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1

Food hygiene and travel at sea  

PubMed Central

The incidence of gastroenteritis on a passenger ship is reviewed and discussed in relation to the agents of infection from stool specimens, the bacteriological condition of food samples, and the practice of galley hygiene. PMID:1208291

Hobbs, Betty C.; Colbourne, M. J.; Mayner, P. E.

1975-01-01

2

Role of veterinarians in modern food hygiene  

PubMed Central

Veterinary services and veterinary education and training must keep pace with the constantly changing patterns of agriculture and food processing. Changes in methods of animal production are associated with many problems of food processing and food quality. Veterinary supervision of the animal feed industry and of meat and distribution is essential. Quality testing of meat, milk, and eggs requires the introduction of suitable routine sampling systems, laboratory procedures, and complex evaluation procedures. Food hygiene problems have changed in recent years not only as a result of new methods of animal production, but also because of changes in food processing technology and in the presentation of food to the consumer, increased environmental pollution, increased international trade, and increased tourist travel. Food hygienists must adopt an active and progressive policy and change the scope of food control from a purely negative measure into a positive force working towards improved food quality and the avoidance of losses during production. A modern food hygiene programme should cover all stages of production, processing, and distribution of food and also other ingredients, additives and the water used for production and processing. Veterinarians should also be involved in the registration and licensing of enterprises and this should take into account the premises, the procedures to be used, new techniques in animal husbandry, machines and equipment, etc. In order to facilitate the microbiological analysis of foodstuffs, new mechanized or automated laboratory methods are required, and consideration must be given to adequate sampling techniques. PMID:310716

Matyáš, Z.

1978-01-01

3

Role of veterinarians in modern food hygiene.  

PubMed

Veterinary services and veterinary education and training must keep pace with the constantly changing patterns of agriculture and food processing. Changes in methods of animal production are associated with many problems of food processing and food quality. Veterinary supervision of the animal feed industry and of meat and distribution is essential. Quality testing of meat, milk, and eggs requires the introduction of suitable routine sampling systems, laboratory procedures, and complex evaluation procedures.Food hygiene problems have changed in recent years not only as a result of new methods of animal production, but also because of changes in food processing technology and in the presentation of food to the consumer, increased environmental pollution, increased international trade, and increased tourist travel.Food hygienists must adopt an active and progressive policy and change the scope of food control from a purely negative measure into a positive force working towards improved food quality and the avoidance of losses during production. A modern food hygiene programme should cover all stages of production, processing, and distribution of food and also other ingredients, additives and the water used for production and processing. Veterinarians should also be involved in the registration and licensing of enterprises and this should take into account the premises, the procedures to be used, new techniques in animal husbandry, machines and equipment, etc.In order to facilitate the microbiological analysis of foodstuffs, new mechanized or automated laboratory methods are required, and consideration must be given to adequate sampling techniques. PMID:310716

Matyás, Z

1978-01-01

4

Microbial Quality, Nutritional Knowledge and Food Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…

Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.

2011-01-01

5

Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2007, Pages 661666 Factors Related to Food Worker Hand Hygiene Practices  

E-print Network

661 Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2007, Pages 661­666 Factors Related to Food Worker 37247; 4Connecticut Department of Public Health, Food Protection Program, Division of Environmental To identify factors related to food worker hand hygiene practices, we collected (i) observational data on food

6

76 FR 59381 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Criteria for Foods at Step 4. Proposed Draft Guidelines for Control of Specific Zoonotic Parasites in Meat: Trichinella spiralis and Cysticercus bovis at Step 3. Proposed Draft Annex on Melons to the Code of Hygienic Practice for Fresh...

2011-09-26

7

Hygienic behavior in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): effects of brood, food, and time of the year.  

PubMed

Hygienic behavior in honey bees is a heritable trait of individual workers that confers colony-level resistance against various brood diseases. Hygienic workers detect and remove dead or diseased brood from sealed cells. However, this behavior is quite rare, with only c.10% of unselected colonies showing high levels of hygiene. Beekeepers can potentially increase this by screening colonies for hygiene and breeding from the best. However, the level of hygiene expressed by a colony is variable, which poses a challenge to colony selection. In this study, we systematically varied two factors thought to be of importance in influencing hygiene levels, "nectar" availability, by feeding or not feeding sucrose syrup, and brood amount, by adding or removing brood, to determine what effect they had on hygienic behavior. We tested 19 colonies repeatedly over a 4-mo period using the freeze-killed brood assay, a standard technique to quantify hygienic behavior. Two days after freeze-killed brood treatment, our colonies showed a wide range of brood removal levels, with colony means ranging from 31.7 +/- 22.5 to 93 +/- 6.9 (mean % +/- SD). Neither the food nor the brood manipulation had an effect on hygiene levels. Colony size and time of year were also nonsignificant. The only significant effect was a three-way interaction between syrup availability, amount of brood, and time of the year, resulting in reduced hygienic behavior early in the season (spring), in colonies with added brood that were not fed sucrose syrup. Overall, these results suggest that hygienic behavior is not greatly affected by environmental conditions typical of a real-life beekeeping, and that screening of colonies can be done anytime without special regard to nectar conditions or brood levels. PMID:24498725

Bigio, Gianluigi; Schürch, Roger; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2013-12-01

8

Food hygiene training in the UK: time for a radical re-think?  

PubMed

Training food handlers in the hospitality industry has been recommended by various organisations as a means of improving food handling practices and thus the safety of food for consumers. It is nearly 20 years since the first examinations for basic level food hygiene certificates were made available to food handlers in the UK. Since then little has changed in the syllabuses and in the way the questions are worded. However, the range of languages spoken by food handlers working in the UK has increased substantially since more employers are recruiting those who speak English as a second language. Training can be an unwelcome expense for managers where there is a high turnover of employees, especially amongst those for whom English is not a first language. To improve practical implementation of food hygiene theory it is time to develop a radical strategy concerning the way training is targeted and delivered in the UK, and perhaps Europe. PMID:11811090

MacAuslan, E

2001-12-01

9

Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices. PMID:25258630

Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E. C.

2014-01-01

10

Effect of a Manager Training and Certification Program on Food Safety and Hygiene in Food Service Operations  

PubMed Central

Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio) from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared food hygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities. Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants. PMID:20523880

Kassa, Hailu; Silverman, Gary S.; Baroudi, Karim

2010-01-01

11

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

12

Long-Term Impact of Community-Based Information, Education and Communication Activities on Food Hygiene and Food Safety Behaviors in Vietnam: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Background Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. Methods In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of children aged between six months and four years in suburban Hanoi. Baseline data were collected in January 2006 (n?=?125). After conducting IEC interventions, we collected a 1st set of evaluation data in January 2007 (n?=?132). To examine the long-term impact of the interventions, we then collected a 2nd set of evaluation data in January 2008 (n?=?185). Changes in childhood diarrhea prevalence, IEC coverage, and food hygiene and food safety behaviors were assessed over a two-year period using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Effective IEC channels were determined through multiple linear regression analysis. Results Childhood diarrhea was significantly reduced from 21.6% at baseline to 7.6% at the 1st post-intervention evaluation (P?=?0.002), and to 5.9% at the 2nd evaluation. Among 17 food hygiene and food safety behaviors measured, a total of 11 behaviors were improved or maintained by the 2nd evaluation. Handwashing after toilet use was significantly improved at both evaluation points. Overall, 3 food safety behaviors and 7 food hygiene behaviors were found to have significantly improved at the 1st and at the 2nd evaluations, respectively. Flip chart communication administered by community groups was identified to be the most effective IEC channel for effecting behavior change (P?=?0.018). Conclusions Flip chart communication administered by community groups is effective for improving multiple food hygiene and food safety behaviors in sustainable ways, and should be included in water and health promotion programs. PMID:23950978

Takanashi, Kumiko; Quyen, Dao To; Le Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

2013-01-01

13

Handwashing before Food Preparation and Child Feeding: A Missed Opportunity for Hygiene Promotion  

PubMed Central

Enteric diseases are often caused by poor hygiene and can contribute to stunting. From 50 randomly selected villages in Bangladesh, we collected quantitative and qualitative data on handwashing linked to child feeding to integrate handwashing promotion into a young child complementary feeding program. Most participants stated that the community knew the importance of handwashing with soap before food preparation and feeding a child, but had not developed the habit. We observed no handwashing with soap at these key times; sometimes hands were rinsed with water only. Most participants cited the unavailability of soap and water near the cooking place as a barrier to handwashing before food preparation. Most caregivers ranked nurturing messages as the best motivator to encourage handwashing with soap. An integrated intervention should include having soap and water available near the food preparation area and should use nurturing themes to encourage habitual handwashing with soap. PMID:24080638

Nizame, Fosiul A.; Unicomb, Leanne; Sanghvi, Tina; Roy, Sumitro; Nuruzzaman, Md.; Ghosh, Probir K.; Winch, Peter J.; Luby, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

14

Domestic food preparation practices: a review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices.  

PubMed

New Zealand has a much higher rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases than the rest of the developed world. It has been suggested that New Zealanders have worse home hygiene practices during food preparation than the citizens of other developed countries. Thus, it is necessary to recognize and understand the reasons for consumer's poor practices in order to help develop a more effective message to improve New Zealanders' practices in the domestic environment. This could in turn lead to a reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis cases. The objective is to review cited literature on consumer practices which is related to food poisoning and to attempt to list the factors related to poor consumer practice. There are many internationally identifiable reasons for the poor practices of consumers. These reasons include psychological, demographic and socioeconomic variables; personal interest in new information; prior knowledge; cultural influence; educational background; perception of risk, control and liability; and attitude towards the addressed practices or hazards. The results have indicated that 'optimistic bias', the 'illusion of control', habits and lack of knowledge concerning food safety during domestic food preparation are prevalent among consumers. The research indicated the influence of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income, work hours, race, location, culture), as they play a potential role in determining domestic food safety behaviour. It appears that all these factors are applicable for New Zealand consumers and should be addressed in any future education strategy aimed at improving New Zealanders' food handling practices. PMID:23945085

Al-Sakkaf, Ali

2013-08-14

15

Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

1975-01-01

16

Essential veterinary education in food safety, food hygiene and biosecurity: a global perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A big challenge for veterinary educators is to stimulate interest in public health medicine and make the curriculum interesting, and relevant, to veterinary students. Veterinary public health encompasses many areas, including zoonosis control, food safety, animal health and biosecurity, animals as sentinels of environmental hazards and the contribution of animal waste to pollution of food and water, so there

P. G. Wall

17

A comparison of traditional and recently developed methods for monitoring surface hygiene within the food industry: an industry trial.  

PubMed

A rapid, instrument-free, hygiene monitoring system, based on protein detection, was assessed as a means to evaluate the cleanliness of food contact surfaces within four different food processing environments. Its performance was compared to that of both ATP bioluminescence and a traditional agar-based microbiological method. Each surface was sampled using all three hygiene monitoring systems both before and after each of the production plants had carried out their normal cleaning procedures. In both cases, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the number of surfaces that were passed or failed using each of the tests. In general the number of surfaces that were deemed acceptable for food production increased after cleaning but the level of agreement between test methods differed depending on the type of production facility sampled. Protein detection was most likely to fail surfaces within the baking facility, whereas ATP bioluminescence and traditional microbiology were most likely to fail surfaces within a frozen ready-meal and a cheese production unit respectively. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to plant trials of hygiene monitoring systems, the cleaning process itself, failures in disinfection, as well as the need for a combined methodological approach for monitoring cleanliness. PMID:12590780

Moore, Ginny; Griffith, Chris

2002-12-01

18

77 FR 61736 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Establishment of Microbiological Criteria Proposed Draft Guidelines for Control of Specific Zoonotic Parasites in Meat: Trichinella spiralis and Cysticercus bovis at Step 4 Proposed Draft Revision of the Code of Hygienic Practice for Spices and...

2012-10-11

19

Computational fluid dynamics approaches in quality and hygienic production of semisolid low-moisture foods: a review of critical factors.  

PubMed

Low-moisture foods have been responsible for a number of salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide over the last few decades, with cross contamination from contaminated equipment being the most predominant source. To date, actions have been focused on stringent hygienic practices prior to production, namely periodical sanitization of the processing equipment and lines. Not only does optimum sanitization require in-depth knowledge on the type and source of contaminants, but also the heat resistance of microorganisms is unique and often dependent on the heat transfer characteristics of the low-moisture foods. Rheological properties, including viscosity, degree of turbulence, and flow characteristics (for example, Newtonian or non-Newtonian) of both liquid and semisolid foods are critical factors impacting the flow behavior that consequently interferes heat transfer and related control elements. The demand for progressively more accurate prediction of complex fluid phenomena has called for the employment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model mass and heat transfer during processing of various food products, ranging from drying to baking. With the aim of improving the quality and safety of low-moisture foods, this article critically reviewed the published literature concerning microbial survival in semisolid low-moisture foods, including chocolate, honey, and peanut butter. Critical rheological properties and state-of-the-art CFD application relevant to quality production of those products were also addressed. It is anticipated that adequate prediction of specific transport properties during optimum sanitization through CFD could be used to solve current and future food safety challenges. PMID:25224872

Mondal, Arpita; Buchanan, Robert L; Lo, Y Martin

2014-10-01

20

Dirty money: an investigation into the hygiene status of some of the world's currencies as obtained from food outlets.  

PubMed

A total of 1280 banknotes were obtained from food outlets in 10 different countries (Australia, Burkina Faso, China, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States), and their bacterial content was enumerated. The presence of bacteria on banknotes was found to be influenced by the material of the notes, and there was a strong correlation between the number of bacteria per square centimeter and a series of indicators of economic prosperity of the various countries. The strongest correlation was found with the "index of economic freedom," indicating that the lower the index value, the higher the typical bacterial content on the banknotes in circulation. Other factors that appear to influence the number of bacteria on banknotes were the age of the banknotes and the material used to produce the notes (polymer-based vs. cotton-based). The banknotes were also screened for the presence of a range of pathogens. It was found that pathogens could only be isolated after enrichment and their mere presence does not appear to be alarming. In light of our international findings, it is recommended that current guidelines as they apply in most countries with regard to the concurrent hygienic handling of foods and money should be universally adopted. This includes that, in some instances, the handling of food and money have to be physically separated by employing separate individuals to carry out one task each; whereas in other instances, it could be advantageous to handle food only with a gloved hand and money with the other hand. If neither of these precautions can be effectively implemented, it is highly recommended that food service personnel practice proper hand washing procedures after handling money and before handling food. PMID:20704502

Vriesekoop, Frank; Russell, Cryn; Alvarez-Mayorga, Beatriz; Aidoo, Kofi; Yuan, Qipeng; Scannell, Amalia; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jiang, Xiuping; Barro, Nicolas; Otokunefor, Kome; Smith-Arnold, Cheralee; Heap, Amy; Chen, Jing; Iturriage, Montserat H; Hazeleger, Wilma; DeSlandes, Jenny; Kinley, Brandon; Wilson, Kieran; Menz, Garry

2010-12-01

21

Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…

Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

2010-01-01

22

Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Using Computer-Based and Face-to-Face Personal Hygiene Training Methods in Food Processing Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…

Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.

2006-01-01

23

[Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].  

PubMed

The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose. PMID:23035396

Menin, Marco

2012-01-01

24

Molecular methods for the analysis of Clostridium perfringens relevant to food hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens continues to be a common cause of food-borne disease [1,2]. It produces an enterotoxin (CPE) which is released upon lysis of the vegetative cell during sporulation in the intestinal tract. Catering premises with insufficient cooling and reheating devices often seem to be the cause of outbreaks of C. perfringens food poisoning. Typing of C. perfringens is of great

Barbara Schalch; Brigitte Sperner; Hartmut Eisgruber; Andreas Stolle

1999-01-01

25

Assessment of interplay between UV wavelengths, material surfaces and food residues in open surface hygiene validation.  

PubMed

The use of UV-visible radiation for detecting invisible residue on different surfaces as a means of validating cleanliness was investigated. Wavelengths at 365, 395, 435, 445, 470 and 490 nm from a monochromator were used to detect residues of beef, chicken, apple, mango and skim milk. These were on three surfaces: aluminium, fibre re-enforced plastic (FRP; Q-Liner®) and stainless steel, pre- and post a cleaning step using commercial detergent. The area covered by residues as detected by specific wavelengths was compared statistically. The sensitivity of the wavelengths for detection differed significantly (p?hygiene validation of surfaces. PMID:25477669

Abban, Stephen; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

2014-12-01

26

Synthesis of nonionic-anionic colloidal systems based on alkaline and ammonium ?-nonylphenol polyethyleneoxy (n?=?3-20) propionates/dodecylbenzenesulfonates with prospects for food hygiene  

PubMed Central

Background The main objective of this work was to obtain a binary system of surface-active components (nonionic soap – alkaline and/or ammonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) with potential competences in food hygiene, by accessing a scheme of classical reactions (cyanoethylation, total acid hydrolysis and stoichiometric neutralization with inorganic alkaline and/or organic ammonium bases) adapted to heterogeneously polyethoxylated nonylphenols (n?=?3-20). In the processing system mentioned, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, initially the acid catalyst for the exhaustive hydrolysis of ?-nonylphenolpolyethyleneoxy (n?=?3-20) propionitriles, becomes together with the nonionic soap formed the second surface-active component of the binary system. Results In the reaction scheme adopted the influence of the main operating (duration, temperature, molar ratio of reagents) and structural parameters (degree of oligomerization of the polyoxyethylene chain) on the processing yields for the synthetic steps was followed. The favorable role of the polyoxyethylene chain size is remarked, through its specific conformation and its alkaline cations sequestration competences on the yields of cyanoethylation, but also the beneficial influence of phase-transfer catalysts in the total acid hydrolysis step. The chemical stability of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSH) at the temperature and strongly acidic pH of the reaction environment is confirmed. The controlled change of the amount of DBSH in the final binary system will later confer it potential colloidal competences in food hygiene receipts. Conclusions The preliminary synthetic tests performed confirmed the prospect of obtaining a broad range of useful colloidal competences in various food hygiene scenarios. PMID:22958389

2012-01-01

27

[Current zoonoses from the food hygiene point of view (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Of the numerous zoonoses part of which are reportable, according to the Federal Communicable Diseases Act, the food hygienist attributes topicality at present to salmonellosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, taeniasis (T. saginata), trichinellosis, and sarcosporidiosis. In salmonellosis, combating is directed to breeding and keeping of Salmonella-free flocks, poultry offering favourable conditions for this purpose. Moreover, one tries to decontaminate feeds through certain pelleting machines with the aid of friction heat or by admixing propionic acid. In brucellosis, the possibility of infection by tourism, but also that through ingestion of imported dairy products (like soft cheese) play a certain role. Instruction of tourists and advising foreign labour from endemic areas are essential contributions to combating. Another important infection source of toxoplasmosis is infected raw pig meat. As the agent does not survive freezing temperatures under certain conditions, the decontamination procedure is particularly suitable. In pregnancy advising, the role of raw pig meat for development of congenital toxoplasmosis should be clearly explained. In trichinellosis, apart from the traditional examination by the trichinoscope, the modified digestion procedure using pepsin as a digestive fluid was successful. Moreover, it is suitable for detecting weakly infected swine. The importance of systematic examinations of all domestic and wild pigs became evident only recently in 1977, when in Bavaria an epidemic of trichinellosis occurred following the ingestion of undetected Trichinella containing wild pig meat. According to most recent knowledge on the cycle of development of sarcosporidia, the studies showed that the species Sarc. bovihominis and suihominis were pathogens for human beings. Quite apart from necessary supplementary examinations, the freezing procedure would here too, warrant an effective protection for the raw meat consuming population. PMID:113956

Grossklaus, D

1979-03-01

28

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.  

PubMed

Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

2010-12-01

29

Hygiene and Cleanability: A Focus on Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hygiene is a permanent concern for food industries since they must commercialize high quality products in order to comply with the legislation and the expectations of the consumers. The hygienic state of a surface is thus a critical parameter with respect to the performances of the production process and to the final quality of the product. For this reason, cleaning

Jean G. Detry; Marianne Sindic; Claude Deroanne

2010-01-01

30

The importance of hygiene in modern society  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first sight, hygiene in our modern world seems to be rather satisfactory. Nevertheless, vulnerable groups are increasing in our society, which means that hygiene is a crucial factor in the well-being of the many people involved. Moreover, in the Netherlands, for instance, there are an estimated 2 million food-borne infections every year, of which 30 to 50% is supposed

Johannes Oosterom

1998-01-01

31

Dirty money: an investigation into the hygiene status of some of the world's currencies as obtained from food outlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

total of 1280 banknotes were obtained from food outlets in 10 different countries (Australia, Burkina Faso, China, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States), and their bacterial content was enumerated. The presence of bacteria on banknotes was found to be influenced by the material of the notes, and there was a strong correlation

Frank Vriesekoop; Cryn Russell; Beatriz Alvarez-Mayorga; Kofi E Aidoo; Qipeng Yuan; Amalia Scannell; Rijkelt R. Beumer; Xiuping Jiang; Nicolas Barro; Kome Otokunefor; Cheralee Smith-Arnold; Amy Heap; Jing Chen; Montserat H. Iturriage; Wilma Hazeleger; Jenny DesLandes; Brandon Kinley; Kieran Wilson; Garry Menz

2010-01-01

32

Evaluation of the hygiene of ready-to-eat food preparation areas and practices in mobile food vendors in the UK.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to surfaces sampled. Surfaces that were visually dirty, wet, and chopping boards that were plastic or damaged also had high levels of these bacteria. Fifty-four percent of potable water samples were of poor microbiological quality; i.e. contained coliforms, E. coli and/or enterococci. A documented food safety management system was only evident in 40.1% of vendors and cleaning schedules were only used by 43.6%. Deficiencies in the correct use of cleaning materials, such as dilution factors and the minimum contact time for disinfectants, were identified. PMID:20183200

Little, Christine; Sagoo, Satnam

2009-12-01

33

Gamma radiation used as hygienization technique for foods does not induce viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.  

PubMed

Gamma radiation has been widely used for hygienization of food products. Whether gamma radiation stress induces VBNC state in Salmonella is of great concern. Therefore, the study was carried out to determine whether gamma radiation exposure induces VBNC state in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). The parameters tested were culturability on agar medium, transcriptional activity by RT-PCR, cytoplasmic membrane integrity, and direct viable count using LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit. The LIVE/DEAD BacLight counts for S. typhimurium cells treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy radiation dose were 0.8 and 0.1% of the control, respectively. Plate counts for S. typhimurium cells treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy radiation dose were 0.7 and 0.05% of the control, respectively. No viable cells of S. typhimurium were detected by both plate count and LIVE/DEAD BacLight after radiation treatment with 2 kGy. No transcriptional activity was detected in cells treated with 2 kGy radiation dose. If there were VBNC cells present, then significant differences in the counts between the LIVE/DEAD BacLight microscopic counts and plate agar counts must be observed. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the counts were observed. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment with 2 kGy results in complete killing and does not induce VBNC state in S. typhimurium. PMID:19641961

Saroj, Sunil; Shashidhar, R; Bandekar, Jayant

2009-10-01

34

[Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression. PMID:25508776

da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvăo, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

2014-09-01

35

[Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression. PMID:25481924

da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvăo, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

2014-09-01

36

Clothing and personal hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

1975-01-01

37

The Influence of Specific Foods and Oral Hygiene on the Microflora of Fissures and Smooth Surfaces of Molar Teeth: A 5–Day Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 20 students, harbouring >104 mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva, was enrolled into the study. Models for sampling, reproducibly, the dental plaque present in specific sites (fissure and smooth surface) on the dentition were developed and validated. Withdrawal of normal oral hygiene procedures for only 1 day resulted in approximately 10–fold increases in the number of micro–organisms

D. Beighton; S. R. Brailsford; E. Lynch; H. Yuan Chen; D. T. Clark

1999-01-01

38

SCHOOL OF DENTAL HYGIENE Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF DENTAL HYGIENE Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Program Applicant are seeking admission to studies leading to the Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene, (BScDH) with a description of the selection procedures for the School of Dental Hygiene at the University of Manitoba

Major, Arkady

39

Florida Dental Hygiene Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida Dental Hygiene Association's (FDHA) mission is to advance the art and science of dental hygiene by increasing awareness as well as ensuring access to quality oral health care, promoting the highest standards of dental hygiene education, licensure and practice while promoting the interests of dental hygiene. Available on the FDHA's website is their official publication Prophyways. This is a seasonal publication covering a wide range of information in the dental hygienist field, including changes to local organizations, such as the Board of Dentistry, to upcoming events in the State of Florida and nationally. Also available on the website is a calendar of events for the entire year as well as a directory of contact information for FDHA board members.

40

FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food  

E-print Network

of food poisoning increases as time passes. · Hand contact with unwrapped food should be kept to a minimum1 FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food Home made hot food may not be served at events conditions must be adhered to: · The caterer must have HSE Food Hygiene Certification, which

O'Mahony, Donal E.

41

Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Share Compartir Hygiene Fast Facts Information on Water-related Hygiene Handwashing It is estimated that washing hands with soap and water could reduce diarrheal disease-associated deaths by up ...

42

Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing  

MedlinePLUS

... modern methods, read the text at left. Hygiene etiquette involves practices that prevent the spread of illness ... disease. A critical time to practice good hygiene etiquette is when you are sick, especially when coughing ...

43

Undergraduate Dental Hygiene  

E-print Network

of oral disease. Specialising in the treatment and monitoring of periodontal (gum) health, they are responsible for developing patients' oral hygiene practices. Undertaking detailed clinical procedures that patients are educated and motivated to maintain their periodontal and oral health. Dental hygienists

Bristol, University of

44

Chemical hygiene plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

Not Available

1994-09-01

45

Improving oral hygiene for patients.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care. PMID:25563127

Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

2015-01-13

46

A natural history of hygiene  

PubMed Central

In unpacking the Pandora's box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease. PMID:18923689

Curtis, Valerie A

2007-01-01

47

Dental Hygiene Program 2014 Admission Application Instructions  

E-print Network

Dental Hygiene Program 2014 Admission Application Instructions These instructions have been prepared for applicants to The Ohio State University Dental Hygiene Program. Please read these instructions carefully before completing the online application. Complete information about the dental hygiene program

48

Dental Hygiene Realpolitik Affecting Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…

Bader, James D.

1991-01-01

49

SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

50

A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

2000-01-01

51

Parenting Education - Health and Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second in a series on parenting education for American Indians, the booklet offers information on health and hygiene for the mother-to-be and the newborn baby. Chapters include care during pregnancy, mother's weight, mother's health, feeding newborns, washing the baby, baby's early diet, and baby's health care. (ERB)

National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

52

Health & Hygiene in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School with input from employees--both workplace literacy students and nonstudents--this guide contains activities for teaching health and hygiene on the job. Flowing from a perspective of respecting cultural diversity and guided by a common thread of good work practices, the activities…

Snapp, Mary

53

Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

54

Foodborne viruses 1 1 A concise version of this paper was discussed by the Codex Alimentarius, committee on food hygiene, 1999. FAO\\/WHO document CX\\/FH 99\\/11, Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foodborne and waterborne viral infections are increasingly recognized as causes of illness in humans. This increase is partly explained by changes in food processing and consumption patterns that lead to the worldwide availability of high-risk food. As a result, vast outbreaks may occur due to contamination of food by a single foodhandler or at a single source. Although there are

Marion Koopmans; Carl-Henrik von Bonsdorff; Jan Vinjé; Dario de Medici; Steve Monroe

2002-01-01

55

Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This entire issue is devoted to the problem of producing enough food for the world population and of distributing it equitably. Areas covered include reports on the latest agricultural research, biological research concerned with more efficient photosynthesis, nutrition, and the world social structure, politics, and economics of food. (MA)

Science, 1975

1975-01-01

56

Meeting the need for robotic handling of food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies the need for a new range of end effectors suitable for handling non-rigid products in the food industry. The mechanical properties and handling difficulties of food products are introduced. Hygiene and the hygienic requirements in the food industry are discussed in detail from a consumer health and a safety point of view. The usage of automation and

F. Erzincanli; J. M. Sharp

1997-01-01

57

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops).

Berkner

1992-01-01

58

Food: Friend or Enemy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to discover what kind of outbreaks of the five major foodborne illnesses (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli 0157:H7, Shigella, Hepatitis A, Salmonella typhii, and Norovirus) have arisen in Kentucky. The research focused on food hygiene practices within restaurants, supermarkets, and along the pathway of food from the farm to the table. The process for discovering

Meaghan Tingle

2012-01-01

59

Industrial Hygiene Laboratory accreditation: The JSC experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) is a society of professionals dedicated to the health and safety of workers and community. With more than 10,000 members, the AIHA is the largest international association serving occupational and environmental health professionals practicing industrial hygiene in private industry, academia, government, labor, and independent organizations. In 1973, AIHA developed a National Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Accreditation Program. The purposes of this program are shown.

Fadner, Dawn E.

1993-01-01

60

Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

Woodring, J.L.

1993-08-01

61

Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

62

Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene Education: Creating a Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inherent in the meaning of baccalaureate dental hygiene education is the offering of upper-division courses in the theory and practice of dental hygiene itself. Restructuring the associate programs as strictly two-year, lower-division programs would require standardization of baccalaureate programs as strictly upper-division curricula. (MLW)

Wayman, Dona E.

1985-01-01

63

Recent developments in hygiene behaviour research: an emphasis on methods and meaning.  

PubMed

This paper discusses some of the recent developments in hygiene behaviour research, focusing on operational research. A series of "rapid' assessments of hygiene behaviour were carried out in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia with a view to preparing a field handbook entitled Hygiene Evaluation Procedures (HEP). The HEP handbook is intended primarily for field personnel in water supply, sanitation and health/hygiene education projects who want to design and conduct their own systematic assessments of hygiene behaviour in their localities. The short studies provided useful practical insights into the concerns and needs of project staff for whom research allowances (human, material and time resources) are often very limited. In this paper emphasis is placed on both methodological and heuristic developments as the two are inseparable. It is suggested that in the domestic sphere, hygiene behaviour with respect to the disposal of children's faeces and domestic water use are two of the key areas that remain of universal relevance to water/sanitation related interventions. These can be assessed rapidly and effectively by using two indicators: means of disposal of children's faeces and handwashing at 'critical' times--after defaecation, after handling and/or disposing of children's faeces, before handling food and before feeding young children and eating. Appropriate combinations of anthropological methods and participatory tools for measuring these indicators are described. The practical relevance of the resulting data for project design and implementation is highlighted. PMID:8665381

Almedom, A M

1996-04-01

64

Mechanisms of food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of food allergy continues to rise, particularly in ‘westernized’ societies; it has been linked to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ and the increased diversity of food consumption worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms and Th1\\/Th2 paradigm are being closely examined with respect to the occurrence of inflammatory and injury\\/repair responses at different mucosal sites. Genetically modified plants as potential food sources and

Ricki M Helm; A Wesley Burks

2000-01-01

65

Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research

A. Pickering; A. Boehm; J. Davis

2008-01-01

66

Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. Findings Most vendors were

Patience Mensah; Dorothy Yeboah-Manu; Kwaku Owusu-Darko; Anthony Ablordey

2002-01-01

67

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

Berkner, K.

1992-08-01

68

Contaminated food, a hazard for the very young.  

PubMed

Contaminated food is responsible for much diarrhoeal disease in young children, yet the education of mothers and care-givers about the preparation of food under hygienic conditions tends to be neglected. PMID:8141985

Motarjemi, Y; Käferstein, F; Moy, G; Quevedo, F

1994-01-01

69

Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Methods 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Results While the vast majority of study participants (n?=?461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p?=?.002) and after using the toilet (p?=?.001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n?=?367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting. Further research into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate whether surface decontamination is an effective target of hygiene interventions in this population. PMID:24312303

Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

2013-01-01

70

TECHNICAL STANDARDS Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL STANDARDS Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene Students admitted to the dental hygiene concepts from biomedical, psychosocial and dental hygiene sciences to clinical dental hygiene procedures. 3 the ability to bend, twist, reach, push and pull, operate dental equipment and execute client care. 10

71

[Contemporary scientific problems of railway hygiene].  

PubMed

The authors present contemporary scientific problems of railway hygiene, their solutions and prospects, as well as research trends in solving the same problems of other means of transport. PMID:17354594

Kaptsov, V A; Vil'k, M F

2007-01-01

72

HEALTHCARESCIENCES Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene,  

E-print Network

HEALTHCARESCIENCES Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene, Health permanent physical disabilities. Clinical Practice: Acute care Neuro-rehab Out-patient Management Education? PHYSICALTHERAPY Physical therapy involves treatment through physical means for people disabled by illness

New Hampshire, University of

73

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hygiene  

E-print Network

...............................................................................................14 2.7.4 Laser Safety CommitteeNORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hygiene Plan Office for Research Safety.............................................................................................................................................12 2.6 Office for Research Safety

Shull, Kenneth R.

74

Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

Journal of Dental Education, 1985

1985-01-01

75

Relationship between general hygiene behaviours and oral hygiene behaviours in Iranian adolescents.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between oral hygiene behaviours and general hygiene behaviours among Iranian adolescents living in Mashhad. A representative stratified random sample of 1,054 Iranian adolescents, in the sixth grade of school, answered a 37-item questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, frequency of toothbrushing behaviours, frequency of taking showers, and frequency of changing underwear, as measures of general hygiene behaviours. Binary logistic-regression analysis was employed to test the association between toothbrushing behaviours and general hygiene behaviours. The results showed that toothbrushing frequency was significantly associated with the frequency of taking showers (odds ratio: 2.40; 95% confidence interval: 1.86, 3.09) and the frequency of changing underwear (odds ratio: 2.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.65, 2.78). These associations were significant for girls and boys when tested separately and remained significant after adjusting for gender and father's education level. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to practice oral hygiene and general hygiene behaviours. In conclusion, there was a positive association between general hygiene and oral hygiene behaviours among Iranian adolescents. This association has important applications for planning health and hygiene-promoting programmes. PMID:19627352

Dorri, Mojtaba; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

2009-08-01

76

The hygiene hypothesis and allergic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic diseases are more frequent in the general population than other immune-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases\\u000a or immunodeficiencies. Therefore, epidemiological studies investigating the hygiene hypothesis in relation to allergic diseases\\u000a have been performed much more frequently than those investigating the hygiene hypothesis in relation to Crohn’s disease, multiple\\u000a sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis or other diseases related to dysregulation of the

Paolo M. Matricardi; Eckard Hamelmann

77

Dear Prospective Dental Hygiene Student: Thank you for your interest in the Dental Hygiene Program at Southern Illinois University  

E-print Network

Hours DH200 Orientation to Dental Hygiene 2 DH212 Medical Emergencies 1 DH207 Instrumentation Techniques2014 Dear Prospective Dental Hygiene Student: Thank you for your interest in the Dental Hygiene Program at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. The Dental Hygiene Program is nationally recognized

Nickrent, Daniel L.

78

Hygiene hypothesis and autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Throughout the twentieth century, there were striking increases in the incidences of many chronic inflammatory disorders in the rich developed countries. These included autoimmune disorders such as Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Although genetics and specific triggering mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and viruses are likely to be involved, the increases have been so rapid that any explanation that omits environmental change is incomplete. This chapter suggests that a series of environmental factors, most of them microbial, have led to a decrease in the efficiency of our immunoregulatory mechanisms because we are in a state of evolved dependence on organisms with which we co-evolved (and that had to be tolerated) as inducers of immunoregulatory circuits. These organisms ("Old Friends") are depleted from the modern urban environment. Rather than considering fetal programming by maternal microbial exposures, neonatal programming, the hygiene hypothesis, gut microbiota, and diet as separate and competing hypotheses, I attempt here to integrate these ideas under a single umbrella concept that can provide the missing immunoregulatory environmental factor that is needed to explain the recent increases in autoimmune disease. PMID:22090147

Rook, Graham A W

2012-02-01

79

Public health campaign to promote hand hygiene before meals in a college of veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (p<.01). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 2/42 samples, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 4/42 samples. A short-term public health campaign targeting veterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals. PMID:24981423

Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J

2014-01-01

80

ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

2009-01-01

81

Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

2011-01-01

82

Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

2014-01-01

83

Scope on Safety: Yes, you need a Chemical Hygiene Officer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemical Hygiene Officer's (CHO) role is absolutely critical in fostering and ensuring both chemical hygiene practices and the chemical hygiene plan. OSHA defines the Chemical Hygiene Officer as an “employee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.” The CHO position is also essential in helping to facilitate the safeguards put in place as part of the chemical hygiene plan to protect both the teacher and students.

Ken Roy

2009-04-01

84

Hand hygiene posters: motivators or mixed messages?  

PubMed

Poster campaigns regarding hand hygiene are commonly used by infection control teams to improve practice, yet little is known of the extent to which they are based on established theory or research. This study reports on the content analysis of hand hygiene posters (N=69) and their messages (N=75) using message-framing theory. The results showed that posters seldom drew on knowledge about effective ways to frame messages. Frequently, they simply conveyed information 'telling' rather than 'selling' and some of this was confusing. Most posters were not designed to motivate, and some conveyed mixed messages. Few used fear appeals. Hand hygiene posters could have a greater impact if principles of message framing were utilized in their design. Suggestions for gain-framed messages are offered, but these need to be tested empirically. PMID:15949613

Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

2005-07-01

85

Too clean, or not too clean: the Hygiene Hypothesis and home hygiene  

PubMed Central

Summary The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ as originally formulated by Strachan, proposes that a cause of the recent rapid rise in atopic disorders could be a lower incidence of infection in early childhood, transmitted by unhygienic contact with older siblings. Use of the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ has led to several interpretations, some of which are not supported by a broader survey of the evidence. The increase in allergic disorders does not correlate with the decrease in infection with pathogenic organisms, nor can it be explained by changes in domestic hygiene. A consensus is beginning to develop round the view that more fundamental changes in lifestyle have led to decreased exposure to certain microbial or other species, such as helminths, that are important for the development of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Although this review concludes that the relationship of the hypothesis to hygiene practice is not proven, it lends strong support to initiatives seeking to improve hygiene practice. It would however be helpful if the hypothesis were renamed, e.g. as the ‘microbial exposure’ hypothesis, or ‘microbial deprivation’ hypothesis, as proposed for instance by Bjorksten. Avoiding the term ‘hygiene’ would help focus attention on determining the true impact of microbes on atopic diseases, while minimizing risks of discouraging good hygiene practice. PMID:16630145

Bloomfield, SF; Stanwell-Smith, R; Crevel, RWR; Pickup, J

2006-01-01

86

Hand Hygiene in Emergency Medical Services.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) affect millions of patients annually (World Health Organization. Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare. Geneva: WHO Press; 2009). Hand hygiene compliance of clinical staff has been identified by numerous studies as a major contributing factor to HAIs around the world. Infection control and hand hygiene in the prehospital environment can also contribute to patient harm and spread of infections. Emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners are not monitored as closely as hospital personnel in terms of hand hygiene training and compliance. Their ever-changing work environment is less favorable to traditional hospital-based aseptic techniques and education. Methods. This study aimed to determine the current state of hand hygiene practices among EMS providers and to provide recommendations for improving practices in the emergency health services environment. This study was a prospective, observational prevalence study and survey, conducted over a 2-month period. We selected participants from visits to three selected hospital emergency departments in the mid-Atlantic region. There were two data components to the study: a participant survey and hand swabs for pathogenic cultures. Results. This study recruited a total sample of 62 participants. Overall, the study revealed that a significant number of EMS providers (77%) have a heavy bacterial load on their hands after patient care. All levels of providers had a similar distribution of bacterial load. Survey results revealed that few providers perform hand hygiene before (34%) or in between patients (24%), as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that EMS providers are potential vectors of microorganisms if proper hand hygiene is not performed properly. Since EMS providers treat a variety of patients and operate in a variety of environments, providers may be exposed to potentially pathogenic organisms, serving as vectors for the exposure of their patients to these same organisms. Proper application of accepted standards for hand hygiene can help reduce the presence of microbes on provider hands and subsequent transmission to patients and the environment. PMID:25415186

Teter, Jonathan; Millin, Michael G; Bissell, Rick

2014-11-21

87

Science Student Guide to Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Dental Hygiene,  

E-print Network

Science Student Guide to Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Dental Hygiene, Optometry & Medical://www.aamc.org/students/applying/mcat/ DENTISTRY admissions@dentistry.ualberta.ca University of Alberta, Doctor of Dental Surgery & Dental Hygiene

Machel, Hans

88

[Housing conditions and hygiene control in nutria breeding].  

PubMed

Diseases in farm raised nutria (Myocastor coypus) often depend on hygienic fatalities in the different housing systems of the farms. The principle ways of accomodation for nutria are briefly described with reference to the specific hygienic problems. PMID:4024068

Röder, B

1985-01-01

89

Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

2010-01-01

90

New technologies to monitor healthcare worker hand hygiene.  

PubMed

Compliance with hand hygiene is a good quality indicator for hospital patient safety programmes. Hand hygiene is a major infection control prevention intervention, but in many medical centres compliance rates are only c. 50%. Given the enormous number of hand hygiene opportunities in hospitals, direct observation to monitor compliance is very inefficient. However, technologies are emerging to obviate the need for direct observation. These new technologies for monitoring hand hygiene compliance are discussed in this article. PMID:24245809

Marra, A R; Edmond, M B

2014-01-01

91

Promoting Critical Thinking among Dental Hygiene Students: Strategies for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…

Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.

2011-01-01

92

Dental / Dental Hygiene Academic Community Outreach Product Request Form  

E-print Network

Dental / Dental Hygiene Academic Community Outreach Product Request Form Thank you involve dental and/or dental hygiene students providing oral health education. The projects must, additional names: Select One: Student Faculty Other: Select One: Dental School Dental Hygiene School Other

Dennett, Daniel

93

Safety and Health Policy and Procedure Manual CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN  

E-print Network

Function D. Usage IV. EMPLOYEE INFORMATION AND TRAINING A. Hazard Information B. Training V. PRIOR APPROVAL Purchasing Request D. Chemical Hazard Audit Checksheet E. Air Sampling Data F. Chemical Hygiene Training Checklist G. New Chemical Training Checklist H. Chemical Hygiene Permit I. List of Chemical Hygiene Officers

Saidak, Filip

94

Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Dental Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of five learning modules to instruct dental patients and the general public in the fundamental principles of dental hygiene. The first module, "Identify the Responsibilities for Your Oral Health" by Floyd R. Tanner, discusses the respective roles of the dentist and the patient in…

Tanner, Floyd R.; And Others

95

9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration of product and the creation of insanitary...day as often as necessary to prevent adulteration of product and the creation of insanitary...operations which could result in product adulteration and the creation of insanitary...

2010-01-01

96

OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY DENTAL HYGIENE CARE FACILITY  

E-print Network

will be treated as a re-care. Dental Hygiene Services Include: a. Medical history and blood pressure b. Oral cancer examination, dental and periodontal charting, periodontal assessment. c. Oral Health Education d Fluoride Tray 15.00 6. Pit & Fissure Sealant (per tooth) 10.00 7. Local Drug Delivery 15.00/ Site 8

97

North Seattle Community College Chemical Hygiene Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…

North Seattle Community Coll., WA.

98

Medical Emergency Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 169 dental hygiene training programs investigated the curriculum content and instruction concerning medical emergency treatment, related clinical practice, and program policy. Several trends are noted: increased curriculum hours devoted to emergency care; shift in course content to more than life-support care; and increased emergency…

Stach, Donna J.; And Others

1995-01-01

99

Outcomes Assessment in Dental Hygiene Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 22 dental-hygiene-program directors found that programs routinely and effectively assess student outcomes and use the information for program improvements and to demonstrate accountability. Both policy and faculty/administrative support were deemed important to implementation. Time constraints were a major barrier. Outcomes-assessment…

Grimes, Ellen B.

1999-01-01

100

Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

2006-01-01

101

Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook. 1988 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

102

Dental Hygiene. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program guide is intended for the implementation of a dental hygiene program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, describes jobs under the program, and includes a curriculum framework and student performance standards for dental hygienist…

Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

103

** ALL CHARGES ARE PER SEMESTER UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED** Dental Hygiene FT Dental Hygiene PT  

E-print Network

** ALL CHARGES ARE PER SEMESTER UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED** Dental Hygiene FT Dental Hygiene PT (Less Fee 55.00 27.50 Technology Fee (PT per credit, not to exceed $60.00) 60.00 10.00 Notebook Fee - Fall - 1st Year 110.00 110.00 Information Technology Fee - Fall - 1st Year 550.00 550.00 SADHA Membership

Weber, David J.

104

** ALL CHARGES ARE PER SEMESTER UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED** Dental Hygiene FT Dental Hygiene PT  

E-print Network

** ALL CHARGES ARE PER SEMESTER UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED** Dental Hygiene FT Dental Hygiene PT (Less Fee 55.00 27.50 Technology Fee (PT per credit, not to exceed $60.00) 60.00 10.00 Notebook Fee - Fall - 1st Year 110.00 110.00 Information Technology fee - Fall - 1st Year 550.00 550.00 SADHA Membership

Weber, David J.

105

** ALL CHARGES ARE PER SEMESTER UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED** Dental Hygiene FT Dental Hygiene PT  

E-print Network

** ALL CHARGES ARE PER SEMESTER UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED** Dental Hygiene FT Dental Hygiene PT (Less Fee 55.00 27.50 Technology Fee (PT per credit, not to exceed $60.00) 60.00 10.00 Central Materials Service (CMS): 1,278.00 1,278.00 Dental Equipment Purchase-Fall-Non-Refundable: 1st Year 665.00 665

Weber, David J.

106

[Hygienic evaluation of environment, morbidity among pregnant women and newborns within social hygienic monitoring system].  

PubMed

Hygienic evaluation covered health state of pregnant women and newborns, subjected to chemical pollution of environment by aluminium industrial enterprises. The data obtained helped to suggest methodic approach to selection of priority territories, environmental and health state parameters within social hygienic monitoring system, to form recommendations on creation of system supporting management decisions to lower negative influence of chemical environmental factors on health of pregnant women and newborns. PMID:25282805

Kuz'min, D V

2014-01-01

107

Effect of hygiene and medication on preweaning survival and growth of Djallonké sheep in Atacora, Benin.  

PubMed

Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonké sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested hygienic measures and medication in improved housing. The effect of the two treatments and their combination on lamb performance and the internal rate of return (IRR) were compared to a control. For each treatment, survival and growth were observed in 20 lambs, living in 38 herds. Good housing and hygiene (daily cleaning and fortnightly disinfection of stable and water and feed troughs) reduced mortality and increased growth of suckling lambs until 3 months. Good housing plus medication (unique injection of vitamins and amino acids and with ivermectine for deworming, weekly tick treatment by spraying, and in case of diarrhea, antibiotic treatment) reduced mortality, but growth was not higher than the control. Accounting labor opportunity, the IRR was about equal for both, but capital investment was lower for the hygiene treatment which is thus more accessible to poor farmers. The combination of both treatments increased growth and benefits compared with the hygiene treatment, but decreased the IRR. PMID:22644730

Doko, Sanni Y; Degla, Pamphile; Edoun, Gilbert O; Bosma, Roel H

2013-01-01

108

Food Sanitation and Safety Self-assessment Instrument for Family Day-Care Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-assessment instrument for family day care providers is designed to help caregivers provide safe food to children. The eight sections of the instrument, presented in checklist format, concern: (1) personal hygiene; (2) purchasing and inspecting of food; (3) food storage; (4) kitchen equipment; (5) food preparation; (6) infant food

1990

109

British occupational hygiene practice 1720-1920.  

PubMed

The first recognition of the profession of occupational hygienist was preceded by at least 200 years of developments in disease prevention practices in the workplace, many of which could readily be characterized as occupational hygiene. The nature and pace of adoption of these practices depended on the contemporary state of technology, science, medicine and social concern. At first it was a matter of individual initiative and did not depend on quantitative data, but by the second half of the 19th century techniques of measurement for both harmful effects and for exposure were being introduced and official bodies at both national and local level were active. People from a wide range of backgrounds made contributions to disease prevention at work and by 1920 most of the major concepts and practices of current occupational hygiene practice were in place, if only in rather limited settings. PMID:15148054

Carter, Tim

2004-06-01

110

American Social Hygiene Posters, 1910 - 1970  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fascinating collection of social hygiene posters (designed to inculcate certain social practices regarding hygiene, friendship, prostitution, and mental health) is culled from the fine holdings of the Social Welfare History Archives at the University of Minnesota Libraries. Interestingly enough, the Archives were established in 1964 by the historian Clarke Chambers, who in his own work on voluntary associations discovered that most manuscript repositories had collected very few social welfare records. Visitors will appreciate the online search engine which features options such as a time period search, a keyword search, and the opportunity to search by the subject or theme of each poster. Each record contains an image of the original poster, information about the poster's provenance, its creation date, and the organization responsible for creating the poster. For those interested in the social history of the United States during this period, this small collection will be quite appealing.

111

Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.  

PubMed

Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications. PMID:18280904

Runeman, Bo

2008-01-01

112

Hand hygiene posters: selling the message.  

PubMed

This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders. PMID:15702513

Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

2005-02-01

113

[Occupational hygiene topics in ferroalloys production].  

PubMed

Hygienic evaluation covered work conditions of main occupations in ferroalloys production on a plant in Ural regions. The occupations are: ferroalloy furnace operator, ferroalloy furnace worker and crane operator. The findings proved that the workers are exposed to a complex of occupational hazards among which dust and unfavorable microclimate play major role. At the enterprise, occupational dust disease cases (silicosis from exposure to silicon-containing dust) are registered, with average development duration of 28.7 +/- 6.2 years. PMID:25282808

Kudriashov, I N; Fedoruk, A A

2014-01-01

114

A missing link in the hygiene hypothesis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a The incidence of childhood Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has risen in parallel with that of childhood asthma,\\u000a and the hygiene hypothesis proposes that this is due to reduced stimulation of the immune system by early intercurrent infection.\\u000a If so, this protective effect is probably mediated by regulatory T lymphocytes. Co-evolutionary partners might have contributed\\u000a to the development of

E. A. M. Gale

2002-01-01

115

Industrial Hygiene Group 1985 annual research report  

SciTech Connect

Studies relating to the performance of respiratory protective equipment have (1) developed new automated fit test methods, (2) determined the performance of respirators under temperature and humidity extremes, (3) assisted in evaluating the performance characteristics of a new military mask being developed, (4) evaluated alternate nondestructive respirator fit test methods, and (5) examined the performance of sorbents. Investigations of the use of personal protective clothing (PPC) have identified potential alternate field test methods and evaluated a potential simple screening test to be used as a PPC selection guide. Aerosol research has (1) evaluated instrumentation characteristics relative to respirator fit testing, (2) developed special aerosols for inhalation toxicology studies involving fibers and highly toxic chemical agents, and (3) defined the relative efficiency of alternate field-sampling cassette designs used for industrial hygiene personal sampling. Air-cleaning studies have resulted in the development of new filter test methods for respirator and space filters and evaluated the feasibility of a filtration system using liquid barriers. Applied industrial hygiene studies have evaluated the health hazards at a coal gasification facility, investigated the testing and use of chemical fume hoods, helped evaluate special DOE industrial hygiene concerns, and examined uranium solubility.

Ettinger, H.J. (ed.)

1986-08-01

116

Hand hygiene knowledge of college students.  

PubMed

An observational study was conducted to evaluate hygiene habits of students with fields of study, gender, and understanding of hygiene at a university in Alabama. One hundred students were randomly observed in ten restrooms on campus to determine whether or not students washed their hands. The study was divided into an observational stage, a quiz to ascertain student's knowledge of hygiene and the spread of pathogens, and a survey of self-reported illness rates. Females had a tendency to wash their hands more often than males while visiting the bathroom (p = 0.02, chi2 = 11.6). Science majors were more likely to wash their hands than non-science majors (p < or = 0.001, chi2 = 5.2). Females (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 21.5) and science majors (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 81.4) scored significantly higher on the survey than males and nonscience majors, and that those observed not washing their hands reported being sick more often than those observed washing their hands (chi2 = 155.0, df= 3, p < 0.001, Fisher's exact p < 0.001). PMID:20499532

Taylor, J Kyle; Basco, Roselyne; Zaied, Aya; Ward, Chelsea

2010-01-01

117

Pilot Overmyer looks over food selections and experiments with beverage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot Overmyer, using beverage container and drinking straw secured in meal tray assembly (ASSY), experiments with microgravity chararcteristics of liquid on middeck in front of forward lockers. Overmyer also looks over packages of food attached to middeck lockers in meal tray assemblies. Carry-on food warmer appears overhead and other meal tray assemblies, personal hygiene mirror assy, personal hygiene kit, and portrait of G.W.S. Abbey, JSC's Director of Flight Operations, appear on lockers.

1982-01-01

118

Significance of microbial biofilms in food industry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms have been of considerable interest in the context of food hygiene. Of special significance is the ability of microorganisms to attach and grow on food and food-contact surfaces under favourable conditions. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process and different mechanisms are involved in their attachment and growth. Extracellular polymeric substances play an important role in the attachment and colonization

C. Ganesh Kumar; S. K Anand

1998-01-01

119

Prospects of international trade in irradiated foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation is gaining recognition as a physical process for reducing food losses, enhancing hygienic quality of food and facilitating food trade. At present, 36 countries have approved the use of irradiation for processing collectively over 40 food items either on an unconditional or restricted basis. Commercial use of irradiated foods and food ingredients is being carried out in 22 countries. Technology transfer on food irradiation is being intensified to local industry in different regions. worldwide, a total of 40 commercial/demonstration irradiators available for treating foods have been or are being constructed. Acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods were discussed at the International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, jointly convened by FAO, IAEA, WHO and ITC-UNCTAD/GATT in Geneva, Switzerland, 12-16 December 1988. An "International Document on Food Irradiation" was adopted by consensus at this Conference which will facilitate wider acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods.

Loaharanu, P.

120

Dental hygiene students' perceptions of older adults.  

PubMed

Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students' attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students' anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience. PMID:25480277

Wiener, R Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D Leann

2014-12-01

121

Dental Hygiene Program Directors' Perceptions of Graduate Dental Hygiene Education and Future Faculty Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 161 dental-hygiene-program directors investigated perceived future needs for faculty, preferences for type of faculty degree for selection and promotion, the extent to which master's programs are meeting those needs in both numbers and skills, and how the programs can better prepare graduates for the millennium. (MSE)

Wilder, Rebecca S.; Mann, Ginger; Tishk, Maxine

1999-01-01

122

[Infrasound: body's effects and hygienic regulation].  

PubMed

The paper analyzes and sums up technically originated infrasound (IS) hygienic problems. Trends for an increase in its role as an unfavourable factor of the industrial, transport, and residential environments are established. Comprehensive physiological, hygienic, and experimental studies revealed the pathogenetic features of IS. Involvement of the limbicoreticular complex, hypothalamus, and other subcortical structures into responses to higher factor levels on human beings stipulates a sharply prominent pathological discomfort as a manifestation of the infrasonic diencephalic hypothalamic syndrome with sensorisomatic and autonomic visceral symptoms. A conceptual pathogenetic model of IS exposure has been worked out. Main subjective and objective signs of and criteria for IS exposure have been defined, its ranking by human risk areas is given with the influencing factor parameters borne in mind. The biometry of biological effects on exposure to IS at 4 and Hz and at 130 dB and their changes in the vestibular and acoustic analyzers, as well as in the neurohumoral regulation system and other homeostatic parameters has revealed the priority of the whole body's responses. PMID:9324381

Izmerov, N F; Suvorov, G A; Kuralesin, N A; Ovakimov, V G

1997-01-01

123

Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account and teach in local languages. Creating stronger links between home and institutional learning environments can be vital to support disadvantaged highland families in improving child health. PMID:24875851

Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

2015-06-01

124

Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU

Varvara A. Mouchtouri; Sandra Westacott; Gordon Nichols; Tobias Riemer; Mel Skipp; Christopher LR Bartlett; Jenny Kremastinou; Christos Hadjichristodoulou

2010-01-01

125

Influence of Oral Hygiene on Early Enamel Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 548 children aged 4-16 years, mean ( ± SD) age 10.3 ± 2.7 at visit 1, the dental status was recorded at four consecutive 6-monthly visits. Simultaneously oral hygiene was scored according to a modified patient hygiene performance (PHP) index after application of disclosing solution and before the dental examination. The following cariogenic changes could be observed: initiation (white

E. J. Etty; M. Henneberke; R. J. Gruythuysen; J. H. M. Wöltgens

1994-01-01

126

LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE & TROPICAL TERMS & CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS  

E-print Network

LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE & TROPICAL MEDICINE TERMS & CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS October 2003 #12 to the School premises in London; · "Goods" shall mean any goods (including any of them or any part of them in accordance with these Terms and Conditions; · "School" shall mean the London School of Hygiene & Tropical

Maizels, Rick

127

dentAl hygiene College of Rural and Community Development  

E-print Network

dentAl hygiene College of Rural and Community Development Community and Technical College 907 The registered dental hygienist is a licensed oral health educator and clinical operator who uses preventive. The dental hygiene AAS degree is a three-year program with one year of prerequisite science and general

Hartman, Chris

128

Personal hygienic concerns in long term space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from numerous experiments and hardware inventories were scanned for Skylab personal hygiene use. A computer program was formulated for predicting the degree of man's involvement with personal hygiene needs. A tabulation was kept for such events as water intake, frequency of urination and defecation, accidents or events requiring clean-up, methods of clean-up, microbiological environment and shower water contamination.

1973-01-01

129

Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

2006-01-01

130

Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

2009-01-01

131

Use of Case-Based Learning in Dental Hygiene Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…

Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.

1998-01-01

132

Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada.  

PubMed

There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice. PMID:21368255

Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J

2011-03-01

133

Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

Ley, Eugene; And Others

1984-01-01

134

The Effect of Recent Trends on Dental Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six trends affecting dental hygiene practice are discussed: demographic changes; disease pattern changes; higher societal expectations; financing and delivery system changes; technological advancement; and regulatory and legislative trends. It is argued that, though the trends reflect positively on dental hygiene, practitioners need to increase…

Douglass, Chester W.

1991-01-01

135

The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

Bowers, Denise E.

2012-01-01

136

Changes in Generic and Degree Completion Dental Hygiene Student Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the characteristics of dental hygiene students in two programs (bachelor's degree and two-year professional dental hygiene training) in 1978 and 1987 to assess changes over time. Results are presented and the implications for enrollment management are discussed. (MSE)

Carr, Sandra; Rubinstein, Linda

1989-01-01

137

Dental Hygiene Curriculum Model for Transition to Future Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The establishment of the baccalaureate degree as the minimum entry level for dental hygiene practice centers around three main concerns: changes in health care delivery, awarding of a degree commensurate with students' educational background, and the credibility of dental hygiene as a profession. A curriculum model is discussed. (MLW)

Paarmann, Carlene S.; And Others

1990-01-01

138

Food Chain & Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

Ms. B

2011-10-27

139

[Postural hygiene and ergonomic advices for low back pain: rethinking our practice].  

PubMed

In recent years, scientific understanding of low back pain has increased considerably, sometimes shoving concepts thought to be unshakable. If we consider postural hygiene,whose techniques were conceptualized in the 70's and are still widely used, not only some axioms were not confirmed but some evidences suggest that it may sometimes have deleterious effects. After reviewing these elements it appears that there is no simple formula applicable to all patients with low back pain. Instead we offer food for thought so that every therapist can adapt his practice on an individual basis. PMID:22455153

Kupper, D; Cedraschi, C; Genevay, S

2012-03-14

140

Making Healthy Food Choices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...

Miss Fox

2011-12-15

141

Am. I. imp. Med Hyg.. 42(3), 1990, pp. 267"271(89-262) Copyright C 1990 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene  

E-print Network

of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene LETHAL PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN GUATEMALA DANIEL C. RODRIGUE, RUTH A Control. Atlanta, Georgia; Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC; Laboratorio Unificado de Control City, Guatemala Abstract. An outbreak of paralytic shellfish poisoning occurred in Champerico

142

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.  

PubMed

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer. PMID:16483706

Aruoma, Okezie I

2006-04-01

143

[MRSA - hygiene management, diagnostics and treatment].  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphyococcus aureus strains remain a challenge to both patient care and infection control efforts. In addition to the defining resistance to beta-lactams several other antibiotic classes may be ineffective. Some resistance phenotypes exhibit a characteristic distribution pattern between healthcare-associated, community-associated, and livestock-associated MRSA strains. For patients with defined risk factors a search-, destroy-, follow-up-strategy is recommended in order to identify and eliminate MRSA colonization. Mupirocin nasal ointment and extensive hygiene measures are the mainstays of decolonization efforts. Besides vancomycin several other antimicrobials such as rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol, clindamycin, linezolid, and daptomycin are used to treat specific MRSA infections. PMID:24648177

Wagener, J; Seybold, U

2014-03-01

144

Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Faculty and student respondents agreed on the effectiveness of educational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices. PMID:24882769

Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

2014-06-01

145

A video study of Australian domestic food-handling practices.  

PubMed

Poor food-handling and hygiene practices in domestic kitchens are thought to be the cause of a significant amount of foodborne illness. Food-handling practices were studied by video observation in 40 home kitchens in Melbourne, Australia. Participant households included those of single people, couples, and families from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. The kitchens were continuously video monitored for 1 or 2 weeks during 1997 and 1998. Infrequent hand washing; poor hand-washing technique; lack of hand washing prior to food preparation; inadequate cleaning of kitchen surfaces; involvement of pets in the kitchen; touching of the face, mouth, nose, and/or hair during food preparation; and lack of separate hand and dish towels were the most common unhygienic practices observed. Prior to video surveillance, participant households answered a food-safety questionnaire that related to preparation and handling of food. These answers were contrasted with the actual practices observed in each household. There was a significant variance between stated (answers provided in response to the questionnaire) and observed (via video monitoring) food-handling and hygiene practices. The results of this study raise concerns about consumer food-handling and hygiene practices in Australian domestic kitchens. A continuous and increased effort in the education of the public in the area of hygienic food preparation is indicated. PMID:10571318

Jay, L S; Comar, D; Govenlock, L D

1999-11-01

146

Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Parasites among Food Handlers in Yebu Town, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background As a result of urbanization, eating and drinking from food service establishments is becoming a common practice in developing countries like Ethiopia, which increases the chances of food borne diseases. The health status and hygiene practices of food handlers are the major determinants of food contamination. In developing countries where there are poor regulatory systems for food hygiene, food handlers are often appointed without screening for possible infections associated with poor hygiene like intestinal parasites. Objective This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites and assessing the hygiene practices among food handlers in Yebu Town, southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 118 food handlers in Yebu Town in January 2011. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using both direct wet mount and Formol ether concentration techniques. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects was 44.1% (52/118). Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm spp were the predominant parasites identified from the stool of study participants. Age above 35 years (AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 21.8), no regular practice of washing hands before a meal (AOR: 7.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 24.8), and untrimmed finger nail (AOR: 14.7, 95% CI: 2.8, 75.4) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. Conclusion The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects. The study also revealed poor personal hygiene like poor practice of hand washing and poor finger nail hygiene. Therefore, much has to be done to improve the personal hygiene of the food handlers. Pre-placement and periodic screening of food handlers for parasites and prompt treatment, and health education on regular trimming or cleaning of fingernails would be the way forward for prevention of food borne diseases. PMID:25329050

Tefera, Tamirat; Mebrie, Getye

2014-01-01

147

Contact precautions and hand hygiene in veterinary clinics.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene, contact precautions, and other basic infection control measures are crucial in veterinary clinics, because these facilities can be community mixing pots of animals and people with a wide range of health and disease-carrier states. Veterinary staff must be knowledgeable and well trained regarding when and how to apply situation-appropriate contact precautions and to properly perform hand hygiene. The limited information on the use of contact precautions and hand hygiene practices among veterinary staff suggests that compliance is low. Improving the infection control culture in clinics and in veterinary medicine is critical to achieving better compliance with these practices. PMID:25532949

Anderson, Maureen E C

2015-03-01

148

Industrial hygiene study at the Anvil Points oil shale facility  

SciTech Connect

An industrial study was performed at the Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Mine and Retorting Facility near Rifle, Colorado. This study considered the potential industrial hygiene problems associated with the Paraho direct combustion retorting process and the related mining, crushing, disposal, and auxiliary operations. Air samples did not indicate any personal exposures in excess of existing industrial hygiene standards. However, area sampling did show that some operations would present significant exposures to some employees should such employees work full time in these areas. Commercial scale operations will require industrial hygiene control measures to control these potentially hazardous situations.

Garcia, L.L.; Schulte, H.F.; Ettinger, H.J.

1981-11-01

149

Food Safety Guidelines for Events Guidelines should by reviewed by the event organizer at the time the event is submitted to  

E-print Network

and food safety trainings. The Top 6 Causes of Food Poisoning: · Poor personal hygiene and sick foodFood Safety Guidelines for Events Guidelines should by reviewed by the event organizer at the time to groups planning to give away food for free or for a non-required donation at their events. Ohio State

150

CONTRIBUTION OF CHLIDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO LEAD CONTAMINATION OF FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the relationship of children's hygiene habits and food handling behaviors on lead levels on hands and handled foods for toddlers living in lead contaminated homes. Forty eight inner city toddlers who had previously been identified as having elevated blood le...

151

Health and Hygiene in Evacuation Centers  

E-print Network

using the bathroom ? After changing a diaper or assisting a child in the bathroom ? After handling uncooked foods (meat, poultry or fish) ? After caring for a sick person ? After blowing your nose, sneezing or coughing ? After touching garbage... tissues to cover coughs and to blow your nose. Step Three: Maintaining a clean living space ? Sanitize high risk surfaces. Examples are food preparation areas, diaper changing tables and surfaces soiled with body fluid (flood, feces and vomit...

Norman, Lisa

2005-09-30

152

Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene. PMID:12163918

Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

2002-01-01

153

Promoting safe hygiene practices in public restrooms: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The study described in this article examined the impact of hygiene posters in promoting safe hygiene practices for used toilet tissue disposal in public restrooms. Although the long-held hygiene norm in homes for the disposal of used toilet tissue in a container may occur in the rural U.S., it is critical in public environments to promote proper toilet tissue disposal in toilets to reduce potential transmission of bacteria and viruses. A control group time series design was used for observations of used toilet tissue disposal on the floor or in large trash cans in restrooms with and without signage for a two-week period. A significant decrease in observations was reported at intervention sites with posters (p = .025). No significant differences were reported at the control site. Posters were effective in motivating behavior change beyond hand hygiene. Further research may examine the impact of health posters in other environmental settings. PMID:25603617

Cynthia Kratzke; Short, Margaret; San Filippo, Bruce

2014-11-01

154

Bacteria Growth Inquiry: Bodily Bacteria and Healthy Hygiene Habits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry activity, students generate investigable questions to explore the link between hygiene/cleanliness and bacteria growth/population. The students will present their conclusions, and video clips containing additional information will be discussed.

155

Assessing Interdisciplinary Education in U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses from 136 of 216 dental hygiene programs indicated that 31% included interdisciplinary activities in the curriculum; only 15% included both clinical and instructional interdisciplinary coursework. However, 74% felt that students would benefit from interdisciplinary experiences. (SK)

Holt, Lorie; Bray, Kimberly; Mayberry, Bill; Overman, Pamela

2000-01-01

156

Use of Distance Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed dental hygiene programs to determine the prevalence of distance education use. Found that 22 percent have distance education, and that most were satisfied with it as an adequate alternative to traditional approaches. (EV)

Grimes, Ellen B.

2002-01-01

157

Analysis of curricular units of a graduate industrial hygiene program  

E-print Network

May 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene ANALYSIS OF CURRICULAR UNITS OF A GRADUATE INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM A Thesis by STEPHEN WARD COLLIER Approved as to style and content by: J. Vernon (Chairman of Committee) C. L. Gilmore (member..., and despite the recent emergence of several undergraduate programs, graduate programs continue to be the major source of sus- tenance to education and training of industrial hygienists. Substantial shifts in both governmental public policy and economic...

Collier, Stephen Ward

1983-01-01

158

Childhood Diarrhea and Observed Hygiene Behavior in Salvador, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief biweekly home visits, made as part of a cohort study of diarrhea in young children under age 5 years that was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, in 1998-1999, were used as a low-cost way to collect structured observation data on domestic hygiene behavior. Field-workers were trained to check a list of 23 forms of hygienic or unhygienic behavior by

A. Strina; S. Cairncross; M. L. Barreto; C. Larrea; M. S. Prado

2003-01-01

159

[Radiation hygiene in interventional radiology suite].  

PubMed

Exposure of both patients and medical staff to relatively high doses of radiation is one of the features characteristic of interventional radiology (IR). Regulations regarding this kind of therapeutic management can be found in many legal references and recommendations of European Union Law. The purpose of the paper is collection and systematic analysis of activities and procedures associated with the question of radiation hygiene which should be observed in IR suites. Requirements regarding equipment of the IR suite, as well as radiation protection of patients and medical staff, constitute main questions included in the paper, worked out on the basis of valid regulations and occupational experience of the authors. Particular attention is paid to borderline requirements regarding modern IR suite equipment and its organization. Part of the paper is devoted to the understanding of physical laws of ionizing radiation in biological space and its surroundings. Understanding of physical laws, proper utilization of IR suite equipment, and strict compliance with recommendations of radiation protection by both patients and medical staff are critical for limitation of the harmful influence of radiation during interventional therapeutic procedures. An additional role of the paper is to make it easier to take decisions when creating new IR suites, in accordance with valid regulations and the rule of functionality. PMID:24493688

Garcarek, Jerzy; Falkowski, Aleksander; Janczak, Dariusz; Weyde, Wac?aw

2013-01-01

160

Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.  

PubMed

Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates. PMID:23180223

Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A

2013-01-01

161

An infrasound experiment system for industrial hygiene.  

PubMed

An infrasound experiment system has been constructed in order to investigate the effects of infrasound on human health from the point of view of industrial hygiene and to establish a method to assess it in working environments. Some measurements were carried out to evaluate the acoustic performance of the system in the low frequency sound range, including infrasound, and to clarify the points to be improved. As a result, it was found that the system had some weak points in the audible frequency range. They were considered to be caused by the large capacity of the test chamber, and some countermeasures were required. On the other hand, in the infrasound range, it appeared that the higher harmonics of infrasound possibly affected the experiments and some limitations might be found necessary. But the frequency response of the chamber and the spatial uniformity of the reproduced infrasound proved to be satisfactory for the experiments in this range. Consequently it was concluded that the system could contribute to the study of infrasound. PMID:9348720

Takahashi, Y; Yonekawa, Y; Kanada, K; Maeda, S

1997-10-01

162

Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was ? = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: ? = 0.60; behavioural arousal: ? = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: ? = 0.81; sleep environment: ? = 0.61; sleep stability: ? = 0.68; daytime sleep: ? = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. PMID:23682620

Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan

2013-12-01

163

Psychometric Properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS)  

PubMed Central

Summary This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19 years; 17.7±0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Self-reports of sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness, caretaker-reports of behavior, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy were collected. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually-based factor structure was similar for 6 of the 8 proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was ?=0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: ?=0.60; behavioral arousal: ?=0.62; cognitive/emotional: ?=0.81; sleep environment: ?=0.61; sleep stability: ?=0.68; daytime sleep: ?=0.78 ? = 0.50. Sleep hygiene scores were positively associated with sleep duration (r=.16) and sleep efficiency (r=.12), and negatively correlated with daytime sleepiness (r=-.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. PMID:23682620

Storfer-Isser, A; LeBourgeois, MK; Harsh, J; Tompsett, CJ; Redline, S

2013-01-01

164

Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

2012-12-01

165

[Food poisoning--importance of international perspective].  

PubMed

It is important to obtain the information on food security in the countries other than Japan since more than 60 % of the food consumed come from these countries. Food security is now considered as a global issue. A global trend persuading us to provide safe food to humans is based on the concept of human security development associated with a sense of human mission to sustain one's life. Another global tendency pushing us to secure safety and hygiene of food is driven by the economic pressure coming from the rules in international trade established by Codex Committee under FAO/WHO. In contrast to these trends under globalization requesting safe and hygienic food, food habits based on tradition or religion are maintained locally in various parts of the world. These local habits include eating raw or improperly cooked foods, which may become a risk of being exposed to food poisoning pathogens. This issue may be adequately solved by a risk assessment approach based on the concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP). Like or not, people in some local areas live in the unhygienic environment where they are unintentionally and frequently exposed to enteric pathogens or immunologically cross-reacting microorganisms through which they may acquire specific immunity to the pathogens and escape from infection by the pathogens. There are therefore many areas in the world where people understand the necessity to provide safe food at the international level (globalization) but actually consume food in varying hygienic conditions from area to area due in part to traditional food habits or living environments (localization); we call this situation as glocalization (global+local). PMID:22894059

Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

2012-08-01

166

Food supplier qualification by an Italian Large-scale-Distributor: Auditing system and non-conformances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays government and purchasers are constantly setting increasing stringent requirements for food quality and safety, this means that production and distribution companies in the food and beverage sector must have full control over all incoming and outgoing goods. In particular food suppliers for Large-scale-Distributors have to meet many specific requirements and to undergo audits in order to assure the hygienic

Patrizia Losito; Pierina Visciano; Marisa Genualdo; Giorgio Cardone

2011-01-01

167

JORDI SERRATOSA, PH.D. European Food Safety Authority Liaison Officer  

E-print Network

JORDI SERRATOSA, PH.D. European Food Safety Authority Liaison Officer U.S. Food and Drug Administration Jordi Serratosa has a Ph.D. in probiotics used as feed additives from Hanover University, Germany; a bachelor's degree in hygiene, science and food technology from Universidad Complutense of Madrid, Spain

Minnesota, University of

168

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Food Allergy Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your immune system ... it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Allergic reactions to food ...

169

Hand hygiene monitoring technology: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare worker hand hygiene is thought to be one of the most important strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but compliance is generally poor. Hand hygiene improvement interventions must include audits of compliance (almost always with feedback), which are most often done by direct observation - a method that is expensive, subjective, and prone to bias. New technologies, including electronic and video hand hygiene monitoring systems, have the potential to provide continuous and objective monitoring of hand hygiene, regular feedback, and for some systems, real-time reminders. We propose a systematic review of the evidence supporting the effectiveness of these systems. The primary objective is to determine whether hand hygiene monitoring systems yield sustainable improvements in hand hygiene compliance when compared to usual care. Methods/Design MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other relevant databases will be searched for randomized control studies and quasi-experimental studies evaluating a video or electronic hand hygiene monitoring system. A standard data collection form will be used to abstract relevant information from included studies. Bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Studies will be reviewed independently by two reviewers, with disputes resolved by a third reviewer. The primary outcome is directly observed hand hygiene compliance. Secondary outcomes include healthcare-associated infection incidence and improvements in hand hygiene compliance as measured by alternative metrics. Results will be qualitatively summarized with comparisons made between study quality, the measured outcome, and study-specific factors that may be expected to affect outcome (for example, study duration, frequency of feedback, use of real-time reminders). Meta-analysis will be performed if there is more than one study of similar systems with comparable outcome definitions. Discussion Electronic and video monitoring systems have the potential to improve hand hygiene compliance and prevent healthcare-associated infection, but are expensive, difficult to install and maintain, and may not be accepted by all healthcare workers. This review will assess the current evidence of effectiveness of these systems before their widespread adoption. Study registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004519 PMID:24219817

2013-01-01

170

A survey of degree completion programs in dental hygiene education.  

PubMed

The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify specific information related to U.S. dental hygiene baccalaureate degree completion programs. Learning experiences, assessment methods, and baccalaureate institutional partnerships were assessed. Of the sixty dental hygiene programs that offer a degree completion program, the forty-two that met the inclusion criteria (including having operated for at least three years) were invited to participate in a thirty-eight item online survey. A 62 percent (n=26) response rate was obtained. Learning experiences in responding programs included core dental hygiene courses, general education courses, and elective dental hygiene courses. Emphasis areas offered by various programs were in the specialty areas of education, public or community health, and research. Respondents reported that their graduates were employed in multiple settings (65 percent; n=17), with 19 percent (n=5) reporting employment in the combined grouping of private practice, education, and public health. Institutional partnerships included articulation agreements (88 percent; n=21), community college baccalaureate (8 percent; n=2), and university extension (4 percent; n=1) models. The findings of this study provide a baseline for assessing the educational composition and design of U.S. dental hygiene degree completion programs. However, results of this study showed inconsistencies among learning experiences that might raise concerns when considering students' level of preparation for graduate education and future leadership roles in the profession. PMID:23658400

Portillo, Karen M; Rogo, Ellen J; Calley, Kristin H; Cellucci, Leigh W

2013-05-01

171

Clinical review: Airway hygiene in the intensive care unit  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few are substantiated by clinical data. This review focuses on the impact of oral hygiene, tracheal suctioning, bronchoscopy, mucus-controlling agents, and kinetic therapy on the incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory infections, length of stay in the hospital and the ICU, and mortality in critically ill patients. Available data are distilled into recommendations for the maintenance of airway hygiene in ICU patients. PMID:18423061

Jelic, Sanja; Cunningham, Jennifer A; Factor, Phillip

2008-01-01

172

Prioritization of the National Dental Hygiene Research Agenda.  

PubMed

The profession of dental hygiene has made considerable progress over the past 30 years toward developing a unique body of knowledge for guiding education, practice, and research. The 1993-1994 American Dental Hygienists' Association Council on Research published the first national dental hygiene research agenda in 1994. The 1994 research agenda focused dental hygienists' research efforts; however, publication of two national reports--the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health, and Healthy People 2010--have made it necessary to revisit the research agenda. After considering input from participants in the Fourth National Dental Hygiene Research Conference and evaluating the Surgeon General's Report, the 2000-2001 Council on Research has established recommendations for the prioritization of the 1993-1994 research agenda. This report outlines for readers the rationale for the proposed recommendations. PMID:12078580

Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Doherty, Frances; Stach, Donna J; Wyche, Charlotte J; Connolly, Irene; Wilder, Rebecca

2002-01-01

173

SAFETY, SECURITY, HYGIENE AND PRIVACY IN MIGRANT FARMWORKER HOUSING  

PubMed Central

Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed. PMID:22776578

Arcury, Thomas A.; Weir, Maria M.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F.; Bischoff, Werner E.; Quandt, Sara A.

2013-01-01

174

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that contain ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have an ...

175

Assessment of tobacco dependence curricula in Italian dental hygiene schools.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the level of tobacco dependence education offered by Italian dental hygiene programs. A fifty-question survey was mailed to the thirty-one active public and private dental hygiene programs in Italy during the 2008-09 academic year. The survey assessed faculty confidence in teaching tobacco treatment, which courses contained tobacco dependence content, the number of minutes spent on specific content areas, and the level of clinical competence that dental hygiene graduates should be able to demonstrate. Surveys were returned by sixteen programs for a response rate of 52 percent. Respondents indicated tobacco dependence education was included in clinic or clinic seminar (56 percent), periodontics (44 percent), oral pathology (31 percent), and prevention (19 percent). All programs reported including the effects of tobacco on general and oral diseases in courses. However, more in-depth topics received less curriculum time; these included tobacco treatment strategies (63 percent) and discussion of cessation medications (31 percent). Interestingly, 62 percent of the respondents indicated they expected dental hygiene graduates to demonstrate a tobacco treatment competency level of a moderate intervention or higher (counseling, discussion of medications, follow-up) rather than a brief intervention in which patients are advised to quit then referred to a quitline. The results of this study indicated that Italian dental hygiene students are not currently receiving adequate instruction in tobacco treatment techniques nor are they being adequately assessed. This unique overview of Italian dental hygiene tobacco dependence education provides a basis for further discussion towards a national competency-based curriculum. PMID:23929577

Pizzo, Giuseppe; Davis, Joan M; Licata, Maria E; Giuliana, Giovanna

2013-08-01

176

The six golden rules to improve compliance in hand hygiene.  

PubMed

Improvement of compliance in hand hygiene is probably the most effective step in reducing the incidence of nosocomial infections (NI). But improvement of compliance is known to be complex. Six possibilities for improving compliance are available although some of them may be difficult to carry out. Rule 1: Select an alcohol-based hand rub which has a good skin tolerance and is acceptable to health care workers to use. This has been shown to improve compliance. Rule 2: The hand rub shall be easily available. Wall dispensers near the patient and pocket bottles may well help. Other possibilities should be assessed locally. Rule 3: Implement teaching and promotion of hand hygiene, which has been shown to be very effective. This is may be the most effective tool but will cost time and money. If money is a problem, rule 4 may be the solution. Rule 4: Create a hospital budget which covers all costs involved with preventable nosocomial infection. Combine it with the budget for hand hygiene products. Even a small number of prevented NI largely outweighs the cost of effective hand hygiene products. Rule 5: Get senior staff to set a good example in order to motivate junior staff, because negligence in hand hygiene appears to correlate with the number of professional years. Rule 6: Have the patient-staff ratio well balanced. It has been shown that staff shortage decreases hand hygiene compliance. Other factors may be important as well, but implementation of these 6 golden rules could be an effective step into the right direction. PMID:15110114

Kampf, G

2004-04-01

177

The effect of automated monitoring and real-time prompting on nurses' hand hygiene performance.  

PubMed

Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data. PMID:23924823

Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

2013-10-01

178

Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

1991-08-01

179

Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made. PMID:19325772

Stoev, Stoycho D.

2008-01-01

180

"Take time. Save lives. Clean hands protect." A comparison of two hand hygiene health promotion posters.  

PubMed

Two posters were designed to encourage hospital staff hand hygiene. One focused on broad benefits of hand hygiene to patients and staff, and the other highlighted hand hygiene as a long-known measure to infection control. The former was better received in terms of attention, likability, and potential to promote hand hygiene. A third-person effect, the perception of stronger impact of communication messages on others, was observed. Implications on health promotion message design were discussed. PMID:24773789

Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Champlin, Sara; Liang, Ming-Ching; Mabry, Amanda; Stroever, Stephanie; Guadagno, Marie; Watkins, Lynda

2014-05-01

181

An Actigraphic Comparison of Sleep Restriction and Sleep Hygiene Treatments for Insomnia in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the efficacy of sleep restriction therapy combined with sleep hygiene, nap modification of sleep restriction therapy combined with sleep hygiene, and sleep hygiene alone as treatments for insomnia in 39 community-dwelling men and women 55 years and older. We used the wrist actigraph as an objective outcome measure for all subjects at baseline, end of treatment, and 3-month

Leah Friedman; Kathleen Benson; Art Noda; Vincent Zarcone; Deryl A. Wicks; Kerry OConnell; John O. Brooks; Donald L. Bliwise; Jerome A. Yesavage

2000-01-01

182

PRE-DENTAL HYGIENE Undergraduate Credit Required: 66 hours undergraduate course work  

E-print Network

PRE-DENTAL HYGIENE Undergraduate Credit Required: 66 hours undergraduate course work Entrance Exam: None Professional Schooling Required: 2 years dental hygiene school; B.S. Dental Hygiene Local Professional Schools: UNMC College of Dentistry Professional Organization Websites: adea.org (American Dental

Logan, David

183

Dental Hygiene Entry-Level Program Administrators' Strategies for Overcoming Challenges of Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the…

Buchanan, Bette A.

2009-01-01

184

Behavior-change interventions to improve hand-hygiene practice: a review of alternatives to education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the role of hand hygiene in preventing infectious disease, compliance remains low. Education and training are often cited as essential to developing and maintaining hand-hygiene compliance, but generally have not produced sustained improvements. Consequently, this literature review was conducted to identify alternative interventions for compelling change in hand-hygiene behavior. Of those, interventions employing social pressures have demonstrated varying influence

Sarah Wilson; Casey J. Jacob; Douglas Powell

2011-01-01

185

External Evaluation of CDC Homestudy Course 3010-G, "Community Hygiene."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of the Centers for Disease Control's home study course in community hygiene on the job performance of 45 sanitarians in 30 districts throughout North Carolina. Data were collected from: (1) pre- and post-tests that evaluated the sanitarians' mastery of knowledge in such areas as water supply, sewage disposal, solid…

Gantt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.

186

[Emerging issues concerning hygiene in the Russian aluminum industry].  

PubMed

In this study the data of multiyear investigations of occupational and environmental hazards at different enterprises of the Russian aluminum industry are presented. Basing on these data, we have been elaborated the algorithm and methodological approaches on management of the occupational and ecology-related risks using hygienic safety criteria, risk evaluation technique, epidemiological and economic analysis. PMID:23479952

Rosly?, O F; Gurvich, V B; Plotko, É G; Kuz'min, S V; Fedoruk, A A; Roslaia, N A; Iarushin, S V; Kuz'min, D V

2012-01-01

187

Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

1992-01-01

188

HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR OF HONEY BEES IN RELATION TO CHALKBROOD DISEASE  

E-print Network

HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR OF HONEY BEES IN RELATION TO CHALKBROOD DISEASE Martha GILLIAM, Stephen TABER III, regardless of how the data were analyzed. These results indicated that the bees can detect the diseased of chalkbrood disease by increased removal of dead or diseased brood and also possibly by increased removal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Malaria Centre London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine  

E-print Network

Malaria Centre London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK http://malaria.lshtm.ac.uk/ malaria@lshtm.ac.uk Copies of this report may be obtained at http://malaria. lshtm.ac.uk/ or by writing to the address above. Cover image: Mala (Matt Murphy/Handsome Frank) Malaria

Maizels, Rick

190

Meat hygiene in developing tropical and subtropical countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and up-to-date standard of meat hygiene is a basic requirement for the health and prosperity of any country. To achieve this objective animal diseases must be eradicated, meat production plants modernised, and public health propaganda and instruction greatly extended.

A. Ginsberg

1969-01-01

191

Hygiene-Related Diseases: Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Water Home Share Compartir Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete’s Foot ( tinea pedis ) Athlete’s foot, or tinea pedis , is an infection of the ... tinea pedis can affect any portion of the foot, the infection most often affects the space between ...

192

Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

Notgarnie, Howard M.

2011-01-01

193

Clinical review: Airway hygiene in the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and\\/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few

Sanja Jelic; Jennifer A Cunningham; Phillip Factor

2008-01-01

194

Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

195

Fault tree analysis on handwashing for hygiene management  

Microsoft Academic Search

FTA (fault tree analysis) of the handwashing process was performed to investigate the causes for faults in hygiene management. The causes were deductively identified as the events causing every possible hazard by constructing a fault tree. The fault tree was constructed in a hierarchical structure with a single top event (occurrence of faults in hand washing), seven intermediate events, and

Aeri Park; Seung Ju Lee

2009-01-01

196

Use of sleep hygiene in the treatment of insomnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep hygiene (SH) refers to a list of behaviors, environmental conditions, and other sleep-related factors that can be adjusted as a stand-alone treatment or component of multimodal treatment for patients with insomnia. This paper presents a review of SH, how this concept has been applied and often modified over the past 24 years, and how it relates to the modern

Edward J Stepanski; James K Wyatt

2003-01-01

197

Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH)  

E-print Network

Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) The CPEST MapperThe CPEST Mapper A GIS;List of presentersList of presenters Rashid Malik ­ GIS programmer analyst Maryland EPHT Program Carolyn F. Poppell, MS ­ Epidemiologist Maryland Center for Cancer Surveillance and Control and University

198

A Vocal Hygiene Program for High-School Cheerleaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-six female cheerleaders and their advisors from four high schools participated in the development and evaluation of a preventative vocal hygiene program designed to communicate information about voice and vocal abuse. Pretest/posttest comparison indicated a significant improvement in participants' knowledge and awareness of vocally abusive…

Aaron, Virginia L.; Madison, Charles L.

1991-01-01

199

HEALTHCARE SCIENCES Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene,  

E-print Network

HEALTHCARE SCIENCES Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene, Health Universities and colleges OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY Occupational therapy is the treatment of people who are unable) or doctoral (OTD, less common) degree in occupational therapy to gain entry in the field. All states regulate

New Hampshire, University of

200

ALLIED HEALTH Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene,  

E-print Network

ALLIED HEALTH Physical & Occupational Therapy, Cytotechnology, Dental Hygiene, Health Information Teaching Earn a bachelor's or master's degree in occupational therapy to gain entry in the field. Some programs offer a "certificate" in occupational therapy for students having a degree other than O.T. All

Kaminsky, Werner

201

The prevalence of academic dishonesty in Texas dental hygiene programs.  

PubMed

The media has given much attention to the academic cheating crisis in America. A majority of college students believe that, in today's global environment, it is necessary to cheat in order to get ahead and to compete with their peers. The prevalence and attitudes concerning academic dishonesty of health professions students, including those in medical, dental, and nursing schools, have been extensively researched. No such studies exist in the discipline of dental hygiene. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cheating in Texas dental hygiene programs. Four hundred surveys were mailed to twenty Texas dental hygiene schools for graduating students to complete. A total of 289 usable surveys was returned for a response rate of 72.25 percent. Data were analyzed using SPSS with frequencies and chi-square tests. Findings from this study reveal that 86.5 percent of graduating Texas dental hygiene students have cheated a minimum of one time during matriculation. Students identified the demands of what they considered academic overload as the primary justification for cheating behavior. PMID:18981203

Muhney, Kelly A; Gutmann, Marylou E; Schneiderman, Emet; DeWald, Janice P; McCann, Ann; Campbell, Patricia R

2008-11-01

202

Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

1990-01-01

203

Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene and Recapped Brood Cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Honey bees bred for “suppression of mite reproduction” resist the growth of Varroa destructor through the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped brood. This is varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH), and the bees are called VSH bees. VSH is a multi-step process that involves detection, uncapping of th...

204

The Use of Gaming in a Dental Hygiene Review Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effectiveness of gaming to create an interactive, stimulating learning environment as a review format for the Dental Hygiene National Board examination. Students (n=28) participated in either the gaming or a lecture review format. The gaming group scored higher on the exam on eight of 12 topics as well as on the case-based learning…

Peterson, Charlotte A.; Mauriello, Sally M.; Caplan, Daniel J.

2000-01-01

205

zentrum hygiene und humangenetik ABTEIlUNG TRANSFUSIONSMEDIZIN centre for hygiene and human Genetics DEPARTMENT OF TRANSFUSION MEDICINE  

E-print Network

Transfusionsmedizin Research Foci Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Preparation of Blood Components Molecular Transfusion Genetics DEPARTMENT OF TRANSFUSION MEDICINE Abteilungsdirektor/in | Head of Department Prof. Dr. medAnsfusionsmedizin Centre for Hygiene and Human Genetics depArtment of trAnsfusion medicine Einleitung Die Aufgabe der

Gollisch, Tim

206

Major in Anything and be Pre-Dental Hygiene at NEBRASKA! Pre-Dental Hygiene is one of fifteen advising categories in Pre-Health indicating your interest in pursuing coursework to prepare for and  

E-print Network

Assistant Radiation Science Technology #12;PRE-DENTAL HYGIENE Kara Brant | Pre-Health Recruitment 402PRE-HEALTH Major in Anything and be Pre-Dental Hygiene at NEBRASKA! Pre-Dental Hygiene is one for Pre-Dental Hygiene? The University of Nebraska-Lincoln has graduated more health professionals than

Logan, David

207

Measuring healthcare worker hand hygiene activity: current practices and emerging technologies.  

PubMed

Monitoring hand hygiene compliance and providing healthcare workers with feedback regarding their performance are considered integral parts of multidisciplinary hand hygiene improvement programs. Observational surveys conducted by trained personnel are currently considered the "gold standard" method for establishing compliance rates, but they are time-consuming and have a number of shortcomings. Monitoring hand hygiene product consumption is less time-consuming and can provide useful information regarding the frequency of hand hygiene that can be used to give caregivers feedback. Electronic counting devices placed in hand hygiene product dispensers provide detailed information about hand hygiene frequency over time, by unit and during interventions. Electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems that utilize wireless systems to monitor room entry and exit of healthcare workers and their use of hand hygiene product dispensers can provide individual and unit-based data on compliance with the most common hand hygiene indications. Some systems include badges (tags) that can provide healthcare workers with real-time reminders to clean their hands upon entering and exiting patient rooms. Preliminary studies suggest that use of electronic monitoring systems is associated with increased hand hygiene compliance rates and that such systems may be acceptable to care givers. Although there are many questions remaining about the practicality, accuracy, cost, and long-term impact of electronic monitoring systems on compliance rates, they appear to have considerable promise for improving our efforts to monitor and improve hand hygiene practices among healthcare workers. PMID:21931253

Boyce, John M

2011-10-01

208

Knowledge of and Adherence to Hygiene Guidelines among Medical Students in Austria  

PubMed Central

Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high. PMID:23690765

Herbert, Verena G.; Schlumm, Paul; Kessler, Harald H.; Frings, Andreas

2013-01-01

209

Keeping Up Appearances: Perceptions of Street Food Safety in Urban Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food—not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as ‘purity’, ‘contamination’, ‘hygiene puzzles’, and ‘impression behaviors’ from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives. PMID:18821020

Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

2008-01-01

210

Eggs and salmonella food-poisoning: an evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Evidence on the extent of the part played by infected hens' eggs in causing salmonella food-poisoning is inconclusive. The role of freshly cooked shell eggs is currently much exaggerated. Prevention should be sought through improved catering practices and kitchen hygiene, and attempts to eradicate salmonellas from laying flocks are likely to be ineffective.

J. P. Duguid; R. A. E. North

1991-01-01

211

Food, Environment and Health: A Guide for Primary School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book for primary school teachers provides a practical collection of facts, advice, projects, games, stories, and sample questions for use in teaching children the importance of healthy habits. Food, personal hygiene, and the home environment are areas of particular concern. Details range from advice on ways to start a school garden or design…

Williams, Trefor; And Others

212

An Analysis of Public Health Policy and Legal Issues Relevant to Mobile Food Vending  

PubMed Central

Mobile food vending is a component of the food environment that has received little attention in the public health literature beyond concerns about food sanitation and hygiene issues. However, several features of mobile food vending make it an intriguing venue for food access. We present key components of mobile vending regulation and provide examples from 12 US cities to illustrate the variation that can exist surrounding these regulations. Using these regulatory features as a framework, we highlight existing examples of “healthy vending policies” to describe how mobile food vending can be used to increase access to nutritious food for vulnerable populations. PMID:20864711

Stevens, Stephanie A.; Yen, Irene H.; Laraia, Barbara L.

2010-01-01

213

Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?  

PubMed Central

Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions. PMID:22242105

Hübner, N.-O.; Fleßa, S.; Haak, J.; Wilke, F.; Hübner, C.; Dahms, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Kramer, A.

2011-01-01

214

[Research on Kathon CG in cosmetic and personal hygiene products].  

PubMed

Kathon is an anti-microbial agent that is used as a preservative in cosmetics and bodily hygiene products. At the recommended levels of usage Kathon is innocuous and has a recognised efficacy. Nevertheless, following reappearance of contact allergic eczemas due to cosmetics and bodily hygiene products different authors have reported increase in sensitisation to it. We have met the same problems in the Service de Dermatology++ of the Hospital Sainte Marguerite at Marseille and we wished to make a deeper examination of the question and to ascertain whether the current cosmetics contained Kathon CG. For this we have developed a technique of liquid chromatography and tested 44 creams. Eight contained Kathon CG, of which 2 were responsible for contact eczema in patients. PMID:2222764

Vezia, V; Renacco, E; Castelain, P Y; Caperan, A; Lanza, M; Pastor, J

1990-09-01

215

Motivational interviewing in dental hygiene education: curriculum modification and evaluation.  

PubMed

Motivational interviewing (MI) is a person-centered, goal-directed method of communication for eliciting and strengthening intrinsic motivation for behavior change. Originally developed in the field of addiction therapy, MI has been increasing applied in the health professions with a growing body of successful outcomes for tobacco cessation and diabetic control, which can significantly impact oral health. MI has shown preliminary value for impacting oral behaviors that reduce early childhood caries, plaque, and gingival inflammation. While the training in and use of MI by oral health providers is emerging, full integration into dental and dental hygiene curricula has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the full implementation of MI in the classroom and clinic of a dental hygiene curriculum. PMID:24319138

Bray, Kimberly Krust; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Liston, Robin; Williams, Karen B

2013-12-01

216

Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

2008-12-01

217

Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board. PMID:24385532

Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

2014-01-01

218

Industrial-hygiene report: perchloroethylene at Dubarry Cleaners, Detroit, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-site visit was made to Dubarry Cleaners, Detroit, Michigan, as part of an industry-wide mortality and industrial hygiene study of dry cleaning workers exposed to perchloroethylene (PCE). Air samples were taken at the facility and the time weighted average exposure to PCE was calculated to be 23 parts per million (ppm) with 5-minute peak exposures ranging from 33 to

1980-01-01

219

Immune regulation in atherosclerosis and the hygiene hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall where both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute\\u000a to disease initiation and progression. The hygiene hypothesis implies that dysregulation of the immune response has led to\\u000a increased susceptibility to immuno-inflammatory diseases. Recent studies established that subtypes of T cells, regulatory\\u000a T cells, actively involved in the maintenance of immunological tolerance,

Hafid Ait-Oufella; Alain Tedgui; Ziad Mallat

220

Radioisotope tracer study in a sludge hygienization research irradiator (SHRI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioisotope tracer study has been carried out in a batch type sludge hygienization research irradiator with flow from top to bottom, the objective being to measure flow rate, circulation and mixing times and to investigate the hydrodynamic behaviour of the irradiator for identifying the cause(s) of malfunction. A stimulus–response technique with NH824Br as a tracer was used to measure

H. J Pant; J Thýn; R Zitný; B. C Bhatt

2001-01-01

221

The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update  

PubMed Central

According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, the decreasing incidence of infections in western countries and more recently in developing countries is at the origin of the increasing incidence of both autoimmune and allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis is based upon epidemiological data, particularly migration studies, showing that subjects migrating from a low-incidence to a high-incidence country acquire the immune disorders with a high incidence at the first generation. However, these data and others showing a correlation between high disease incidence and high socio-economic level do not prove a causal link between infections and immune disorders. Proof of principle of the hygiene hypothesis is brought by animal models and to a lesser degree by intervention trials in humans. Underlying mechanisms are multiple and complex. They include decreased consumption of homeostatic factors and immunoregulation, involving various regulatory T cell subsets and Toll-like receptor stimulation. These mechanisms could originate, to some extent, from changes in microbiota caused by changes in lifestyle, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Taken together, these data open new therapeutic perspectives in the prevention of autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:20415844

Okada, H; Kuhn, C; Feillet, H; Bach, J-F

2010-01-01

222

Cultivating professional responsibility in a dental hygiene curriculum.  

PubMed

To prepare dental hygienists for future roles in the health care system, dental hygiene education must prepare graduates with skills, ethics, and values that align with professional responsibility. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of curricular changes designed to develop professional identity and responsibility over the entire span of the dental hygiene curriculum. Twenty-four dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed about their attitudes toward access to dental care, society's and health professionals' responsibility to care for the underserved, and their personal efficacy to provide care for the underserved. Surveys were conducted at three time points in the curriculum. The Attitudes Toward Health Care instrument adapted by Holtzman for dental use was used to survey the students. The findings indicate that this institution's curricular changes were effective in cultivating professional responsibility among these students. Their attitude scores increased across the six-semester curriculum, and students in their last semester of the program believed that all individuals have a right to dental care and that society has an obligation to provide dental care. These students' sense of obligation to care for the needy became stronger and their perceptions of their own ability to impact the community and act as an agent of change also increased. PMID:23929574

Blue, Christine M

2013-08-01

223

Factors associated with different hygiene practices in the homes of 15 month old infants  

PubMed Central

Background: Improved hygiene in Westernised regions of the world may be partly responsible for the increased prevalence of diseases of the immune system, such as asthma and atopy. There is a paucity of data on cleanliness norms in young children in the UK and there has been no attempt to identify factors that influence the adoption of particular hygiene practices in the home. Aims: To examine levels of hygiene in a contemporary cohort of children and identify social and lifestyle factors influencing hygiene practices in the home. Methods: The sample under study are participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Parental self completion questionnaires provided data on hygiene levels in children at 15 months of age, and a hygiene score was derived from these responses. Multivariable logistic regression models investigated associations between high hygiene scores (top quintile) and a number of perinatal, maternal, social, and environmental factors. Results: Maternal smoking during pregnancy, low maternal educational achievement, and living in local authority housing were factors independently associated with high hygiene scores, as was increased use of chemical household products. High hygiene scores were inversely related to living in damp housing and attendance at day care. There were no gender or ethnic differences in hygiene score. Conclusion: Important data on cleanliness norms for infants have been presented. The adoption of hygiene practices is influenced to some degree by social, lifestyle, and environmental factors—with higher hygiene scores occurring in more socially disadvantaged groups. Increased use of chemical household products in the more socially disadvantaged groups within ALSPAC has emerged as an important confounder in any study of hygiene and ill health. PMID:12089118

Sherriff, A; Golding, J; The, A

2002-01-01

224

Impact of a hygiene curriculum and the installation of simple handwashing and drinking water stations in rural Kenyan primary schools on student health and hygiene practices.  

PubMed

School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half ("intervention schools"). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention. PMID:22869631

Patel, Minal K; Harris, Julie R; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

2012-10-01

225

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that contains bacteria, parasites, viruses, or the toxins made ... Food poisoning can affect one person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It ...

226

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... More Information Health and Nutrition Information for Preschoolers Food Safety Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. This ... more about food safety Resources for Nutrition & Health Food Groups & Related Topics Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods ...

227

Food additives  

MedlinePLUS

Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

228

Oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization among pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Daily oral hygiene and regular dental visits are important components of oral health care. The authors’ objective in this study was to examine women's oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. Methods The authors developed a written oral health questionnaire and administered it to 599 pregnant women. They collected demographic information, as well as data on oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. They used ?2 and multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between oral hygiene practice and dental service use during pregnancy and to identify maternal predictor variables. Results Of the 599 participants, 83 percent (n = 497) reported brushing once or twice per day. Twenty-four percent (n = 141) reported flossing at least once daily; Hispanic women were more likely to floss than were white or African American women (28 percent [52 of 183] versus 22 percent [54 of 248] versus 19 percent [23 of 121], respectively, P < .001). Seventy-four percent (n = 442) of the participants reported having received no routine dental care during pregnancy. Hispanic women were significantly less likely than were black or white women to receive routine dental care during pregnancy (13 percent versus 21 percent versus 36 percent, respectively, P < .001). The authors found that being older than 36 years, being of Hispanic race or ethnicity, having an annual income of less than $30,000, flossing infrequently and receiving no dental care when not pregnant were significantly associated with lack of routine dental care during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratios, 95 percent confidence intervals: 2.56 [1.33-4.92]; 2.19 [1.11-4.29]; 2.02 [1.12-3.65]; 1.86 [1.13-3.07]; and 4.35 [2.5-7.69], respectively). A woman's lack of receiving routine dental care when not pregnant was the most significant predictor of lack of receiving dental care during pregnancy. Conclusion Racial, ethnic and economic disparities related to oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization during pregnancy exist. Clinical Implications Medical and dental care providers who treat women of reproductive age and pregnant women need to develop policy strategies to address this population's access barriers to, and use of, dental care services. PMID:20436103

Boggess, Kim A.; Urlaub, Diana M.; Massey, Katie E.; Moos, Merry-K; Matheson, Matthew B.; Lorenz, Carol

2015-01-01

229

Food and waste management biotechnology for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.

Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.

1979-01-01

230

Food system galley for Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galley, a 42 man-day meal preparation facility (with flexibility to accomodate 210 man-days) is described. The facility is designed for minimum meal preparation and clean-up time in zero g and ease of servicing, maintenance, and removal in one gravity. The Galley provides a centralized location for performing all of the food-related functions (except dining) within the orbiter. Consideration is given to the oven-water heater, personal hygiene station, water dispensers, and water supply subsystem. The Galley is positioned in the orbiting mid deck, interfacing with rehydratable food packages and the waste collector subsystem.

Murray, R. W.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.; Turner, T. R.

1979-01-01

231

Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To quantify the effect of hand-hygiene interventions on rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses and to identify interventions that provide the greatest efficacy, we searched 4 electronic databases for hand-hygiene trials published from January 1960 through May 2007 and conducted meta-analyses to generate pooled rate ratios across interventions (N=30 studies). Improvements in hand hygiene resulted in reductions in gastrointestinal illness of 31% (95% confidence intervals [CI]=19%, 42%) and reductions in respiratory illness of 21% (95% CI=5%, 34%). The most beneficial intervention was hand-hygiene education with use of nonantibacterial soap. Use of antibacterial soap showed little added benefit compared with use of nonantibacterial soap. Hand hygiene is clearly effective against gastrointestinal and, to a lesser extent, respiratory infections. Studies examining hygiene practices during respiratory illness and interventions targeting aerosol transmission are needed. PMID:18556606

Aiello, Allison E; Coulborn, Rebecca M; Perez, Vanessa; Larson, Elaine L

2008-08-01

232

Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance  

PubMed Central

Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a component of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Improving the infection control culture in veterinary medicine would facilitate future campaigns and studies in this area, as well as overall patient and staff safety. PMID:24885304

2014-01-01

233

Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail.  

PubMed

Cooked meat ready-to-eat products are recognized to be contaminated during slicing which, in the last years, has been associated with several outbreaks. This work aimed to find out possible relation between the hygiene practice taking place at retail point during slicing of cooked meat products in small and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) and large-sized establishments (LEs) and the microbiological quality of sliced cooked meat products. For that, a checklist was drawn up and filled in based on scoring handling practice during slicing in different establishments in Cordoba (Southern Spain). In addition, sliced cooked meats were analyzed for different microbiological indicators and investigated for the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that SMEs showed a more deficient handling practices compared to LEs. In spite of these differences, microbiological counts indicated similar microbiological quality in cooked meat samples for both types of establishments. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Positive samples for Listeria spp. were found in establishments which showed acceptable hygiene levels, though contamination could be associated to the lack of exclusiveness of slicers at retail points. Moreover, Listeria spp presence could not be statistically linked to any microbiological parameters; however, it was observed that seasonality influenced significantly (P<0.05) L. monocytogenes presence, being all samples found during warm season (5/5). As a conclusion, results suggested that more effort should be made to adequately educate handlers in food hygiene practices, focused specially on SMEs. PMID:20573456

Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Castro, R; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Valero, A; Carrasco, E; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

2010-10-01

234

Industrial Hygiene Group: 1986 Annual report on research and special activities  

SciTech Connect

This report details all the 1986 research activities and some selected operational programs of the Industrial Hygiene Group. During 1986, research studies were directed at: respiratory protection, personal protective clothing, applied industrial hygiene, and aerosols and air cleaning. In several instances, the transfer of technology, previously developed by the Industrial Hygiene Group, is described together with the application of research developments to operational health protection programs.

Ettinger, H.J. (ed.)

1987-11-01

235

Determination of elements for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Engineering programs at the Masters level  

E-print Network

DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAMS AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAM% AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to Texas...

Duke, James Edward

1992-01-01

236

Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination  

PubMed Central

Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training. PMID:25699224

Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

2015-01-01

237

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

238

Food control in Switzerland: an overview.  

PubMed

Switzerland is a confederation consisting of 26 states, the so-called 'cantons'. In the field of food control, the Swiss federal state is in charge of issuing the regulations (Food law and associated texts), whereas enforcement is assigned to the cantons. The offices in charge of food control are the cantonal laboratories headed by a 'Cantonal chemist'. These offices pursue three main goals: to protect consumer health, to protect the consumer against frauds and to ensure food handling under good hygiene conditions. To that purpose, the Cantonal chemist heads both a laboratory and a staff of inspectors, who are responsible for the control of food products (including meat and drinking water), the control of hygiene and production at factories, stores, restaurants, etc. as well as the control of common goods and household items such as toys, clothing, make-up, dishes, cookware, jewelry and so on. All laboratories and inspection bodies are accredited according to ISO norms EN 17'020 and EN 17'025. The offices headed by the cantonal chemists analyze annually about 110'000 samples on sale or from factories, whereas the inspection bodies perform roughly 45'000 inspections (without primary producers and occasional importers). PMID:25437157

Deflorin, Otmar

2014-10-01

239

The relationship between hand hygiene and health care-associated infection: it’s complicated  

PubMed Central

The reasoning that improved hand hygiene compliance contributes to the prevention of health care-associated infections is widely accepted. It is also accepted that high hand hygiene alone cannot impact formidable risk factors, such as older age, immunosuppression, admission to the intensive care unit, longer length of stay, and indwelling devices. When hand hygiene interventions are concurrently undertaken with other routine or special preventive strategies, there is a potential for these concurrent strategies to confound the effect of the hand hygiene program. The result may be an overestimation of the hand hygiene intervention unless the design of the intervention or analysis controls the effect of the potential confounders. Other epidemiologic principles that may also impact the result of a hand hygiene program include failure to consider measurement error of the content of the hand hygiene program and the measurement error of compliance. Some epidemiological errors in hand hygiene programs aimed at reducing health care-associated infections are inherent and not easily controlled. Nevertheless, the inadvertent omission by authors to report these common epidemiological errors, including concurrent infection prevention strategies, suggests to readers that the effect of hand hygiene is greater than the sum of all infection prevention strategies. Worse still, this omission does not assist evidence-based practice. PMID:25678805

McLaws, Mary-Louise

2015-01-01

240

Use of a powered toothbrush for hygiene of edentulous implant-supported prostheses.  

PubMed

Effective professional maintenance and personal oral hygiene are important for the long-term success and comfortable functioning of implant-assisted dental restorations. Incorporating the most effective oral hygiene devices into each patient's oral hygiene regimen facilitates optimal results. The use of a powered toothbrush with interchangeable brush heads permits effective cleaning of the most access-challenging prosthesis contours. This article presents a useful personal oral hygiene regimen for the long-term maintenance of various implant-supported dental restorations. PMID:21661663

Cagna, David R; Massad, Joseph J; Daher, Tony

2011-05-01

241

The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence.  

PubMed

The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) improve sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over sleep has increased demand for sleep promotion strategies accessible to the population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene strategies apply outside clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for sleep hygiene recommendations regarding exercise, stress management, noise, sleep timing, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed. PMID:25454674

Irish, Leah A; Kline, Christopher E; Gunn, Heather E; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica H

2014-10-16

242

Keeping Up Appearances: Perceptions of Street Food Safety in Urban Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities\\u000a for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the\\u000a urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been\\u000a linked

Thilde Rheinländer; Mette Olsen; John Abubakar Bakang; Harriet Takyi; Flemming Konradsen; Helle Samuelsen

2008-01-01

243

Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability  

PubMed Central

As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public–private partnerships. PMID:23530770

2013-01-01

244

Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.  

PubMed

The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen production and audits in such AI centers for the external control of hygiene parameters. PMID:25459424

Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

2015-02-01

245

Probiotics and food allergy  

PubMed Central

The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the “hygiene hypothesis” low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions. Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells. Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders. PMID:23895430

2013-01-01

246

Industrial hygiene concerns associated with oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

Health protection concerns (including industrial hygiene, safety, and occupational medicine) must be evaluated to insure that development of the oil shale industry proceeds without significant risk to the health of the workers involved. These concerns need to be identified in the early stages of developing this industry. To provide a basis for discussing potential health protection concerns related to oil shale, it is necessary to briefly discuss the magnitude and characteristics of this resource; the alternate proposed technologies; and the unit operations which make up the operating system. This subject has been detailed in many publications, among them reports prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency. This discussion will be limited to providing sufficient background to put industrial hygiene and other health protection concerns in perspective, and will include a brief description of typical technologies under consideration. It will not provide a detailed description of these technologies, or attempt to cover all the alternate technologies which may be applied to the development of oil shale. However, a basis for considering potential health protection problems associated with development of this industry will be established.

Ettinger, H.J.

1980-01-01

247

International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

2007-01-01

248

Hygiene and the world distribution of Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) shares certain etiological features with autoimmunity. Prevalence of autoimmunity varies between populations in accordance with variation in environmental microbial diversity. Exposure to microorganisms may improve individuals’ immunoregulation in ways that protect against autoimmunity, and we suggest that this may also be the case for AD. Here, we investigate whether differences in microbial diversity can explain patterns of age-adjusted AD rates between countries. Methodology: We use regression models to test whether pathogen prevalence, as a proxy for microbial diversity, across 192 countries can explain a significant amount of the variation in age-standardized AD disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) rates. We also review and assess the relationship between pathogen prevalence and AD rates in different world populations. Results: Based on our analyses, it appears that hygiene is positively associated with AD risk. Countries with greater degree of sanitation and lower degree of pathogen prevalence have higher age-adjusted AD DALY rates. Countries with greater degree of urbanization and wealth exhibit higher age-adjusted AD DALY rates. Conclusions and implications: Variation in hygiene may partly explain global patterns in AD rates. Microorganism exposure may be inversely related to AD risk. These results may help predict AD burden in developing countries where microbial diversity is rapidly diminishing. Epidemiological forecasting is important for preparing for future healthcare needs and research prioritization. PMID:24481197

Fox, Molly; Knapp, Leslie A.; Andrews, Paul W.; Fincher, Corey L.

2013-01-01

249

CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

Son, Chang H.

2011-01-01

250

Behaviors and hygiene habits of complete denture wearers.  

PubMed

In this study, a questionnaire was applied to patients from Ribeirăo Preto Dental School, University of Săo Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the hygiene methods and habits concerning the use of complete dentures, the age of dentures, and whether patients have been instructed on how to clean their dentures. The mean age of patients was 63.35 years, and most of them were females (82.08%). The results showed that 62.26% of the respondents had been using the same maxillary complete denture for more than 5 years, and 49.06% used the same mandible complete denture for more than 5 years. Of the patients interviewed, 58.49% slept with the dentures. Mechanical brushing was the most used cleaning method by the patients (100%), using water, dentifrice and toothbrush (84.91%). Most patients (51.89%) reported never having been instructed by their dentists as to how to clean their dentures. Based on the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the patients interviewed had limited knowledge about prosthetic hygiene and oral care. The method more used by patients was the mechanical method of brushing, most patients used the same complete dentures for more than 5 years and slept with the dentures. PMID:21203709

Peracini, Amanda; Andrade, Ingrid Machado de; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da; de Souza, Raphael Freitas

2010-01-01

251

Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

2010-01-01

252

Knowledge levels of food handlers in Portuguese school canteens and their self-reported behaviour towards food safety.  

PubMed

Food safety levels in school food services are an important concern, given that any incident can affect a high number of students. The purpose of this research was to evaluate food handlers' knowledge and self-reported behaviour as regards the safe handling of food in school canteens. The study was conducted in 32 school canteens and included 124 participants. Food handlers displayed a reasonable level of knowledge, particularly regarding personal hygiene and cross-contamination, but fared worse in other areas. The level of knowledge displayed was influenced by age, motivation and training. A high correctness in handlers' self-reported behaviour towards food safety was observed, with a negative trend appearing when workload was increased. Our assessment of prevailing knowledge levels indicates that food professionals need to be made significantly more aware of the importance their actions can have on children's health. PMID:19031144

Santos, Maria-José; Nogueira, José Rocha; Patarata, Luis; Mayan, Olga

2008-12-01

253

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...

254

Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. Methods A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. Results A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22–16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Conclusion Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato–bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. PMID:24600149

Kunwar, R.; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R.

2013-01-01

255

Interim evaluation of a large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme on childhood diarrhea and respiratory disease in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Started in 2007, the Sanitation Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh (SHEWA-B) project aims to improve the hygiene, sanitation and water supply for 20 million people in Bangladesh, and thus reduce disease among this population. This paper assesses the effectiveness of SHEWA-B on changing behaviors and reducing diarrhea and respiratory illness among children < 5 years of age. We assessed behaviors at baseline in 2007 and after 6 months and 18 months by conducting structured observation of handwashing behavior in 500 intervention and 500 control households. In addition we conducted spot checks of water and sanitation facilities in 850 intervention and 850 control households. We also collected monthly data on diarrhea and respiratory illness from 500 intervention and 500 control households from October 2007 to September 2009. Participants washed their hands with soap < 3% of the time around food related events in both intervention and control households at baseline and after 18 months. Washing both hands with soap or ash after cleaning a child's anus increased from 22% to 36%, and no access to a latrine decreased from 10% to 6.8% from baseline to 18 months. The prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory illness, among children <5 years of age were similar in intervention and control communities throughout the study. This large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme resulted in improvements in a few of its targeted behaviors, but these modest behavior changes have not yet resulted in a measurable reduction in childhood diarrhea and respiratory illness. PMID:22197292

Huda, Tarique Md Nurul; Unicomb, Leanne; Johnston, Richard B; Halder, Amal K; Yushuf Sharker, Md Abu; Luby, Stephen P

2012-08-01

256

Food allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical expression of food hypersensitivity or food allergy is usually the end-result of a series of complex interactions among ingested food antigens, the digestive tract, tissue mast cells and circulating basophils, and food antigen-specific IgE. In some well-defined, food-induced diseases, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, additional immunologic mechanisms are involved. An understanding of the nature of antigens in foods capable

Dean D. Metcalfe

1985-01-01

257

Food Packaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

2014-09-18

258

Food Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

259

Responses to Varroa by honey bees with different levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mite-resistance trait called suppression of mite reproduction (SMR) is a form of hygienic behavior that we have named varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). With VSH, adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) disrupt the population growth of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) by removing mite-infested bee p...

260

[Methodological approaches to the training optimization for students in radiation hygiene].  

PubMed

In the article the psycho-pedagogical and physiological-hygienic aspects of improvement of student's learning in radiation hygiene at the Health-prophylactic Faculty of the medical institution within a framework of the requirements of the new Federal State Educational Standard -3 are considered. PMID:24340583

Minnibaev, T Sh; Mel'nichenko, P I; Prokhorov, N I; Goncharova, G A; Arkhangel'ski?, V I; Timoshenko, K T

2013-01-01

261

Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy in bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: This study had two objectives: (1) to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis: (2) to determine any differences between manual and mechanical techniques for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy.DESIGN: The study design was a systematic review of the literature that used an exhaustive search for trials and review methods

Arthur Jones; Brian H. Rowe

2000-01-01

262

Sleep Hygiene Rules for Insomnia Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 1  

E-print Network

Sleep Hygiene Rules for Insomnia Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 1. These habits often develop in response to insomnia, but are counterproductive. Practicing good sleep hygiene, Chapter 61 Morin et al. Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Chronic Insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep

Yener, Aylin

263

Sleep Hygiene and Melatonin Treatment for Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Initial Insomnia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for initial insomnia in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-seven stimulant-treated children (6-14 years of age) with ADHD and initial insomnia (greater than 60 minutes) received sleep hygiene intervention. Nonresponders were…

Weiss, Margaret D.; Wasdell, Michael B.; Bomben, Melissa M.; Rea, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Roger D.

2006-01-01

264

Nurses' Knowledge Regarding Hand Hygiene and Its Individual and Organizational Predictors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Based on recommendations from World Health Organization, hand hygiene is the most important way to control the hospital infections. Due to the critical role of nurses in patient care, they should have essential and updated information regarding hand hygiene. So this study aims at determining the knowledge of hand hygiene and its individual and organizational predictors among nurses in neonatal units. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in neonatal units in the hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The participants surveyed in this study were 150 nurses who were invited by census sampling method. A researcher prepared questionnaire that investigated the knowledge of participants about hand hygiene and was used after approving its validity and reliability. The quantitative analysis of this study used Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 13 by descriptive statistics and pearson correlation test, independent samples t-test, One-way ANOVA. For multivariable explanation of nurses' knowledge based on independent variables multiple linear regressions was used. Results: Most of participants have an acceptable level of knowledge regarding hand hygiene. The highest score was for infection control domain and the lowest score was for definition of hand hygiene domain. Multivariable analysis showed that work experience and history of previous training were the most important predictors of participants' knowledge about hand hygiene. Conclusion: It is recommended that infection control committees should revise their educational methods and give more emphasis on update guidelines regarding hand hygiene. Also, more experienced nurses should be employed in neonatal units.

Asadollahi, Malihe; Arshadi Bostanabad, Mohammad; Jebraili, Mahnaz; Mahallei, Majid; Seyyed Rasooli, Alehe; Abdolalipour, Marzieh

2015-01-01

265

Effect of Brood Type on Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene by Worker Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) have been selectively bred for varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of pupae that are infested by Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman from capped brood cells. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells are inspected, and then brood is either removed or recapped. Previous

Jeffrey W. Harris

2008-01-01

266

Sweeten Your JavaScript: Hygienic Macros for ES5 UC Santa Cruz  

E-print Network

Sweeten Your JavaScript: Hygienic Macros for ES5 Tim Disney UC Santa Cruz Nathan Faubion Flow Corp hygienic macro systems for such languages. JavaScript in particular presents unique challenges for macro systems due to ambiguities in the lexing stage that force the JavaScript lexer and parser

Flanagan, Cormac

267

Issues Associated with Developing a Dental Hygiene Baccalaureate Completion Program in Florida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) and the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) supported the notion that the baccalaureate degree should be the entry-level degree for the dental hygiene profession. There was also clear evidence that there was a national shortage of baccalaureate-earned-minimum dental hygiene

Smith, Rebecca M.

2011-01-01

268

UCSB Lab-specific Chemical Hygiene Plan 1 EH&S, Rev. 1/07  

E-print Network

at several science departments and at the College of Engineering. Finally there is an online version and will be allowed to work in the lab temporarily, until the next in person class, if they do the online courseUCSB Lab-specific Chemical Hygiene Plan 1 EH&S, Rev. 1/07 Chemical Hygiene Plan (CPH) UCSB MRL

Akhmedov, Azer

269

Knowledge of Dental Health and Oral Hygiene Practices of Taiwanese Visually Impaired and Sighted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.

Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung

2004-01-01

270

The Effect of an Extramural Program on the Perceived Clinical Competence of Dental Hygiene Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effect of an extramural rotation on dental-hygiene students' self-perceptions of competence in specific clinical areas. Results indicate student perceptions of competence improved significantly on six of 19 dimensions of dental-hygiene practice over the course of the rotation, suggesting that rotation is a valuable…

Butters, Janice M.; Vaught, Randall L.

1999-01-01

271

Quantitative microbial risk assessment of antibacterial hand hygiene products on risk of shigellosis.  

PubMed

There are conflicting reports on whether antibacterial hand hygiene products are more effective than nonantibacterial products in reducing bacteria on hands and preventing disease. This research used new laboratory data, together with simulation techniques, to compare the ability of nonantibacterial and antibacterial products to reduce shigellosis risk. One hundred sixtythree subjects were used to compare five different hand treatments: two nonantibacterial products and three antibacterial products, i.e., 0.46% triclosan, 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, or 62% ethyl alcohol. Hands were inoculated with 5.5 to 6 log CFU Shigella; the simulated food handlers then washed their hands with one of the five products before handling melon balls. Each simulation scenario represented an event in which 100 people would be exposed to Shigella from melon balls that had been handled by food workers with Shigella on their hands. Analysis of experimental data showed that the two nonantibacterial treatments produced about a 2-log reduction on hands. The three antibacterial treatments showed log reductions greater than 3 but less than 4 on hands. All three antibacterial treatments resulted in statistically significantly lower concentration on the melon balls relative to the nonantibacterial treatments. A simulation that assumed 1 million Shigella bacteria on the hands and the use of a nonantibacterial treatment predicted that 50 to 60 cases of shigellosis would result (of 100 exposed). Each of the antibacterial treatments was predicted to result in an appreciable number of simulations for which the number of illness cases would be 0, with the most common number of illness cases being 5 (of 100 exposed). These effects maintained statistical significance from 10(6) Shigella per hand down to as low as 100 Shigella per hand, with some evidence to support lower levels. This quantitative microbial risk assessment shows that antibacterial hand treatments can significantly reduce Shigella risk. PMID:24680068

Schaffner, Donald W; Bowman, James P; English, Donald J; Fischler, George E; Fuls, Janice L; Krowka, John F; Kruszewski, Francis H

2014-04-01

272

[The evaluation of organizational structure and work hygiene in milk kitchen centers in Poland on the basis of questionnaire].  

PubMed

On the basis of available publications and obligatory legal regulations regarding the organisation of collective feeding patterns in Social Service Health Centres a questionnaire study was established to examine the way milk kitchen function in Poland. The study covered 533 milk kitchen centres (in hospitals, orphanages and crčches) from February to December 1997. The afore-mentioned study analysed the general characteristics of the milk kitchen centre, its type of work, supervisory methods and the personnel's hygiene. From the results of this research it can be concluded that the organisational structure of the milk centres was appropriate, appliances and equipment in the majority centres were adequate but basis utensils were insufficient. It is obvious that dietetic feeding methods for this particular group of children are insufficiently applied. Only 22.2% of the centres apply the recommended proposals i.e. without boiling, without pasteurisation, ready for consumption when preparing, infant formulae, follow-up formulae and other mixed products. Work hygiene and health quality of production in the milk kitchen centres is subject to systematic controls by competent individuals from the State Sanitary Inspection services. In the years 1995-96, 72 samples of infant food that mainly came from hospital milk kitchen centres were taken due to the poor microbiological quality of the food. The considerable changes that have taken place over the last few years as far as infant feeding is concerned, for example, the promotion of breast-feeding, taking advantage of prepared dietetic products for infants (infant formulae, follow-up formulae, vegetable products, fruits, vegetable-meat products, cereal products) require changes at the organisational level of infant collective feeding which was confirmed by the afore-mentioned study. PMID:10523939

Weker, H; Rudzka-Ka?toch, Z

1999-01-01

273

Investigation of hygienic quality and freshness of marketed fresh seafood in Northern Taiwan.  

PubMed

To survey the hygienic quality and freshness of fresh fish and shellfish, 533 specimens of fish and shellfish were collected from fishing piers, traditional markets and supermarkets (including warehouses) in northern Taiwan during the winter (January-February) and summer (July-August) seasons for hygienic quality and freshness examinations. The indicators included total bacterial count, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and K value judged from ATP-related compounds. It was found that the hygienic quality and freshness of fish and shellfish decreased in summer, especially for clam and mussel. The ratio of unacceptable hygienic quality or freshness of fish and shellfish was the highest in fecal coliform, followed by E. coli and others. The fecal coliform count in products from the traditional markets was the highest, followed by those from supermarkets and fishing piers. Secondary contamination seems to be the most important problem for hygienic quality and freshness of fish and shellfish. PMID:15678935

Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Huang, Yu-Ru; Lin, Kuw-Ping; Chen, Tai-Yuan; Lin, Shin-Jung; Chen, Lu Hung; Hsieh, Hung-Sheng

2004-10-01

274

Reactivity in rapidly collected hygiene and toilet spot check measurements: a cautionary note for longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hygiene or toilet promotion activities. Our data included hygiene and toilet spot checks from 10,427 household visits. We found substantial evidence of participant reactivity to spot check observations of hygiene practices that were easy to modify on short notice. For example, soap observed at the household's primary handwashing location increased from 49% at enrollment to 81% by the fourth visit and remained at or above 77% for the remainder of the study. PMID:25385856

Arnold, Benjamin F; Khush, Ranjiv S; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford, John M

2015-01-01

275

The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno.  

PubMed

Abstract The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases' prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the "Regimen Sanitatis Salerni" has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later. PMID:25212979

Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona

2014-09-30

276

The Relationship Between Reported Sleep Quality and Sleep Hygiene in Italian and American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and sleep hygiene in Italian and American adolescents and to assess whether sleep-hygiene practices mediate the relationship between culture and sleep quality. Methods Two nonprobability samples were collected from public schools in Rome, Italy, and Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Students completed the following self-report measures: Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale, Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, Pubertal Developmental Scale, and Morningness/Eveningness Scale. Results The final sample included 776 Italian and 572 American adolescents 12 to 17 years old. Italian adolescents reported much better sleep hygiene and substantially better sleep quality than American adolescents. A moderate-to-strong linear relationship was found between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples. Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed on both samples. Demographic and individual characteristics explained a significant proportion of the variance in sleep quality (Italians: 18%; Americans: 25%), and the addition of sleep-hygiene domains explained significantly more variance in sleep quality (Italians: 17%; Americans: 16%). A final hierarchical multiple regression analysis with both samples combined showed that culture (Italy versus United States) only explained 0.8% of the variance in sleep quality after controlling for sleep hygiene and all other variables. Conclusions Cross-cultural differences in sleep quality, for the most part, were due to differences in sleep-hygiene practices. Sleep hygiene is an important predictor of sleep quality in Italian and American adolescents, thus supporting the implementation and evaluation of educational programs on good sleep-hygiene practices. PMID:15866860

LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Giannotti, Flavia; Cortesi, Flavia; Wolfson, Amy R.; Harsh, John

2014-01-01

277

Improving physician hand hygiene compliance using behavioural theories: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare-associated infections affect 10% of patients in Canadian acute-care hospitals and are significant and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is among the simplest and most effective preventive measures to reduce these infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers, specifically among physicians, is consistently suboptimal. We aim to first identify the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance, and then to develop and pilot a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to increase physicians’ compliance with best hand hygiene practice. Design The study consists of three phases. In Phase 1, we will identify barriers and enablers to hand hygiene compliance by physicians. This will include: key informant interviews with physicians and residents using a structured interview guide, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework; nonparticipant observation of physician/resident hand hygiene audit sessions; and focus groups with hand hygiene experts. In Phase 2, we will conduct intervention mapping to develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to improve physician hand hygiene compliance. Finally, in Phase 3, we will pilot the knowledge translation intervention in four patient care units. Discussion In this study, we will use a behavioural theory approach to obtain a better understanding of the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance. This will provide a comprehensive framework on which to develop knowledge translation interventions that may be more successful in improving hand hygiene practice. Upon completion of this study, we will refine the piloted knowledge translation intervention so it can be tested in a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial. PMID:23379466

2013-01-01

278

Report of the FDA Retail Food Program Database of Foodborne Illness Risk Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released online by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on September 7, this 59-page report "establishes a baseline to measure how effective industry and regulatory efforts are in changing behaviors and practices that directly relate to food-borne illness in the retail food industry." Based on data collected from close to 900 institutional food service establishments, restaurants, and retail food stores, the report finds that three areas deserve special attention: improper holding times and temperatures, contaminated equipment, and poor personal hygiene. The full text of the report is available in HTML and .pdf formats.

279

78 FR 59336 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Draft Guidelines for Control of Specific Zoonotic Parasites in Meat: Trichinella spiralis and Cysticercus bovis at Step...at Step 4 Discussion paper on occurrence and control of parasites Discussion paper on the need to revise the Code of...

2013-09-26

280

Food Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\

Robert Gottlieb; Anupama Joshi

2010-01-01

281

Food Groups  

MedlinePLUS

Welcome to the Five Food Groups MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

282

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene at the World's Largest Mass Gathering.  

PubMed

The 2013 Kumbh Mela, a Hindu religious festival and the largest human gathering on earth, drew an estimated 120 million pilgrims to bathe at the holy confluence of the Ganga (Ganges) and Yamuna rivers. To accommodate the massive numbers, the Indian government constructed a temporary city on the flood plains of the two rivers and provided it with roads, electricity, water and sanitation facilities, police stations, and a tiered healthcare system. This phenomenal operation and its impacts have gone largely undocumented. To address this gap, the authors undertook an evaluation and systematic monitoring initiative to study preparedness and response to public health emergencies at the event. This paper describes the water, sanitation, and hygiene components, with particular emphasis on preventive and mitigation strategies; the capacity for surveillance and response to diarrheal disease outbreaks; and the implications of lessons learned for other mass gatherings. PMID:25783442

Vortmann, Michael; Balsari, Satchit; Holman, Susan R; Greenough, P Gregg

2015-02-01

283

Standard of hygiene and immune adaptation in newborn infants.  

PubMed

The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise in the developed world. In order to explore differences in the gene expression patterns induced in utero in infants born in contrasting standards of living and hygiene, we collected umbilical cord blood RNA samples from infants born in Finland (modern society), Estonia (rapidly developing society) and the Republic of Karelia, Russia (poor economic conditions). The whole blood transcriptome of Finnish and Estonian neonates differed from their Karelian counterparts, suggesting exposure to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and a more matured immune response in infants born in Karelia. These results further support the concept of a conspicuous plasticity in the developing immune system: the environmental factors that play a role in the susceptibility/protection towards immune-mediated diseases begin to shape the neonatal immunity already in utero and direct the maturation in accordance with the surrounding microbial milieu. PMID:25245264

Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Öling, Viveka; Härkönen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V; Ilonen, Jorma; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta

2014-11-01

284

Medicalized social hygiene? Tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic.  

PubMed

This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911

Harsch, Donna

2012-01-01

285

[Hygienic monitoring in a municipal solid waste incineration plant].  

PubMed

Under President's Executive Order 915/1982, the Malagrotta waste disposal plant has been surrounded by a water-proof ring. This study reflects a eight-year research activity about "the Plant's steadiness and its impact on the land; hygienic monitoring of aquifers, air quality control and sound pollution; health and safety of workers; disinfection and land reclamation". For surface subsidence to be measured, 21 spots were monitored and 30 piezometers were set up in adjacent critical areas, both inside and outside the plant. Some of them were also used to pick up water and test it for chemical and microbiological purposes. Samples of leachates were analysed, air quality assessed and sound tests carried out. Overall outcomes show good performance in terms of interaction between plant, hydro-geological regimen and possible impact on the surrounding land. PMID:14716379

Boccia, Antonio; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Tufi, Daniela; De Giusti, Maria; Grisolia, Massimo

2003-01-01

286

[Hygiene and security management in medical biology laboratory].  

PubMed

Risk management in Medical Biology Laboratory (MBL) which includes hygiene and waste management, is an integrated process to the whole MBL organisation. It is composed of three stages: risks factors identification, grading and prioritization, and their evaluation in the system. From the legislation and NF EN ISO 15189 standard's requirements viewpoint, prevention and protection actions to implement are described, at premises level, but also at work station environment's one (human resources and equipments) towards biological, chemical, linked to gas, to ionizing or non ionizing radiations and fire riks, in order not to compromise patients safety, employees safety, and quality results. Then, although NF EN 15189 standard only enacts requirements in terms of prevention, curative actions after established blood or chemical exposure accident are defined. PMID:23765027

Vinner, E; Odou, M F; Fovet, B; Ghnassia, J C

2013-06-01

287

CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 6, occupational hygiene  

SciTech Connect

The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.

NONE

1995-12-01

288

Water, sanitation and hygiene in Haiti: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013-2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation. PMID:24106193

Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

2013-10-01

289

Epidemiological and immunological evidence for the hygiene hypothesis.  

PubMed

Allergic diseases are inflammatory disorders that develop on the basis of complex gene-environment interactions. The prevalence of allergies is steadily increasing and seems to be associated with modern lifestyle. Therefore, it was hypothesized that high living standards and hygienic conditions are correlated with an increased risk for the development of an allergic disease. This so-called "hygiene hypothesis" states that due to reduced exposure to microbial components, the proposed allergy-preventing potential of these factors is no more present in sufficient qualities and/or quantities, which leads to an imbalance of the immune system with a predisposition to the development of allergic disorders. Meanwhile, several epidemiological studies were conducted supporting this concept and generating novel ideas for the underlying mechanisms that were then followed up by use of well-defined animal models and human studies. The current view of cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these phenomena includes changes in the fine balancing of T helper cell 1 (Th1), Th2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) responses which are triggered by altered or missing innate immune cell activation. In fact, proper activation of cells of the innate immune system via their so-called pattern recognition receptors has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in early shaping of the immune system and suppression of the development of Th2-driven allergic immune responses. These processes start already in utero and prenatal as well as early postnatal developmental stages seem to represent a certain "window of opportunity" for allergy-preventing environmental influences. PMID:17544829

Garn, Holger; Renz, Harald

2007-01-01

290

Monitoring food safety violation reports from internet forums.  

PubMed

Food-borne illness is a growing public health concern in the world. Government bodies, which regulate and monitor the state of food safety, solicit citizen feedback about food hygiene practices followed by food establishments. They use traditional channels like call center, e-mail for such feedback collection. With the growing popularity of Web 2.0 and social media, citizens often post such feedback on internet forums, message boards etc. The system proposed in this paper applies text mining techniques to identify and mine such food safety complaints posted by citizens on web data sources thereby enabling the government agencies to gather more information about the state of food safety. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of our system and the text mining methods used. We also present results which demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in a real-world deployment. PMID:25160357

Kate, Kiran; Negi, Sumit; Kalagnanam, Jayant

2014-01-01

291

Resistance to Chalkbrood disease in Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with different hygienic behaviour.  

PubMed

Chalkbrood disease affects the larvae of honeybees Apis mellifera L. and is caused by the fungus Ascosphaera apis. Infected larvae die when they are stretched in the cap cell and suffer a gradual hardening that ends in a very hard structure (mummie). Several studies have demonstrated that colonies that express an efficient hygienic behaviour (uncapping of cell and subsequent removal of dead brood) exhibit a higher resistance to the disease. However, it remains unclear whether the advantage of hygienic colonies over less hygienic ones lies in the ability to remove mummies or in the early detection of infected larvae and its cannibalization before they harden. To elucidate this aspect, the hygienic behaviour of 24 colonies, which were subsequently provided with pollen cakes containig A. apis, was evaluated. The number of mummies and the number of partially cannibalized and whole larvae in uncapped cells were recorded. The most hygienic colonies controlled the disease better. These colonies also had a higher tendency to uncap cells that contained infected larvae and cannibalize them. The presence of A. apis in partially cannibalized and whole larvae in uncapped cells indicate that the advantage of hygienic colonies over less hygienic ones lies in the early detection of infected larvae death and their quick removal from the cell before they become mummies. PMID:21437479

Invernizzi, C; Rivas, F; Bettucci, L

2011-01-01

292

The utilization of dental hygiene students in school-based dental sealant programs.  

PubMed

Early detection of childhood caries is important to childrens' overall health. Untreated childhood caries can lead to pain, as in abscesses from prolonged neglect; altered dietary intake; and delays in the development of the permanent teeth if the primary teeth are prematurely lost. In the summer of 2000, funds were provided to various oral health care provider organizations by the Illinois Department of Public Health, Division of Oral Health, to purchase portable equipment to deliver preventive services (i.e., exams, sealants, and oral hygiene education) to second-grade and sixth-grade children who qualified for Medicaid and/or free and reduced-cost lunch programs. The Dental Sealant Grant Program at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale was a unique program that utilized dental hygiene students as the primary human resource. Within the state, the Dental Sealant Grant Program was, at the time of this report, the only grantee sponsored by a stand-alone dental hygiene program (not affiliated with a dental school). Other positive aspects of the dental hygiene-sponsored sealant program were that the supervising dentist was the primary Medicaid provider and a member of the dental hygiene faculty; dental hygiene faculty participated actively as site coordinators and clinicians; and dental hygiene students were given the opportunity to volunteer for the program as a service-learning option. PMID:16297312

Miller, Faith Y

2005-01-01

293

The effect of an oral hygiene program on oral levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC).  

PubMed

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by bacteria in niches of the oral cavity play a major role in the etiology of bad breath, and can be easily detected by a portable sulfide monitor (Halimeter). To investigate the effect of an oral hygiene program on VSC levels, Halimeter readings were taken from 55 healthy dental students during a course in oral hygiene training, including instruction on brushing, flossing and professional tooth cleaning. Ten students who received no oral hygiene training served as a negative control. The oral hygiene status was measured using the papillary bleeding index (PBI). PBI and VSC values did not show significant changes during the study period of 10 weeks in the control group. In the test group, PBI values significantly decreased compared to baseline and the control, indicating that the oral hygiene program had a benefit on the oral hygiene status. The VSC values also decreased significantly during the study period compared to baseline and the control. It was concluded that in a group of dental students, a thorough oral hygiene training program was capable of reducing the oral level of VSC Halimeter readings. PMID:11507918

Seemann, R; Passek, G; Zimmer, S; Roulet, J F

2001-01-01

294

Overview of the Development of the Temporary Sleep Station Hygiene Liner Aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the beginning of manned operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the crew had performed hygiene activities within the aisle way (the habitable volume, not including the sleep areas) of the ISS. The Crew used wet towels, re-hydrated body soap, and "no-rinse" shampoo to cleanse themselves amongst the stowage and systems hardware, referred to as "racks", even without a designated area to dry the wet items. Performing hygiene in this manner became an accepted method; no isolated location was available to the Crew. After several years of hygiene operations, some of the fabric-covered racks began to grow biological material (generically described as mold) and soon became a Crew health concern. Hygiene has one of the strongest impacts on Crew morale, and mandating changes to the Crew routine would have been met with strong resistance. The answer to the conundrum was to develop a liner to be placed within the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS), one of the Crew s sleeping racks. This liner provided the Crew a means to perform hygiene activities within a private, enclosed area that also significantly decreased the potential to grow mold. This paper will describe the development of the TeSS Hygiene Liner, its impacts on the ISS and Crew, as well as its contribution to hygiene activities used in space today.

Reid, Ethan A.

2010-01-01

295

Varroa destructor infestation in untreated honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies selected for hygienic behavior.  

PubMed

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of"Starline" stock. Colonies bred for hygienic behavior are able to detect, uncap, and remove experimentally infested brood from the nest, although the extent to which the behavior actually reduces the overall mite-load in untreated, naturally infested colonies needed further verification. The results indicate that hygienic colonies with queens mated naturally to unselected drones had significantly fewer mites on adult bees and within worker brood cells than Starline colonies for up to 1 yr without treatment in a commercial, migratory beekeeping operation. Hygienic colonies actively defended themselves against the mites when mite levels were relatively low. At high mite infestations (>15% of worker brood and of adult bees), the majority of hygienic colonies required treatment to prevent collapse. Overall, the hygienic colonies had similar adult populations and brood areas, produced as much honey, and had less brood disease than the Starline colonies. Thus, honey bees bred for hygienic behavior performed as well if not better than other commercial lines of bees and maintained lower mite loads for up to one year without treatment. PMID:11332821

Spivak, M; Reuter, G S

2001-04-01

296

Food masquerade.  

PubMed

Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann

2010-01-01

297

Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: The characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and\\/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method

Walter P. Hammes

298

[Hygienic evaluation of air pollution with asbestos dust in subway parkings].  

PubMed

Hygienic research and analysis of literature on subway parkings air pollution with respirable fibrous particles that are formed during automobile exploitation due to attrition of friction parts (brake blocks, clutch plates) helped to come to a conclusion that level of air pollution with fibrous particles does not exceed allowable hygienic norms and accordingly does not harm health of workers and visitors of subway parkings, therefore there is no need in improvement of present hygienic regulations of such objects in view of preventing asbestos-induced diseases. PMID:25069274

Protas, S V

2014-01-01

299

Four multifaceted countrywide campaigns to promote hand hygiene in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2011: impact on compliance to hand hygiene.  

PubMed

Four consecutive one-month campaigns were organised to promote hand hygiene in Belgian hospitals between 2005 and 2011. The campaigns included a combination of reminders in wards, educational sessions for healthcare workers, promotion of alcohol-based hand rub use, increasing patient awareness, and audits with performance feedback. Prior and after each one month intervention period, the infection control teams measured hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers by direct observation using a standardised observation roster. A total of 738,367 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed over the four campaigns. Compliance with hand hygiene significantly increased from 49.6% before to 68.6% after the intervention period for the first, from 53.2% to 69.5% for the second, from 58.0% to 69.1% for the third, and from 62.3% to 72.9% for the fourth campaign. The highest compliance rates were consistently observed in paediatric units. Compliance rates were always markedly lower among physicians than nurses. After patient contact and body fluid exposure risk, compliance rates were noticeably higher than before patient contact and performing aseptic procedures. We conclude that repeated countrywide campaigns to promote hand hygiene result in positive long-term outcomes. However, lower compliance rates among physicians compared with nurses, before patient contact, and before performing aseptic procedures remain challenges for future campaigns. PMID:22587957

Costers, M; Viseur, N; Catry, B; Simon, A

2012-01-01

300

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... in food handling, cooking, and storage can prevent foodborne illness. There are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and ... reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture

301

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy ...

302

Food Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ...

303

Food Chain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.

2011-08-15

304

Protein Foods  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size: A A A Listen En Espańol Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Best Protein Choices The best choices are: Plant-based proteins ...

305

Packaged Food  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

1976-01-01

306

Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Ms. Hammond

2009-10-21

307

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

308

COMMITTEE ON TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS IN FOOD, CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The Food and Veterinary Office (FVO) of the European Commission recently audited the UK with regard to the implementation of Regulations 178\\/2002, 852\\/2004 and 853\\/2004 as they apply to processing of milk and milk products. During the audit the FVO identified a number of practices which they considered to be in breach of food hygiene legislation. One of these

309

[Hygienic characteristics of work conditions at large Hydroelectric Power Plants with mechanization and automatization].  

PubMed

The article touches upon hygienic problems associated with mechanization and automation of major hydroelectric power stations. The authors present criteria to evaluate work conditions of the main occupations participating in the technologic process of hydroelectric power stations. PMID:9190273

Iakimova, L D

1997-01-01

310

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Social and cultural dimensions of hygiene in  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Social and cultural dimensions of hygiene in Cambodian health care,3 , Sirenda Vong1 Abstract Background: The frequency of bloodborne pathogen healthcare practices; they need to be considered when designing interventions to improve infection control practices

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device intended to be used manually to stimulate and massage the gums to promote good periodontal (gum) condition. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2011-04-01

312

Developing a geographic information system (GIS) to integrate earth science data: Hygiene Quadrangle, Boulder county, Colorado  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology using a geographic information system (GIS) to map and model the best use of earth resources in Hygiene Quadrangle, Boulder County of Colorado. The Spatial Analysis System (SPANS GIS...

Nonsung, Sawat

1993-01-01

313

Clinical Continuing Professional Education in Dental Hygiene Practice Using Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory  

E-print Network

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how learning is facilitated in a dental hygiene clinical continuing education course designed using Kolb’s experiential learning model. This study assessed the effectiveness of an experiential...

Henson, Harold Alonso

2014-07-29

314

High-Resolution Linkage Analyses to Identify Genes That Influence Varroa Sensitive Hygiene Behavior in Honey  

E-print Network

lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation, and researchers. Honey bees face numerous challenges, including pesticides, pathogens, and parasites (such

Ginzel, Matthew

315

[Hygienic appraisal on apartment houses in the western district of Beijing].  

PubMed

A survey on the essential factors of building hygiene of 12 apartment houses in the Western District of Beijing was presented. The site environment layout of rooms, illumination, ventilation, microclimate, indoor air quality, floor area per person, necessary equipped facilities etc, in the apartment, and its hygienic appraisal were assessed. The results and appraisal of the study showed that almost all the essential factors of building hygiene complied with the requirements of the national hygienic standards for air pollutants in indoors and in hotels. On the other hand, there existed some shortcomings, such as the gas appliance for heating water produced large amount of pollutants in the kitchen it there was no proper ventilation for it. Suggestions for their improvements were put forward. The appraisal is useful for improving the living conditions in apartment houses and also useful for the design and construction. PMID:12016995

Liu, J; Shi, J; Wang, Q; Shao, Q

1999-11-01

316

Varroa destructor Infestation in Untreated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies Selected for Hygienic Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of \\

Marla Spivak; Gary S. Reuter

2001-01-01

317

MediHandTrace ®: a tool for measuring and understanding hand hygiene adherence.  

PubMed

The proper implementation of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing healthcare-associated infection. Although there are many programmes aimed at enhancing hand hygiene, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) remains incredibly low. One limiting factor is the lack of standardized measures and reports of hand hygiene opportunities. Direct observational audits have reported the weaknesses in this field. We report here a radiofrequency identification-based real-time automated continuous recording system (MediHandTrace(®)) that permits the tracking of hand hygiene opportunities and the disinfection compliance of HCWs that we evaluated against video recordings as being accurate (99.02%), sensitive (95.65%) and specific (100%). The system can also provide information that is useful to understand HCW non-compliance and will allow the evaluation of future intervention studies. PMID:24261513

Boudjema, S; Dufour, J C; Aladro, A S; Desquerres, I; Brouqui, P

2014-01-01

318

Clemson University CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN Date of last revision: October 2010  

E-print Network

1910.1450 requires that all facilities engaged in the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals develop employees be made aware of the Chemical Hygiene Plan at their place of employment (29 CFR 1910.1450). After

Stuart, Steven J.

319

Implementation of a chemical hygiene plan at an R&D facility  

SciTech Connect

Implementation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan at an R&D facility is accomplished in an integrated approach with other programs. While the laboratory standard specifies the requirements of a Chemical Hygiene Plan, implementation requires innovation and creativity to effectively comply with the standard and to support R&D activities. While the Chemical Hygiene Plan is a unique entity, it must be integrated with other programs (e.g., Hazard Communication Program, Hazardous Waste Management Program, and Waste Minimization Program) so that complementary activities can minimize duplication of effort. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has implemented a Chemical Hygiene Plan using an integrated approach. The overall plan is described, and decisions on key issues and the criteria used to determine the implementation approach are discussed.

Kovach, J.J.

1994-08-01

320

Predictors of Success in Dental Hygiene Education: A Six-Year Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the predictive reliability of incoming grade point average (GPA), incoming math/science GPA, and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores in predicting success in dental hygiene education. Found that GPA was the most significant predictor of success. (EV)

Downey, Mary C.; Collins, Marie A.; Browning, William D.

2002-01-01

321

Longitudinal Analysis of Student Performance in a Dental Hygiene Distance Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined over the course of five years whether learners who receive face-to-face instruction in a dental hygiene program performed statistically better on established benchmark assessments than learners at a distance. Found no significant differences. (EV)

Olmsted, Jodi L.

2002-01-01

322

Food Scorecard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

323

Food jags  

MedlinePLUS

Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

324

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None; )

2006-10-31

325

Food Sources  

Cancer.gov

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

326

[Hygienic evaluation of work conditions and health state of women engaged into soldering].  

PubMed

Based on longstanding research, the authors present hygienic evaluation of work conditions and health state of female solderers and low temperature soldering assemblers. The findings are that the main occupational hazard is air pollution with aerosol produced in release of solder particles. The authors demonstrate data of toxicologic experiments and justify hygienic standards for lead-tin and lead-cadmium solders in air of workplace. The article covers results on health state of female solderers' newborns. PMID:11715725

Salangina, L I; Dube?kovskaia, L S; Sladkova, Iu N; Markova, O L

2001-01-01

327

Self-Reported Oral Hygiene Habits and Oral Health Problems of Kuwaiti Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aims of this study were to examine self-reported oral hygiene habits and oral health problems of a sample of adult Kuwaitis. Materials and Methods: A self-administered, anonymous, structured questionnaire was distributed to 2,400 adult Kuwaiti nationals from all 6 governates of Kuwait assessing socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene habits, and oral health problems. Results: Of the 2,400 questionnaires, 1,925

Khalaf F. Al-Shammari; Jassem M. Al-Ansari; Areej K. Al-Khabbaz; Asmahan Dashti; Eino J. Honkala

2007-01-01

328

Oral hygiene protocols in intensive care units in a large Brazilian city.  

PubMed

This study investigated oral hygiene protocols for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in 25 of 30 hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using a questionnaire. Although all hospital representatives said there was a protocol for the maintenance of patients' oral hygiene, it was observed that there was no standardization. Only 2 hospitals had dentists on the ICU staff. Cetylpyridinium chloride was the most frequently used antiseptic, even in patients under mechanical ventilation. PMID:25728159

E Silva, Maria Elisa de Souza; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarăes; Dayrell, André Vasconcelos; Valle, Débora de Andrade; de Castilho, Lia Silva

2015-03-01

329

Microbes versus microbes: control of pathogens in the food chain.  

PubMed

Foodborne illness continues as a considerable threat to public health. Despite improved hygiene management systems and increased regulation, pathogenic bacteria still contaminate food, causing sporadic cases of illness and disease outbreaks worldwide. For many centuries, microbial antagonism has been used in food processing to improve food safety. An understanding of the mode of action of this microbial antagonism has been gained in recent years and potential applications in food and feed safety are now being explored. This review focuses on the potential opportunities presented, and the limitations, of using microbial antagonism as a biocontrol mechanism to reduce contamination along the food chain; including animal feed as its first link. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24816992

Jordan, Kieran; Dalmasso, Marion; Zentek, Juergen; Mader, Anneluise; Bruggeman, Geert; Wallace, John; De Medici, Dario; Fiore, Alfonsina; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Lukac, Maja; Axelsson, Lars; Holck, Askild; Ingmer, Hanne; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

2014-12-01

330

Nursing the tropics: nurses as agents of imperial hygiene  

PubMed Central

Background Mrs Francis Piggott proposed the Colonial Nursing Association in 1895 as a means of supplying Britain's colonies and dominions with trained professional nurses, who would support the health of white colonists abroad. Over 8400 nurses were placed between 1896 and the Association's end in 1966. Despite the burgeoning of scholarship on gender and empire over the last few decades, there is still more research to be done examining nurses as professional, working women, who present a fascinating variation on the figure of the woman traveler. Methods This essay focuses on 1896–1927, exploring how nurses were prepared for their labor abroad and how these skills were challenged and adapted within a foreign environment. We contextualize this discussion with examples from literary tales of exploration and adventure and discourses of empire. Results/conclusions Though the sources of disease against which nurses fought changed during this period, we assert that the underlying role of the nurse continued the same: she was meant to use the tools of personal as well as public ‘hygiene’ to create both physical and cultural boundaries around her white patients and herself, setting colonists apart from their colonial setting. PMID:23729785

Howell, J.; Rafferty, A.M.; Wall, R.; Snaith, A.

2013-01-01

331

Analysis of different communication channels for promoting hygiene behaviour.  

PubMed

A hygiene intervention study reduced diarrhoeal disease transmission in rural northeast Thailand by promoting hand-washing and dish-washing behaviour. Most of the target audience did not recognize a connection between these behaviours and diarrhoeal disease, and therefore a social marketing approach was used to develop a campaign promoting behaviours through a variety of communication channels keeping messages simple and in terms understood by the community. Overall, there was a strong correlation between the number of communication channels remembered by respondents and their knowledge score, with passive channels of printed media such as stickers, posters and leaflets associated with significantly higher scores than other channels. However, the same did not hold true for improvement in actual behaviour and only 'school children' were associated with significantly less fingertip contamination. In-depth interviews with conformers and non-conformers suggested that although most knew the intervention messages well enough, the importance they attached to them differed markedly. Thus dissemination of message knowledge was not consistent with the process of dissemination of actual practice. Where a strong sense of community spirit existed, friends, relatives and neighbours were more likely to discuss intervention activities with each other. PMID:10510071

Pinfold, J V

1999-10-01

332

Industrial hygiene sampling at Rio Blanco oil shale facility  

SciTech Connect

The Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC) facility, in its early stages of development, provided the unique opportunity to sample a Modified In-Situ (MIS) operation during the preparation phase of the first retort, during pyrolysis, and during preparation of a subsequent retort. Industrial hygiene measurements were made in the lowest (G) level (835 feet) of the mine, prior to and during the first 30 days of the Retort Zero burn. These measurements were designed to define and characterize potential inhalation exposures associated with the MIS shale oil recovery process. This information, along with bulk samples of oil shale materials and products, was provided for use in laboratory toxicological studies. Gas and vapor samples of the compounds of interest were all much below threshold limit values (TLV) both before and after retort zero ignition although slightly elevated after ignition. Airborne dust concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 2.9 mg/m/sup 3/ at sizes of 0.3- to 5.2-..mu..m mass median aerodynamic diameter and alpha quartz content ranged from 1.1 to 4.4 percent. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons were found in relatively low concentrations with the anthracene/phenanthrene mixture at the highest level of 0.6 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. The wetness and ventilation in this mine apparently helped control airborne contaminant concentrations below their TLV values.

Gonzales, M.; Garcia, L.L.; Vigil, E.A.; Royer, G.W.; Tillery, M.I.; Ettinger, H.J.

1982-02-01

333

Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining  

SciTech Connect

Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

1982-01-01

334

[Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].  

PubMed

With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals. PMID:25872258

Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

2014-01-01

335

Food Chains and Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.

2012-06-14

336

Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

2014-01-01

337

Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. PMID:23043518

Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C

2013-09-01

338

Factors for Increasing Adoption of E-Courses Among Dental and Dental Hygiene Faculty Members  

PubMed Central

The incorporation of web-based learning into the dental curriculum has been consistently recommended in the literature on reform in dental education. There has been growing support for web-based learning in dental and dental hygiene education as demonstrated by deans’ identifying this as a planned curricular innovation. The purpose of our study was to explore characteristics of e-courses that may serve to increase adoption among dental and dental hygiene faculty members. Eight ninety-minute focus groups (three dental; five dental hygiene) were conducted with dental (n=27) and dental hygiene (n=23) faculty members from six academic institutions. The resulting data were analyzed to identify two overarching themes and associated subthemes with regard to benefits and barriers influencing adoption of e-courses. A working conceptual framework, based on the Diffusion of Innovations, was developed from these themes to understand the characteristics that may influence the rate of adoption of e-courses among dental and dental hygiene faculty members. Analysis of the data revealed four main adoption barriers: 1) low perceived relative advantage to faculty members; 2) low compatibility with current curriculum; 3) high perceived time commitment; and 4) complexity of e-course development. This exploratory assessment identifies leverage points for facilitating the adoption and sustainability of e-courses in dental and dental hygiene education. PMID:21546592

DeBate, Rita D.; Cragun, Deborah; Severson, Herbert H.; Shaw, Tracy; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

2011-01-01

339

Self-reported denture hygiene habits and oral tissue conditions of complete denture wearers.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the influence of denture hygiene on the development and intensity of denture stomatitis and traumatic ulcers and their relationship to age, gender, educational level, smoking status, age of the denture, denture hygiene habits and denture-wearing behavior. The study population comprised 310 complete denture (CD) wearers (159 males and 151 females) aged 60-85 living in Kirikkale, Turkey. Denture hygiene habits were assessed and recorded, and any relationships between denture hygiene habits and the condition of oral tissue were assessed. The majority (48.4%) of participants reported cleaning their dentures with a toothbrush and toothpaste and 45.2% with a toothbrush only. Less than half (44.8%) removed their dentures overnight. Stomatitis was observed in 35.8% and traumatic ulcers in 29% of patients. A positive relationship was observed between poor denture hygiene habits and the presence of denture-related stomatitis and traumatic ulcers. The degree of denture hygiene was significantly associated with age, sex, education, general health status, smoking status, self-perception of halitosis, overnight denture removal and denture immersion habits. PMID:18976822

Baran, Ilgi; Nalçaci, Rana

2009-01-01

340

Predictions for rapid methods and automation in food microbiology.  

PubMed

A discussion is presented on the present status of rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Predictions are also presented for development in the following areas: viable cell counts; real-time monitoring of hygiene; polymerase chain reaction, ribotyping, and genetic tests in food laboratories; automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunotests; rapid dipstick technology; biosensors for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs; instant detection of target pathogens by computer-generated matrix; effective separation and concentration for rapid identification of target cells; microbiological alert systems in food packages; and rapid alert kits for detecting pathogens at home. PMID:12180670

Fung, Daniel Y C

2002-01-01

341

[Food allergies].  

PubMed

Food allergies are not a phenomenon of our time. The public and published opinion characterize food allergies as an accompanying symptom of our modern industrial society. However, many years before our time, Hippocrates (400 B.C.) and Lucrezius (1. Century A.D.) had described symptoms of illness which seemed to be due to food-allergies and intolerances. Today, allergies (especially food allergies) are often depicted as having increased excessively and that this increase seems to result from harmful substances in the environment, residues, food additives or may even be due to food manufacturing processes. It is estimated that the frequency of all types of allergic illnesses at this time in West-Germany is between 10-20 percent. Taking into consideration all degrees of difficulty, the number of people with food allergies lies under 10 percent of the population, although exact numbers in this area are missing. It is undisputed that food allergies are induced as a result of some of the foreign substances mentioned. However, the predominant share of food allergies occur as a result of natural food substances. The trend towards less processed foods has especially increased the risk of food allergies, since for example unmodified protein may contain more possible allergens than the corresponding protein which has been denatured by heating. The wide distribution of "new" foods from exotic countries and the enormous expansion in the variety of seasonings is also thought of as a cause for many allergies. One cause for more allergens reaching our abundantly set tables is the increased distribution and range of products resulting from expansion of national and international trade. Allergy, which to some extent is due to a malfunctioning immune system, activates certain defense mechanisms in the body. Food or more precisely its contents, then becomes an alien substance or antigen for the body against which it builds certain antibodies to "stay in a good state of health". These antibodies cause typical allergic reaction such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria and difficulty in breathing, after a certain food has been eaten. We must differentiate between food allergies and incompatibility (food intolerances). The body does not produce antibodies for the latter. Unlike food allergies, intolerances can disappear with time. PMID:2059292

Oberritter, H

1991-03-01

342

Food fears: a national survey on the attitudes of Australian adults about the safety and quality of food.  

PubMed

A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 1200 Australian adults was conducted in March 2002 in order to identify the factors of greatest concern to consumers in relation to the safety and quality of food, to measure recent trends in views about hazards in the food supply, to explore beliefs about the safety of additives and to discover whether consumers use food labels to check for ingredients of concern. Forty five percent of Australians responded that they were more concerned about the safety and quality of food than they were five years previously, while only 5% were less concerned. The most common potential hazards volunteered were additives and chemical residues (28%), followed by food processing/handling/freshness (21%), food hygiene or contamination (14%), and also genetic modification (14%). More than half of the respondents believe that additives and preservatives are harmful to your health and that many foods contain high levels of pesticides. A greater proportion of consumers claimed to be conscious of checking for additives, either general or specific, on food labels than for information on the salt or sugar content of products. Food regulators, journalists, the food industry and health professionals need to work together to correct misconceptions about the risks to health posed by common food additives and pesticide residues. PMID:15003912

Williams, Peter; Stirling, Emma; Keynes, Nick

2004-01-01

343

Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page: Lactose intolerance Food additives Gluten intolerance Food poisoning Histamine toxicity Other conditions Lactose intolerance Lactose is ... not considered a food allergy. back to top Food poisoning Some of the symptoms of food allergy, such ...

344

[Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].  

PubMed

Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rati

Poplinger, A

2010-04-01

345

Can Control Banding be better than traditional Industrial Hygiene?  

SciTech Connect

The answer to this question should be 'no' if you can afford it and 'yes' if you cannot. However, Control Banding (CB) is proving itself in areas with uncertainties. This could be either a lack of knowledge--as with nanomaterials or when lacking an OEL--or with the lack or expertise, as can be seen with SMEs and in Economically Developing Countries (EDCs). Over 90% of the world's workers do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods to achieve prevention from acquiring work-related illness and injury. Although risk factors for work-related illness and disease are well known, until the recent growth of CB there had yet to be designed and implemented a comprehensive OSHH process that focuses on achieving minimization of these occupational risk factors for the vast majority of the global workforce. This problem exists for three primary reasons: (1) There are not a sufficient number of trained and qualified OSHH professionals worldwide to attempt to offer comparable levels of traditional services necessary to achieve prevention; (2) The vast majority of OSHH professionals, and the funds to afford their conventional approaches, are concentrated in Developed Countries, such as those in the EU and the US, whereas the greatest need for work-related disease, illness, and injury prevention lies within EDCs; and (3) Even within Developed Countries, the funding to acquire the services of OSHH professionals sits primarily within the largest of industries and governmental institutions. This problem renders a void of occupational risk management for the professions and trades within EDCs and similarly the SMEs within even the richest of Developed Countries. Further, conventional means to achieve such prevention rely heavily on exposure assessment sampling strategies that, although proven successful, are cost-prohibitive in these arenas.

Zalk, D

2009-01-27

346

Elaboration of microbiological guidelines as an element of codes of hygienic practices for small and/or less developed businesses to verify compliance with hazard analysis critical control point.  

PubMed

Effective assurance of microbiological food safety practices in small and/or less developed businesses is not yet resolved. Although a start has been made by drafting hygiene codes, feasible methods for verifying manufacturing processes that rely on strict and meaningful criteria to be applied to process points are still lacking. This investigation is a model study with various types of ready-to-eat foods aimed at verifying adequate processing for safety and subsequent meticulous hygienic handling and safe storage of foods in small and/or less developed businesses by the use of quantitative methods for selected indicator organisms, as standardized by the International Organization for Standardization. The manufacture of the foods that were used in this study invariably included (i) a heat processing step that ensured a level of lethality of nonsporing organisms at least equivalent to the reduction of such organisms attained in the pasteurization of milk and (ii) effective means of prevention of postprocess recontamination and recolorization. The results of this study indicate that simple microbiological criteria used for this purpose, including aerobic mesophilic colony (standard plate) counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, and, in some instances, enumeration of yeast propagules, allow adequate verification of good practices throughout. This verification through monitoring of samples taken during processing in small and/or less developed businesses was found to be an attractive alternative to the conventional examination of end products. PMID:15690815

Friedhoff, R A; Houben, A P M; Leblanc, J M J; Beelen, J M W M; Jansen, J T; Mossel, D A A

2005-01-01

347

Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Hands of ready-to-eat food service employees have been shown to be vectors in the spread of foodborne disease, mainly because of poor personal hygiene and accounting for approximately 97% of food borne illnesses in food service establishments and homes. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hand washing practices and sanitation before commencing work among food handlers in the convenient food industry in Gauteng, South Africa. Methods: A total of 230 samples were collected, involving 100% of the food handlers, in 8 selected convenient food outlets with their main focus on preparing ready-to-eat foods. The workers’ cleaned and disinfected dominant hands were sampled for Total Plate Count (TPC), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacteria were isolated and counted using standard methods. Results: The highest bacterial count from the hand samples was 7.4 x 103 cfu.cm-2 and the lowest showed no detectable growth. Although hands with a count of 0 cfu.cm-2 were found in all of the plants, the results indicated that all the plants exceeded the legal limit for food surfaces or hands of < 100 cfu.cm-2 when the average bacterial counts on hands were compared. Sixty percent of the TPC analysed exceeded the legal limit and only 18% of the food handlers had no bacteria detectable on their hands. One sample tested positive for E. coli and S. aureus could not be detected on the hands of any of the food handlers. Conclusion: The study revealed that hand hygiene is unsatisfactory and may have serious implications for public health due to contamination of food from food handlers’ hands. This therefore underlined the importance of further training to improve food handlers’ knowledge of good hand washing practices. PMID:25097511

AA, Lambrechts; IS, Human; JH, Doughari; JFR, Lues

2014-01-01

348

What causes sustainable changes in hygiene behaviour? A cross-sectional study from Kerala, India.  

PubMed

This study was designed and the field work carried out by a non-governmental organisation (NGO) responsible for implementing hygiene promotion. The sustainability of changed hygiene behaviour was studied at various periods up to nine years after the conclusion of a multifaceted hygiene promotion intervention in Kerala, India. Various methods including a questionnaire to assess knowledge, spot observation, demonstration of skills on request, and household pocket voting were used and compared for the measurement of the hygiene outcome. Pocket voting gave the lowest prevalence of good practice, which we infer to be the more accurate. Good handwashing practice was reported by more than half the adults in intervention areas, but < 10% in a control area. Handwashing prevalence showed no association with the elapsed time since the interventions, indicating that behaviour change had occurred and persisted. Recall of participation in health education classes was significantly associated with good hygiene as indicated by women's handwashing practice (OR 2.04, CI 1.05-3.96) and by several other outcomes, suggesting that the classes were an effective component of the intervention. The evidence for a specific impact on behaviour from home visits and an awareness campaign is less strong, although the home visits had influenced knowledge. The finding of an association between interventions and male handwashing, in ecological analysis (comparing administrative areas i.e. panchayats) but not at individual level, suggests that the effect of the interventions on men may have been indirect, via women or neighbours, underlining the need to direct interventions at men as well as women. The finding that hygiene behaviour persisted for years implies that hygiene promotion is a more cost-effective health intervention than previously supposed. PMID:15927330

Cairncross, Sandy; Shordt, Kathleen; Zacharia, Suma; Govindan, Beena Kumari

2005-11-01

349

Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN

2007-01-01

350

Can the emotion of disgust be harnessed to promote hand hygiene? Experimental and field-based tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies carried out in Sydney, Australia explored whether inducing disgust may be a useful addition to hand-hygiene interventions. Experiment 1 employed a novel laboratory measure of hand hygiene, and tested whether a brief (3-min) video-based intervention using disgust\\/education, improved hand hygiene relative to education alone and a control condition. On test, a week later, the disgust intervention significantly exceeded

Renata Porzig-Drummond; Richard Stevenson; Trevor Case; Megan Oaten

2009-01-01

351

Food additives  

PubMed Central

Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

Spencer, Michael

1974-01-01

352

Evaluation of the safety of domestic food preparation in Malaysia.  

PubMed Central

Food-handling practices were studied in 119 and 158 households, respectively, in an urban and a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. Hazard analyses, including microbiological analysis of foods, were carried out in two households in each community and in a house that prepared food for distribution in the urban area. Kitchen hygiene was generally acceptable, although rated "poor" in some instances in the rural area. Food prepared for lunch was usually sufficient for dinner also, the leftover items being stored at ambient temperature until required. In the house that prepared food for distribution, breakfast was prepared during the evening, stored at ambient temperature overnight, and reheated before sale the next morning. There was a local preference for cooking food at temperatures close to boiling point; this reduced the numbers of vegetative cells but not those of spores. In some stored foods the populations of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and mesophilic aerobic bacteria increased, the last-mentioned reaching spoilage levels. Reheating reduced the populations of proliferating bacteria in most foods to acceptable levels but would not have destroyed heat-resistant enterotoxins. Because of their importance in combating acute bacterial foodborne disease, the control of the temperature and time factors during the cooking and storage of food should receive special attention in education on health and food safety. PMID:7867133

Desmarchelier, P. M.; Apiwathnasorn, C.; Vilainerun, D.; Watson, C.; Johari, M. R.; Ahmad, Z.; Barnes, A.

1994-01-01

353

Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179

García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

2012-11-01

354

Noise sources and acoustic properties of workrooms in the plants of food-processing and pharmaceutical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems related with noise and its reduction in food-processing and pharmaceutical plants necessitate a specific approach when applying sound absorbing systems and materials in view of high hygienic and sanitary requirements. The choice of suitable materials to design systems satisfying such requirements should be preceded by the measurement of noise characteristics and determination of noise-related hazardous factors in representative

Jan Czuchaj; Antoni ?liwi?ski; Krzysztof ?rodecki

2001-01-01

355

Food, novel foods, and allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. \\u000aMain allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish,\\u000amilk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always\\u000aproteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy\\u000a(gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory). Severe and life threatening\\u000asituations can occur. The prevalence is about 2% of the population;

Loveren H van

2007-01-01

356

An Assessment of Oral Hygiene in 7-14-Year-Old Children undergoing Orthodontic Treatment  

PubMed Central

Backround: The study is focused on increased risk of dental plaque accumulation among the children undergoing orthodontic treatment in consideration of individual hygiene and dietary habits. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 91 children aged 7-14 including 47 girls and 44 boys. The main objectives of the study were: API index, plaque pH, DMF index, proper hygiene and dietary habits. Statistical analysis was provided in Microsoft Office Exel spreadsheet and STATISTICA statistical software. Results: The average API index among the children wearing removable appliance was 9 (SD = 13), and among children without appliances was 16 (SD = 21). DMF index for patients using appliances was 5 (SD = 3) and for those without appliances was 4 (SD = 2). The average plaque pH was 6 for children with appliances (SD = 0.9) and 6.2 without ones (SD = 0.3). Conclusion: In patients in whom there is a higher risk of dental plaque accumulating, correct oral hygiene supported with regular visits to the dentist is one of the best ways to control dental caries. In the fight against caries the most effective and only approach is to promote awareness of the problem, foster proper hygiene and nutritional habits, as well as educate children from a very young age in how to maintain proper oral hygiene. PMID:25709359

Krupi?ska-Nanys, Magdalena; Zarzecka, Joanna

2015-01-01

357

Calculus detection calibration among dental hygiene faculty members utilizing dental endoscopy: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Dental and dental hygiene faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction in the clinical environment, especially in tasks requiring clinical judgment. From previous efforts to calibrate faculty members in calculus detection using typodonts, researchers have suggested using human subjects and emerging technology to improve consistency in clinical instruction. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if a dental endoscopy-assisted training program would improve intra- and interrater reliability of dental hygiene faculty members in calculus detection. Training included an ODU 11/12 explorer, typodonts, and dental endoscopy. A convenience sample of six participants was recruited from the dental hygiene faculty at a California community college, and a two-group randomized experimental design was utilized. Intra- and interrater reliability was measured before and after calibration training. Pretest and posttest Kappa averages of all participants were compared using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA to determine the effectiveness of the calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability. The results showed that both kinds of reliability significantly improved for all participants and the training group improved significantly in interrater reliability from pretest to posttest. Calibration training was beneficial to these dental hygiene faculty members, especially those beginning with less than full agreement. This study suggests that calculus detection calibration training utilizing dental endoscopy can effectively improve interrater reliability of dental and dental hygiene clinical educators. Future studies should include human subjects, involve more participants at multiple locations, and determine whether improved rater reliability can be sustained over time. PMID:25640616

Partido, Brian B; Jones, Archie A; English, Dana L; Nguyen, Carol A; Jacks, Mary E

2015-02-01

358

Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms.

Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Ka?uska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

2013-06-01

359

[Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units].  

PubMed

Interventional Patient Hygiene Model. A critical reflection on basic nursing care in intensive care units. Over the past 15 years, the model of medical and nursing care changed from being exclusively oriented to the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness, to the achievement of outcomes by preventing iatrogenic complications (Hospital Acquired Conditions). Nursing Sensitive Outcomes show as nursing is directly involved in the development and prevention of these complications. Many of these complications, including falls from the bed, use of restraints, urinary catheter associated urinary infections and intravascular catheter related sepsis, are related to basic nursing care. Ten years ago in critical care, a school of thought called get back to the basics, was started for the prevention of errors and risks associated with nursing. Most of these nursing practices involve hygiene and mobilization. On the basis of these reflections, Kathleen Vollman developed a model of nursing care in critical care area, defined Interventional Patient Hygiene (IPH). The IPH model provides a proactive plan of nursing interventions to strengthen the patients' through the Evidence-Based Nursing Care. The components of the model include interventions of oral hygiene, mobilization, dressing changes, urinary catheter care, management of incontinence and bed bath, hand hygiene and skin antisepsis. The implementation of IPH model follows the steps of Deming cycle, and requires a deep reflection on the priorities of nursing care in ICU, as well as the effective teaching of the importance of the basic nursing to new generations of nurses. PMID:25002060

Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Solaro, Massimo; Lumini, Enrico; Rasero, Laura

2014-01-01

360

Food Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... cream. Trans fats are naturally found in these foods too, but they are also in vegetable oils that have been specially treated (hydrogenated) so they are solid at room temperature — like shortening. The amount of saturated and trans fats that are in a food are shown below total fat on the nutrition ...

361

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... or artificial flavors? Studies have found that some food additives, such as tartrazine, or yellow No. 5, and aspartame (brand name: NutraSweet), an artificial sweetener, do cause ... condition is called a food allergy when the immune system thinks a certain ...

362

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

363

Food Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

Schwenk, Nancy E.

1991-01-01

364

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... of links for more information about food allergy ?? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

365

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... of links for more information about food allergy. ? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

366

Traditional foods in the diet of Chukotka natives.  

PubMed

During several medical expeditions the recipes and technology of traditional foods of the indigenous population of Chukotka have been collected. Traditional foods are important sources of fat, protein and essential nutrients. The traditional diet of Chukotka natives consists of caribou meat, marine animals and fish, depending on the place of residence. All meat products or fish are eaten with local plants: roots, green leaves, berries or seaweed. Local foods are usually eaten raw frozen and dipped into seal oil or melted caribou fat. However, it has been shown that the traditional way of food preparation in the Far North does not meet modern sanitary and hygiene regulations. Based on data collected about the traditional diet of Chukotka native recipes and technology have been changed and approved by the Association of Indigenous Nationalities of Chukotka. Dietary recommendations for natives that are based on traditional eating patterns have been presented for consideration. PMID:11507962

Berezovikova, I P; Mamleeva, F R

2001-04-01

367

Food porn.  

PubMed

Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

McBride, Anne E

2010-01-01

368

Food & Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With an increased concern over the nature of food production across the globe, it would make sense that a number of organizations and foundations would see fit to address these conditions through any number of crucial initiatives. Launched in 2000, Food & Society is one such initiative. Created by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the purpose of the initiative is â??to support the creation and expansion of community-based food systems that are locally owned and controlled, environmentally sound, and health promoting.â?ť On their homepage, visitors can sign up to receive news updates and look through a calendar of upcoming events. Another highlight of the homepage is the â??Food in the Newsâ?ť, which features the latest information on such topics as farmersâ?? markets and recent reports, such as â??Perceptions of the U.S. Food System: What and How Americans Think About Their Foodâ?ť.

2005-01-01

369

Finding food  

PubMed Central

A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

2011-01-01

370

Dishing the dirt on asthma: What we can learn from poor hygiene  

PubMed Central

Allergic asthma continues to represent a huge health burden worldwide and is largely treated by non-selective immunosuppressive drugs, which often prove ineffective. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the increased incidence of allergy and asthma in Western countries observed in the last 50 years is due to environmental changes that include improved hygiene and a lack of infections. The immunological mechanisms that must underpin such an environmental impact on immune regulation remain to be defined, making it difficult to identify specific ways of preventing development of allergy and asthma in early life. In this article we will seek to review some of the pathways that might underlie the hygiene hypothesis in an attempt to provide targets for future asthma prevention. PMID:19707324

de Lara, Catherine; Noble, Alistair

2007-01-01

371

Food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy. PMID:22166142

2011-01-01

372

Development of an International Collaborative Dental Hygiene Programme between Japan and Canada.  

PubMed

This paper reports the development of an international dental hygiene educational programme between Japan and Canada, and the evaluation of its outcomes. In 2004, a unique collaborative programme with Canadian dental hygiene schools was introduced as part of a 3-year dental hygiene curriculum. This international programme mainly consists of three parts: a spring (full Japanese faculty and student exchange to Canada), fall (select Japanese faculty and student exchange to Canada for focused professional development) and summer (select Canadian student exchange to Japan) component. The spring component provides an opportunity for all Japanese students to visit the Canadian dental hygiene schools at the end of their second year. Students and faculty members share information about their programmes and culture through instructional presentations, chair-side hands-on clinical simulations, and table clinic presentations. For the fall component, selected Japanese students and faculty re-visit the Canadian school for more extensive learning and exchange with Canadian students. Workshops are held for faculty on educational and research topics. For the summer component, selected second year Canadian students visit Japan. The Japanese students' basic knowledge of Canada and Canadian dental hygiene showed statistically significant improvement (P < 0.001) as assessed by pre- and post-tests. Other programme evaluations including faculty and students' surveys have so far identified positive outcomes in learning and research. The programme has offered opportunities for faculty professional development and joint research projects. In conclusion, the findings reported here demonstrate that incorporation of the international collaborative programme can be a significant addition to dental hygiene education. PMID:19138184

Saito, A; Sato, Y; Nakamura, A; Nozawa, H; Haneta, M; Matsumoto, S; Cathcart, G

2008-11-01

373

Irradiation as a cold pasteurization process of food.  

PubMed

A number of emerging pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in food, the wide publicity of outbreaks of foodborne diseases and the increasing number of immuno-compromised population have resulted in a need to develop proper strategies and technologies to protect health of consumers. Regulations in most countries which are promulgated to ensure safety of foods, are not properly enforced to protect consumers' health especially with regard to food of animal origin. While regulations are in place and properly enforced for liquid foods such as milk or fruit juices, more solid foods especially those of animal origin, e.g. poultry, meat and seafood, which are often contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites, are not similarly regulated. The number of incidences of foodborne diseases can the subsequent economic impact to the society can be enormous. Recently, an increasing number of national and international organizations have recognised the use of irradiation as a method to ensure hygienic quality of more solid food of animal origin in the same manner as thermal pasteurization does for liquid foods. The effectiveness of irradiation as a cold pasteurization method to control foodborne disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites, especially in food to be consumed raw or partially processed, is established. Its role in overcoming trade barriers of food of animal origin based on the principle of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, adopted during the GATT Uruguay Round will be discussed. PMID:8893465

Loaharanu, P

1996-08-01

374

Space Food  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

1994-01-01

375

Food Grab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1979-01-01

376

Impact of sink location on hand hygiene compliance for Clostridium difficile infection.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene with soap and water after the care of a patient with Clostridium difficile infection is essential to reduce nosocomial transmission in an outbreak situation. Factors that may pose barriers to user completion of infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene, are of interest. We undertook a quantitative study to evaluate the relationship between sink location and compliance with handwashing among health care workers and visitors in a surgical transplant unit. We found that placement of 2 more easily visible sinks in a surgical transplant unit was associated with improved adherence to handwashing. PMID:25704256

Zellmer, Caroline; Blakney, Rebekah; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia

2015-04-01

377

[Hand-hygiene and sickness among small children attending day care centers. An intervention study].  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of intensified hygiene with frequent handwashing and several educational procedures in day-care centres. The study was conducted as a controlled trial, with an intervention group and an observation group. There was a 34% reduction in expected sickness in children in the intervention group. In the categories diarrhoea and eye-infection there was a significant drop in sickness. We conclude that broad intervention concerning hand-hygiene has a positive effect on sickness in children attending day-care centres. PMID:10487104

Ladegaard, M B; Stage, V

1999-08-01

378

Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

Bornmann, Priscilla G.

1973-01-01

379

Hygienic quality and antibiotic resistance profile of sliced butchery.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the microbiological quality of different meat products on the Greek market, 200 samples were collected from the following preparations: boiled turkey (n=50), boiled pork ham (n=50), smoked turkey (n=50) and smoked pork ham (n=50). In all cold meat preparations Clostridium perfringens vegetative and spore forms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and other Clostridium sp lec(-), as well as Lactobacillus, Bacillus sp. and Salmonella sp. were recovered. For instance Bacillus cereus was present in 6% of the samples. L. monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were rarely present (1-4%) while Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter lari were absent. Differences in the occurrence of S. aureus, Salmonella sp., E. coli and spore forms of C. perfringens in boiled and smoked samples, reflects either the differences in the processing of the foods or could be associated to the extensive handling by the personnel during the purchasing (storage, slicing, wrapping). Antibiotic resistance on specific antibiotics for each pathogen was also studied. A multiresistance antibiotic profile was effective for most bacterial strains, and pronounced resistance profiles were observed for the commonly used antibiotics as ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin followed by ceftriaxone and gentamycin. Albeit this high observed resistance profile, the tested strains generally conserved their susceptibility to amikacin, aztreonam, chloramphenicol and tylosin conserved an almost absent resistance. Antibiotics commonly used for therapeutic purposes, as well as antibiotics added to feed stuff of animals for increasing animal flesh production should contribute to the extensive spreading of antibiotic resistance in food and the environment. Systematically monitoring of the microbiological quality of cold butchery preparations must be done, in order to preserve food quality, optimizing the processing and elaboration methods of the product and safeguard the public health. PMID:21722746

Voidarou, C; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I; Bezirtzoglou, E

2011-12-01

380

Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and…

Beistle, Kimberly S.

2012-01-01

381

The Impact of a Health Campaign on Hand Hygiene and Upper Respiratory Illness among College Students Living in Residence Halls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their…

White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha

2005-01-01

382

Distance Education in Dental Hygiene Bachelor of Science Degree Completion Programs: As Perceived by Students and Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated student and faculty perceptions of their experiences with online learning in dental hygiene Bachelor of Science degree completion programs on the dimensions of: quality of learning, connectedness to the learning environment, technology factors and student satisfaction. The experiences of dental hygiene students who took…

Tsokris, Maureen

2010-01-01

383

Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the Varroa Sensitive Hygienic trait in Russian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene and more specific VarroaVarroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH) provide resistance toward the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, Russian (RHB) and Italian honey bees were assessed for the VSH trait. Two...

384

Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and job satisfaction in the malaysian retail sector: the mediating effect of love of money  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines what motivates employees in the retail industry, and examines their level of job satisfaction, using Herzberg's hygiene factors and motivators. In this study, convenience sampling was used to select sales personnel from women's clothing stores in Bandar Sunway shopping mall in the state of Selangor. The results show that hygiene factors were the dominant motivators of sales

Teck Hong Tan; Amna Waheed

2011-01-01

385

Predictors of Academic Success for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination and the Southern Regional Testing Agency Clinical Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose for conducting this study was to investigate and describe the relationship between applicant criteria for a dental hygiene program and subsequent outcomes on credentialing exams: the National Board Dental Hygiene Exam and the Southern Regional Testing Agency clinical exam. Because admission criteria play a crucial role in applicant…

Efurd, Melissa G.

2012-01-01

386

Food safety.  

PubMed

Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313

Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

2010-10-01

387

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... food allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish ( ... peanut allergy and about 10% of kids with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish ...

388

Food allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... people of all ages) Soy (mostly in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (mostly in ... food when they are young. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to last a lifetime. ...

389

Food Justice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this adaptation of a video that high school students created in collaboration with the Environmental Justice League of Rhode Island, learn what's whack about our current food systems and the many actions individuals can take to address these issues.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-07-08

390

Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology  

E-print Network

Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology Food Safety and Technology National Center for Food Safety and Technology IIT Moffett Campus 6502 S. Archer Road Summit-Argo, IL 60501 708 Ravishankar The National Center for Food Safety and Technology (NCFST), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug

Heller, Barbara

391

LOCAL FOOD DIGEST: Food Hub Overview  

E-print Network

LOCAL FOOD DIGEST: Food Hub Overview Greg Schweser Associate Director, Sustainable Local Foods, University of Minnesota Humphrey School of Public Affairs LOCAL FOOD MOVEMENT Food hub development has become a focus in the local food movement as an opportunity to provide scale-appropriate infrastructure to small

Netoff, Theoden

392

Sustained increase in resident meal time hand hygiene through an interdisciplinary intervention engaging long-term care facility residents and staff.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene by patients may prevent acquisition and dissemination of health care-associated pathogens, but limited efforts have been made to engage patients in hand hygiene interventions. In a long-term care facility, we found that residents were aware of the importance of hand hygiene, but barriers, such as inaccessible products or difficult to use products, limited compliance. A dramatic and sustained improvement in meal time hand hygiene was achieved through engagement of staff and residents. PMID:25637117

O'Donnell, Marguerite; Harris, Tony; Horn, Terancita; Midamba, Blondelle; Primes, Vickie; Sullivan, Nancy; Shuler, Rosalyn; Zabarsky, Trina F; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

2015-02-01

393

Hygiene levels in a contemporary population cohort are associated with wheezing and atopic eczema in preschool infants  

PubMed Central

Background: The hygiene hypothesis states that insufficient exposure to certain infectious agents during childhood increases the risk of developing asthma and atopic diseases. Improvements in hygiene levels may be partly responsible for this decline in exposure. Aims: To assess whether hygiene levels in infancy are associated with wheeze and/or atopic eczema, independent of a number of possible confounding factors. Methods: Data were gathered from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Parental self completion questionnaires provided symptom data on infant wheeze and atopic eczema at 0–6 months and 30–42 months, respectively. A simple hygiene score was derived using questionnaire responses at 15 months, which ranged from least hygienic to most hygienic. Multivariable logistic regression models analysed the effect of hygiene scores on health outcomes, while adjusting for a number of important confounding variables. Results: Increasing hygiene scores were independently associated with wheezing (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.08) and atopic eczema (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.07) between 30 and 42 months, but not in the first six months. The odds ratio was higher for atopic eczema if the rash was reported to have become sore and oozy (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.16). Conclusions: High levels of hygiene at 15 months of age were independently associated with wheeze and atopic eczema reported between 30 and 42 months, and there was an increased risk for children with more severe eczema during this period. The importance of hygiene in public health should not be dismissed; however, the creation of a sterile environment through excessive cleanliness may potentially be harmful to the immune system. PMID:12089117

Sherriff, A; Golding, J; The, A

2002-01-01

394

Understanding Food Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

395

The associate of applied science degree in dental hygiene is an intensive, full-time endeavor that prepares you to take the American  

E-print Network

clinic and laboratory featuring the latest in dental technology so that students are learningDENTAL HYGIENE The associate of applied science degree in dental hygiene is an intensive, full-time endeavor that prepares you to take the American Dental Association National Board Dental Hygiene exam

Hartman, Chris

396

A new way to address an old problem: The WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy JULIE STORR, FIRST GLOBAL PATIENT SAFETY CHALLENGE, WORLD ALLIANCE FOR PATIENT SAFETY, WORLD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand hygiene improvement requires strong visible administrative support and the requisite safety culture to impact on health care-associated infections. The WHO multimodal improvement strategy offers a range of tools to aid managers and health-care workers at the facility level to achieve best practices in hand hygiene compliance. This article contextualises some of the critical tools and focuses on hand hygiene

H SAX; B ALLEGRANZI; DIDIER PITTET

397

Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. FINDINGS: After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. CONCLUSION: Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time. PMID:11436473

Curtis, V.; Kanki, B.; Cousens, S.; Diallo, I.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sangaré, M.; Nikiema, M.

2001-01-01

398

Addressing the needs for international training, qualifications, and career development in occupational hygiene.  

PubMed

Thirteen member societies of the International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA), all 11 national certification bodies, and IOHA itself are now cooperating in a new international training and qualification system. The structure broadens access to occupational hygiene education and training worldwide and complements existing professional accreditation schemes. There are currently 46 Approved Training Providers in the scheme and up to the end of June 2013, approaching 200 courses had been delivered in more than 32 countries, with nearly 2400 examinations taken in 7 languages. This influx of students, particularly in developing countries, is helping to address the worldwide need to combat occupational illness and is creating the foundation for sustainable growth in provision of occupational hygiene globally. The scheme originated in 2006, when the authors were instrumental in bringing together a group of senior hygienists to review the needs of industry. The resulting position paper, reflecting the perspective of major multi-national companies, was subject to widespread consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from across the world. This led to the formation of the Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA), as a not-for-profit organization, to operate the system. It is accessible through the OHlearning website that provides free downloads of educational materials and details of training events. In this commentary, we outline the needs that brought this about, identify the key stakeholders involved, review what has been done so far, and discuss some plans for the future. PMID:24375869

Alesbury, Roger J; Bailey, Stephen R

2014-03-01

399

Physiologists, physicians, and physical educators: Nineteenth century biology and exercise, hygienic and educative  

Microsoft Academic Search

When W.M. Conant (out-patient surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital) addressed the Boston Society for Medical Improvement in 1894 he spoke for many of his contemporaries when he declared that the two aims of exercise were the hygienic and the educative. The former was concerned primarily with muscular, circulatory and digestive functions. The latter emphasized the nervous system, brain and by

Roberta J. Park

2007-01-01

400

Developing a Competency-Based Curriculum for a Dental Hygiene Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the three-step process used to develop a competency-based curriculum at the Caruth School of Dental Hygiene (Texas A&M University). The process involved development of a competency document (detailing three domains, nine major competencies, and 54 supporting competencies), an evaluation plan, and a curriculum inventory which defined the…

DeWald, Janice P.; McCann, Ann L.

1999-01-01

401

Occupational exposure to permethrin during its use as a public hygiene insecticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permethrin is an active ingredient found in many public hygiene insecticide products and exposure to it was assessed in a survey of 45 professional users. The exposures measured were over a wide range, with more than a 100-fold difference between average levels and the highest levels. Dermal contamination was evident on 93% of the operators, the highest contamination resulting from

D. M. Llewellyn; A. Brazier; R. Brown; J. Cocker; M. L. Evans; J. Hampton; B. P. Nutley; J. White

1996-01-01

402

DOES AIR CONDITIONING IMPACT ON HYGIENIC QUALITY OF INDOOR AIR ON SEAGOING VESSELS ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : According to observations by occupational health physicians, nearly 50 % of the seamen on German vessels will get diseases of the upper respiratory tract. An impact of the air-conditioning systems on these diseases has been suggested. Objectives : To examine the hygienic quality of indoor air on seagoing vessels, a pilot study was initiated by the See-Berufsgenossenschaft. Methods

GABRIELE MEYER; BERND-FRED SCHEPERS

403

Assessing core competencies and their training demands for industrial safety and hygiene professional engineers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was set out to investigate the contents of core competences and their training demands for industrial safety and hygiene professional engineers (ISHPEs). The contents of 7 core and 35 sub-core competences were developed and used to conduct field surveys to safety and health managers (SHMs) from two types of industry of the high-tech and traditional, respectively. Both the

F.-M. Hsieh; Y.-C. Yu; Y.-C. Lin; P.-J. Tsai

2010-01-01

404

The Effect Of Information On Product Quality: Evidence From Restaurant Hygiene Grade Cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of an increase in product quality information to consumers on firms' choices of product quality. In 1998 Los Angeles County introduced hygiene quality grade cards to be displayed in restaurant windows. We show that the grade cards cause (i) restaurant health inspection scores to increase, (ii) consumer demand to become sensitive to changes in restaurants'

Ginger Zhe Jin; Phillip Leslie

2003-01-01

405

Referred by UCSD Environment, Health & Safety Office Industrial Hygiene, Mail Code 0958  

E-print Network

MAIL CODE LAST NAME FIRST NAME MI MARITAL STATUS DATE OF BIRTH SSN# SEX HOME PHONE CELL PHONE NO. HOMEReferred by UCSD Environment, Health & Safety Office Industrial Hygiene, Mail Code 0958 I ADDRESS CITY ZIP CODE WORK PHONE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR Check services provided RESPIRATORY QUESTIONNAIRE

Russell, Lynn

406

Pulmonary Toxicity of Manufactured Nanoparticles from the Perspective of Industrial Hygiene  

E-print Network

Pulmonary Toxicity of Manufactured Nanoparticles from the Perspective of Industrial Hygiene Mean samples were tested. Samples marked "trtd" went through a heat treatment process, 800C for 8 hours under minerals, were tested after ion exchange with iron. Erionite is a potent human carcinogen; mordenite is not

Dutta, Prabir K.

407

[Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].  

PubMed

Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. PMID:24661995

Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Bańo, Jesús

2014-11-01

408

Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

Ma, Xin

2007-01-01

409

Anim. Behav., 1995, 49, 827-834 Mus spretus Lataste: a hygienic house mouse?  

E-print Network

Anim. Behav., 1995, 49, 827-834 Mus spretus Lataste: a hygienic house mouse? JANE L. HURST & JEREMY mouse, appears to show a pattern of behaviour not reported in other rodents. Faeces are picked up is an aboriginal species of house mouse, closely related to the much more familiar pest of human habitation M

Nottingham, University of

410

Breeding for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using free-mated nucleus colonies  

E-print Network

Breeding for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using free-mated nucleus colonies-to-year comparisons of breeding colonies may not be an accurate predictor of selection gains within honeybee / Varroa destructor 1. INTRODUCTION American foulbrood (AFB) is a disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L

411

[Vibroacoustic factors hygienic regulation principles in Russia and abroad evolution and succession].  

PubMed

Brief historical summary about Institute' vibroacoustic factors investigations development in the XXth century is presented. There are shown the data of noise, vibration, ultra- and infrasound hygienic rating in comparison with international approaches; the ways of its international harmonization in modern social and economic situation are selected. PMID:24341033

Prokopenko, L V; Kravchenko, O K; Ermolenko, A E; Kurierov, N N; Lagutina, A V; Tseitlina, G S

2013-01-01

412

Competing Stimuli in the Treatment of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior during Hygiene Routines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study describes the use of noncontingent competing stimuli in the treatment of problem behavior exhibited by three individuals during staff-assisted hygiene routines. Functional analyses revealed that particular topographies of problem behaviors appeared to be maintained by their own sensory consequences, whereas other topographies…

Long, Ethan S.; Hagopian, Louis P.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Marhefka, Jean Marie; Resau, Dawn

2005-01-01

413

Peer mentoring and collaboration in the clinical setting: a case study in dental hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of professional conversational opportunities experienced by pre?profession majors in Dental Hygiene indicates significant reflective development through dialogue and participation in the experienced curriculum. A case study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a Peer Coaching strategy on pre?professional students’ dispositional and technical preparation. Utilizing an elicitation methodology, researchers identified benefits to peer focused collaborative pedagogy. The purpose of

Paul T. Parkison; Jennifer K. Bartek

2010-01-01

414

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Chemistry 2 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences EVHS 20092 Environmental Technology Internship I 3 PH 30004Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene ­ Associate EVHS 10001 Environmental Technology I (3) or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health (3) 3 Students

Khan, Javed I.

415

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety -Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene -Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Environmental Technology I or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health 1 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3 EVHS 10010 Environmental Earth Science 3 KBS Semester Four [14 Credits] CHEM 10052 Introduction to Organic Chemistry 2 KBSRoadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene - Associate

Khan, Javed I.

416

Status of bees with the trait of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) for varroa resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared to that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor ...

417

A Data Based Multidimensional Oral Hygiene Curriculum for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multidimensional oral hygiene curriculum appropriate for the moderately to profoundly retarded and composed of tooth brushing, flossing, and gum stimulation/massage is proposed. Task analyses are included for manual tooth brushing, utilizing an oral irrigation appliance, manual flossing, and use of an adaptive aid for flossing. Also provided are…

Feldman, David; Elliott, Thomas A.

418

A Genome Wide Genotyping Study To Find Candidate Genes That Influence Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene (VSH)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varroa parasitism of honey bees is widely considered by apicultural researchers to be the greatest threat to beekeeping. Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) is one of two identified behaviors that are highly important for controlling the growth of Varroa mite populations in bee hives. Bees exhibiting th...

419

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Dental Hygiene Technology (Program CIP: 51.0602--Dental Hygienist). Postsecondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the dental hygiene technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies. Section II…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

420

Implementation of Portfolio Assessment in a Competency-based Dental Hygiene Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the implementation of a portfolio assessment program in the dental hygiene program at the University of Missouri School of Dentistry. Tables provide examples of program competencies and related portfolio entries, the complete scoring rubric for portfolios, and the student portfolio evaluation survey. Concludes that although portfolio…

Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C.; Holt, Lorie P.; Overman, Pamela R.; Schmidt, Colleen R.

2000-01-01

421

Impact of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions on Improving Health Outcomes among School Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose. This review was done to explore the impact of water treatment, hygiene, and sanitary interventions on improving child health outcomes such as absenteeism, infections, knowledge, attitudes, and practices and adoption of point-of-use water treatment. Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed and Google scholar for studies published between 2009 and 2012 and focusing on the effects of access to safe water, hand washing facilities, and hygiene education among school-age children. Studies included were those that documented the provision of water and sanitation in schools for children less than 18 years of age, interventions which assessed WASH practices, and English-language, full-text peer reviewed papers. Results. Fifteen studies were included in the final analysis. 73% (n = 11) of the studies were conducted in developing countries and were rural based (53%, n = 8). The child's age, gender, grade level, socioeconomic index, access to hygiene and sanitary facilities, and prior knowledge of hygiene practices were significantly associated with the outcomes. Nutrition practices which are key factors associated with the outcomes were rarely assessed. Conclusion. Further research is required to assess the long-term impact of such interventions in different settings. PMID:24454415

Joshi, Ashish

2013-01-01

422

New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program  

E-print Network

? (Select only ONE choice, a OR b.) a. Adults with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) b. SeriouslyNew York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the Bureau of Mental Health. Individuals

Qiu, Weigang

423

New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program  

E-print Network

population that you work with in your program? (Select only ONE) Adults with Serious Mental Illness (SMINew York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the New York City Department of Health

Qiu, Weigang

424

Measuring Adjunct Instructor Job Satisfaction by Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to use Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory to investigate the different levels of job satisfaction among adjunct college instructors at eight institutions of higher education located in southeast Texas. Differences in job satisfaction were measured by instructor gender, ethnicity, age, teaching experience, type of…

Dickens, Durrell

2011-01-01

425

Dental hygiene education about patients with special needs: a survey of U.S. programs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore how dental hygiene programs in the United States educate their students about treating patients with special needs. Data were collected from 102 U.S. dental hygiene programs (response rate=49 percent) with a web-based survey. Nearly all programs (98 percent) reported that they present this material in lectures. However, only 42 percent of the programs required students to gain clinical experiences with patients with special needs. Most programs covered the treatment of patients with physical/sensory impairments such as hearing impairments (93.1 percent), psychopathologies (89.2 percent), and adult onset neurological disorders (89.2 percent). Outcome assessments were usually done in a written exam (97.1 percent), while objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) (9.8 percent) and standardized patient experiences (4.9 percent) were less frequently used. Respondents identified "curriculum overload" as the biggest challenge to addressing special patient needs. Nevertheless, 29.4 percent of the respondents indicated that they support an increase in clinical experiences for students to give them increased opportunities to work with patients with special needs. Recent changes in accreditation standards require graduating dental hygiene students to be competent in assessing the treatment needs of special needs patients. Based on the program directors' responses, recommendations can be made to increase the opportunities for students to have clinical experiences with patients with special needs and to address the needs of patients with special needs more comprehensively in dental hygiene curricula. PMID:18768443

Dehaitem, Maryam J; Ridley, Karen; Kerschbaum, Wendy E; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

2008-09-01

426

Hygiene practices and sexual activity associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study determined the association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Babol, Islamic Republic of Iran. A sample of 100 pregnant women with positive urine cultures (cases) were compared with 150 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status and parity (controls). Escherichia

F. N. Amiri; M. H. Rooshan; M. H. Ahmady; M. J. Soliamani

427

Simplified methods of evaluating colonies for levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is a trait of honey bees, Apis mellifera, that supports resistance to varroa mites, Varroa destructor. Components of VSH were evaluated to identify simple methods for selection of the trait. Varroa mite population growth was measured in colonies with variable levels of...

428

Expression of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in commercial VSH honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We tested six commercial sources of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) that were bred to include the trait of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). VSH confers resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman. Queens from these sources were established in colonies which later were measure...

429

Helminths in the hygiene hypothesis: sooner or later? OTHER ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS REVIEW SERIES  

E-print Network

Helminths in the hygiene hypothesis: sooner or later? OTHER ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS REVIEW arthritis. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 177: 13­23. Microbial `old friends', immunoregulation and socioeconomic status. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 177: 1­12. Intestinal microbiota and faecal

430

An Evaluation of High School Female Student's Knowledge and Behaviour Regarding Oral Hygiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's world, due to incensement of communication and different social relationship between people, oral health and aesthetic are considered more important than the past. The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and be- haviour of Gonbadkavoos, northern Iran high school female students regarding their oral hygiene and health status. In this descriptive study cluster,

F Mofidi

431

In-depth industrial-hygiene survey report of the Bunge Corporation, Kansas City, Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential exposure of workers to phosphide was examined during an in-depth industrial hygiene survey at the Bunge Corporation, in Kansas City, Kansas, where the gas was used as a grain fumigant. During the study, 14 men were employed at the facility. Tablets of aluminum phosphide were added to the grain mass for fumigation. General dilution ventilation resulted from outside air

Blade

1986-01-01

432

Satisfaction of Hygiene and Motivation Needs of Teachers Who Resigned from Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing incidence of teacher burnout suggests that many teachers have difficulty in satisfying their needs and in deriving satisfaction from teaching. This study examined the needs that teachers appear to have difficulty in satisfying. The study is based on Herzberg's Hygiene-Motivation Theory. This theory, related to Maslow's Hierarchy of…

Frataccia, Enrico V.; Hennington, Iris

433

Self-reported dental hygiene, obesity, and systemic inflammation in a pediatric rural community cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A growing body of epidemiologic evidence links oral health, obesity, and cardiovascular health, though few studies have reported on these relationships in children. While underlying mechanisms are unclear, adult studies have suggested sub-acute systemic inflammation, also implicated in the etiology of both obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated associations between self-reported dental hygiene, obesity, and systemic inflammation in

Stephanie J Frisbee; Christopher B Chambers; Jefferson C Frisbee; Adam G Goodwill; Richard J Crout

2010-01-01

434

LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE & TROPICAL MEDICINE GUIDELINES ON GOOD RESEARCH PRACTICE  

E-print Network

of these guidelines will be available on the School website; (ii) refers to intranet locations, which are only1 LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE & TROPICAL MEDICINE GUIDELINES ON GOOD RESEARCH PRACTICE CONTENTS of revised/new supporting policies and procedures and/or their website location. The most up to date version

Maizels, Rick

435

Chemical Hygiene Plan In Accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1450 and R325.70106  

E-print Network

Chemical Hygiene Plan In Accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1450 and R325.70106 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (29 CFR 1910.1450). The Michigan Occupational Safety and Health includes: · Contents of Standard 29 CFR 1910.1450 · Location of laboratory's CHP · Inventory of laboratory

Finley Jr., Russell L.

436

OFFICIAL POLICY 0.000 Chemical Hygiene Plan 03/01/10  

E-print Network

in laboratories. This standard (29 CFR 1910.1450), requires that employers who may expose employees to potentially of employment (29 CFR 1910.1450). The College of Charleston Chemical Hygiene Plan serves as the written Chemical to the OSHA standard (29 CFR 1910.1450), and have been given the opportunity to ask questions and are aware

Kasman, Alex

437

[Food safety achieved through herd management].  

PubMed

Most animal-derived food products originate from production chains consisting of a series of well-defined, separate production steps. Undesired events affecting food safety can principally occur at any point within the production chain. The principle of integrated food safety assurance from stable to table has therefore been established. The livestock holding has thus to be understood as a fix element of the production chain, and the producer has to accept a part of the responsibility for food safety. On a farm, food safety can be negatively affected by animal feed (microbiological or toxicological contamination), management (hygiene, stocking density, cleaning and disinfecting), veterinary treatments (use of antibiotics) and recycling of slurry. Most relevant practices can be summarised under the standard of "good farming practice". HACCP programmes as they are applied in the processing industries could in principle also be used at the farm level. Influential management steps would need to be identified and controlled. This approach is, however, still in its infancy at present. Using the current monitoring systems, microbiological and toxicological problems in food are difficult to be identified before the end of the production chain. As the cause of a problem can be found at the farm level, traceability of products through the production chain is essential. In Switzerland, traceability of animals is realised using compulsory animal identification and the animal movement database. Using this link, information on the health status of a herd could be made available to the slaughterhouse in order to classify animals into food-safety risk categories. This principle is a key element in the ongoing discussion about visual meat inspection in Europe and elsewhere. PMID:11189835

Stärk, K D

2000-12-01

438

Salmonellae, salmonellosis, and dairy foods: a review.  

PubMed

Salmonellae continue to be a major concern for the dairy industry because these bacteria have caused recent outbreaks of illness and have been isolated from various dairy products in the market place. Salmonellae are generally not heat resistant and normally grow at 35 to 37 degrees C, but they can grow at much lower temperatures, provided that the incubation time is suitably extended. To minimize problems, foods should be held at or below 2 to 5 degrees C at all times. Both conventional and rapid methods are available to isolate salmonellae from dairy foods and to identify the bacteria. Salmonellae behave differently in different kinds of cheese: they survived in ripening Cheddar cheese for up to 7 mo at 13 degrees C and for 10 mo at 7 degrees C; in coldpack cheese food for several weeks, depending on the pH and preservative used; and in Domiati cheese 13 to 36 d, depending on the manufacturing process used. When Mozzarella cheese was made, temperatures of stretching and molding (60 degrees C) killed all salmonellae present, but, in cottage cheese, survival of the pathogen depended on the cooking temperature of curd. Spray drying of skim milk killed substantial numbers of salmonellae, but some survivors remained. Butter readily supported growth of salmonellae at room temperature, and neither freezing nor refrigeration for brief periods eliminated salmonellae from butter. Use of appropriate hygienic procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, during processing should reduce the likelihood of salmonellosis outbreaks associated with dairy foods. PMID:1452840

el-Gazzar, F E; Marth, E H

1992-09-01

439

Challenges in achieving food security in India.  

PubMed

First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

2011-12-01

440

Behavior of Yersinia enterocolitica in Foods  

PubMed Central

Yersinia enterocolitica are ubiquitous, being isolated frequently from soil, water, animals, and a variety of foods. They comprise a biochemically heterogeneous group that can survive and grow at refrigeration temperatures. The ability to propagate at refrigeration temperatures is of considerable significance in food hygiene. Virulent strains of Yersinia invade mammalian cells such as HeLa cells in tissue culture. Two chromosomal genes, inv and ail, were identified for cell invasion of mammalian. The pathogen can cause diarrhoea, appendicitis and post-infection arthritis may occur in a small proportion of cases. The most common transmission route of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is thought to be fecal-oral via contaminated food. Direct person-to-person contact is rare. Occasionally, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica has been detected in vegetables and environmental water; thus, vegetables and untreated water are also potential sources of human yersiniosis. However, the isolation rates of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica have been low, which may be due to the limited sensitivity of the detection methods. To identify other possible transmission vehicles, different food items should be studied more extensively. Many factors related to the epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica, such as sources, transmission routes, and predominating genotypes remain obscure because of the low sensitivity of detection methods. PMID:22567332

Bari, Md. Latiful; Hossain, M. Anwar; Isshiki, Kenji; Ukuku, Dike

2011-01-01

441

Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.  

PubMed

This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. PMID:24425418

Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

2014-08-01

442

Hygiene, atopy and wheeze–eczema–rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren from urban and rural Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background Rural residence is protective against atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms in developed countries, an effect attributed to farming and poor hygiene exposures. There are few data from developing countries addressing this question. We compared atopy and wheeze–rhinitis–eczema symptoms between urban and rural Ecuador, and explored the effects of farming and poor hygiene exposures. Methods We performed cross sectional studies of schoolchildren living in rural and urban Ecuador. Data on symptoms and farming/hygiene exposures were collected by parental questionnaire, atopy by allergen skin prick test reactivity and geohelminth infections by stool examinations. Results Among 2526 urban and 4295 rural schoolchildren, prevalence was: atopy (10.0% vs 12.5%, p=0.06), wheeze (9.4% vs 10.1%, p=0.05), rhinitis (8.1% vs 6.4%, p=0.02) and eczema (5.9% vs 4.7%, p=0.06). A small proportion of symptoms were attributable to atopy (range 3.9–10.7%) with greater attributable fractions for respiratory symptoms observed in urban schoolchildren. Respiratory symptoms were associated with poor hygiene/farming exposures: wheeze with lack of access to potable water; and rhinitis with household pets, no bathroom facilities and contact with large farm animals. Birth order was inversely associated with respiratory symptoms. Area of residence and atopy had few effects on these associations. Conclusions Urban schoolchildren living in Ecuador have a similar prevalence of atopy, eczema and wheeze but a higher prevalence of rhinitis compared with rural children. Some farming and poor hygiene exposures were associated with an increase in the prevalence of wheeze or rhinitis while birth order was inversely associated with these symptoms. PMID:24105783

Cooper, Philip J; Vaca, Maritza; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha E; Santos, Darci N; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

2014-01-01

443

Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?  

PubMed Central

Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001). Conclusions While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

2012-01-01

444

The value of hygiene promotion: cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions in developing countries.  

PubMed

Hygiene promotion can greatly improve the benefits of water and sanitation programmes in developing countries at relatively limited costs. There are, however, few studies with hard data on the costs and effectiveness of individual programmes and even fewer have compared the cost-effectiveness of different promotional approaches. This article argues that objectively measured reductions of key sanitation and hygiene risks are better than DALYs for evaluating hygiene and sanitation promotion programmes. It presents a framework for the cost-effectiveness analysis of such programmes, which is used to analyse six field programmes. At costs ranging from US dollar 1.05 to US dollar 1.74 per person per year in 1999 US dollar values, they achieved (almost) complete abandonment of open defecation and considerable improvements in keeping toilets free from faecal soiling, safe disposal of child faeces, and/or washing hands with soap after defecation, before eating and after cleaning children's bottoms. However, only two studies used a quasi-experimental design (before and after studies in the intervention and - matched - control area) and only two measured costs and the degree to which results were sustained after the programme had ended. If the promotion of good sanitation and hygiene is to receive the political and managerial support it deserves, every water, sanitation and/or hygiene programme should give data on inputs, costs, processes and effects over time. More and better research that reflects the here-presented model is also needed to compare the cost-effectiveness of different promotional approaches. PMID:19703917

Sijbesma, Christine; Christoffers, Trea

2009-11-01

445

[Hygiene in schools - an important issue for the public health services].  

PubMed

According to the Protection against Infection Act (IfSG), schools have to identify their arrangements of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for hygienic conditions, and the public health departments are obliged to check the hygienic conditions in schools. Here, practical experience with these topics in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, is presented.Although all schools had been informed about their duties according to IfSG in 2001, only 44% (80/180 schools) of them were able to present their SOPs when requested to do so by the public health department in 2006. Complaints about bad sanitary hygiene in schools have to be confirmed, often even in recently redeveloped facilities, because of vandalism. The equipment of washing basins was improved very well during the influenza pandemic in 2009. In 2010, however, a tendency to deterioration had been observed. With data on high levels on indoor contamination (particles and CO2) in class rooms in 2006, the city increased the frequency of cleaning and launched a programme on proper ventilation in classrooms. However, a study on ventilation in 29 schools in 2009 resulted in very high levels of CO2; obviously the recommendation to ventilate the classrooms every break are neglected. Large studies on drinking water quality exhibited good data, with the exception of high Legionella contaminations in hot water systems supplying the showers in gymnasiums. Major redevelopment measures were necessary.Hygienic conditions in schools should be improved urgently. The public health departments should increase their consulting services as well as their control visits in schools - with the aim to improve hygiene in schools. Responsibility of the schools as well as of the individuals in the schools is demanded as well. More public attention to this topic seems mandatory, may be via a "signal light - red-yellow-green" for schools? PMID:22113381

Heudorf, U; Voigt, K; Eikmann, Th; Exner, M

2011-11-01

446

Hygienic support of the ISS air quality (main achievements and prospects)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hygienic preventive measures during pre-flight processing of manned spaceships, selection of polymeric materials, sanitary-hygienic evaluation of cargo and scientific hardware to be used on the ISS and life support systems allow to maintain air quality in limits of regulatory requirements. However, graduate increase of total air contamination by harmful chemicals is observed as service life of the ISS gets longer. It is caused by polymeric materials used on the station overall quantity rise, by additional contamination brought by cargo spacecrafts and modules docking to the ISS and by the cargo. At the same time the range of contaminants that are typical for off-gassing from polymeric materials where modern stabilizers, plasticizers, flame retarders and other additives are used gets wider. In resolving the matters of the ISS service life extension the main question of hygienic researches is to determine real safe operation life of the polymeric material used in structures and hardware of the station, including: begin{itemize} research of polymers degradation (ageing) and its effect on intensity of off gassing and its toxicity; begin{itemize} introduction of polymers with minimal volatile organic compounds off gassing under conditions of space flight and thermal-oxidative degradation. In order to ensure human safety during long-term flight it is important to develop: begin{itemize} real-time air quality monitoring systems, including on-line analysis of highly toxic contaminants evolving during thermo-oxidative degradation of polymer materials and during blowouts of toxic contaminants; begin{itemize} hygienic standards of contaminants level for extended duration of flight up to 3 years. It is essential to develop an automated control system for on-line monitoring of toxicological status and to develop hygienic and engineer measures of its management in order to ensure crew members safety during off-nominal situation.

Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Pakhomova, Anna

447

Space shuttle food system summary, 1981-1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All food in the Space Shuttle food system was precooked and processed so it required no refrigeration and was either ready-to-eat or could be prepared for consumption by simply adding water and/or heating. A gun-type water dispenser and a portable, suitcase-type heater were used to support this food system during the first four missions. On STS-5, new rehydratable packages were introduced along with a needle-injection water dispenser that measured the water as it was dispensed into the packages. A modular galley was developed to facilitate the meal preparation process aboard the Space Shuttle. The galley initially flew on STS-9. A personal hygiene station, a hot or cold water dispenser, a convection oven, and meal assembly areas were included in the galley.

Stadler, Connie R.; Rapp, Rita M.; Bourland, Charles T.; Fohey, Michael F.

1988-01-01

448

Safety evaluation of irradiated foods in China: A condensed report  

SciTech Connect

Eight trials, with 439 human volunteers who consumed irradiated foods including rice, potatoes, mushrooms, peanuts, and Chinese sausages, as well as diets composed of multiple irradiated foods (irradiated at dosages of 0.2 to 8 kGy) that accounted for 60-66% of the entire diet, were carried out for 2-3 months according to a unified protocol. No adverse effects on body weight, blood pressure, ECG, hematology, blood enzyme activities, serum lipids or blood or urine 17-hydroxycortisol contents and no chromosomal aberration of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found. It is especially worthwhile to note that there was no change in the polyploidy after consumption of irradiated diets. On the basis of these results and a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of irradiated foods, temporary hygienic standards for irradiated rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, Chinese sausages, peanuts, and mushrooms were promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Public Health.

Yin, D. (Institute of Food Safety Control and Inspection, Beijing (China))

1989-03-01

449

Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (hygiene behaviour. As a conclusion, the cross-national data on oral and hand hygiene behaviour from four Southeast Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population. PMID:24608901

Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

2014-01-01

450

Food Allergies DEFINITIONS  

E-print Network

are a digestive system response and are much more common than food allergies. Food Allergy vs. Food Intolerance's digestive system or when a person is unable to properly digest a food. SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of an AllergicFood Allergies DEFINITIONS: Definition of a Food Allergy: Immune system response to a food

Maxwell, Bruce D.

451

The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

2014-01-01

452

Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water.  

PubMed

Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755

Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F

2008-03-01

453

Organic Foods vs Supermarket Foods: Element Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic food has been noted in various studies as having similar nutritional value as commercial foods. These studies usually look at the dry ashed concentration and are designed for the food producer. In this study the average elemental concentration in organic foods on afresh weight basis was found to be about twice that of commercial foods.

Bob L. Smith

454

Food safety and foodborne disease in 21st century homes.  

PubMed

Over the past decade there has been a growing recognition of the involvement of the home in several public health and hygiene issues. Perhaps the best understood of these issues is the role of the home in the transmission and acquisition of foodborne disease. The incidence of foodborne disease is increasing globally. Although foodborne disease data collection systems often miss the mass of home-based outbreaks of sporadic infection, it is now accepted that many cases of foodborne illness occur as a result of improper food handling and preparation by consumers in their own kitchens. Some of the most compelling evidence has come from the international data on Salmonella species and Campylobacter species infections.By its very nature, the home is a multifunctional setting and this directly impacts upon the need for better food safety in the home. In particular, the growing population of elderly and other immnocompromised individuals living at home who are likely to be more vulnerable to the impact of foodborne disease is an important aspect to consider. In addition, some developed nations are currently undergoing a dramatic shift in healthcare delivery, resulting in millions of patients nursed at home. Other aspects of the home that are unique in terms of food safety are the use of the home as a daycare centre for preschool age children, the presence of domestic animals in the home and the use of the domestic kitchen for small-scale commercial catering operations. At the global level, domestic food safety issues for the 21st century include the continued globalization of the food supply, the impact of international travel and tourism, and the impact of foodborne disease on developing nations.A number of countries have launched national campaigns to reduce the burden of foodborne disease, including alerting consumers to the need to practice food safety at home. Home hygiene practice and consumer hygiene products are being refined and targeted to areas of risk, including preventing the onward transmission of foodborne illness via the inanimate environment. It has been said that food safety in the home is the last line of defense against foodborne disease, and it is likely that this will remain true for the global population in the foreseeable future. PMID:18159469

Scott, Elizabeth

2003-09-01

455

Food Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

Barkman, Susan J.

1996-01-01

456

Testing Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the relative amounts of oils in food. They then apply their understanding to an additional situation. The task assesses students' abilities to make simple observations, make generalized inferences from their observations, and apply their understanding to an additional situation.

New York State Alternative Assessment Project

2012-02-03

457

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct possible food webs for six different ecosystems as they learn about the roles of different kinds of living organisms. Learners will also discuss and classify producers vs. consumers and different kinds of consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers and scavengers). This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) cards.

2012-06-26

458

Food Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written to teach deaf students skills in food services, this guide and the two related documents (see note) present practical skills needed to work in a school dining room setting serving approximately two hundred students and faculty. Eleven units are included, with each unit containing from three to eleven lessons. Each lesson includes an…

Furneisen, Barbara K.

459

Food Deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deserts and accessibility represent a new frontier in the assault of life-threatening, dietrelated diseases, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Scholars represent the research literature from diverse disciplines, such as anthropology, agriculture, sociology, economics, marketing, public policy, sociology, and social epidemiology. Applied sociology has not contributed to this important conversation. Applied sociology's integration and use of theory, methods, and

Anthony Troy Adams; Monika J. Ulrich; Amanda Coleman

2010-01-01

460

Weaning Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

Chauliac, Michel; And Others

1987-01-01

461

Short-term impact of oral hygiene training package to Anganwadi workers on improving oral hygiene of preschool children in North Indian City  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, dental caries is categorized in the list of public health problems in preschool children. In India, lack of availability and affordability of oral health enhances the cost of treatment and care. Empowering community workers like anganwadi workers (AWWs) in oral health, and providing basic oral health awareness to the mothers through them can be feasible model. So, the present study was conducted to evaluate the short-term impact of Oral Hygiene Training Package (OHTP) to AWWs on improving oral hygiene of preschool children. Methods This before and after comparison field trial was done in Anganwadi centres (AWCs) of Chandigarh city, India. 534 children aged 36-72 months attending 21 AWCs were examined before and after imparting trainings to AWWs. OHTP was administered to AWWs, which consisted of power-point presentation and demonstrated the skills like proper brushing technique, plaque disclosure, flossing technique, gum massaging etc. The AWWs later imparted training to mothers in their respective AWCs. Post intervention data was collected after three months. Outcome measures were improvement in oral health status (plaque, debris, gingival health), oral habits (brushing, rinsing) and decrease in caries activity (Snyder test). Results Prevalence of dental caries was found to be 48.3%. Only 4.1% of the population reported brushing twice which increased significantly to 9.9% post-intervention (p = 0.000). There was a significant decrease in debris (78.3% to 54.1%), and stage-1 plaque (75.5 to 66.5%) in the oral cavity. Caries activity by Snyder’s test decreased from 48.2% to 31.2% (p = 0.01) post-intervention. Conclusions Controlled trials of using AWWs to improve oral hygiene appear to be justified. Trial registration CTRI/2012/07/002786 PMID:24279468

2013-01-01

462

[Assessment of the relationship of properties of chemical compounds and their toxicity to a unified hygienic standardization for chemicals].  

PubMed

The connection of thermodynamic properties and parameters of toxicity of chemical substances was determined. Obtained data are used for the evaluation of toxicity and hygienic rate setting of chemical compounds. The relationship between enthalpy and toxicity of chemical compounds has been established. Orthogonal planning of the experiment was carried out in the course of the investigations. Equation of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism is presented. Prospects of determination of toxicity and methodology of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism are presented PMID:24003710

Trushkov, V F; Perminov, K A; Sapozhnikova, V V; Ignatova, O L

2013-01-01

463

Washing Food: Does It Promote Food Safety?  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

464

Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

465

Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

466

Food poisoning prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... ways to prepare and store food to prevent food poisoning . It includes tips about what foods to avoid, ... will not be eating. MORE TIPS FOR PREVENTING FOOD POISONING: All milk, yogurt, cheese and other dairy products ...

467

Dangerous Food Safety Mistakes  

MedlinePLUS

... to 20 cells in undercooked food to cause food poisoning. And just a tiny taste of food with ... or smell or see) the bacteria that cause food poisoning. Tasting only a tiny amount can cause serious ...

468

The Science of Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of resources and inquiry lessons on nutrition and food-related concepts such as photosynthesis, food webs, food contaminants, food borne parasites or bacterial infections and choosing a healthy diet.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

469

Norovirus: Food Handlers  

MedlinePLUS

... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

470

Long-term Impact of Integration of Household Water Treatment and Hygiene Promotion with Antenatal Services on Maternal Water Treatment and Hygiene Practices in Malawi  

PubMed Central

A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants. PMID:23243106

Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

2013-01-01

471

Seven suggestive quantitative trait loci influence hygienic behavior of honey bees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1964, Walter Rothenbuhler proposed a two-gene model to explain phenotypic variance in the remarkable behavior in which honey bee workers remove dead brood from their colonies. Rothenbuhler's model proposed that one locus controls the uncapping of brood cells containing dead pupae, while a second controls the removal of the cell contents. We show here, through molecular techniques and quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage mapping, that the genetic basis of hygienic behavior is more complex, and that many genes are likely to contribute to the behavior. In our cross, we detected seven suggestive QTLs associated with hygienic behavior. Each detected QTL controlled only 9-15% of the observed phenotypic variance in the character.

Lapidge, Keryn; Oldroyd, Benjamin; Spivak, Marla

2002-10-01

472

[Hygiene and motivation factors of nursing work in a cardiology ward].  

PubMed

The present study aimed to identify hygienic and motivational factors in the nursing work according to the Two-Factor Theory, as well as their relation with professional satisfaction/dissatisfaction. This exploratory-descriptive study involved nine nurses from the cardiology ward of a hospital in the interior of the State of Săo Paulo, between August and September 2013. A self-applied questionnaire was used, including open and closed questions. The data were categorized as hygienic and motivational. Results show the nurses' satisfaction with autonomy, work itself and teamwork, duties, content and responsibilities of the job. Dissatisfaction is related to career growth possibilities; work, political and administrative conditions at the institution, supervision and lack of institutional support. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors include relationships, acknowledgements and remuneration. Nurses' satisfaction is determined by multiple and often controversial factors. PMID:25474845

Somense, Carolina Bueno; Duran, Erika Christiane Marocco

2014-09-01

473

[Hygiene and motivation factors of nursing work in a cardiology ward].  

PubMed

The present study aimed to identify hygienic and motivational factors in the nursing work according to the Two-Factor Theory, as well as their relation with professional satisfaction/dissatisfaction. This exploratory-descriptive study involved nine nurses from the cardiology ward of a hospital in the interior of the State of Săo Paulo, between August and September 2013. A self-applied questionnaire was used, including open and closed questions. The data were categorized as hygienic and motivational. Results show the nurses' satisfaction with autonomy, work itself and teamwork, duties, content and responsibilities of the job. Dissatisfaction is related to career growth possibilities; work, political and administrative conditions at the institution, supervision and lack of institutional support. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors include relationships, acknowledgements and remuneration. Nurses' satisfaction is determined by multiple and often controversial factors. PMID:25508624

Somense, Carolina Bueno; Duran, Erika Christiane Marocco

2014-09-01

474

Understanding of hygiene behaviour and diarrhoea in two villages in Botswana.  

PubMed

This paper describes a study which took place in two villages in north-east district of Botswana from July 1990 through July 1991. Qualitative data collection methods were used including: observations, key-informant interviews, focus groups, and in-depth interviews. The data were used for understanding and interpreting the cultural belief systems regarding specific hygiene behaviours and diarrhoea, with emphasis on hand washing. Hand washing was said to occur for three main reasons: to remove contamination, for social reasons, and for comfort reasons. Sources of dirt on the hands included human blood and faeces. Many perceived causes of diarrhoea were identified, including pogwana (dehydration associated with sunken anterior fontanelle). Traditional concepts regarding the treatment and prevention of diarrhoea were also identified. It is suggested that beliefs surrounding hygiene behaviour and diarrhoea should be incorporated into health education programmes. PMID:8870398

Kaltenthaler, E C; Drasar, B S

1996-06-01

475

Relationship between oral poor hygiene and broken teeth with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Previous studies on etiology of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue have reported results with respect to long term exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for SCC of the tongue in a set of patients with minimum exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol. Sixty four cases with diagnosis of oral tongue SCC were reviewed in this study. The patients underwent surgical management at the educational and therapeutic centers, Imam and Buali Hospitals (Hamedan, Iran) between the dates of January 1990 and December 2006. Eighty five percent of patients were older than 40 years of age. Most of patients had poor oral hygiene, dental decay and halitosis. It appears that poor oral hygiene and nutritional deficiency can be considered as risk factors for the SCC of the tongue in west of Iran. PMID:21681703

Behnoud, Fatholah; Torabian, Saadat; Zargaran, Maasoumeh

2011-01-01

476

Food Pyramid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the different food groups and how to put them to use in planning meals. Objective: By following the steps in this program,the student will be able to gather information to help develop skills in the area of \\"Independent Living\\" according to the Transition Plan of an IEP and the students specific IEP goals. Learning will be assessed by observation and from work sheets and menus ...

Mrs. Allan

2008-09-29

477

Food Court  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit of four lessons from NCTM's Illuminations lets students conduct surveys and represent data in a variety of ways. They also find and compare measures of center. The lessons center around a food court, where students create and use menus in a meaningful way. Topics covered include bar graphs, line plots, and pictographs, measures of center, and probability of events. Individual lessons link to related tools where appropriate, and include questions for students, assessment options, and teacher reflection questions.

Grace M. Burton

2008-01-01

478

Importance of structured training programs and good role models in hand hygiene in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify the beliefs and perceptions associated with hand hygiene performance in two different institutions with limited resources and recently established infection control programme later than developed institutions. The study was conducted in two different hospitals (University Hospital-U-hospital and Community Hospital-C-hospital) in the same city by a self administered questionnaire. Most questions were drawn

Emine Alp; Ahmet Ozturk; Muhammed Guven; Ilhami Celik; Mehmet Doganay; Andreas Voss

2011-01-01

479

Learning climate in dental hygiene education: a longitudinal case study of a Japanese and Canadian programme.  

PubMed

Educational climates have been found to have important influences on learning, but little feedback has been obtained from dental hygiene students. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the learning climate in Japanese and Canadian dental hygiene programmes for the purpose of making positive changes. A survey instrument with 10 dimensions relating to learning climate was adapted from business and dental models, and designated as the Dental Hygiene Student Learning Climate Survey (DHS-LCS). Higher scores indicated a more positive and supportive learning climate, and lower scores indicated an environment that is potentially less desirable. Students enrolled in a Japanese and a Canadian dental hygiene programme participated in this four-year study from 2005 to 2008. A total of 402 surveys were returned for an average response rate of 62%. The mean total DHS-LCS score of Canadian students was statistically significantly higher than that of Japanese students (P < 0.001) in all years tested, indicating that the Canadian students' perceptions of their learning environment were more favourable than those of the Japanese students. Based on the analyses of the DHS-LCS data, interventions to improve learning climates were designed and implemented. There were statistically significant improvements (P < 0.01) in DHS-LCS scores of Japanese and Canadian students over the years of the study, suggesting that student-centred interventions improved the perceived learning environment. The instrument appears to be helpful in identifying student concerns and can be used to implement interventions to help support a healthier learning climate. PMID:20522137

Saito, A; Sunell, S; Rucker, L; Wilson, M; Sato, Y; Cathcart, G

2010-05-01

480

Examination of social networking professionalism among dental and dental hygiene students.  

PubMed

Becoming a dental professional requires one to apply ethical decision making skills and demonstrate high standards of professionalism in practice, including the way professionals present themselves to the public. With social media as an evergrowing part of personal and professional communications, this study aimed to determine the accessibility, amount, and type of unprofessional content on Facebook profiles of dental hygiene and dental students in a college of dentistry. The authors evaluated the online profiles of all 499 dental and dental hygiene students at The Ohio State University using objective measures that included existence of a profile, current privacy settings, and access to personally identifiable information. A sample of profiles were evaluated for unprofessional content including photos, comments, and wall posts. The majority of these students were found to use Facebook, with 61 percent having Facebook profiles. Dental hygiene students were more likely to have a Facebook profile than were dental students: 72.6 percent and 59.1 percent, respectively (p=0.027). The majority of the students' profiles had some form of privacy setting enabled, with only 4 percent being entirely open to the public. Fewer than 2 percent of the students allowed non-friends access to personal information. Based on in-depth analysis of the profiles, fourteen (5.8 percent) instances of unprofessionalism were recorded; the most common unprofessional content involved substance abuse. This study found that these dental and dental hygiene students frequently possessed an identifiable Facebook account and nearly half had some kind of personal information on their profile that could potentially be shared with the public. In some instances, the students gave patients, faculty, and potential employers access to content that is not reflective of a dental professional. Academic institutions should consider implementing policies that bring awareness to and address the use of social media in a professional environment. PMID:24192407

Henry, Rachel K; Molnar, Amy L

2013-11-01

481

Monitoring Hand Hygiene via Human Observers: How Should We be Sampling?  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore how hand-hygiene-observer scheduling influences the number of events and unique individuals observed. Design We deployed a mobile sensor network to capture detailed movement data for 6 categories of healthcare workers (HCWs) over 2 weeks Setting: The University of Iowa Hospital and Clinic’s MICU. Methods We recorded 33721 time-stamped HCW entries to and exits from patient rooms and considered each entry or exit an opportunity for hand hygiene. Architectural drawings were used to d