Hand hygiene is crucial to combat Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

Patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can contaminate the environment with spores that are able to survive for months. A previous room occupant with CDI is a significant risk factor for developing the infection. Room cleaning with commonly used disinfectants will not kill spores. Sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide are effective but correct concentration and contact time are important. Hand hygiene is a crucial element in preventing infection. In the UK, there is a clear recommendation for handwashing, rather than alcohol-based hand rub, when caring for patients with CDI. PMID:25258234

2014-09-01

259

[Clothing and protective gear for nursing occupations from the hygienic viewpoint: consensus of the DGKH section "Hygiene in Inpatient and Outpatient Care and Rehabilitation", May 2nd 2005].  

PubMed

Both in inpatient and outpatient care institutions often questions arise what kind of working clothes and additional protective equipment nurses have to wear in specific situations. To overcome these uncertainties, the section "Hygiene in inpatient and outpatient care and rehabilitation" of the German society for hospital hygiene (DGKH) has developed an overview, that shows which elements of working clothes and protective devices, especially gloves, should be used in the different fields of nursing practice. The comprehensive and well structured information should be considered as minimum standard for hygienic purposes. PMID:16200747

2005-09-01

260

Potential food contaminants and associated health risks.  

PubMed

The potential toxicants in food are derived from natural or industrial sources. Compounds like lectins and glycoalkaloids that are toxic to man are naturally present in some vegetables like potatoes or legumes. A wide variety of marine toxins mostly produced by dinoflagellates occurring secondarily in molluscs and mussels are usually ingested by human beings causing poisoning. On the other hand, toxic compounds find their way into food during manufacture, storage, or transportation. These include largely the industrial contaminants, persistent organic pollutants (POP), pesticides, heavy metals, and toxins of fungal and bacterial origin. Further, toxic compounds like higher alcohols may be produced as byproducts during processing. Migration of compounds from packaging materials into packaged food like contamination with lead from solder in certain metal cans is well known. Additives (emulsifiers, preservatives, and antioxidants) could also influence the quality of foods. Solvent residues may find their way into food as a result of their use in extraction processes like the use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride in decaffeination of coffee. In addition, poor hygiene, storage, and preparation may also lead to food contamination by various microbes and ova or cysts of nematodes. The problem of food contamination can be overcome to a great extent by regular surveillance and monitoring programmes and strict implementation of food and adulteration act. In the present review some of these aspects of food contamination have been discussed in detail. PMID:11918841

Peshin, Sharda Shah; Lall, Shyam Bala; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

2002-03-01

261

Maturity and hygiene quality of composts and hygiene indicators in agricultural soil fertilised with municipal waste or manure compost.  

PubMed

Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (<4.2 or <3.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), respectively). No hygiene indicator bacteria were present in compost-fertilised potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment. PMID:20392787

Tontti, Tiina; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Karinen, Päivi; Reinikainen, Olli; Halinen, Arja

2011-02-01

262

[Experience of application of social hygienic monitoring in hygiene of children and adolescents and the lessons resulting from it].  

PubMed

The adoption of the law of the Russian Federation "On the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population" called for the creation of a tool "measurement" of the specified condition. This tool was the socio-hygienic monitoring (SHM)--a complex system of long-term monitoring changes in the state of health of the population and the surrounding environment. Goal, objectives and the technology of SHM have been formulated in the decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation No426 of 1 June 2000 and 3385 from 26.04.2005. Methodology of SHM provides for the forecasting and management of health of the population on the basis of the establishment of cause-and-effect relations in the system of "environment-health" and making managerial decisions, proceeding from the priority of primary prevention and the establishment of priority in the conduct of recreational activities at designated areas. Currently, the country has established a system of SHM designed to operate at the federal (Russian Federation), regional (republic, kray, oblast, okrug, the mega-cities), local (city, region) level with a vertical management structure. Some experience of SHM was gained and in the hygiene of children and adolescents. On the basis of this experience purpose is to identify opportunities of SHM to solve the priority (as required by the methodology) and other own problems of hygiene of children and adolescents, to give the characteristic used in SHM criteria for the evaluation of the health of students and the status of the school environment and offer a more informative, in our opinion, the criteria. PMID:23082671

2012-01-01

263

Hygiene and the world distribution of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) shares certain etiological features with autoimmunity. Prevalence of autoimmunity varies between populations in accordance with variation in environmental microbial diversity. Exposure to microorganisms may improve individuals’ immunoregulation in ways that protect against autoimmunity, and we suggest that this may also be the case for AD. Here, we investigate whether differences in microbial diversity can explain patterns of age-adjusted AD rates between countries. Methodology: We use regression models to test whether pathogen prevalence, as a proxy for microbial diversity, across 192 countries can explain a significant amount of the variation in age-standardized AD disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) rates. We also review and assess the relationship between pathogen prevalence and AD rates in different world populations. Results: Based on our analyses, it appears that hygiene is positively associated with AD risk. Countries with greater degree of sanitation and lower degree of pathogen prevalence have higher age-adjusted AD DALY rates. Countries with greater degree of urbanization and wealth exhibit higher age-adjusted AD DALY rates. Conclusions and implications: Variation in hygiene may partly explain global patterns in AD rates. Microorganism exposure may be inversely related to AD risk. These results may help predict AD burden in developing countries where microbial diversity is rapidly diminishing. Epidemiological forecasting is important for preparing for future healthcare needs and research prioritization. PMID:24481197

Fox, Molly; Knapp, Leslie A.; Andrews, Paul W.; Fincher, Corey L.

2013-01-01

264

Industrial hygiene concerns associated with oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

Health protection concerns (including industrial hygiene, safety, and occupational medicine) must be evaluated to insure that development of the oil shale industry proceeds without significant risk to the health of the workers involved. These concerns need to be identified in the early stages of developing this industry. To provide a basis for discussing potential health protection concerns related to oil shale, it is necessary to briefly discuss the magnitude and characteristics of this resource; the alternate proposed technologies; and the unit operations which make up the operating system. This subject has been detailed in many publications, among them reports prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency. This discussion will be limited to providing sufficient background to put industrial hygiene and other health protection concerns in perspective, and will include a brief description of typical technologies under consideration. It will not provide a detailed description of these technologies, or attempt to cover all the alternate technologies which may be applied to the development of oil shale. However, a basis for considering potential health protection problems associated with development of this industry will be established.

Ettinger, H.J.

1980-01-01

265

Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981  

SciTech Connect

Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J. (comps.)

1982-10-01

266

[Hygienic requirements for work organization of full-day schools].  

PubMed

Physiological and hygienic studies under the conditions of a natural hygienic experiment were conducted to examine different variants of the organization of work of new types of general educational establishments--full-day schools. Over 580 pupils from 5 full-day schools were followed up. Organization of teaching children at full-day schools was found to mainly correspond to the age-related capabilities of pupils from primary and secondary classes. Of vital importance for maintenance of mental performance, good emotional and psychosomatic states are the organization of the intraschool environment, including a school plot, as well as the conditions for realization of additional education, motor activity of children, and recess. Health keeping in pupils from full-day schools is favored by the reduction in the duration of lessons to 35 minutes and day sleep for first-form children, the decrease in the number of pupils in a class, outdoor physical exercises in the middle of a school day (a primary school) and strolls after lessons, three meals a day, balanced additional education, medicopsychological accompaniment, optimization of studies and rest in children during a school year. PMID:19514287

Stepanova, M I; Sazaniuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Aleksandrova, I E; Berezina, N O; Laponova, E D; Lashneva, I P; Polenova, M A; Sedova, A S; Shumkova, T V

2009-01-01

267

Food-borne Salmonella outbreak in a single hospital ward.  

PubMed

In June 2012, an outbreak of Salmonella group C gastroenteritis occurred on a single hospital ward among 54.2% (13/24) of volunteers undergoing an unrelated clinical trial and among 14.3% (1/7) hospital ward worker. Food-borne transmission was suspected, so a retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify the vehicle of the outbreak along with implementing outbreak control measures. None of the food items was significantly associated with the outbreak. An epidemic curve suggests a common source of the outbreak. No cases were reported after outbreak control. Food should be stored, cooked and handled using strict hygiene to prevent future outbreaks. PMID:24968679

Luvira, Viravarn; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Thantamnu, Narumon; Pitisuttiithum, Punnee

2014-03-01

268

The impact of hygiene and localised treatment on the quality of drinking water in Masaka, Rwanda.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of waterborne diseases has been attributed to the lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene. This study evaluated socio-demographic factors, microbiological quality of water at source and point of use (POU) at households, water handling and sanitation practices in a rural Rwandan community. Thirty five water samples from the source, Nyabarongo River, and water at point of use (POU) treated with the Slow Sand Filter (SSF) and Sûr'Eau methods, were analysed for total coliform and faecal coliform counts. Turbidity was measured in household samples. A structured questionnaire regarding water collection, storage, usage and waterborne disease awareness was administered to 324 women. Despite the significant reduction in coliforms and faecal coliforms from the Nyabarongo River following treatment using either SSF or Sûr'Eau, the water at point of use was found to be unsafe for human consumption. The frequency of diarrheal diseases were significantly higher among people who did not wash hands before food preparation (P = 0.002) and after using a toilet (P = 0.007) than among those who did. There was a statistically significant association between education levels and water treatment practices at the households (P < 0.05). Participants had limited knowledge regarding water storage practices for prevention of household water contamination. A combination of treatment methods with appropriate water handling should be considered. In addition, education is a fundamental precursor to advocating water treatment at POU. PMID:24345241

Uwimpuhwe, Monique; Reddy, Poovendhree; Barratt, Graham; Bux, Faizal

2014-01-01

269

[Model investigations of the impedance effectiveness conerning bacterial relevant to food hygiene].  

PubMed

The impedance technique mostly meets today's requirements of microbiological rapid methods. At relatively high prime cost for the equipment the advantages are marked by low personnel and material costs as well as swiftness combined with highly flexible usage. The method is applicable for both quantitative and qualitative examinations but can fail occasionally in total count determination, especially if the sample material contains heterogeneous microbes. In model investigations with 53 strains of 17 different genera Enterobacteriaceae strains, Aeromonads and Enterococcus strains proved to be highly impedance effective. Lactobacillus strains and Pseudomonads as well as Staphylococcus aureus strains showed a low impedance effectiveness. Several strains, for example of the genera Micrococcus, Acinetobacter and Brochothrix, did not show any changes of the medium impedance under the chosen conditions. Criterion for characterization of impedance effectiveness was the impedance detection time starting with identical initial counts (10(3) cfu/ml). Impedance effectiveness of microbes was determined at highly varying degree by the parameters of generation time, lag-phase duration and relative activity. This can lead either to wrong negative (underestimations) or wrong positive (overestimations) results of bacterial count. PMID:9852770

Schulenburg, J; Bergann, T

1998-11-01

270

Interim evaluation of a large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme on childhood diarrhea and respiratory disease in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Started in 2007, the Sanitation Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh (SHEWA-B) project aims to improve the hygiene, sanitation and water supply for 20 million people in Bangladesh, and thus reduce disease among this population. This paper assesses the effectiveness of SHEWA-B on changing behaviors and reducing diarrhea and respiratory illness among children < 5 years of age. We assessed behaviors at baseline in 2007 and after 6 months and 18 months by conducting structured observation of handwashing behavior in 500 intervention and 500 control households. In addition we conducted spot checks of water and sanitation facilities in 850 intervention and 850 control households. We also collected monthly data on diarrhea and respiratory illness from 500 intervention and 500 control households from October 2007 to September 2009. Participants washed their hands with soap < 3% of the time around food related events in both intervention and control households at baseline and after 18 months. Washing both hands with soap or ash after cleaning a child's anus increased from 22% to 36%, and no access to a latrine decreased from 10% to 6.8% from baseline to 18 months. The prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory illness, among children <5 years of age were similar in intervention and control communities throughout the study. This large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme resulted in improvements in a few of its targeted behaviors, but these modest behavior changes have not yet resulted in a measurable reduction in childhood diarrhea and respiratory illness. PMID:22197292

Huda, Tarique Md Nurul; Unicomb, Leanne; Johnston, Richard B; Halder, Amal K; Yushuf Sharker, Md Abu; Luby, Stephen P

2012-08-01

271

Health seeking and hygiene behaviours predict nutritional status of pre-school children in a slum area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was done from March to May 1997 in four selected slum kebeles (villages) of Addis Ababa in which nutritional status of 758 children aged 6 to 36 months was examined and stratified into malnourished and well nourished groups. Analysis of hygiene and health seeking practices of randomly selected households of the two sets of children determined practices that significantly exacerbate childhood malnutrition. The rates of immunization for the malnourished (80.2%) and well nourished households (77.6%) were practically the same. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of home treatment or food withholding habits at times of diarrhoea episodes between the two groups. The study established six variables to predict childhood malnutrition in the slum section of Addis Ababa: 1) presence of child waste inside house (Odds Ratio = 7.44; p < 0.0001), 2) diarrhoea treatment at the hospital (OR = 0.47;p < 0.05), 3) prolonged storage of cooked foods (OR = 2.86;p < 0.05), 4) feeding with washed hands (OR = 0.44; p < 0.01), and 5) poor handling of drinking water (OR = 3.18; p < 0.01) and 6) foods (OR = 3.52; p < 0.01). Hence strong and sustainable advice with a view of changing the behaviours of households towards good personal and household hygiene practices, and increased utilization of health settings is recommended as these may limit the overall success of public health programmes. PMID:11125500

Abate, G; Kogi-Makau, W; Muroki, N M

2000-10-01

272

Developmental aspects of sleep hygiene: Findings from the 2004 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the associations between sleep hygiene and sleep patterns in children ages newborn to 10 years. The relationships between key features of good sleep hygiene in childhood and recognizable outcomes have not been studied in large, nationally representative samples.

Jodi A. Mindell; Lisa J. Meltzer; Mary A. Carskadon; Ronald D. Chervin

2009-01-01

273

Dispelling Purity Myths and Debunking Hygienic Discourse in Roberto Arlt's "El jorobadito"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reads Roberto Arlt's short story "El jorobadito" as a direct and critical response to hygienic discourse in the first decades of the twentieth century in Argentina. Hygienic discourse served as a basis for an exclusionary social model that profoundly affected politics and the organization of the social body. It sought to define…

Garrett, Victoria Lynn

2010-01-01

274

Improving the Awareness of Personal and Oral Hygiene in Second Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practicum reported here involved the design of a hygiene awareness unit to help 30 second-grade students in an inner-city school become aware of and improve their personal and oral hygiene, and to provide necessary knowledge concerning pediculosis. Surveys of students and faculty prior to the program demonstrated the need for such a program as…

Meleskie-Lippert, Kathleen

275

Method for Automated Monitoring of Hand Hygiene Adherence without Radio-Frequency Identification  

PubMed Central

Many efforts to automatically measure hand hygiene activity depend on radio-frequency identification equipment or similar technology that can be expensive to install. We have developed a method for automatically tracking the use of hand hygiene dispensers before healthcare workers enter (or after they exit) patient rooms that is easily and quickly deployed without permanent hardware. PMID:20973724

Polgreen, Philip M.; Hlady, Christopher S.; Severson, Monica A.; Segre, Alberto M.; Herman, Ted

2011-01-01

276

Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. Methods Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the

Valerie Curtis; Bernadette Kanki; Simon Cousens; Ibrahim Diallo; Alphonse Kpozehouen; Morike Sangare; Michel Nikiema

2001-01-01

277

Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy in bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: This study had two objectives: (1) to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis: (2) to determine any differences between manual and mechanical techniques for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy.DESIGN: The study design was a systematic review of the literature that used an exhaustive search for trials and review methods

Arthur Jones; Brian H. Rowe

2000-01-01

278

Estimating the Burden of Disease from Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene at a Global Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene at the global level taking into account various disease outcomes, principally diarrheal diseases. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines the burden from death and disability in a single index and permits the comparison of the burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene with the burden from other risk factors or diseases.

Annette Prüss; David Kay; Lorna Fewtrell; Jamie Bartram

2002-01-01

279

New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program  

E-print Network

New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Bureau of Mental Health (BMH) or Bureau of Children, Youth and Families (CYF). Individuals

Qiu, Weigang

280

Hygienic behavior in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and the modulatory role of octopamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bees, Apis mellifera, which perform hygienic behavior, quickly detect, uncap and remove diseased brood from the nest. This behavior, performed by bees 15-20 days old and prior to foraging, is likely mediated by olfactory cues. Because the neuro- modulator octopamine (OA) plays a pivotal role in ol- factory-based behaviors of honey bees, we examined whether bees bred for hygienic

Marla Spivak; Rebecca Masterman; Rocco Ross; Karen A. Mesce

2003-01-01

281

Early Childhood Special Education. Dental and Oral Hygiene Procedures for Young Children with Special Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that children with special needs often require specific considerations with regard to dental care. Discusses some of the physical disabilities and how they interfere with dental hygiene, and how child caregivers can modify daily routines and assist disabled children with areas of hygiene the children may find difficult. (HTH)

Sluder, R. S.; Luder, Linda C.

1995-01-01

282

Sleep Hygiene and Melatonin Treatment for Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Initial Insomnia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for initial insomnia in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-seven stimulant-treated children (6-14 years of age) with ADHD and initial insomnia (greater than 60 minutes) received sleep hygiene intervention. Nonresponders were…

Weiss, Margaret D.; Wasdell, Michael B.; Bomben, Melissa M.; Rea, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Roger D.

2006-01-01

283

Food masquerade.  

PubMed

Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann

2010-01-01

284

Quantitative microbial risk assessment of antibacterial hand hygiene products on risk of shigellosis.  

PubMed

There are conflicting reports on whether antibacterial hand hygiene products are more effective than nonantibacterial products in reducing bacteria on hands and preventing disease. This research used new laboratory data, together with simulation techniques, to compare the ability of nonantibacterial and antibacterial products to reduce shigellosis risk. One hundred sixtythree subjects were used to compare five different hand treatments: two nonantibacterial products and three antibacterial products, i.e., 0.46% triclosan, 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, or 62% ethyl alcohol. Hands were inoculated with 5.5 to 6 log CFU Shigella; the simulated food handlers then washed their hands with one of the five products before handling melon balls. Each simulation scenario represented an event in which 100 people would be exposed to Shigella from melon balls that had been handled by food workers with Shigella on their hands. Analysis of experimental data showed that the two nonantibacterial treatments produced about a 2-log reduction on hands. The three antibacterial treatments showed log reductions greater than 3 but less than 4 on hands. All three antibacterial treatments resulted in statistically significantly lower concentration on the melon balls relative to the nonantibacterial treatments. A simulation that assumed 1 million Shigella bacteria on the hands and the use of a nonantibacterial treatment predicted that 50 to 60 cases of shigellosis would result (of 100 exposed). Each of the antibacterial treatments was predicted to result in an appreciable number of simulations for which the number of illness cases would be 0, with the most common number of illness cases being 5 (of 100 exposed). These effects maintained statistical significance from 10(6) Shigella per hand down to as low as 100 Shigella per hand, with some evidence to support lower levels. This quantitative microbial risk assessment shows that antibacterial hand treatments can significantly reduce Shigella risk. PMID:24680068

Schaffner, Donald W; Bowman, James P; English, Donald J; Fischler, George E; Fuls, Janice L; Krowka, John F; Kruszewski, Francis H

2014-04-01

285

Hygienic and health characteristics of donkey milk during a follow-up study.  

PubMed

For its characteristics, donkey milk has been proposed as an alternative to goat or artificial milk to feed allergic infants. Therefore, it is important to increase our knowledge on health and immunological characteristics of donkey milk. Ten donkeys, bred as companion animals, were enrolled in this study and sampled once a month, for eight months. Milk (10 ml) was collected from each half udder for somatic cell count (SCC), bacteriological analysis and total bacteria count (TBC). The major pathogens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were further genotyped by nanoarray analysis. Whey lysozyme and NAGase (NAG) activities were also assessed. Overall, 101 half-udder milk samples were taken. They showed very low values of TBC (<250 cfu/ml) and SCC (<50 000 cells/ml) and a minor prevalence of pathogens: Staph. aureus was isolated only from 5 milk samples (3 animals), Streptococcus equi from 2 samples and Str. equisimilis from a single sample. All the isolates were sensitive to all antibiotic classes used in veterinary medicine. None of the Staph. aureus isolates were shown to harbour genes coding for any enterotoxin, toxic-shock syndrome toxin or antibiotic resistance. Lysozyme levels were always very high (4000-5000 U/ml), while NAG values were mostly low (<50 U/ml), out of the last part of lactation. The results of this study confirmed the low prevalence of intramammary infections in donkey and the absence of food-borne pathogens, suggesting that donkey milk could be a safe food, if the mammary gland is healthy and the animals are milked in proper hygienic conditions. PMID:20883563

Pilla, Rachel; Daprà, Valentina; Zecconi, Alfonso; Piccinini, Renata

2010-11-01

286

Report of the FDA Retail Food Program Database of Foodborne Illness Risk Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released online by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on September 7, this 59-page report "establishes a baseline to measure how effective industry and regulatory efforts are in changing behaviors and practices that directly relate to food-borne illness in the retail food industry." Based on data collected from close to 900 institutional food service establishments, restaurants, and retail food stores, the report finds that three areas deserve special attention: improper holding times and temperatures, contaminated equipment, and poor personal hygiene. The full text of the report is available in HTML and .pdf formats.

287

[School hygiene in the past, present and future--in the opinion of the Inspector of Pediatrics and School Medicine and member of the European Society for Social Pediatrics (ESSOP)].  

PubMed

Yesterday. School hygiene acted in a clear way. Physician, pediatrician, nurse and hygienist were employed at school and were responsible for carrying out periodic examination, vaccination of school children and youth. They also supervised groups of children with posture defects, obesity, underweight, circulatory system and respiratory tract (asthma, anaphylaxis), diseases nervous system disorders and also propagated health education at school. Inspector of Pediatrics and School Medicine was in charge of School Medical Care. Today. Reform of the Public Health System. Medical examination and services have their value in money. A school physician, some hygienists and school nurses have been dismissed to decrease the financial costs of school hygiene. All medical services must be bought by the National Health Service. Public and private medical services at doctors and nurses are organized at schools. Each service performs examinations, vaccinations bought by the National Health Service or parents. A pupil is a subject of buying medical services. He may be vaccinated by a nurse but a medical examination must be either bought or performed by home doctor. The supervision of school children with different illnesses is not conducted by a school doctor. At present all the threats of contemporary world such as alcohol, tobacco, drug addiction, nervous system illnesses and allergies which are destructive for youth start when they are teenagers. School is an important place for carrying out on a large scale prophylactic services with medical teams of paediatricians, rehabilitation specialists and psychologists. Tomorrow. School Hygiene at School. Not at home doctor's. Recommendations, Daily Hygiene: personal, oral, food mental.... Hygiene of studying, rest and daily effort. Struggle with mass media, alcohol, drug, Internet, Computer addiction, violence, stupidity and poverty. School Hygiene should be adjusted to youth's health needs in accordance with the recommendations of European Society for Social Pediatrics (ESSOP) and Committee on Public Education, American Academy of Pediatrics and reinforced, it should not be eliminated. PMID:15002312

Zaba, Ryszard; Bukartyk-Rusek, Bogna

2002-01-01

288

Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups.  

PubMed

In this study, socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices were examined across several dentate ethnic and age groups. Oral hygiene scale scores were constructed from toothbrushing and dental floss frequencies self-reported by population-based samples of middle-aged (35-44 years) and older (65-74 years) dentate adults representing Baltimore African-American and White, San Antonio Hispanic and non-Hispanic White, and Navajo and Lakota Native American persons participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) survey. Female gender, education, certain oral health beliefs, household income, and the presence of a usual source of care were revealed with multivariate analysis to show a significant positive relationship with higher oral hygiene scale scores (indicating better personal oral hygiene practices). Other socio-behavioral variables exhibited a more varied, ethnic-specific pattern of association with oral hygiene scale scores. PMID:9549990

Davidson, P L; Rams, T E; Andersen, R M

1997-05-01

289

[Oral hygiene in the hadiths of the Holy Prophet, Mohammed S.A.V.S].  

PubMed

The problem of oral hygiene in contemporary dental medicine is the problem of successful maintainance of oral health. Contemporary dental medicine recommends the methods for maintaining of total oral hygiene, as preventive action against dental ills. Hadith of Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s. is a note about what he has done, recommended or amended. Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s. recommended entire hygiene of teeth, gums, through tooth brushing and washing mouths by water three times. Actually, this was the first time in the available literature that someone recommended maintaining of oral hygiene. It can be said without reserve that Muhammad s.a.v.s. has established a preventive dental medicine. Muslims are recommended to maintain hygiene through Holly Qor'an: "There are the people that like washing themselves in it (mosque), and Allah loves those, who clean themselves very much." PMID:9324571

Redzepagi?, S

1997-01-01

290

Variations in feminine hygiene practices of military women in deployed and noncombat environments.  

PubMed

There is limited information on how military women manage feminine hygiene practices in combat and noncombat environments. The purpose of this study was to describe feminine hygiene practices of military women in deployed and noncombat (normal) environments. A nonexperimental descriptive research design was used. The study used a survey questionnaire, the Deployed Female Health Practice Questionnaire, which was developed specifically for military women to report their experiences with hygiene issues. Significant differences between deployed and normal environments were found in the areas of types of menses management products used and in douching and handwashing practices. Continuing education about safe feminine hygiene practices will help military women cope better in deployed (field) environments. Recommendations suggest further study on intervention strategies for hygiene management practices. PMID:11272714

Czerwinski, B S; Wardell, D W; Yoder, L H; Connelly, L M; Ternus, M; Pitts, K; Kouzekanani, K

2001-02-01

291

Variables that predict success on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to determine which, if any, of students' academic variables (high school grade point average [GPA], ACT scores, grades in college biological, physical, and behavioral sciences, dental hygiene GPA and college cumulative GPA as well as demographic variables [age and marital status]) were useful in predicting a passing score on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE). The entire population of 1983-86 graduates from three associate degree granting dental hygiene programs (N = 219) served as subjects. Information was obtained from the students' records retained at the schools. The research showed that grades in college anatomy, nutrition, sociology, chemistry, and physiology are the best predictors of the dental hygiene GPA. The best predictors of pass/fail status on the NBDHE are dental hygiene GPA, ACT social studies, sociology, general psychology, and anatomy. PMID:2600640

Shannon, S A

1989-02-01

292

Career opportunities Dental hygiene is routinely listed as one of today's top-ten career fields, offering  

E-print Network

to Microbiology 4 Human Anatomy and Physiology 5 Intro to Sociology 3 General Psychology 3 Principles of Dietetics Introduction to Periodontics 3 Pain Management 2 Clinical Dental Hygiene III 4 Clinical Dental Hygiene IV 4

293

Monitoring food safety violation reports from internet forums.  

PubMed

Food-borne illness is a growing public health concern in the world. Government bodies, which regulate and monitor the state of food safety, solicit citizen feedback about food hygiene practices followed by food establishments. They use traditional channels like call center, e-mail for such feedback collection. With the growing popularity of Web 2.0 and social media, citizens often post such feedback on internet forums, message boards etc. The system proposed in this paper applies text mining techniques to identify and mine such food safety complaints posted by citizens on web data sources thereby enabling the government agencies to gather more information about the state of food safety. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of our system and the text mining methods used. We also present results which demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in a real-world deployment. PMID:25160357

Kate, Kiran; Negi, Sumit; Kalagnanam, Jayant

2014-01-01

294

Formative research on the feasibility of hygiene interventions for influenza control in UK primary schools  

PubMed Central

Background Interventions to increase hand washing in schools have been advocated as a means to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza and other infections. However, the feasibility and acceptability of effective school-based hygiene interventions is not clear. Methods A pilot study in four primary schools in East London was conducted to establish the current need for enhanced hand hygiene interventions, identify barriers to their implementation and to test their acceptability and feasibility. The pilot study included key informant interviews with teachers and school nurses, interviews, group discussions and essay questions with the children, and testing of organised classroom hand hygiene activities. Results In all schools, basic issues of personal hygiene were taught especially in the younger age groups. However, we identified many barriers to implementing intensive hygiene interventions, in particular time constraints and competing health issues. Teachers' motivation to teach hygiene and enforce hygienic behaviour was primarily educational rather than immediate infection control. Children of all age groups had good knowledge of hygiene practices and germ transmission. Conclusion The pilot study showed that intensive hand hygiene interventions are feasible and acceptable but only temporarily during a period of a particular health threat such as an influenza pandemic, and only if rinse-free hand sanitisers are used. However, in many settings there may be logistical issues in providing all schools with an adequate supply. In the absence of evidence on effectiveness, the scope for enhanced hygiene interventions in schools in high income countries aiming at infection control appears to be limited in the absence of a severe public health threat. PMID:19832971

Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Wloch, Catherine; Biran, Adam; Curtis, Val; Mangtani, Punam

2009-01-01

295

Creation of Integrated System of Cosmonauts Sanitary-Hygienic Supply: Researches, Problems and Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.

Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.

296

[Industrial hygiene and improvement of the work environment].  

PubMed

The AA. report a series of practical experiments in the following industries: textiles, ceramics, graphics and heavy industry, in order to demonstrate the necessity and utility of industrial hygiene in which an occupational hazard is not simply identified, but rather an improvement of the work environment is undertaken and the results of such a programme are again controlled and evaluated. The data presented lend themselves to a discussion of a preventive nature since, from a comparison of the data before and after modification, the efficacy of the modification itself is evaluated. The efficacy may vary from simple maintenance of equipment to environmental purification procedures and necessity of applying corrective modifications directly by the raw materials. PMID:755421

Brighenti, F; De Rosa, E; Clonfero, E; Cocheo, V

1978-01-01

297

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 6, occupational hygiene  

SciTech Connect

The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.

NONE

1995-12-01

298

[Infrastructure and adherence to hand hygiene: challenges to patient safety].  

PubMed

Considering the importance of hands in the chain of transmission of microorganisms, this observational research investigated the material infrastructure and compliance of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit in the south of Brazil in 2010. The data was collected by direct non-participant observation and through the use of self-administered questionnaires to be completed by the 39 participants, which was analyzed with the assistance of the chi2 Test, descriptive statistics and quantitative discourse analysis. Although health professionals overestimate compliance rates, recognize the practice as relevant to the prevention of infection and refer there are no impeding factors, of the 1,277 opportunities observed, compliance was 26% and significantly lower before patient contact and the use of aseptic procedures than after patient contact: infrastructure was shown to be deficient. The results indicate risk to patient safety, and thus, the planning of corrective actions to promote hand washing is relevant. PMID:24015465

Bathke, Janaína; de Cunico, Priscila Almeida; Maziero, Eliane Cristina Sanches; Cauduro, Fernanda Leticia Frates; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; de Cruz, Elaine Drehmer Almeida

2013-06-01

299

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013–2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation. PMID:24106193

Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

2013-01-01

300

Medicalized social hygiene? Tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic.  

PubMed

This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911

Harsch, Donna

2012-01-01

301

[Hygiene and security management in medical biology laboratory].  

PubMed

Risk management in Medical Biology Laboratory (MBL) which includes hygiene and waste management, is an integrated process to the whole MBL organisation. It is composed of three stages: risks factors identification, grading and prioritization, and their evaluation in the system. From the legislation and NF EN ISO 15189 standard's requirements viewpoint, prevention and protection actions to implement are described, at premises level, but also at work station environment's one (human resources and equipments) towards biological, chemical, linked to gas, to ionizing or non ionizing radiations and fire riks, in order not to compromise patients safety, employees safety, and quality results. Then, although NF EN 15189 standard only enacts requirements in terms of prevention, curative actions after established blood or chemical exposure accident are defined. PMID:23765027

Vinner, E; Odou, M F; Fovet, B; Ghnassia, J C

2013-06-01

302

Food labeling  

MedlinePLUS

... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared primarily ...

303

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... National Institutes of Health for research in food allergy. We are committed to supporting efforts to help ...

304

Food Labeling  

MedlinePLUS

... dietary proteins, vitamins, and minerals in each serving Definitions for terms such as low-fat and high-fiber Information to help you see how a food fits into an overall daily diet Food and Drug Administration

305

Protein Foods  

MedlinePLUS

... Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ? ... Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free ...

306

Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome  

PubMed Central

Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:24009546

Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

2013-01-01

307

[Intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Catalonia, Spain].  

PubMed

Hand hygiene (HM) is the single most important measure and effective in reducing the risk of Healthcare acquired infections (IRAS). Although HM is an effective, simple and cheap measure, it is usual to find results of low compliance among health professionals. The main objective of this strategy has been to give new force to the promotion of HM in hospitals and educate professionals about the importance of this single action. The strategy was planned as a multicenter intervention study to promote HM in health centers of Catalonia in 2009-2010. The intervention is based on 4 main areas: a survey of barriers and facilitators, distribution of graphic material, training at different levels and measure of quality indicators. With this strategy a total of 57% of the number of acute beds in the concerted public and private network of hospitals were reached. The survey revealed that training was perceived as the main facilitator of the HM action. 15,376 professionals registered to the on-line training. The overall compliance with HM indications (based on "five moments for HM") was 56.45% in the acute areas. The campaigns and programs to promote HM carried out in the last four years in Catalonia has helped to achieve an increasing number of hospitals associated to the strategy of the Alliance for Patient Safety in Catalonia. The on-line curse acceptance was very high and seems a powerful tool to improve hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among health professionals. The compliance of HM seems to increase in the hospitals of Catalonia evaluated. PMID:25128358

Sobrequés, Jordi; Espuñes, Jordi; Bañeres, Joaquim

2014-07-01

308

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food web reading. Build a food web and design a creature. Requires downloaded program. Download your assignment Food Web Assignment Sheet. Use the following sites and activities to answer the questions. Do not start the creature creator until Mr. Wood has seen your food web and completed assignment and allowed you to move on. Type your answers on the sheet and edit it to fit one page. When ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-10-06

309

Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.

2009-10-21

310

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)

2006-10-31

311

Food Sources  

Cancer.gov

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

312

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Which Germs Are to Blame? Foods from animals, raw foods, and unwashed vegetables all can contain germs that ... and vegetables well before eating them. Only eat foods that are properly cooked. If you cut into chicken and it looks pink and raw inside, tell a grown-up. Look at what ...

313

Food allergy.  

PubMed

Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and is estimated to affect >2% and possibly up to 10% of the population. Food allergies are defined by an immune response triggered by food proteins. Emerging data suggest that carbohydrate moieties on food proteins, specifically mammalian meats, may also elicit allergic responses. Food is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community, which can be fatal. The underlying mechanisms of food allergy usually involve food-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies, but cell-mediated disorders account for a variety of chronic or subacute skin and gastrointestinal reactions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an emerging food-related chronic disorder. The diagnosis of food allergy is complicated by the observation that detection of food-specific immunoglobulin E (sensitization) does not necessarily indicate clinical allergy. Diagnosis requires a careful medical history, laboratory studies, and, in many cases, oral food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Novel diagnostic methods, many of which rely upon evaluating immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes, may improve diagnosis and prognosis in the future. Current management relies upon allergen avoidance and preparation to promptly treat severe reactions with epinephrine. Studies suggest that some children with milk or egg allergy might tolerate extensively heated forms, for example milk or egg baked into muffins, without symptoms and possibly with some immunotherapeutic benefits. Novel therapeutic strategies are under study, including oral and sublingual immunotherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, anti-immunoglobulin E antibodies, and modified vaccines. PMID:21913199

Sicherer, Scott H

2011-01-01

314

[Alfred Grotjahn's (1869-1931) way to "Faustic pact" in his project on social hygiene].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper in historiographic research is to show the relation of social hygiene to demography. The study focuses on Alfred Grotjahn's merits in the establishment of an independent profile on social hygiene in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Grotjahn realised early that demography or, respectively, population statistics is a directing force for a new formation and reorganisation of social hygiene, recognising the meaning of demography for the realm of social hygiene. Grotjahn integrated practical eugenics as a part of reproduction hygiene through the generative aspect within his planning horizon. This resulted in Grotjahn's "Faustic pact" with eugenics. In the history of the reception of Grotjahn's concept of social hygiene it was his pact with eugenics that took him in the dock as an intellectual promoter of national socialist politics. But the problem that Grotjahn left is still being under discussion even 70 years after his death: Is a control and limitation of technocratic social hygiene orientated towards elementary human rights possible or is it at all desirable? PMID:17440846

Ferdinand, U

2007-03-01

315

It's not all about me: motivating hand hygiene among health care professionals by focusing on patients.  

PubMed

Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands. Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviors, it is important to highlight the personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that emphasized personal safety ("Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases") or patient safety ("Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases"). We assessed hand hygiene by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1) and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals' hand-hygiene behaviors (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated meaningful changes in behavior: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were reminded of the implications for themselves. PMID:22075239

Grant, Adam M; Hofmann, David A

2011-12-01

316

Hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in Taiwanese freestanding nursing homes. A descriptive observational research design was used. A total of 782 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed by one trained research assistant in two freestanding nursing homes. The hand-hygiene observation tool was used to assess hand hygiene practice. The overall hand hygiene compliance among nursing staff in nursing homes was only 11.3%. Results further showed that the compliance was greater after contact with body fluids (odds ratio?=?6.9, confidence interval (CI)?=?3.75-9.88, P?=?0.000) and lower before the performance of aseptic procedures (odds ratio?=?0.15, CI?=?0.04-0.63, P?=?0.003) when compared with other activities. Hand hygiene compliance was relatively low among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan. To comprehensively analyze this issue, further research involving a larger number of nursing homes and strategies to improve compliance with hand hygiene among the nursing staff at these institutions is needed. PMID:24580975

Liu, Wen-I; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Chuang, Yeu-Hui

2014-02-01

317

A novel approach to improve hand hygiene compliance of student nurses  

PubMed Central

Background The National University Hospital, Singapore routinely undertakes standardized Hand Hygiene auditing with results produced by ward and by staff type. In 2010 concern was raised over consistently low compliance by nursing students averaging 45% (95% CI 42%–48%) prompting us to explore novel approaches to educating our next generation of nurses to improve their hand hygiene practice. We introduced an experiential learning assignment to final year student nurses on attachment to NUH inclusive of hand hygiene auditor training followed by a period of hand hygiene observation. The training was based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) “My 5 moments for hand hygiene” approach. Upon completion students completed an anonymous questionnaire to evaluate their learning experience. Findings By 2012, nursing students were 40% (RR: 1.4, 95% CI 1.3–1.5, p<0.001) more likely to comply with hand hygiene practices. 97.5% (359/368) of nursing students felt that the experience would enhance their own hand hygiene practice and would recommend participating in audits as a learning instrument. Conclusions With consideration of all stakeholders a sustainable, flexible, programme was implemented. Experiential learning of hand hygiene was a highly valued educational tool and in our project was directly associated with improved hand hygiene compliance. Feedback demonstrated popularity amongst participants and success in achieving its program objectives. While this does not guarantee long term behavioural change it is intuitive that instilling good habits and messages at the early stages of a career will potentially have significant long-term impact. PMID:23721611

2013-01-01

318

[Hospital hygiene - Where are we in the sixth year of "Operation Clean Hands"?].  

PubMed

The national German hand hygiene campaign is implementing the WHO patient safety initiative "Clean Care is Safer Care". After 6 years over 1400 health care institutions are participating in the campaign on a voluntary basis. The implementation of the multimodal intervention concept including improvement of alcohol based hand rub availability, the introduction of 2 surveillance methods and of the WHO "My 5 Moments of Hand Hygiene Model" in those health care facilities, participating for several years, increased median hand hygiene compliance by 11% and alcohol based hand rub availability by 61%. PMID:24446006

Reichardt, Christiane; Bunte-Schönberger, Karin; Behnke, Michael; Clausmeyer, Jörg-Olaf; Gastmeier, Petra

2014-01-01

319

Microbes versus microbes: control of pathogens in the food chain.  

PubMed

Foodborne illness continues as a considerable threat to public health. Despite improved hygiene management systems and increased regulation, pathogenic bacteria still contaminate food, causing sporadic cases of illness and disease outbreaks worldwide. For many centuries, microbial antagonism has been used in food processing to improve food safety. An understanding of the mode of action of this microbial antagonism has been gained in recent years and potential applications in food and feed safety are now being explored. This review focuses on the potential opportunities presented, and the limitations, of using microbial antagonism as a biocontrol mechanism to reduce contamination along the food chain; including animal feed as its first link. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24816992

Jordan, Kieran; Dalmasso, Marion; Zentek, Juergen; Mader, Anneluise; Bruggeman, Geert; Wallace, John; De Medici, Dario; Fiore, Alfonsina; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Lukac, Maja; Axelsson, Lars; Holck, Askild; Ingmer, Hanne; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

2014-12-01

320

Varroa destructor Infestation in Untreated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies Selected for Hygienic Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of \\

Marla Spivak; Gary S. Reuter

2001-01-01

321

Astronautical Hygiene - A New Discipline to Protect the Health of Astronauts Working in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines the rationale for a new scientific discipline namely astronautical hygiene. Astronautical hygiene is an applied science that utilises a knowledge of space toxicology, space medicine, astronautics, occupational hygiene etc. to identify the hazards, assess the exposure risks to health, and thereby determine the measures to mitigate exposure to protect the health of astronauts during living and working in space. This paper describes the nature of the hazards (i.e. physical, chemical, microbial and psychological) encountered during space flight. It discusses exposure risk assessment and the use of sampling techniques to assess astronaut health risks. This paper then discusses the measures used to mitigate exposure to the exposure hazards during space exploration. A case study of the application of the principles of astronautical hygiene to control lunar dust exposure is then described.

Cain, J. R.

322

[Hygienic evaluation of work conditions for workers engaged into artificial proteous sausage capsule "Belkosin" production].  

PubMed

The article presents hygienic evaluation of work conditions for workers engaged into artificial proteous sausage capsule production on "Belkosin" enterprise. According to the study results, health promotion program was specified and aimed to the workers' health preservation. PMID:19514170

Dube?kovskaia, L S; Kiselev, N N; Kir'ianova, M N; Salangina, L I

2009-01-01

323

[Issues involved with supply of medical and hygienic materials to home care patients].  

PubMed

Questionnaires were mailed to doctors and nurses who are involved in home care to survey their observations on medical and hygienic materials and its supply to home care patients. Some of the survey items, such as problems encountered frequently, areas where an improvement was needed most and concerns that are often raised in suppling of medical and hygienic materials for home care patients, were analyzed by the Berelson's content analysis method to observe problems in suppling adequate medical and hygienic materials. As a result, 5 categories and 17 subcategories were formed. The recognized future issues were: policies concerning support extended to medical organizations and disseminate information of the system, which medical and hygienic materials supplied to home care patients. PMID:17469358

Maeda, Shuko; Mizushima, Yukari; Takiuti, Takako

2006-12-01

324

Longitudinal Analysis of Student Performance in a Dental Hygiene Distance Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined over the course of five years whether learners who receive face-to-face instruction in a dental hygiene program performed statistically better on established benchmark assessments than learners at a distance. Found no significant differences. (EV)

Olmsted, Jodi L.

2002-01-01

325

Predictors of Success in Dental Hygiene Education: A Six-Year Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the predictive reliability of incoming grade point average (GPA), incoming math/science GPA, and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores in predicting success in dental hygiene education. Found that GPA was the most significant predictor of success. (EV)

Downey, Mary C.; Collins, Marie A.; Browning, William D.

2002-01-01

326

Effects of an Oral Hygiene Punishment Procedure on Chronic Rumination and Collateral Behaviors in Monozygous Twins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When an oral hygiene punishment procedure was introduced, rumination (regurgitation) of profoundly retarded monozygous adolescent twins was dramatically reduced. The decrease was maintained over a 6 month period and was accompanied by increased rates of socially appropriate behavior. (CL)

Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

1982-01-01

327

The Effect of Teaching Experience on Service-Learning Beliefs of Dental Hygiene Educators.  

E-print Network

??The purpose of this non-experimental causal-comparative study was to determine if service-learning teaching experience affects dental hygiene faculty perceptions of service-learning benefits and barriers in… (more)

Burch, Sharlee

2013-01-01

328

Developing a geographic information system (GIS) to integrate earth science data: Hygiene Quadrangle, Boulder county, Colorado  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology using a geographic information system (GIS) to map and model the best use of earth resources in Hygiene Quadrangle, Boulder County of Colorado. The Spatial Analysis System (SPANS GIS...

Nonsung, Sawat

2012-06-07

329

MediHandTrace ®: a tool for measuring and understanding hand hygiene adherence.  

PubMed

The proper implementation of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing healthcare-associated infection. Although there are many programmes aimed at enhancing hand hygiene, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) remains incredibly low. One limiting factor is the lack of standardized measures and reports of hand hygiene opportunities. Direct observational audits have reported the weaknesses in this field. We report here a radiofrequency identification-based real-time automated continuous recording system (MediHandTrace(®)) that permits the tracking of hand hygiene opportunities and the disinfection compliance of HCWs that we evaluated against video recordings as being accurate (99.02%), sensitive (95.65%) and specific (100%). The system can also provide information that is useful to understand HCW non-compliance and will allow the evaluation of future intervention studies. PMID:24261513

Boudjema, S; Dufour, J C; Aladro, A S; Desquerres, I; Brouqui, P

2014-01-01

330

Food additives  

PubMed Central

Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

Spencer, Michael

1974-01-01

331

Hygienic quality of faeces treated in urine diverting vermicomposting toilets.  

PubMed

On-site sanitation solutions have gained much interest in recent years. One such solution is the urine diverting vermicomposting toilet (UDVT). This study evaluated the hygienic quality of the composted material in six UDVTs in operation in France. Samples were taken from three sampling positions in each toilet, with increasing distance from the fresh material. The concentration of Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp., thermotolarent coliforms and coliphages were analysed and plotted against a number of variables. The variables found to have the greatest impact was the pH (for Enterococcus spp. and thermotolarent coliforms (TTC)) and time since last maintenance (coliphages). The pH was found to correlate with the material maturity. The current practise of maintenance can cause recontamination of the stabilised material and increase the risk of regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms. A modification in the maintenance procedure, in which a fourth maturation point is introduced, would eliminate this risk. UDVTs were found to be a good on-site sanitation option as the maintenance requirement is small and the system effectively reduced odour and concentration of pathogen and indicator organisms in human waste while keeping the accumulation of material down to a minimum. If the vermicompost is to be used for crops consumed raw, an additional sanitisation step is recommended. PMID:23932466

Lalander, Cecilia H; Hill, Geoffrey B; Vinnerås, Björn

2013-11-01

332

Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P?=?0.002, P?hygiene is not performed properly among students and reported time constraints as a barrier to frequent hand washing. Conclusions Adding hand hygiene instruction to existing hand hygiene practices improved attendance at public elementary schools during the flu season. Standardized and brief repetitive instruction in hand hygiene holds potential to significantly reduce absenteeism. PMID:22587432

2012-01-01

333

The role of self-regulation in predicting sleep hygiene in university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

University students have poor sleep hygiene, leading to poorer health. Facets of self-regulation such as planning, behavioural inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory were explored in relation to three sleep hygiene behaviours: Avoiding stress or anxiety before bed, avoiding going to bed hungry or thirsty, and making the bedroom restful. One hundred and thirty-seven participants took part in an Internet-based

Jemma Todd; Barbara Mullan

2012-01-01

334

The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The overall increase in hand-hygiene behavior and reduction in symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism between the product group and control group was statistically significant. Reductions in upper respiratory-illness symptoms ranged from 14.8% to 39.9%. Total improvement in illness rate was 20%. The product group had 43% less missed school\\/work days. Conclusion: Hand-hygiene practices were improved with increased frequency of

Cindy White; Rebecca Carlson; Natasha Lipson; Mike Dolan; Mike Dolar; Mojee Cline

335

Effectiveness and sustainability of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in combating diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a synthetic review of impact evaluations examining effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in reducing diarrhoea among children. The evaluations were conducted in 35 low- and middle-income countries during the past three decades. The paper challenges the existing consensus that water treatment at point-of-use and hygiene interventions are necessarily the most effective and sustainable interventions for

Hugh Waddington; Birte Snilstveit

2009-01-01

336

The paleolithic disease-scape, the hygiene hypothesis, and the second epidemiological transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hygiene hypothesis [1, 2] argues that in developed nations the lack of childhood exposure to infectious pathogens, parasites, and symbiotic microorganisms\\u000a increases susceptibility to allergy and other chronic diseases in adulthood. A modified hygiene hypothesis, (‘the old friends\\u000a hypothesis’ proposed by G. A. Rook [3]) excludes childhood diseases as a requisite factor and focuses on organisms such as lactobacilli,

George J. Armelagos; Goodrich C. White

337

Self-Reported Oral Hygiene Habits and Oral Health Problems of Kuwaiti Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aims of this study were to examine self-reported oral hygiene habits and oral health problems of a sample of adult Kuwaitis. Materials and Methods: A self-administered, anonymous, structured questionnaire was distributed to 2,400 adult Kuwaiti nationals from all 6 governates of Kuwait assessing socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene habits, and oral health problems. Results: Of the 2,400 questionnaires, 1,925

Khalaf F. Al-Shammari; Jassem M. Al-Ansari; Areej K. Al-Khabbaz; Asmahan Dashti; Eino J. Honkala

2007-01-01

338

A bundle strategy including patient hand hygiene to decrease clostridium difficile infections.  

PubMed

Prevention strategies for Clostridium difficile infection traditionally have addressed barrier precautions, environmental disinfection, and health care worker hand hygiene. When applied as a bundle, this approach has been used widely as an evidence-based strategy to prevent hospital-acquired C. difficile infection. Expanding the bundle to include patient hand hygiene is a nurse-driven approach to prevent C. difficile transmission. PMID:25137788

Pokrywka, Marian; Feigel, Jody; Douglas, Barbara; Grossberger, Susan; Hensler, Amelia; Hensler, Amelia; Weber, David

2014-01-01

339

Causes, symptoms and prevention of food allergy  

PubMed Central

Currently, food allergy is considered to be one of the diseases of civilization, which occurs as a result of the changing conditions of life and environmental changes (e.g. increased popularity of cesarean delivery, excessive hygienic regime during the neonatal-infantile period). Based on medical statistics, it can be concluded that this problem will be intensified. Consumption of food is one of the main activities in human life. What and how one eats affects our health. Meals eaten regularly provide the components necessary for the energy metabolism. Multicultural society, travel, and new trends affect the diversity of food consumed. The mechanism of food allergy reaction covers all 4 types of the immune response of the classical division of Gell and Coombs. The percentage of the immune response was assessed by Chandra as follows: type I – 48%, type II – 6%, type III – 10%, and type IV – 18%. The article presents the risk factors for food allergy, most common symptoms, preventive measures and characteristics of food products that are potential allergens. PMID:24278058

Wroblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Kopczynski, Przemyslaw

2013-01-01

340

[Dental health: relationship between dental caries and food consumption].  

PubMed

Although the reduction and prevalence of dental caries in many countries has been largely associated with the use of fluorine and improving dental hygiene, eating habits also play a role in the development of caries. Fermentable carbohydrates characteristics of the food, rate of consumption, food protectors, the quality and quantity of saliva indices that determine the remineralization of teeth are factors to be considered. All these elements are analyzed through the sociodemographic, behavioral, physical and biological environment directly or indirectly with diet and caries. PMID:23834094

González Sanz, Angel Miguel; González Nieto, Blanca Aurora; González Nieto, Esther

2013-07-01

341

Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

2014-01-01

342

Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.  

PubMed

Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives. PMID:21914711

Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

2013-07-01

343

Food Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

Schwenk, Nancy E.

1991-01-01

344

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

345

Food extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready?to?eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of a tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder

Judson M. Harper; J. Peter Clark

1979-01-01

346

Food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Section 103 (d) of the Americans with Disabilities Act directs the secretary of health and human services to identify, publish, and annually review a list of pathogens transmitted via food contaminated by infected food handlers. The secretary is also directed to publish means by which diseases on the list are transmitted. The intent of the list is to protect disabled

PATRICIA OLLINGER-SNYDER; M. EILEEN MATTHEWS

1996-01-01

347

Food Labels  

MedlinePLUS

Food Allergy Fact EPINEPHRINE IS THE FIRST LINE TREATMENT FOR ANAPHYLAXIS Home About Us About FARE Leadership Executive Team Board of Directors Medical & Research Advisors History Annual Reports & Financial Statements Become a Member Corporate Partners Contact Us Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Alliance About ...

348

Food Allergy: An Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... 14 Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? 17 Diagnosing Food Allergy 22 Preventing and Treating Food ... cramping abdominal pain, become worse when you eat. 17 NIAID I FOOD ALLERGY Diagnosing Food Allergy Detailed ...

349

Finding food  

PubMed Central

A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

2011-01-01

350

Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Hands of ready-to-eat food service employees have been shown to be vectors in the spread of foodborne disease, mainly because of poor personal hygiene and accounting for approximately 97% of food borne illnesses in food service establishments and homes. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hand washing practices and sanitation before commencing work among food handlers in the convenient food industry in Gauteng, South Africa. Methods: A total of 230 samples were collected, involving 100% of the food handlers, in 8 selected convenient food outlets with their main focus on preparing ready-to-eat foods. The workers’ cleaned and disinfected dominant hands were sampled for Total Plate Count (TPC), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacteria were isolated and counted using standard methods. Results: The highest bacterial count from the hand samples was 7.4 x 103 cfu.cm-2 and the lowest showed no detectable growth. Although hands with a count of 0 cfu.cm-2 were found in all of the plants, the results indicated that all the plants exceeded the legal limit for food surfaces or hands of < 100 cfu.cm-2 when the average bacterial counts on hands were compared. Sixty percent of the TPC analysed exceeded the legal limit and only 18% of the food handlers had no bacteria detectable on their hands. One sample tested positive for E. coli and S. aureus could not be detected on the hands of any of the food handlers. Conclusion: The study revealed that hand hygiene is unsatisfactory and may have serious implications for public health due to contamination of food from food handlers’ hands. This therefore underlined the importance of further training to improve food handlers’ knowledge of good hand washing practices. PMID:25097511

AA, Lambrechts; IS, Human; JH, Doughari; JFR, Lues

2014-01-01

351

Virtual food components: functional food effects expressed as food components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ability to communicate food benefits is essential for the successful development of functional foods and their role in improving public health. However, the functional efficacy of foods often cannot be represented by food composition. The concept of virtual food components (VFCs)—food data that express health-related effects, properties or functions of foods in the format of food components—is therefore

J A Monro

2004-01-01

352

[Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].  

PubMed

Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rati

Poplinger, A

2010-04-01

353

Evaluation of the safety of domestic food preparation in Malaysia.  

PubMed Central

Food-handling practices were studied in 119 and 158 households, respectively, in an urban and a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. Hazard analyses, including microbiological analysis of foods, were carried out in two households in each community and in a house that prepared food for distribution in the urban area. Kitchen hygiene was generally acceptable, although rated "poor" in some instances in the rural area. Food prepared for lunch was usually sufficient for dinner also, the leftover items being stored at ambient temperature until required. In the house that prepared food for distribution, breakfast was prepared during the evening, stored at ambient temperature overnight, and reheated before sale the next morning. There was a local preference for cooking food at temperatures close to boiling point; this reduced the numbers of vegetative cells but not those of spores. In some stored foods the populations of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and mesophilic aerobic bacteria increased, the last-mentioned reaching spoilage levels. Reheating reduced the populations of proliferating bacteria in most foods to acceptable levels but would not have destroyed heat-resistant enterotoxins. Because of their importance in combating acute bacterial foodborne disease, the control of the temperature and time factors during the cooking and storage of food should receive special attention in education on health and food safety. PMID:7867133

Desmarchelier, P. M.; Apiwathnasorn, C.; Vilainerun, D.; Watson, C.; Johari, M. R.; Ahmad, Z.; Barnes, A.

1994-01-01

354

Hygienic relevance and risk assessment of antimicrobial-impregnated textiles.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial impregnation of textiles is intended to provide protection of textiles against microbial corrosion, prevention of malodor or prophylaxis and therapy of infections, respectively. For every biocidal product a careful risk assessment for humans and the environment has to be performed. The advantage of antimicrobially active textiles has to be documented for every agent as well as for every application, and a balance has to be found between a textile's quality rating and the potential risks, e.g. sensitization, disturbance of the ecology of the skin, toxic side effects by means of systemic absorption, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and ecotoxicity. This article evaluates the applicability of silver compounds as well as the classic antimicrobials triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds, copper and further new options like chitosan and zeolite. It has to be emphasized that there are no objections against the use of antimicrobially active textiles if their use is equal or superior to other preventive or therapeutic measures. This applies to the amelioration of the course of dermatological diseases with disturbed skin flora, in particular atopic dermatitis, the prevention and therapy of acute and chronic wound infections by wound dressings, the use of impregnated surgical suture material as well as special indications in the prevention of infection in medical facilities. The use of antimicrobial textiles for the prevention of dermatomycosis by antifungal impregnation is of questionable use; the antimicrobial impregnation of textiles for deodorization purposes has to be avoided. Presently, from a hygienic point of view, the following questions have to be clearly determined: declaration of any antimicrobial impregnation; development of international standards for in vitro testing and preclinical evaluation of efficacy and tolerance; evaluation of the advantage of the antimicrobial properties for the intended use including the risk-benefit assessment. PMID:16766883

Kramer, A; Guggenbichler, P; Heldt, P; Jünger, M; Ladwig, A; Thierbach, H; Weber, U; Daeschlein, G

2006-01-01

355

[Hygienic requirements for transportation of industrial waste and consumption residues].  

PubMed

All wishing legal persons and individual entrepreneurs are presently engaged in garbage disposal Sanitary-and-epidemiological examination of activities in transportation of waste is complicated by that the existing sanitary regulations lack no requirements for storage, repair, washing, sanitization of waste-carrying transport, particularly epidemiologically dangerous (domestic, food, and biological waste, animal excreta, cut hair, etc.). PMID:20143485

Metel'ski?, S V; Sin'kova, N V

2009-01-01

356

Food Craving and Food “Addiction”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although certain commonalities exist between eating and drug use (mood effects, external cue-control of appetites, reinforcement, etc.), it is argued that the vast majority of cases of (self-reported) food craving and food “addiction” should not be viewed as addictive behavior. An explanation is proposed that instead gives a prominent role to the psychological processes of ambivalence and attribution, operating together

Peter J Rogers; Hendrik J Smit

2000-01-01

357

Food Grab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

358

Food Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students' attention is drawn to the issue of food spoilage and the different methods that are traditionally used to prolong the freshness of food. Using a number of online resources, they learn about how Chilean fruit and lettuce for salad are carefully harvested, treated, packaged, and transported in refrigerated vessels to maintain their freshness. Students are then introduced to the canning, drying, freezing, and vacuum-sealing processes that are commonly used by food producers and in the home.

Science Netlinks;

2004-04-05

359

Sleep Hygiene and Problem Behaviors in Snoring and Non-Snoring School-Age Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives The effects of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep restriction, dyssomnias, and parasomnias on daytime behavior in children have been previously assessed. However, the potential relationship(s) between sleep hygiene and children’s daytime behavior remain to be explored. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep hygiene and problematic behaviors in non-snoring and habitually snoring children. Methods Parents of 100 5- to 8-year-old children who were reported to snore “frequently” to “almost always,” and of 71 age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched children who were reported to never snore participated in this study. As part of a larger, ongoing study, children underwent nocturnal polysomnography and parents were asked to complete the Children’s Sleep Hygiene Scale (CSHS) and the Conners’ Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CPRS-R:L). Results In the snoring group, strong negative correlations (r = ?.39, p <.001) between the CSHS overall sleep hygiene score and the CPRS-R:L DSM-IV total scores emerged. Additionally, several subscales of the CSHS and CPRS-R:L were significantly correlated (p-values from <.000 to .004) in snoring children. No significant correlations were observed between the CSHS and the CPRS-R:L in the non-snoring children. Conclusions Parental reports of behavioral patterns in snoring children indicate that poorer sleep hygiene is more likely to be associated with behavior problems, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and oppositional behavior. In contrast, no significant relationships between sleep hygiene and problem behaviors emerged among non-snoring children. These results indicate that children at risk for sleep disordered breathing are susceptible to daytime behavior impairments when concurrently coupled with poor sleep hygiene practices. PMID:22647496

Witcher, Lisa A.; Gozal, David; Molfese, Dennis M.; Salathe, Scott M.; Spruyt, Karen; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin

2012-01-01

360

Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179

García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

2012-11-01

361

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common

Cecilia Buccheri; Alessandra Casuccio; Santo Giammanco; Marco Giammanco; Maurizio La Guardia; Caterina Mammina

2007-01-01

362

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... foods in your cart last. For example, meat, fish, eggs, and milk should hit your cart after ... buying packaged meat, poultry (chicken or turkey), or fish, check the expiration date on the label (the ...

363

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... food allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish ( ... peanut allergy and about 10% of kids with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish ...

364

Prevalence of the main food-borne pathogens in retail food under the national food surveillance system in Japan.  

PubMed

The National Food Surveillance System in Japan was formed in 1998 to monitor the contamination of retail foods with bacterial pathogens. Approximately 2000-3000 samples were tested annually, and the data from food categories that had more than 400 samples collected during 1998-2008 were analysed. With regard to meat, the frequency of positive samples for Salmonella in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken was 12.7% and 33.5%, respectively. Moreover, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was found in ground meat, organ meat and processed meat, although at a low frequency (0.1%). The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli was 13.3% and 20.9% in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken, respectively. In vegetables and fruit, Salmonella was detected in cucumber, lettuce, sprout and tomato samples at a frequency of around 0.1-0.2%. With regard to seafood, Salmonella was found in 0.5% of oysters for raw consumption. Seafood was not contaminated with STEC O157 or Shigella. Serotype Infantis was the most frequently detected serotype of Salmonella in seafood, followed by the serotypes Typhimurium, Schwarzengrund and Manhattan. In ground chicken, 72.2% of the strains were identified as the serotype Infantis. E. coli, as an indicator of food hygiene, was detected in all food categories. The results show the prevalence of the above-mentioned pathogens in the retail food supplied in Japan; further, they indicate that consumption of raw food carries the risk of contracting food-borne infections. PMID:23199079

Hara-Kudo, Y; Konuma, H; Kamata, Y; Miyahara, M; Takatori, K; Onoue, Y; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T

2013-01-01

365

Patient-as-observer approach: an alternative method for hand hygiene auditing in an ambulatory care setting.  

PubMed

A survey pilot asked patients to observe the hand hygiene compliance of their health care providers. Patients returned 75.1% of the survey cards distributed, and the overall hand hygiene compliance was 96.8%. Survey results and patient commentary were used to motivate hand hygiene compliance. The patient-as-observer approach appeared to be a viable alternative for hand hygiene auditing in an ambulatory care setting because it educated, engaged, and empowered patients to play a more active role in their own health care. PMID:24679574

Le-Abuyen, Sheila; Ng, Jessica; Kim, Susie; De La Franier, Anne; Khan, Bibi; Mosley, Jane; Gardam, Michael

2014-04-01

366

Comparative study of visual inspections and microbiological sampling in premises manufacturing and selling high-risk foods.  

PubMed Central

The possible relationship between the results of a microbiological sampling programme and visual inspections carried out in local food-manufacturing premises was examined. Using five main parameters - overall appearance, personal hygiene, risk of contamination, temperature control, and training and education - a visual inspection rating score was established for each of the premises. A variety of high-risk processed foods, and specimens from hands, wiping cloths and environmental swabs were examined. The results from two study periods indicated that there was an overall poor agreement between microbiological results and inspection ratings. On its own, neither sampling nor visual assessment reliably monitored the performance of the premises. A combined approach, using selective microbiological examination to support a system of standardized inspections, is suggested for monitoring food hygiene standards in premises selling high-risk foods. PMID:2558030

Tebbutt, G. M.; Southwell, J. M.

1989-01-01

367

LOCAL FOOD DIGEST: Food Hub Overview  

E-print Network

LOCAL FOOD DIGEST: Food Hub Overview Greg Schweser Associate Director, Sustainable Local Foods, University of Minnesota Humphrey School of Public Affairs LOCAL FOOD MOVEMENT Food hub development has become a focus in the local food movement as an opportunity to provide scale-appropriate infrastructure to small

Netoff, Theoden

368

Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology  

E-print Network

Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology Food Safety and Technology National Center for Food Safety and Technology IIT Moffett Campus 6502 S. Archer Road Summit-Argo, IL 60501 708 Ravishankar The National Center for Food Safety and Technology (NCFST), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug

Heller, Barbara

369

Measurement of patient hand hygiene in multiorgan transplant units using a novel technology: an observational study.  

PubMed

Objective.?Healthcare worker hand hygiene is known to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but there are few data on patient hand hygiene despite the fact that nosocomial pathogens may be acquired by patients via their own unclean hands. The purpose of this study was to measure patient hand hygiene behavior in the hospital after visiting a bathroom, before eating, and on entering and leaving their rooms. Design.?Cross-sectional study. Setting.?Acute care teaching hospital in Canada. Patients.?Convenience sample of 279 adult patients admitted to 3 multiorgan transplant units between July 2012 and March 2013. Methods.?Patient use of alcohol-based hand rub and soap dispensers was measured using an ultrasound-based real-time location system during visits to bathrooms, mealtimes, kitchen visits, and on entering and leaving their rooms. Results.?Overall, patients performed hand hygiene during 29.7% of bathroom visits, 39.1% of mealtimes, 3.3% of kitchen visits, 2.9% of room entries, and 6.7% of room exits. Conclusions.?Patients appear to perform hand hygiene infrequently, which may contribute to transmission of pathogens from the hospital environment via indirect contact or fecal-oral routes. PMID:25333427

Srigley, Jocelyn A; Furness, Colin D; Gardam, Michael

2014-11-01

370

Do dental hygiene students fit the learning profile of the millennial student?  

PubMed

Differences in learning and the cultural context of our students' life experiences are important variables that faculty members need to understand in order to be effective in the classroom. Faculty members are finding that millennial students' approaches to learning are often vastly different from their own and as a result feel frustrated in their ability to help these students with their learning needs. Cultivating awareness of how today's dental hygiene student learns as well as the millennial learner profile can help faculty members address this educational challenge. The purpose of this study was to identify the learning styles of three groups of dental hygiene students and determine if they fit the learning profile of the millennial student as measured by the Learning Type Measure. Given this new generation of learners, it was hypothesized that dental hygiene students' learning style preferences would fit the learning profile of the millennial student. The Learning Type Measure was administered to 101 dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota, University of Arizona, and Virginia Commonwealth University. The results from the study revealed that dental hygiene students do exhibit learning style preferences consistent with the millennial learner profile. PMID:20007492

Blue, Christine M

2009-12-01

371

[Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units].  

PubMed

Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units. Over the past 15 years, the model of medical and nursing care changed from being exclusively oriented to the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness, to the achievement of outcomes by preventing iatrogenic complications (Hospital Acquired Conditions). Nursing Sensitive Outcomes show as nursing is directly involved in the development and prevention of these complications. Many of these complications, including falls from the bed, use of restraints, urinary catheter associated urinary infections and intravascular catheter related sepsis, are related to basic nursing care. Ten years ago in critical care, a school of thought called get back to the basics, was started for the prevention of errors and risks associated with nursing. Most of these nursing practices involve hygiene and mobilization. On the basis of these reflections, Kathleen Vollman developed a model of nursing care in critical care area, defined Interventional Patient Hygiene (IPH). The IPH model provides a proactive plan of nursing interventions to strengthen the patients' through the Evidence-Based Nursing Care. The components of the model include interventions of oral hygiene, mobilization, dressing changes, urinary catheter care, management of incontinence and bed bath, hand hygiene and skin antisepsis. The implementation of IPH model follows the steps of Deming cycle, and requires a deep reflection on the priorities of nursing care in ICU, as well as the effective teaching of the importance of the basic nursing to new generations of nurses. PMID:25002060

Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Solaro, Massimo; Lumini, Enrico; Rasero, Laura

2014-01-01

372

Measuring changes in water-related health and hygiene practices by developing-community households.  

PubMed

A population sample from a community in a developing urban area (Botshabelo), which obtains its treated water supply from a communal standpipe system, was subjected to a short Health and Hygiene Awareness and Education (HHA&E) programme to improve its practices on storing water in, and handling water from, storage containers at home. The problem was that the community's practices lead to the deterioration of the microbiological quality of the water in domestic storage containers. Measuring changes in the practices, as well as the microbiological quality of water in the containers, were the instruments used to determine whether the programme had a positive educational effect. This paper reports on selected elements of the practices measurement. Structured interviews, observations and statistical analyses assessed three variables--container hygiene, container storage and hand hygiene. Results indicated insignificant improvements in practices. This was supported by insignificant improvements in the microbiological water quality, that was still above health-safety limits. This implied that short-term "quick fix" HHA&E programmes would tend to be ineffective. Results also suggested that some negative water-hygiene habits may readily change (container hygiene and storage), while behaviour of a more personal nature, such as hand-washing, was not easily changed. PMID:15318492

Jagals, P; Nala, N P; Tsubane, T J; Moabi, M; Motaung, K C

2004-01-01

373

Food Allergies in Schools  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Adolescent and School Health Share Compartir Food Allergies in Schools Food allergies are a growing food ... Guidelines FAQs [PDF - 163KB] What is a Food Allergy? A food allergy occurs when the body has ...

374

[Means and methods of personal hygiene in the experiment with 520-day isolation].  

PubMed

Six volunteers (3 Russians, a Frenchman, an Italian and a Chinese) participated in assessment of the input of sanitation and housekeeping provisions to their wellbeing during 520-day isolation and confinement. Subject of the study was quality and sufficiency of housekeeping agents and procedures as well as more than 60 names of personal hygiene items. The sanitation and housekeeping monitoring involved the clinical, hygienic and microbiological methods, and also consideration of crew comments on the items at their disposal and recommended procedures. Based on the analysis of the functional condition of the integument and oral cavity and entries in the questionnaires, i.e. objective data and subjective feelings, all test subjects remained in the invariably good state. Owing to the application of the selected hygienic means and methods the microbial status of the crew was stable throughout 520-day isolation. PMID:23814895

Shumilina, G A; Shumilina, I V; Solov'eva, S O

2013-01-01

375

A behind-the-scenes look at the safety assessment of feminine hygiene pads.  

PubMed

Forms of menstrual protection have evolved with time. Today's disposable feminine hygiene products, notably sanitary pads, include a wide range of designs and features to meet women's needs for reliable, discreet, and comfortable protection. Manufacturers support substantive research and testing programs to ensure the safety of these products. The premarket safety assessment of feminine hygiene pads is a systematic, stepwise process that includes toxicological evaluation of the raw materials, the conduct of prospective, controlled clinical trials to assess product safety-in-use, and, in some cases, independent scientific review. A broad clinical database, developed over the past 20 years, substantiates that modern, feminine hygiene pads are not associated with significant gynecological, dermatological, or microbiological effects. Postmarket surveillance provides reassurance that the products are acceptable to consumers worldwide. PMID:17308134

Farage, Miranda A

2006-12-01

376

Benefits of a 'dental hygiene chew' on the periodontal health of cats.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to determine the clinical efficacy of a chew designed to improve dental hygiene in the cat. The accumulation of dental deposits (plaque and calculus) and the effect on gingival inflammation were assessed in 15 client-owned cats while on two different regimens. In the first leg of the study, the cats were fed a nutritionally complete dry diet supplemented with one dental hygiene chew. In the second leg of the study, the same cats were fed only the nutritionally complete diet. This study demonstrated that the daily addition of the chew to the dry diet resulted in significantly less plaque and calculus accumulation on tooth surfaces. It was our experience that daily feeding of the chew helped maintain dental hygiene in cats; however, regular professional therapy is still indicated. PMID:10597159

Gorrel, C; Inskeep, G; Inskeep, T

1998-09-01

377

Light Hygiene: Time to make preventive use of insights--old and new--into the nexus of the drug light, melatonin, clocks, chronodisruption and public health.  

PubMed

Light is, clearly, a key to life on Earth and light, equally clearly, determines biological rhythmicity in organisms. Light does the latter by setting internal or endogenous clocks which allow a multitude of species, including man, to adjust their lives to changing external or environmental conditions. Critical changes over time occur from day to night and throughout the year. In this paper, we sum up how visible light provides electromagnetic information about environmental "time" via the ocular interface of newly discovered photoreceptive cells to a master clock in our brain, viz the suprachiasmatic nuclei [SCN], and how the SCN translate this input, with melatonin as a key biologic intermediary, into endogenous or biological time. We summarize experimental and epidemiological evidence suggesting how chronodisruption, a relevant disturbance of the temporal organization or order of physiology, endocrinology, metabolism and behaviour, is probably detrimental for human beings. On the basis of our synthesis, and in line with suggestions by other researchers voiced decades ago, light must, functionally, be considered as a drug equivalent. In this vein, the very timing, quality (wavelength), quantity (dose) and side effects, including chronodisruption, of light exposures can be critically important for health and disease in man. As a promising means to foster public health, we advocate an appropriate balance of exposures to the key Zeitgeber light in terms of "light hygiene", implying strong and appropriate rather than weak and confusing temporal information. This focus on "light hygiene", and thus on the key Zeitgeber light, does not mean to ignore that there are multiple entrainment pathways for our circadian clocks. Indeed, when dealing with light, chronodisruption and a multitude of adverse health effects, we ultimately need to consider Zeitgeber cues, and their possible interplay, beyond light alone. Confusions of the temporal programmes in humans can also stem from physical and social activities, stress and facets of food intake. And yet, since light possesses a rather unique and exclusive Zeitgeber role and in view of its ubiquitous nature, a specific, preventative focus on "light hygiene", as a contribution to a general "Zeitgeber hygiene", is warranted. PMID:19586725

Erren, Thomas C; Reiter, Russel J

2009-10-01

378

Dissemination of the CDC's Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates  

PubMed Central

Background The diffusion of national evidence-based practice guidelines and their impact on patient outcomes often go unmeasured. Methods Our objectives were to (1) evaluate implementation and compliance with clinical practices recommended in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hand Hygiene Guideline, (2) compare rates of health care-associated infections (HAI) before and after implementation of the Guideline recommendations, and (3) examine the patterns and correlates of changes in rates of HAI. We used pre- and post-Guideline implementation site visits and surveys in the setting of 40 US hospitals—members of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System—and measured HAI rates 1 year before and after publication of the CDC Guideline and used direct observation of hand hygiene compliance and Guideline implementation scores. Results All study hospitals had changed their policies and procedures and provided products in compliance with Guideline recommendations; 89.8% of 1359 staff members surveyed anonymously reported that they were familiar with the Guideline. However, in 44.2% of the hospitals (19/40), there was no evidence of a multidisciplinary program to improve compliance. Hand hygiene rates remained low (mean, 56.6%). Rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections were significantly lower in hospitals with higher rates of hand hygiene (P < .001). No impact of Guideline implementation or hand hygiene compliance on other HAI rates was identified. Other factors occurring over time could affect rates of HAI. Observed hand hygiene compliance rates were likely to overestimate rates in actual practice. The study may have been of too short duration to detect the impact of a practice guideline. Conclusion Wide dissemination of this Guideline was not sufficient to change practice. Only some hospitals had initiated multidisciplinary programs; practice change is unlikely without such multidisciplinary efforts and explicit administrative support. PMID:18063132

Larson, Elaine L.; Quiros, Dave; Lin, Susan X.

2007-01-01

379

The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.  

PubMed

Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches. PMID:24990138

Ramsingh, Brigit

2014-07-01

380

A microbiological evaluation of warm air hand driers with respect to hand hygiene and the washroom environment.  

PubMed

A finger rinse technique for counting micro-organisms on hands showed no significant difference in the level of recovered micro-organisms following hand drying using either warm air or paper towels. Contact plate results appeared to reflect the degree of dampness of hands after drying rather than the actual numbers of micro-organisms on the hands. In laboratory tests, a reduction in airborne count of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus of between 40 and 75% was achieved from 600 readings comparing inlets and outlets of warm air hand driers. In washroom trials, the number of airborne micro-organisms was reduced by between 30 and 75%. Air emitted from the outlet of the driers contained significantly fewer micro-organisms than air entering the driers. Drying of hands with hand driers was no more likely to generate airborne micro-organisms than drying with paper towels. Levels of micro-organisms on external surfaces of hand driers were not significantly different to those on other washroom surfaces. This work shows that warm air hand driers, of the type used in this study, are a hygienic method of drying hands and therefore appropriate for use in both the healthcare and food industry. PMID:11123464

Taylor, J H; Brown, K L; Toivenen, J; Holah, J T

2000-12-01

381

[About the sexual hygiene of mental retarded boys, an exercise of the sexual pedagogic (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The sexual hygiene of mental retarded boys is examinated. In comparison with normal school boys is pointed out the necessity of sexual pedagogic education. The striking more numerous quote of balanitis in mental retarded boys is discussed with a critical review of Literature about the cleanness of the hands while miction of man, about the cleanness of the inferior abdomen, the cleanness of the pants and the hygiene of the toilet. The conclusion is drawn, that the cleaning of the foreskin has also to be observed by the mental retarded men, boys once a week and youths day by day. PMID:707239

Pfefferkorn, A

1978-08-01

382

[Efficacy of lid hygiene in treatment of patients with blepharoconjunctival form of dry eye syndrome].  

PubMed

A complex of measures for lid hygiene in ocular surface disease is developed. These measures together with tear substitution and antibacterial treatment were revealed to result in elimination of blepharoconjunctivitis and dry eye signs, recovery of tear film and long-time remission, that significantly improved patient's life quality. When using this complex of measures meibomian glands are not damaged and their anatomy and functions are completely preserved. Lid hygiene affects all glands, there is no pain and no local anesthesia needed, normal tear film is formed PMID:22741294

Polunin, G S; Zabega?lo, A O; Makarov, I A; Safonova, T N; Polunina, E G

2012-01-01

383

Steps to the Future. Dental Hygiene Education and Practice Workshop II Proceedings (Louisville, Kentucky, April 25-27, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of the second in a series of workshops on dental hygiene education and practice are presented. The opening remarks are by Cheryl Westphal. Papers categorized as "Considerations for the Professionalization of Dental Hygiene" are as follows: "Socio-Economic Viewpoint" (Gary Gaumer); "Political Science Viewpoint" (Lelia Helms);…

American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

384

The Impact of a Health Campaign on Hand Hygiene and Upper Respiratory Illness Among College Students Living in Residence Halls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their findings indicate that students who

Cindy White; Robin Kolble; Rebecca Carlson; Natasha Lipson

2005-01-01

385

Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and job satisfaction in the malaysian retail sector: the mediating effect of love of money  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines what motivates employees in the retail industry, and examines their level of job satisfaction, using Herzberg's hygiene factors and motivators. In this study, convenience sampling was used to select sales personnel from women's clothing stores in Bandar Sunway shopping mall in the state of Selangor. The results show that hygiene factors were the dominant motivators of sales

Teck Hong Tan; Amna Waheed

2011-01-01

386

Social returns from drinking water, sanitation and hygiene education: A case study of two coastal villages in Kerala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social returns from investing in water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (WATSANGENE) have been estimated from the UNICEF model of water supply, sanitation and hygiene after modifying it using Sen's commodities and capabilities approach. The various characteristics of the commodity, WATSANGENE, affect significantly the functioning levels of people with respect to poverty, health, longevity, education and quality of environment. Among

K. Pushpangadan

2002-01-01

387

The Impact of a Health Campaign on Hand Hygiene and Upper Respiratory Illness among College Students Living in Residence Halls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their…

White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha

2005-01-01

388

Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India  

PubMed Central

First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

2011-01-01

389

Food Deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deserts and accessibility represent a new frontier in the assault of life-threatening, dietrelated diseases, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Scholars represent the research literature from diverse disciplines, such as anthropology, agriculture, sociology, economics, marketing, public policy, sociology, and social epidemiology. Applied sociology has not contributed to this important conversation. Applied sociology's integration and use of theory, methods, and

Anthony Troy Adams; Monika J. Ulrich; Amanda Coleman

2010-01-01

390

Weaning Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

Chauliac, Michel; And Others

1987-01-01

391

Food Allergies DEFINITIONS  

E-print Network

Food Allergies DEFINITIONS: Definition of a Food Allergy: Immune system response to a food creates a defense immune system response (antibodies) to fight it. Food allergy symptoms develop when are a digestive system response and are much more common than food allergies. Food Allergy vs. Food Intolerance

Maxwell, Bruce D.

392

Organic Foods vs Supermarket Foods: Element Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic food has been noted in various studies as having similar nutritional value as commercial foods. These studies usually look at the dry ashed concentration and are designed for the food producer. In this study the average elemental concentration in organic foods on afresh weight basis was found to be about twice that of commercial foods.

Bob L. Smith

393

Food processing: a food scientist's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans generally are not eating enough foods that meet dietary guidelines. More choices for consumers would be available if food processors were to manufacture more foods and ingredients that met dietary guidelines. The food industry, for the most part, has the technology to develop and sell foods that meet dietary guidelines and further has the capacity to market them in

Robert E. Smith

1999-01-01

394

"Dictating the suitable way of life": mental hygiene for children and workers in socialist Mexico, 1934-1940.  

PubMed

After the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), an ambitious project of national reconstruction began in which education and health were two priorities in the consolidation of a new nation. In this context of social, cultural, and political transformation, mental hygiene was a field that made it possible to articulate the professional practice of psychiatrists with the project of the nation promoted by postrevolutionary governments. In Mexico, the mental hygiene movement was headed by the same doctors who professionalized the practice of psychiatry and made it a specialized field of knowledge. The first generation of psychiatrists managed to integrate mental hygiene into health and education policies during the socialist administration of president Lázaro Cárdenas; a phenomenon that made evident the articulation between mental hygiene, social medicine, and nationalist discourse. Discussion will focus on proposals made from the perspective of mental hygiene as a function of two social sectors regarded as priorities by the Cárdenas government: children and workers. PMID:23423842

Molina, Andrés Ríos

2013-01-01

395

Revisiting mental hygiene: Josef Lundahl's interpretation of modern psychiatry in Sweden at the beginning of the twentieth century.  

PubMed

The concept of mental hygiene is historically intertwined with eugenics and what it meant both ideologically and for the care of the mentally ill. A closer investigation of the concept and of the historical context shows that different interpretations existed simultaneously. The aim of this essay is to highlight the literary and scientific works of a Swedish psychiatrist, Josef Lundahl, an advocate of the mental hygiene concept. A close reading of his texts is used to provide an example of how the concept of mental hygiene was understood by a psychiatrist and practitioner of mental hygiene. The practice of child-care and out-patient care that Lundahl founded in Visby is far from what we now associate with mental hygiene in the past. PMID:24572796

Piuva, Katarina

2013-03-01

396

Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.  

PubMed

This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. PMID:24425418

Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

2014-08-01

397

A preliminary evaluation of the effect of glove use by food handlers in fast food restaurants.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine whether the levels of selected microorganisms differed on foods handled by gloved and bare hands at fast food restaurants. Three hundred seventy-one plain flour tortillas were purchased from fast food restaurants and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., coliform bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Approximately 46% of the samples were handled by workers wearing gloves compared with 52% of samples with bare hand contact. Coliform bacteria were found in 9.6% of samples handled by gloved workers and 4.4% of samples handled by bare hands, although this difference was not statistically significant. The distribution of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, a general measure of hygiene, was also higher in samples handled by gloved workers in one restaurant chain. The presence of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and S. aureus was detected in one, two, and eight samples, respectively, and there were no significant differences between samples handled by gloved or bare hands. Neither direct contact of the tortilla with the food preparation surface nor gender of the worker affected the level of any organism tested. The observed tendency of food workers to wear the same pair of gloves for extended periods and complacency might account for the apparent failure of gloves to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination. The results further suggest that glove use might be counterproductive because workers might wash their hands less frequently when gloved. PMID:15690825

Lynch, Robert A; Phillips, Margaret L; Elledge, Brenda L; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Boatright, Daniel T

2005-01-01

398

Space shuttle food system summary, 1981-1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All food in the Space Shuttle food system was precooked and processed so it required no refrigeration and was either ready-to-eat or could be prepared for consumption by simply adding water and/or heating. A gun-type water dispenser and a portable, suitcase-type heater were used to support this food system during the first four missions. On STS-5, new rehydratable packages were introduced along with a needle-injection water dispenser that measured the water as it was dispensed into the packages. A modular galley was developed to facilitate the meal preparation process aboard the Space Shuttle. The galley initially flew on STS-9. A personal hygiene station, a hot or cold water dispenser, a convection oven, and meal assembly areas were included in the galley.

Stadler, Connie R.; Rapp, Rita M.; Bourland, Charles T.; Fohey, Michael F.

1988-01-01

399

Chemical Hygiene Plan In Accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1450 and R325.70106  

E-print Network

Chemical Hygiene Plan In Accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1450 and R325.70106 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Office of Environmental Health & Safety 5425 Woodward, Suite 300 Detroit to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (29 CFR 1910.1450). The Michigan Occupational Safety and Health

Finley Jr., Russell L.

400

The Hygienic Efficacy of Different Hand-Drying Methods: A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

The transmission of bacteria is more likely to occur from wet skin than from dry skin; therefore, the proper drying of hands after washing should be an integral part of the hand hygiene process in health care. This article systematically reviews the research on the hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods. A literature search was conducted in April 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Search terms used were hand dryer and hand drying. The search was limited to articles published in English from January 1970 through March 2011. Twelve studies were included in the review. Hand-drying effectiveness includes the speed of drying, degree of dryness, effective removal of bacteria, and prevention of cross-contamination. This review found little agreement regarding the relative effectiveness of electric air dryers. However, most studies suggest that paper towels can dry hands efficiently, remove bacteria effectively, and cause less contamination of the washroom environment. From a hygiene viewpoint, paper towels are superior to electric air dryers. Paper towels should be recommended in locations where hygiene is paramount, such as hospitals and clinics. PMID:22656243

Huang, Cunrui; Ma, Wenjun; Stack, Susan

2012-01-01

401

Dental caries, gingival health, and oral hygiene of long term survivors of paediatric malignant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty two children who had had cancer and been treated with chemotherapy, and who were long term event free, were examined for caries prevalence, gingival health, and oral hygiene and compared with a control group. A higher dental caries prevalence for the 14-17 year age group was noted. The restorative index was significantly lower in the age group 10-13. There

F Dens; P Boute; J Otten; F Vinckier; D Declerck

1995-01-01

402

A profitable hygiene system: not an undervalued practice resource, part 2.  

PubMed

In this 2-part article, we have addressed the correct methods to use in selecting the right hygienist and the importance of creating a purposeful vision for your dental hygiene department. We have touched on the role of having the doctor discuss practice expectations, and the qualities and traits a dental hygienist should possess. Finally we have briefly reviewed some ideas regarding hygienist compensation as well as the integration of the new technologies to help you build a successful, productive, and profitable dental hygiene department. Many of today's practice owners have invested hundreds of thousands of dollars in updated facilities and state-of-the-art technology. They have invested in management and leadership courses, developed their business acumen, and have worked to insure that their clinical assistants' skills stay sharp. However, when it comes to dental hygiene, too many practices still operate a 1980s-style "prophylaxis mindset palace." The time has come for more dentists to embrace up-to-date dental hygiene practice standards. PMID:19275088

Doherty, Hugh; Davis, Karen; Miller, Kimberly

2009-02-01

403

Oral hygiene practices and periodontal health in primary school children in Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the oral hygiene practices, oral hygiene status, and periodontal health among primary school children in Nairobi. The study group consisted of 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were from 6 schools randomly selected among the 154 public primary schools in the city. The clinical examination was performed in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1980) criteria. Although most of the children reported brushing habits, 75% of the index tooth surfaces in the younger and 55% in the older age group had visible plaque. In both age groups about 25% of the index sites had gingivitis. Moderate amounts of calculus were recorded among the older children. Only two children had periodontal pockets greater than or equal to 4 mm. There was no statistically significant difference (p greater than 0.05) between males and females recorded with plaque and gingivitis in the younger age group. In the older group, however, a significantly higher proportion of males (p less than 0.05) were recorded with plaque and gingivitis. The oral hygiene practices and oral hygiene status were poorer among children from low than from high socioeconomic status. Provision of dental health education for children in Nairobi is recommended. PMID:1803850

Ng'ang'a, P M; Valderhaug, J

1991-10-01

404

The Diversity Dilemma: A National Study of Minorities in Dental Hygiene Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the predicted shortages of minority dental healthcare providers in the United States and the expanding diversity of the general population, it is important to recruit and retain an ethnically and culturally diverse allied dental workforce. The objectives of this study were to explore why the profession of dental hygiene exhibits minimal…

Moore, Tracye A.

2012-01-01

405

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Dental Hygiene Technology (Program CIP: 51.0602--Dental Hygienist). Postsecondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the dental hygiene technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies. Section II…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

406

Hygiene Self-Care of Older Adults in West Virginia: Effects of Gender  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated whether oral hygiene self-care behavior differs between genders in older adults in Appalachia, a geographic area with significant oral health concerns. Identifying the practices of older adults may provide valuable information for designing interventions, and improving overall oral health outcomes. Methods As part of a larger, on-going study on cognition and oral health in later life in Appalachia, a sample of dentate, older adults without dementia aged 70 and above (n =245, 86 men and 159 women) received an oral assessment by either a dentist or dental hygienist. Psychometricians assessed cognition using a standardized battery of neuropsychological tests. They also administered the General Oral Health Assessment Index and conducted structured interviews concerning diet, oral hygiene practices, oral health, social support, income, and years of education. Results Over 80% of women (n = 128) and 52.3% of men (n = 45) reported brushing their teeth twice daily. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, controlling for socioeconomic status, social support (i.e., frequency of contacting friends and relatives), general oral health assessment items, number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces, plaque index, and having regular dental visits. The results showed that women reported more frequent toothbrushing than their male counterparts (OR=4.04, 95% CI:1.93,8.42). Conclusion Older women in West Virginia had significantly better oral hygiene practices than older men, particularly regarding toothbrushing. Interventions are needed to improve older men’s dental hygiene behaviors to improve overall oral health outcomes. PMID:22947846

Wiener, R. Constance; Wu, Bei; Crout, Richard J.; Plassman, Brenda L.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Wiener, Michael A.; Kao, Elizabeth C.; Caplan, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

407

Blue Ribbon Abstract Award: A Systems Approach to Improving Hand Hygiene on an Inpatient Surgery Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISSUE: Low hand hygiene (HH) adherence rates have been linked to transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We thus set out to improve HH rates among all healthcare workers in an inpatient surgery unit by applying principles of the Toyota Production System to routine work of patient care.PROJECT: Baseline data were obtained by observing healthcare providers during patient encounters, revealing low HH

Squier R Cochran; D. Cardo; J. Jernigan; P. Perreiah; R. R. Muder

2004-01-01

408

Hygiene status of rural communities in the Eastern Cape of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive study was conducted to determine hygiene status of rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, using a purposive sample of 145 villagers: 71 male and 74 female. Participants were divided into 14 groups (by community) and group interviews were conducted with them. Communities neither had enough water (92.9%) nor treated drinking water (71.4%); sizeable numbers did not

2006-01-01

409

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene ­ Associate-Apr-13/LNHD This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study for this major. However, courses and milestones designated as critical (in boldface and shaded areas) must be completed

Khan, Javed I.

410

Implementation of Portfolio Assessment in a Competency-based Dental Hygiene Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the implementation of a portfolio assessment program in the dental hygiene program at the University of Missouri School of Dentistry. Tables provide examples of program competencies and related portfolio entries, the complete scoring rubric for portfolios, and the student portfolio evaluation survey. Concludes that although portfolio…

Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C.; Holt, Lorie P.; Overman, Pamela R.; Schmidt, Colleen R.

2000-01-01

411

THE CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN UPDATED FEBRUARY 2013 BY CHARLES MARTUCCI, PhD  

E-print Network

in that particular workplace. Components of the CHP must include standard operating procedures for safety and health of the President] to provide a safe and healthy workplace in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health A of this Chemical Hygiene Plan. On 31 January, 1990 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA

Aronov, Boris

412

Occupational exposure to permethrin during its use as a public hygiene insecticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permethrin is an active ingredient found in many public hygiene insecticide products and exposure to it was assessed in a survey of 45 professional users. The exposures measured were over a wide range, with more than a 100-fold difference between average levels and the highest levels. Dermal contamination was evident on 93% of the operators, the highest contamination resulting from

D. M. Llewellyn; A. Brazier; R. Brown; J. Cocker; M. L. Evans; J. Hampton; B. P. Nutley; J. White

1996-01-01

413

PRE-DENTAL HYGIENE College of Liberal Arts and Sciences -Advising Center  

E-print Network

PRE-DENTAL HYGIENE College of Liberal Arts and Sciences - Advising Center 387 Cramer Hall, (503) 725-3822, askclas@pdx.edu PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY Dental hygienists help people maintain a healthy to be used in the home. The dental hygienist is a licensed health care provider. Bachelor of Science (BS

414

Influence of Free-Stall Base on Tarsal Joint Lesions and Hygiene in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to quantify the incidence of tarsal lesions and level of hygiene by stall bed type. Cows were scored on 100 dairies from Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana, Iowa, and New York in the fall and winter. Thirty-eight dairies used rubber-filled mattresses (RFM), 27 had sand beds, 29 had waterbeds, and 6 used compost packs (CPk). Stocking density, stall dimen-

W. K. Fulwider; T. Grandin; D. J. Garrick; T. E. Engle; W. D. Lamm; N. L. Dalsted; B. E. Rollin

2007-01-01

415

THE USE OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SAMPLERS FOR SOIL-GAS MEASUREMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a field evaluation of a passive-sampling technique for soil-gas surveying. The system uses a sampler, consisting of an industrial hygiene organic vapor monitor inside a metal sampling manifold, buried at a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (1 foot). Samplers...

416

New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program  

E-print Network

New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the Bureau of Mental Health. Individuals mental health services to adults that is in contract with the Bureau of Mental Health in the NYC DOHMH

Qiu, Weigang

417

Hand hygiene rates unaffected by installation of dispensers of a rapidly acting hand antiseptic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of the study was to improve health care workers' compliance with hand hygiene after patient contact by use of an alcohol-based hand antiseptic. Design and Methods: Six commercially available alcohol-based hand antiseptics were evaluated. The one most pleasing to the evaluators' hands was selected for the study. Baseline handwashing rates were assessed on 2 medical wards. Alcohol

Carlene A Muto; Maria G Sistrom; Barry M Farr

2000-01-01

418

[Parents' place of work as a possible hygienic risk factor for children].  

PubMed

Children whose parents work on industrial enterprises were found to have higher heavy metals content of hair, when compared to the children of nonindustrial enterprises workers. That proves pollutants transmission into living area by industrial workers (on clothes, shoes, etc) and determines this pollution source as a potential factor of hygienic risk for children. PMID:19663183

Ianin, E P

2009-01-01

419

Infections and allergy --helminths, hygiene and host immune Rick M Maizels  

E-print Network

Infections and allergy -- helminths, hygiene and host immune regulation Rick M Maizels of allergy is not achieved through immune deviation to Th1, but is linked to expansion of regulatory T cell from an infected, allergen-nai¨ve animal to an uninfected, sensitized recipient. Patent allergy

Maizels, Rick

420

A Data Based Multidimensional Oral Hygiene Curriculum for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multidimensional oral hygiene curriculum appropriate for the moderately to profoundly retarded and composed of tooth brushing, flossing, and gum stimulation/massage is proposed. Task analyses are included for manual tooth brushing, utilizing an oral irrigation appliance, manual flossing, and use of an adaptive aid for flossing. Also provided are…

Feldman, David; Elliott, Thomas A.

421

Dental Hygiene Students' Preparation for Treatment of Patients with Mental Illnesses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 138 dental hygiene programs gathered information on didactic and clinical experiences for preparing students to treat patients with mental illnesses. Although most curricula addressed the issue, inadequate time was allotted. Over half did not provide oral care to these patients; few felt the community's need was met. (MSE)

Lemon, Sherry; Reveal, Marge

1991-01-01

422

The Impact of Long-Term Dental Health Education on Oral Hygiene Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated the impact of five years' exposure to a dental health curriculum on the oral hygiene of fifth-grade students. Findings of the study indicate that a well-designed dental health curriculum based on cognitive and behavioral objectives can result in a greater accumulation of dental health knowledge. (JN)

Houle, Bonnie A.

1982-01-01

423

Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. FINDINGS: After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. CONCLUSION: Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time. PMID:11436473

Curtis, V.; Kanki, B.; Cousens, S.; Diallo, I.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sangare, M.; Nikiema, M.

2001-01-01

424

A Preliminary Study of Classroom Motivators and De-Motivators from a Motivation-Hygiene Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to begin answering two simple questions: "What motivates our students?" and its corollary, "What prevents our students from being motivated?" The motivation-hygiene theory (F. Herzberg, "Work and the nature of man," World Publishing, Cleveland, OH, 1966), a well-tested theory from organizational psychology, holds that people's…

Katt, James A.; Condly, Steven J.

2009-01-01

425

Impact of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions on Improving Health Outcomes among School Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose. This review was done to explore the impact of water treatment, hygiene, and sanitary interventions on improving child health outcomes such as absenteeism, infections, knowledge, attitudes, and practices and adoption of point-of-use water treatment. Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed and Google scholar for studies published between 2009 and 2012 and focusing on the effects of access to safe water, hand washing facilities, and hygiene education among school-age children. Studies included were those that documented the provision of water and sanitation in schools for children less than 18 years of age, interventions which assessed WASH practices, and English-language, full-text peer reviewed papers. Results. Fifteen studies were included in the final analysis. 73% (n = 11) of the studies were conducted in developing countries and were rural based (53%, n = 8). The child's age, gender, grade level, socioeconomic index, access to hygiene and sanitary facilities, and prior knowledge of hygiene practices were significantly associated with the outcomes. Nutrition practices which are key factors associated with the outcomes were rarely assessed. Conclusion. Further research is required to assess the long-term impact of such interventions in different settings. PMID:24454415

Joshi, Ashish

2013-01-01

426

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Hygienic Quality and Chemical Characteristics of Dehydrated Ostrich Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of gamma irradiation on improving hygienic quality of dehydrated Ostrich eggs during cold storage was studied. Irradiation with dose level 6 kGy proved to be quite tool to keep quality of ostrich egg components since it decreased their bacterial counts less than 100 cells\\/g either after irradiation process or during cold storage for 6 months. Total coliform, E. coli

H. M. SWAILAM; A. A. ABOU ZEID

427

Hygiene and Biosecurity: The Language and Politics of Risk in an Era of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and avian influenza, have recently been high on the agenda of policy makers and the public. Although hygiene and biosecu- rity are preferred options for disease management, policy makers have become increasingly aware of the critical role that communication assumes in protecting people during outbreaks and epi- demics. This article makes the case

Brian Brown; Brigitte Nerlich; Paul Crawford; Nelya Koteyko; Ronald Carter

2009-01-01

428

The hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

The transmission of bacteria is more likely to occur from wet skin than from dry skin; therefore, the proper drying of hands after washing should be an integral part of the hand hygiene process in health care. This article systematically reviews the research on the hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods. A literature search was conducted in April 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Search terms used were hand dryer and hand drying. The search was limited to articles published in English from January 1970 through March 2011. Twelve studies were included in the review. Hand-drying effectiveness includes the speed of drying, degree of dryness, effective removal of bacteria, and prevention of cross-contamination. This review found little agreement regarding the relative effectiveness of electric air dryers. However, most studies suggest that paper towels can dry hands efficiently, remove bacteria effectively, and cause less contamination of the washroom environment. From a hygiene viewpoint, paper towels are superior to electric air dryers. Paper towels should be recommended in locations where hygiene is paramount, such as hospitals and clinics. PMID:22656243

Huang, Cunrui; Ma, Wenjun; Stack, Susan

2012-08-01

429

Ann. occup. Hyg., Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 147153, 2005 # 2004 British Occupational Hygiene Society  

E-print Network

research and enforces standards on occupational health and safety. HSE developed EASE to aid in riskAnn. occup. Hyg., Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 147­153, 2005 # 2004 British Occupational Hygiene Society Program for Estimating Occupational Exposures KAREN L. JOHNSTON1 , MARGARET L. PHILLIPS1 *, NURTAN A

Illinois at Chicago, University of

430

[Studies on "allura red AC standard", dye standards of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences].  

PubMed

"Allura Red AC Standard (C.I. 16035)", Dye Standards of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences was prepared. The content of this Dye Standards was determined by the titanium trichloride method. This content averaged 95.5%. Ultra violet-visible absorption and infrared spectra of the Dye Standard were also determined. PMID:1364399

Kimura, M; Kakiuchi, M; Kawamoto, R; Tsuji, S; Shibata, T; Ito, Y

1991-01-01

431

Hygienic Behavior of Cape and European Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) toward Aethina tumida  

E-print Network

by Cape honey bees in South Africa and European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae WORDS Aethina tumida, hygienic behavior, oviposition, Cape honey bees, European honey bees HONEY BEES honey, pollen, and bee brood (Elzen et al. 1999, Hood 2000, Ellis et al. 2002). Inthisstudy

Delaplane, Keith S.

432

Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene (Degree Completion) 2013-2014 Old Dominion University Catalog  

E-print Network

Perspectives on Dental Hygiene Practice 3 DNTH 414 Educational Concepts for Health Prof I 3 DNTH 415 Research careers in education, oral health promotion, research, community health, management, and marketing and Culture 0-6 See #6 on page 2 of curriculum sheet GEN. ED. Information Literacy/Research Skills 0 Satisfied

433

Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene (Degree Completion) 2012-2013 Old Dominion University Catalog  

E-print Network

Notes DNTH 412W Perspectives on Dental Hygiene Practice 3 DNTH 414 Educational Concepts for Health Prof, and attitudes necessary for expanded careers in education, oral health promotion, research, community health and Culture 0-6 See #6 on page 2 of curriculum sheet GEN. ED. Information Literacy/Research Skills 0 Satisfied

434

Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene (Degree Completion) 2012-2013 Old Dominion University Catalog  

E-print Network

412W Perspectives on Dental Hygiene Practice 3 DNTH 414 Educational Concepts for Health Prof I 3 DNTH, and attitudes necessary for expanded careers in education, oral health promotion, research, community health and Culture 0-6 See #6 on page 2 of curriculum sheet GEN. ED. Information Literacy/Research Skills 0 Satisfied

435

Bachlor of Science in Dental Hygiene (Degree Completion) 2011-2012 Old Dominion University Catalog  

E-print Network

412W Perspectives on Dental Hygiene Practice 3 DNTH 414 Educational Concepts for Health Prof I 3 DNTH careers in education, oral health promotion, research, community health, management, and marketing and Culture 0-6 See #6 on page 2 of curriculum sheet GEN. ED. Information Literacy/Research Skills 0 Satisfied

436

Satisfaction of Hygiene and Motivation Needs of Teachers Who Resigned from Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing incidence of teacher burnout suggests that many teachers have difficulty in satisfying their needs and in deriving satisfaction from teaching. This study examined the needs that teachers appear to have difficulty in satisfying. The study is based on Herzberg's Hygiene-Motivation Theory. This theory, related to Maslow's Hierarchy of…

Frataccia, Enrico V.; Hennington, Iris

437

Estimating the burden of disease from water, sanitation, and hygiene at a global level.  

PubMed Central

We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene at the global level taking into account various disease outcomes, principally diarrheal diseases. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines the burden from death and disability in a single index and permits the comparison of the burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene with the burden from other risk factors or diseases. We divided the world's population into typical exposure scenarios for 14 geographical regions. We then matched these scenarios with relative risk information obtained mainly from intervention studies. We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene to be 4.0% of all deaths and 5.7% of the total disease burden (in DALYs) occurring worldwide, taking into account diarrheal diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm disease. Because we based these estimates mainly on intervention studies, this burden is largely preventable. Other water- and sanitation-related diseases remain to be evaluated. This preliminary estimation of the global disease burden caused by water, sanitation, and hygiene provides a basic model that could be further refined for national or regional assessments. This significant and avoidable burden suggests that it should be a priority for public health policy. PMID:12003760

Pruss, Annette; Kay, David; Fewtrell, Lorna; Bartram, Jamie

2002-01-01

438

Fast Food to Healthy Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent headline in the Nation's Restaurant News (2002) asked the question: “Should Restaurants Bear the Burden of Monitoring Americans' Diets?”. Society has grown increasingly conscientious about health care costs and the question is consistent with this trend. In light of some highly publicized cases of litigation and debates between consumer groups and food service professionals, this question is the

Susan Gregory; Carmela McTyre; Robin B. Dipietro

2006-01-01

439

Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2008) 102, 751--758 available at www.sciencedirect.com  

E-print Network

Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2008) 102, 751--758 available resistance. © 2008 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights © 2008 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

440

Food Court  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit of four lessons from NCTM's Illuminations lets students conduct surveys and represent data in a variety of ways. They also find and compare measures of center. The lessons center around a food court, where students create and use menus in a meaningful way. Topics covered include bar graphs, line plots, and pictographs, measures of center, and probability of events. Individual lessons link to related tools where appropriate, and include questions for students, assessment options, and teacher reflection questions.

Burton, Grace M.

2008-01-01

441

Salt and peroxide compared with conventional oral hygiene. III. Patient compliance and acceptance.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to evaluate patient compliance with, and acceptance of, a salt and peroxide oral hygiene regimen compared with conventional oral hygiene regimens without or with the use of phase-contrast microscope viewing of subgingival plaque over a period of 2 years. A total of 231 subjects with early to moderate periodontitis were randomly divided into four groups. All groups were repeatedly instructed and motivated in their respective regimens. Subjects also received scaling and root planing using clinical and microbial criteria. Compliance with, and acceptance of, the two oral hygiene regimens were determined at the end of the study using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results indicated that 74% and 58% (P less than or equal to 0.01) of subjects in the conventional and salt/peroxide groups, respectively, used their assigned regimen 4 to 7 days a week during the entire study. More than half of the subjects (54%) using each of the oral hygiene regimens indicated that they flossed once daily. Inconvenience was cited by 23% of the conventional and 43% of the salt/peroxide groups (P less than or equal to 0.01) as the main reason for not using their regimens. Twenty-three per cent of conventional group and 14% of salt/peroxide group indicated that shared their oral hygiene supplies with others. Eighty per cent and 57% (P less than or equal to 0.01) of the conventional and salt/peroxide groups, respectively, stated that they liked their regimens. Ninety-six per cent of all subjects felt that their regimen helped their periodontal status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3035166

Bakdash, M B; Wolff, L F; Pihlstrom, B L; Aeppli, D M; Bandt, C L

1987-05-01

442

The value of hygiene promotion: cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions in developing countries.  

PubMed

Hygiene promotion can greatly improve the benefits of water and sanitation programmes in developing countries at relatively limited costs. There are, however, few studies with hard data on the costs and effectiveness of individual programmes and even fewer have compared the cost-effectiveness of different promotional approaches. This article argues that objectively measured reductions of key sanitation and hygiene risks are better than DALYs for evaluating hygiene and sanitation promotion programmes. It presents a framework for the cost-effectiveness analysis of such programmes, which is used to analyse six field programmes. At costs ranging from US dollar 1.05 to US dollar 1.74 per person per year in 1999 US dollar values, they achieved (almost) complete abandonment of open defecation and considerable improvements in keeping toilets free from faecal soiling, safe disposal of child faeces, and/or washing hands with soap after defecation, before eating and after cleaning children's bottoms. However, only two studies used a quasi-experimental design (before and after studies in the intervention and - matched - control area) and only two measured costs and the degree to which results were sustained after the programme had ended. If the promotion of good sanitation and hygiene is to receive the political and managerial support it deserves, every water, sanitation and/or hygiene programme should give data on inputs, costs, processes and effects over time. More and better research that reflects the here-presented model is also needed to compare the cost-effectiveness of different promotional approaches. PMID:19703917

Sijbesma, Christine; Christoffers, Trea

2009-11-01

443

Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?  

PubMed Central

Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001). Conclusions While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

2012-01-01

444

Hygienic support of the ISS air quality (main achievements and prospects)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hygienic preventive measures during pre-flight processing of manned spaceships, selection of polymeric materials, sanitary-hygienic evaluation of cargo and scientific hardware to be used on the ISS and life support systems allow to maintain air quality in limits of regulatory requirements. However, graduate increase of total air contamination by harmful chemicals is observed as service life of the ISS gets longer. It is caused by polymeric materials used on the station overall quantity rise, by additional contamination brought by cargo spacecrafts and modules docking to the ISS and by the cargo. At the same time the range of contaminants that are typical for off-gassing from polymeric materials where modern stabilizers, plasticizers, flame retarders and other additives are used gets wider. In resolving the matters of the ISS service life extension the main question of hygienic researches is to determine real safe operation life of the polymeric material used in structures and hardware of the station, including: begin{itemize} research of polymers degradation (ageing) and its effect on intensity of off gassing and its toxicity; begin{itemize} introduction of polymers with minimal volatile organic compounds off gassing under conditions of space flight and thermal-oxidative degradation. In order to ensure human safety during long-term flight it is important to develop: begin{itemize} real-time air quality monitoring systems, including on-line analysis of highly toxic contaminants evolving during thermo-oxidative degradation of polymer materials and during blowouts of toxic contaminants; begin{itemize} hygienic standards of contaminants level for extended duration of flight up to 3 years. It is essential to develop an automated control system for on-line monitoring of toxicological status and to develop hygienic and engineer measures of its management in order to ensure crew members safety during off-nominal situation.

Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Pakhomova, Anna

445

[Hygiene in schools - an important issue for the public health services].  

PubMed

According to the Protection against Infection Act (IfSG), schools have to identify their arrangements of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for hygienic conditions, and the public health departments are obliged to check the hygienic conditions in schools. Here, practical experience with these topics in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, is presented.Although all schools had been informed about their duties according to IfSG in 2001, only 44% (80/180 schools) of them were able to present their SOPs when requested to do so by the public health department in 2006. Complaints about bad sanitary hygiene in schools have to be confirmed, often even in recently redeveloped facilities, because of vandalism. The equipment of washing basins was improved very well during the influenza pandemic in 2009. In 2010, however, a tendency to deterioration had been observed. With data on high levels on indoor contamination (particles and CO2) in class rooms in 2006, the city increased the frequency of cleaning and launched a programme on proper ventilation in classrooms. However, a study on ventilation in 29 schools in 2009 resulted in very high levels of CO2; obviously the recommendation to ventilate the classrooms every break are neglected. Large studies on drinking water quality exhibited good data, with the exception of high Legionella contaminations in hot water systems supplying the showers in gymnasiums. Major redevelopment measures were necessary.Hygienic conditions in schools should be improved urgently. The public health departments should increase their consulting services as well as their control visits in schools - with the aim to improve hygiene in schools. Responsibility of the schools as well as of the individuals in the schools is demanded as well. More public attention to this topic seems mandatory, may be via a "signal light - red-yellow-green" for schools? PMID:22113381

Heudorf, U; Voigt, K; Eikmann, Th; Exner, M

2011-11-01

446

Implementation of the world health organization hand hygiene improvement strategy in critical care units  

PubMed Central

Background To determine hand hygiene compliance before and after an intervention campaign in critical care units, this study was carried out in the Intensive care unit (ICU), Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Burns unit (BU) and the Kidney unit of the King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia. The observation using the WHO hand hygiene protocol took place in four phases with phase I, between April 24-May 06 2010 and phase II from May 29-June 09 2010. An educational intervention took place between the Phases I and II. Follow-up Phases III and IV were from 01–15 October 2010 and 15–30 March 2011 respectively. Findings 1,975 hand hygiene opportunities comprising of 409 in Phase I, 406 in Phase II, 620 in Phase III and 540 Phase IV were observed. Compliance rate was 67% pre-intervention, 81% in phase II, declining to 59% and 65% in phases III and IV. Increased compliance in the ICU from 39% in Phase I to 81% in Phase IV (p?hygiene were before patient contact, after touching patient’s surrounding and before aseptic techniques. Team-work and leadership were identified as enhancing factors for compliance. Conclusion The WHO hand hygiene strategy combined with health education, continuous evaluation and team approach resulted in increased compliance but this was not sustained in certain critical care areas. PMID:23673017

2013-01-01

447

Food allergy: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed

This review focuses on advances and updates in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergy over the past 3 years since our last comprehensive review. On the basis of numerous studies, food allergy likely affects nearly 5% of adults and 8% of children, with growing evidence of an increase in prevalence. Potentially rectifiable risk factors include vitamin D insufficiency, unhealthful dietary fat, obesity, increased hygiene, and the timing of exposure to foods, but genetics and other lifestyle issues play a role as well. Interesting clinical insights into pathogenesis include discoveries regarding gene-environment interactions and an increasing understanding of the role of nonoral sensitizing exposures causing food allergy, such as delayed allergic reactions to carbohydrate moieties in mammalian meats caused by sensitization from homologous substances transferred during tick bites. Component-resolved diagnosis is being rapidly incorporated into clinical use, and sophisticated diagnostic tests that indicate severity and prognosis are on the horizon. Current management relies heavily on avoidance and emergency preparedness, and recent studies, guidelines, and resources provide insight into improving the safety and well-being of patients and their families. Incorporation of extensively heated (heat-denatured) forms of milk and egg into the diets of children who tolerate these foods, rather than strict avoidance, represents a significant shift in clinical approach. Recommendations about the prevention of food allergy and atopic disease through diet have changed radically, with rescinding of many recommendations about extensive and prolonged allergen avoidance. Numerous therapies have reached clinical trials, with some showing promise to dramatically alter treatment. Ongoing studies will elucidate improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24388012

Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A

2014-02-01

448

Food & Nutrition Resource Guide  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Food Safety Resources4-H Food & Nutrition Resource Guide Developed by: 4-H Food & Nutrition Issue Group Renee Sanders System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating #12;Food

449

The Science of Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of resources and inquiry lessons on nutrition and food-related concepts such as photosynthesis, food webs, food contaminants, food borne parasites or bacterial infections and choosing a healthy diet.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

450

Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water.  

PubMed

Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755

Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F

2008-03-01

451

Food-borne infections and intoxications in Europe*  

PubMed Central

Any attempt to evaluate the prevalence of food-borne diseases in Europe is fraught with difficulty, partly because in some countries such diseases, if reported, are not clearly designated as food-borne, and partly because of the variety in terminology and methods of classification. Nevertheless, it is apparent that, although certain food-borne infections have decreased in prevalence, others have increased during the past decade. This increase has been shown to be related in some countries to the import of certain foodstuffs and fodder from tropical and subtropical regions and has resulted in a general spread of Salmonella infections by a wide variety of serotypes. Food-borne intoxications are predominantly caused by the ingestion of the toxins elaborated by the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in food and by spore-forming bacilli. Botulism is now rare in Europe. While the recent increase in the prevalence of these diseases calls for strict supervision of food products and improved measures of ensuring food hygiene, the efficacy of such steps as may be taken will depend on close co-operation between public health and veterinary public health authorities. PMID:14444504

Seeliger, H. P. R.

1960-01-01

452

Student self-assessment in dental hygiene education: a cornerstone of critical thinking and problem-solving.  

PubMed

Self-assessment is an integral component of learning and developing decision making and critical thinking skills in the practice of dental hygiene. Dental hygienists must think critically and develop problem-solving strategies during their formal education to ensure lifelong quality and ongoing development of their personal knowledge and skill as related to providing comprehensive, evidence-based patient care. The primary focus of this qualitative investigation was to obtain undergraduate dental hygiene students' perceptions of and experiences with self-assessment. The sample consisted of an intact undergraduate dental hygiene class of seventeen students in their final semester of a two-year, entry-level dental hygiene program at a community college in the southeast United States. Data for this research were obtained from three sources: 1) a program-designed self-assessment survey assignment, 2) in-depth interviews with four second-year dental hygiene students, and 3) program-designed clinical competence evaluation forms. Inductive data analysis revealed that the majority of students perceived that they had no prior experience with self-assessment in any prerequisite coursework and thus felt unprepared for its use in the dental hygiene program. As they matriculated in the program, students began to see the advantages of self-assessment in clinical practice. Programmatic orientation to self-assessment may therefore be beneficial due to the varying backgrounds of students entering dental hygiene programs. PMID:21828300

Mould, Michelle R; Bray, Kimberly Krust; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

2011-08-01

453

General hygiene, sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence in truck drivers from Andhra Pradesh, South India: implications for prevention interventions.  

PubMed

The relationships between hygiene, sexual behaviour and HIV infection are poorly understood. We examine these relationships in Indian truck drivers, a group at high risk for HIV infection. Truck drivers (n = 189) were recruited into an integrated HIV and hygiene Information Motivation (IM) programme. Sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and hygiene behaviour and HIV prevalence were determined. Multivariate logistic regression and linear generalized estimating equation models were utilized. At baseline, 2.1% of drivers were HIV infected and 34% who reported having contact with female sex workers (FSWs) had contact within the previous six months. Those who washed their hands postdefecation were less likely to report genital symptoms (OR 0.02; P = 0.01) and have sex with an FSW (OR [odds ratio] 0.21; P = 0.05). After an IM intervention, there were no changes in sexual risk-taking behaviour (coefficient -0.15 to -0.02; P = 0.13-0.75); however, hygiene behaviour improved from baseline (coefficient 0.09-0.31; P < 0.01 to P = 0.03). Personal hygiene habits, like handwashing, seem to be a modifiable behaviour after a modest intervention, whereas HIV risk-taking behaviour was not. The association between hygiene and HIV risk-taking suggests the need for further evaluation of the relationship and that of other hygiene practices in high-risk men in India. PMID:19103892

Schneider, J A; Dude, A; Dinaker, M; Kumar, V; Laumann, E O; Holloway-Beth, A; Oruganti, G; Saluja, G S; Chundi, V; Yeldandi, V; Mayer, K H

2009-01-01

454

Food Protection Management Program  

E-print Network

food dollars is spent on food prepared outside the home, food safety is a top concern among consumers. Therefore, food safety education is a critical prevention component for reducing the risk for foodborne diseases. Response To meet the need for quality food safety education in Texas retail food establishments

455

Package Those Foods!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student groups are challenged to create food packages for specific foods. They focus on three components in the design of their food packages; the packages must keep the food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in the food, and present the food appealingly. They design their packaging to meet these requirements.

Engineering K-Phd Program

456

The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

2014-01-01

457

[Assessment of the relationship of properties of chemical compounds and their toxicity to a unified hygienic standardization for chemicals].  

PubMed

The connection of thermodynamic properties and parameters of toxicity of chemical substances was determined. Obtained data are used for the evaluation of toxicity and hygienic rate setting of chemical compounds. The relationship between enthalpy and toxicity of chemical compounds has been established. Orthogonal planning of the experiment was carried out in the course of the investigations. Equation of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism is presented. Prospects of determination of toxicity and methodology of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism are presented PMID:24003710

Trushkov, V F; Perminov, K A; Sapozhnikova, V V; Ignatova, O L

2013-01-01

458

Beginning the journey of hand hygiene compliance monitoring at a 2,100-bed tertiary hospital in Vietnam.  

PubMed

As part of the first hospital-wide hand hygiene campaign at Hue General Hospital, Vietnam, we audited hand hygiene compliance following health care worker education and the introduction of alcohol-based handrub. Alcohol-based handrub was chosen more frequently than plain soap and water (83% and 17%, respectively; P = .0001). Hand hygiene compliance averaged 47% (1,310 actions/2,813 opportunities; 95% confidence interval: 45%-48%) with markedly different rates among departments, ranging from 5% to 69% (P = .0001). PMID:24388472

Salmon, Sharon; Tran, Huu Luyen; Bùi, D?c Phú; Pittet, Didier; McLaws, Mary-Louise

2014-01-01

459

Bacteriological quality of foods and water sold by vendors and in restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: a comparative study of three microbiological methods.  

PubMed

Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods--beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri--and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 degrees C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN > or = 50) were above the accepted 10(4) colony-forming unit/g or MPN < or = 10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029

Nkere, Chukwuemeka K; Ibe, Nnenne I; Iroegbu, Christian U

2011-12-01

460

Overview of affinity biosensors in food analysis.  

PubMed

The 4 major driving forces that are expected to lead to increased use of affinity biosensors that meet crucial industrial test specifications, e.g., fast, reliable, cost-effective, and use of low-skilled personnel, are (1) strict legislative framework, e.g., recent changes proposed to the European food safety and hygiene legislation, EC No. 178/2002; (2) industrial shift from quality control to quality assurance procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, ensuring effective positioning in the global competitive trade; (3) just-in-time production resulting in 'right' product every time; and (4) consumer demand for safe and wholesome products. The affinity biosensors field has expanded significantly over the past decade, with a projected global biosensors market growth from $6.1 billion in 2004 to $8.2 billion in 2009, representing major industrial sectors (e.g., Pharma, Medicare, and Food). This brief review is targeted to affinity biosensors developed for the food industry and includes research and development leading to biosensors for microbiological and chemical analytes of industrial concern, commercial biosensors products on the market, and examples of future prospects in this diagnostic field. PMID:16792079

Patel, Pradip D

2006-01-01

461

Listeria spp. in Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods  

PubMed Central

Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ?103?CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, and products of plant origin). Most of the samples contaminated by L. monocytogenes had high levels of total viable bacterial counts. The results obtained may help to clarify the epidemiology of listeriosis in the country and draw the attention of the decision makers to issue hygienic regulations for food processing industries as well as street vendors in order to ensure safe street-vended ready-to-eat food. PMID:22194742

El-Shenawy, Moustafa; El-Shenawy, Mohamed; Manes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose M.

2011-01-01

462

Phenotypic characterization of Salmonella isolated from food production environments associated with low-water activity foods.  

PubMed

Salmonella can survive for extended periods of time in low-moisture environments posing a challenge for modern food production. This dangerous pathogen must be controlled throughout the production chain with a minimal risk of dissemination. Limited information is currently available describing the behavior and characteristics of this important zoonotic foodborne bacterium in low-moisture food production environments and in food. In our study, the phenotypes related to low-moisture survival of 46 Salmonella isolates were examined. Most of the isolates in the collection could form biofilms under defined laboratory conditions, with 57% being positive for curli fimbriae production and 75% of the collection positive for cellulose production, which are both linked with stronger biofilm formation. Biocides in the factory environment to manage hygiene were found to be most effective against planktonic cells but less so when the same bacteria were surface dried or present as a biofilm. Cellulose-producing isolates were better survivors when exposed to a biocide compared with cellulose-negative isolates. Examination of Salmonella growth of these 18 serotypes in NaCl, KCl, and glycerol found that glycerol was the least inhibitory of these three humectants. We identified a significant correlation between the ability to survive in glycerol and the ability to survive in KCl and biofilm formation, which may be important for food safety and the protection of public health. PMID:23992493

Finn, Sarah; Hinton, Jay C D; McClure, Peter; Amézquita, Aléjandro; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus

2013-09-01

463

Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and Analysis of Associated Bacterial Communities on Food Industry Surfaces  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products. PMID:23023749

Gutierrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vazquez-Sanchez, Daniel; Martinez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta Lopez; Rodriguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J.

2012-01-01

464

Food Chains and Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn more about food chains, food webs, and how the organisms in them affect each other. In class, you have learned what food webs and food chains are. Today, you will explore how the organisms in these systems interact. Step One: Food Chains What happens when you take something out of a food chain? Go to the Chain Reaction website: Chain Reaction--Food Chains This internet site will help you ...

Thompson, Ms.

2007-02-21

465

[Hygienic evaluation of technological, design and sanitary-technical solutions for large-scale chemical plants].  

PubMed

Complexes of technologic solution for the construction of large-scale plants producing ammonia, nitric and sulfuric acids, ammonium nitrate, carbomide and caprolactam , are characterized by both positive and negative hygienic features. The hygienic shortcomings reveal themselves in sporadic increases of hazardous ingredients in concentrations up to the MAC and higher levels, as well as in unfavorable labour conditions when dealing with catalysts, storage operations, inter-enterprise transportation, dispatching of raw materials and finished products, in the contamination of the in-going ventilation air, and in the compound influence of low temperatures and toxic substances. The concentration of several large-capacity enterprises in the same area entails large-scale discharges in the atmosphere with subsequent contamination of the surrounding protection areas. The author proposes a set of major preventive measures. PMID:2150391

Mikha?luts, A P

1990-01-01

466

[Pressing problems of labor hygiene and occupational pathology among office workers].  

PubMed

Northwest public health research center, Ministry of health and social affairs, St.-Petersburg. The article substantiates the conception of "office room", "office worker", estimates the basic diseases and symptoms among office workers (SBS-syndrome, BRI-illnesses, BRS-symptoms). Complex of indoor factors of office environment are analyzed, which influence the health status of personnel--indoor air quality (microclimate, aerosols, chemical, biological pollution, air ionization), external physical factors, ergonomics, intensity and tension of work, psychosocial factors. Comparison of Russian and foreign approaches to the hygienic estimation and rating of these factors was carried out. Owing to inadequacy of Russian hygienic rules to modern requirements, the necessity of working out of a complex of sanitary rules focused particularly on office workers is proved. PMID:22724346

2012-01-01

467

Seven suggestive quantitative trait loci influence hygienic behavior of honey bees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1964, Walter Rothenbuhler proposed a two-gene model to explain phenotypic variance in the remarkable behavior in which honey bee workers remove dead brood from their colonies. Rothenbuhler's model proposed that one locus controls the uncapping of brood cells containing dead pupae, while a second controls the removal of the cell contents. We show here, through molecular techniques and quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage mapping, that the genetic basis of hygienic behavior is more complex, and that many genes are likely to contribute to the behavior. In our cross, we detected seven suggestive QTLs associated with hygienic behavior. Each detected QTL controlled only 9-15% of the observed phenotypic variance in the character.

Lapidge, Keryn; Oldroyd, Benjamin; Spivak, Marla

2002-10-01

468

Hygienic-toxicological aspects of exposure to lead. A critical review.  

PubMed

This review on hygienic, toxicologic and ecologic aspects of environmental burden of lead deals with the following topics: occurrence, production and use of lead; metabolism of lead and experimental toxicology of lead; toxicity of lead to man; hygienic and ecologic aspects of lead pollution. Lead ore mining and processing, production of lead-acid batteries and combustion of gasoline containing tetraethyl-lead as an anti-knock ingredient constitute at present the most important sources of lead pollution. The last named source of lead pollution in urban atmosphere is most hazardous to human health. Attempts to reduce this health hazard include use of additive-free gasoline, or replacement of tetraethyl lead by other anti-knock agents, e. g. by tetraethylcopper. The experiments with the use of organic compounds of manganese have failed to succeed. The possibility of biological monitoring of occupational and nonoccupational exposures to lead is discussed in detail in this review. PMID:6761391

Cikrt, M; Bencko, V

1982-01-01

469

[Current problems of school education and ways of its hygienic optimization].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to analyse effects of various innovative forms of school education on the health status and functional abilities of children and adolescents. Enhanced academic loads are shown to be the most unfavourable factor of the school environment. The main consequences of excess teaching load are shortened motor and outdoor activities of the children, smaller duration of night sleep. Optimization of academic routine (alternation of studies and holidays), modular structure of school calendar might help to reduce fatigue during school hours. Hygienic estimates of different variants of specialized education are obtained. Scientifically sound hygienic requirements are proposed to be applied to the organization of academic activities in a new type of educational institutions, full-day schools. PMID:19507350

Stepanova, M I; Sazaniuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Polenova, M A

2009-01-01

470

HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

471

Vaginal Douches and Other Feminine Hygiene Products: Women's Practices and Perceptions of Product Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Objective: Use of vaginal douche products has been linked with a variety of reproductive health problems; nonetheless, the practice\\u000a of douching persists. The goals of this study were to 1) determine the use of vaginal douches and other feminine hygiene products,\\u000a 2) ascertain how safe women think vaginal douche products are, and 3) evaluate women's readiness to stop douching. Methods:

Diane M. Grimley; Lucy Annang; Herman R. Foushee; F. Carol Bruce; Juliette S. Kendrick

2006-01-01

472

Industrial hygiene in the world arena of occupational health and safety.  

PubMed

The professional industrial hygienist is a "man (or woman) for all seasons," with the ability to cope with a wide variety of problems affecting the health and safety of workers. The development of this profession, for which we in the United States can take credit, had its beginnings about the time of WWI when our chemical industry was beginning to expand and munitions had to be produced for the war effort. Today this professional expertise that is industrial hygiene is in demand in every industrialized country, and even the developing countries are realizing its potential benefit in prevention of occupational disease. In the last decade, which some call the OSHA decade, we have seen several important trends in this profession. The industrial hygienist has become a manager. He must be able to supervise industrial hygiene technologists and technicians. He has become an allied health professional in that he is doing the biologic monitoring heretofore done exclusively by physicians and nurses. In many companies he has been given organization status equal to that of the corporate medical director, and in some instances he has even been given corporate responsibility for overall health and safety. Industrial hygiene is truly a rewarding field for young people with backgrounds in engineering or one of the chemical, physical, or biological sciences. Several hundred are currently in training at the graduate level, but still the demand far exceeds the supply. The decade of the 80's should see even further advances in the field of industrial hygiene, especially in the development of more sophisticated instrumentation and the increased use of the computer in managing environmental and biological data and programming epidemiologic studies. To the academic institutions responsible for postgraduate training in this field, these rapid and profound changes in the professional requirements pose a real challenge, and continuing education courses will assume an even more important role. PMID:7457365

Key, M M

1980-11-01

473

Dietary and Oral Hygiene Habits in Children with Type I Diabetes Mellitus Related to Dental Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aims of the study were to evaluate differences in dietary, oral hygiene habits and social class in children with Type I diabetes mellitus (DM), compared to non-diabetics, and to investigate relationship between selected caries-risk factors and caries experience in diabetics. Material and methods: 70 children with Type I DM and 70 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls were in-

474

Importance of structured training programs and good role models in hand hygiene in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify the beliefs and perceptions associated with hand hygiene performance in two different institutions with limited resources and recently established infection control programme later than developed institutions. The study was conducted in two different hospitals (University Hospital-U-hospital and Community Hospital-C-hospital) in the same city by a self administered questionnaire. Most questions were drawn

Emine Alp; Ahmet Ozturk; Muhammed Guven; Ilhami Celik; Mehmet Doganay; Andreas Voss

2011-01-01

475

Association of diarrhoea, poor hygiene and poor social conditions in childhood with blood pressure in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious research has suggested that dehydration in infancy may lead to high blood pressure in later life because of sodium retention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of poor hygiene of the child, poor social and poor housing conditions at home and diarrhoea in childhood as proxies for dehydration on high blood pressure in later life.MethodsData

L. Kauhanen; J. W. Lynch; H.-M. Lakka; J. Kauhanen; G. D. Smith

2010-01-01

476

The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSeveral studies have indicated a connection between hand sanitization and infection control in numerous settings such as extended care facilities, schools, and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of both a hand-hygiene message campaign and the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in decreasing the incidence of upper-respiratory illness among students living in university

Cindy White; Robin Kolble; Rebecca Carlson; Natasha Lipson; Mike Dolan; Yusuf Ali; Mojee Cline

2003-01-01

477

Bilingual Humor, Verbal Hygiene, and the Gendered Contradictions of Cultural Citizenship in Early Mexican American Comedy  

E-print Network

By Peter C. Haney Department of Latin American Studies University of Kansas Paper citation: Haney, Peter. (2003) “Bilingual Humor, Verbal Hygiene, and the Gendered Contradictions of Cultural Citizenship in Early Mexican American Comedy.” Journal... performers”) since 1965 have used various combinations of these two languages not only to accommodate linguistically diverse audiences but also to serve those audiences’ need to see their everyday ways of speaking reflected and valorized on stage (1982...

Haney, Peter C.

2003-01-01

478

Faulkner on Feminine Hygiene, or, How Margaret Sanger Sold Dewey Dell a Bad Abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues that William Faulkner’s novel As I Lay Dying elucidates the political economies driving the illicit over-the-counter trade in birth control products during the 1910s and 1920s. Drawing on works such as Margaret Jarman Hagood’s ethnographic studies of tenant farm women, advertisements for feminine hygiene products, and Margaret Sanger’s political tracts, I read Faulkner’s novel as staging—through the

Heather E. Holcombe

2011-01-01

479