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Sample records for food hygiene

  1. Role of veterinarians in modern food hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Matyáš, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Veterinary services and veterinary education and training must keep pace with the constantly changing patterns of agriculture and food processing. Changes in methods of animal production are associated with many problems of food processing and food quality. Veterinary supervision of the animal feed industry and of meat and distribution is essential. Quality testing of meat, milk, and eggs requires the introduction of suitable routine sampling systems, laboratory procedures, and complex evaluation procedures. Food hygiene problems have changed in recent years not only as a result of new methods of animal production, but also because of changes in food processing technology and in the presentation of food to the consumer, increased environmental pollution, increased international trade, and increased tourist travel. Food hygienists must adopt an active and progressive policy and change the scope of food control from a purely negative measure into a positive force working towards improved food quality and the avoidance of losses during production. A modern food hygiene programme should cover all stages of production, processing, and distribution of food and also other ingredients, additives and the water used for production and processing. Veterinarians should also be involved in the registration and licensing of enterprises and this should take into account the premises, the procedures to be used, new techniques in animal husbandry, machines and equipment, etc. In order to facilitate the microbiological analysis of foodstuffs, new mechanized or automated laboratory methods are required, and consideration must be given to adequate sampling techniques. PMID:310716

  2. Microbial Quality, Nutritional Knowledge and Food Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…

  3. Food Hygiene Education in UK Secondary Schools: A Nationwide Survey of Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, M. B.; Bielby, G.; Eves, A.; Lumbers, M. L.; Raats, M. M.; Adams, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A nationwide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of food hygiene in UK secondary schools. Previous studies have focused on effective strategies in consumer food hygiene training but there is little research focusing on school-based education. Design: The questionnaire was developed based on the results of in-depth interviews

  4. Microbial biofilms in seafood: a food-hygiene challenge.

    PubMed

    Mizan, Md Furkanur Rahaman; Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-08-01

    Seafood forms a part of a healthy diet. However, seafood can be contaminated with foodborne pathogens, resulting in disease outbreaks. Because people consume large amounts of seafood, such disease outbreaks are increasing worldwide. Seafood contamination is largely due to the naturally occurring phenomenon of biofilm formation. The common seafood bacterial pathogens that form biofilms are Vibrio spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. As these organisms pose a global health threat, recent research has focused on elucidating methods to eliminate these biofilm-forming bacteria from seafood, thereby improving food hygiene. Therefore, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation, the factors that regulate biofilm development and the role of quorum sensing and biofilm formation in the virulence of foodborne pathogens. Currently, several novel methods have been successfully developed for controlling biofilms present in seafood. In this review, we also discuss the epidemiology of seafood-related diseases and the novel methods that could be used for future control of biofilm formation in seafood. PMID:25846914

  5. [The control of food hygiene during the world's fair in Seville (EXPO'92)].

    PubMed

    Durn Moreno, A; Moreno Durn, A; Toledano Hidalgo, P

    1993-01-01

    EXPO'92 has been one of the most important mass events held in Spain during several decades. Given the size of the event and the very complex circumstances surrounding the fair, the public health services had to face a big challenge. Food-hygiene and food-safety services, in particular were organized so as to take advantage and put into practice a fully managerial approach. Relevant conclusions can be drawn from such an experience which may be valuable not only with regards to similar mass-events in the future, but also for improving food hygiene in the overall Spanish context. In this article, the positive results obtained in the field of food hygiene and food safety at EXPO'92 are directly related by the authors with the methodology which was applied, namely the hazard analysis and critical control points. It is concluded that the interinstitutional coordination achieved played a decisive role. PMID:8225792

  6. Hygienic behavior in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): effects of brood, food, and time of the year.

    PubMed

    Bigio, Gianluigi; Schrch, Roger; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-12-01

    Hygienic behavior in honey bees is a heritable trait of individual workers that confers colony-level resistance against various brood diseases. Hygienic workers detect and remove dead or diseased brood from sealed cells. However, this behavior is quite rare, with only c.10% of unselected colonies showing high levels of hygiene. Beekeepers can potentially increase this by screening colonies for hygiene and breeding from the best. However, the level of hygiene expressed by a colony is variable, which poses a challenge to colony selection. In this study, we systematically varied two factors thought to be of importance in influencing hygiene levels, "nectar" availability, by feeding or not feeding sucrose syrup, and brood amount, by adding or removing brood, to determine what effect they had on hygienic behavior. We tested 19 colonies repeatedly over a 4-mo period using the freeze-killed brood assay, a standard technique to quantify hygienic behavior. Two days after freeze-killed brood treatment, our colonies showed a wide range of brood removal levels, with colony means ranging from 31.7 +/- 22.5 to 93 +/- 6.9 (mean % +/- SD). Neither the food nor the brood manipulation had an effect on hygiene levels. Colony size and time of year were also nonsignificant. The only significant effect was a three-way interaction between syrup availability, amount of brood, and time of the year, resulting in reduced hygienic behavior early in the season (spring), in colonies with added brood that were not fed sucrose syrup. Overall, these results suggest that hygienic behavior is not greatly affected by environmental conditions typical of a real-life beekeeping, and that screening of colonies can be done anytime without special regard to nectar conditions or brood levels. PMID:24498725

  7. The contribution of radiation chemistry to enact the hygienic safety standard of irradiated food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilan, Wu; Hongfei, Ha; Rongyao, Yuan

    In order to accelerate the process of omitting the labeling of the irradiated food, it is suggested to enact the hygienic safety standard of the irradiated food. It may be classified as three classes: (1) Its hygienic safety standard is similar to that of common food. (2) The maximum permissible quantities of harmful compounds induced by radiation must be controlled. (3) The quantity of unique radiolysis product may be determined. We must put the stress on the prediction and detection of induced harmful radiolysis products such as peroxides, volatile basic nitrogen compounds and organic halides.

  8. 77 FR 61736 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    .... Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), are sponsoring a public meeting on October 23, 2012. The... Advisor, Office of Food Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA, 5100 Paint Branch... Step 4 Proposed Draft Revision of the Code of Hygienic Practice for Spices and Dried Aromatic Plants...

  9. 78 FR 59336 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Human Services (HHS), are sponsoring a public meeting on October 23, 2013. The objective of the public... and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, HFS-300, Room 3B... Step 4 Proposed Draft Revision of the Code of Hygienic Practice for Spices and Dried Aromatic Plants...

  10. Listeria monocytogenes: food-borne pathogen and hygiene indicator.

    PubMed

    Jemmi, T; Stephan, R

    2006-08-01

    In the past 25 years, Listeria monocytogenes has become increasingly important as a food-associated pathogen. Most European Union countries have an annual incidence of human listeriosis of between two and ten reported cases per million. Because of its high case fatality rate, listeriosis ranks among the most frequent causes of death due to food-borne illness. Listeria monocytogenes infections are responsible for the highest hospitalisation rates (91%) amongst known food-borne pathogens and have been linked to sporadic episodes and large outbreaks of human illness worldwide. The ability to persist in food-processing environments and multiply under refrigeration temperatures makes L. monocytogenes a significant threat to public health. Listeria monocytogenes contamination is one of the leading microbiological causes of food recalls, mainly of meat, poultry, seafood and dairy products. Prevention and control measures are based on hazard analysis and critical control point programmes throughout the food industry, and on specific recommendations for high-risk groups. Understanding how these micro-organisms adapt their cellular physiology to overcome stress is important in controlling L. monocytogenes in food environments. PMID:17094698

  11. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Dorothea F.; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L.; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M.

    2013-01-01

    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8–12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls. PMID:24265919

  12. [Risk assessment of microorganisms relevant to food hygiene].

    PubMed

    Untermann, F

    1995-04-01

    In the public's view, chemical residues still dominate in the ranking of foodborne hazards. This perception is changing slowly as a result of public discussions on the dangers to human beings from various microorganisms in foodstuff. Statistics on foodborne infections and intoxications comprising acute diseases have shown that chemical substances (including fungal toxins) play a less significant role than bacteria. A sentinel and a populations study from Holland provides information on the incidence of cases of acute gastroenteritis caused by microorganisms in foods. The results of this study show that 100 to 150 cases are to be expected annually per 1000 inhabitants. An economic cost of about $1000 per case of disease is calculated in Canada and the USA. On the basis of these figures and the Dutch study, the estimated annual economic impact is more than 10 billion DM for the Federal Republic of Germany. The difficulties in quantification of microbiological hazards from foodstuffs on the base of dose-response relation and exposure assessment such as are usual in the risk assessment of chemical hazards are discussed. A safety concept of the food industry (the HACCP concept) is then described. This comprises hazard identification. risk assessment as well as risk management. This concept is also applicable in other food areas such as communal catering. In the meantime, it has also been taken into consideration in European food legislation. PMID:8579711

  13. Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices. PMID:25258630

  14. [Hygienic assessment of student's nutrition through vending machines (fast food)].

    PubMed

    Karelin, A O; Pavlova, D V; Babalyan, A V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of a research work on studying the nutrition of students through vending machines (fast food), taking into account consumer priorities of students of medical University, the features and possible consequences of their use by students. The object of study was assortment of products sold through vending machines on the territory of the First Saint-Petersburg Medical University. Net calories, content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load were determined for each product. Information about the use of vending machines was obtained by questionnaires of students 2 and 4 courses of medical and dental faculties by standardized interview method. As was found, most sold through vending machines products has a high energy value, mainly due to refined carbohydrates, and was characterized by medium and high glycemic load. They have got low protein content. Most of the students (87.3%) take some products from the vending machines, mainly because of lack of time for canteen and buffets visiting. Only 4.2% students like assortment of vending machines. More than 50% students have got gastrointestinal complaints. Statistically significant relationship between time of study at the University and morbidity of gastrointestinal tract, as well as the number of students needing medical diet nutrition was found. The students who need the medical diet use fast food significantly more often (46.6% who need the medical diet and 37.7% who don't need it). PMID:26402943

  15. Hygienic food handling behaviours. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Barbara A; Wong, Cara L

    2009-06-01

    It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes, perceived behavioural control (PBC), subjective norm, intentions and past behaviour. Behaviour was measured 4 weeks later. The TPB predicted a high proportion of variance in both intentions and behaviour, and past behaviour/habit was found to be the strongest predictor of behaviour. The results of the present study suggest interventions aimed at increasing safe food handling intentions should focus on the impact of normative influences and perceptions of control over their food handling environment; whereas interventions to change actual behaviour should attempt to increase hygienic food handling as a habitual behaviour. PMID:19501776

  16. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 1259months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the childs defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mothers and childs hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, childs bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Results Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged?food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children?

  17. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  18. Handwashing before food preparation and child feeding: a missed opportunity for hygiene promotion.

    PubMed

    Nizame, Fosiul A; Unicomb, Leanne; Sanghvi, Tina; Roy, Sumitro; Nuruzzaman, Md; Ghosh, Probir K; Winch, Peter J; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-12-01

    Enteric diseases are often caused by poor hygiene and can contribute to stunting. From 50 randomly selected villages in Bangladesh, we collected quantitative and qualitative data on handwashing linked to child feeding to integrate handwashing promotion into a young child complementary feeding program. Most participants stated that the community knew the importance of handwashing with soap before food preparation and feeding a child, but had not developed the habit. We observed no handwashing with soap at these key times; sometimes hands were rinsed with water only. Most participants cited the unavailability of soap and water near the cooking place as a barrier to handwashing before food preparation. Most caregivers ranked nurturing messages as the best motivator to encourage handwashing with soap. An integrated intervention should include having soap and water available near the food preparation area and should use nurturing themes to encourage habitual handwashing with soap. PMID:24080638

  19. Handwashing before Food Preparation and Child Feeding: A Missed Opportunity for Hygiene Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Nizame, Fosiul A.; Unicomb, Leanne; Sanghvi, Tina; Roy, Sumitro; Nuruzzaman, Md.; Ghosh, Probir K.; Winch, Peter J.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Enteric diseases are often caused by poor hygiene and can contribute to stunting. From 50 randomly selected villages in Bangladesh, we collected quantitative and qualitative data on handwashing linked to child feeding to integrate handwashing promotion into a young child complementary feeding program. Most participants stated that the community knew the importance of handwashing with soap before food preparation and feeding a child, but had not developed the habit. We observed no handwashing with soap at these key times; sometimes hands were rinsed with water only. Most participants cited the unavailability of soap and water near the cooking place as a barrier to handwashing before food preparation. Most caregivers ranked nurturing messages as the best motivator to encourage handwashing with soap. An integrated intervention should include having soap and water available near the food preparation area and should use nurturing themes to encourage habitual handwashing with soap. PMID:24080638

  20. Long-Term Impact of Community-Based Information, Education and Communication Activities on Food Hygiene and Food Safety Behaviors in Vietnam: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Quyen, Dao To; Le Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Background Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. Methods In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of children aged between six months and four years in suburban Hanoi. Baseline data were collected in January 2006 (n?=?125). After conducting IEC interventions, we collected a 1st set of evaluation data in January 2007 (n?=?132). To examine the long-term impact of the interventions, we then collected a 2nd set of evaluation data in January 2008 (n?=?185). Changes in childhood diarrhea prevalence, IEC coverage, and food hygiene and food safety behaviors were assessed over a two-year period using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Effective IEC channels were determined through multiple linear regression analysis. Results Childhood diarrhea was significantly reduced from 21.6% at baseline to 7.6% at the 1st post-intervention evaluation (P?=?0.002), and to 5.9% at the 2nd evaluation. Among 17 food hygiene and food safety behaviors measured, a total of 11 behaviors were improved or maintained by the 2nd evaluation. Handwashing after toilet use was significantly improved at both evaluation points. Overall, 3 food safety behaviors and 7 food hygiene behaviors were found to have significantly improved at the 1st and at the 2nd evaluations, respectively. Flip chart communication administered by community groups was identified to be the most effective IEC channel for effecting behavior change (P?=?0.018). Conclusions Flip chart communication administered by community groups is effective for improving multiple food hygiene and food safety behaviors in sustainable ways, and should be included in water and health promotion programs. PMID:23950978

  1. Domestic food preparation practices: a review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Al-Sakkaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand has a much higher rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases than the rest of the developed world. It has been suggested that New Zealanders have worse home hygiene practices during food preparation than the citizens of other developed countries. Thus, it is necessary to recognize and understand the reasons for consumer's poor practices in order to help develop a more effective message to improve New Zealanders' practices in the domestic environment. This could in turn lead to a reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis cases. The objective is to review cited literature on consumer practices which is related to food poisoning and to attempt to list the factors related to poor consumer practice. There are many internationally identifiable reasons for the poor practices of consumers. These reasons include psychological, demographic and socioeconomic variables; personal interest in new information; prior knowledge; cultural influence; educational background; perception of risk, control and liability; and attitude towards the addressed practices or hazards. The results have indicated that 'optimistic bias', the 'illusion of control', habits and lack of knowledge concerning food safety during domestic food preparation are prevalent among consumers. The research indicated the influence of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income, work hours, race, location, culture), as they play a potential role in determining domestic food safety behaviour. It appears that all these factors are applicable for New Zealand consumers and should be addressed in any future education strategy aimed at improving New Zealanders' food handling practices. PMID:23945085

  2. Hygiene quality and presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in raw food diets for dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Background Raw food diets are popular among some dog owners, even though there are concerns regarding the infectious disease risk and public health implications. Hence, the two aims of this study were to investigate the hygiene quality of raw food diets for dogs in the Swedish market and if Escherichia coli with transferable resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) was present in such products. Methods Samples of raw food diets were suspended and further diluted in 0.9% saline. Appropriate dilutions were 1) cultured on PetrifilmSEC to quantify the amount of E. coli in the samples and 2) mixed with cefotaxime to a final concentration of 1 mg/L and cultured on PetrifilmSEC to quantify the amount of ESC-resistant E. coli in the samples. Furthermore, undiluted suspensions were mixed 1:1 with double strength MacConkey broth with cefotaxime, enriched overnight and finally cultured on MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (1 mg/L). Suspected ESC-resistant E. coli were screened by PCR for genes encoding extended spectrum beta lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC and their susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials was performed by broth microdilution using VetMIC GN-mo. Results Escherichia coli was isolated from all samples (n=39) and ESC-resistant E. coli was isolated from nine samples (23%). All ESC-resistant E. coli were PCR-positive for the bla CMY-2 group and only one of them was also resistant to a non-beta-lactam antibiotic. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that raw food diets could be a source of ESC-resistant E. coli to dogs and highlight the need for maintaining good hygiene when handling these products to prevent infection. PMID:26490763

  3. A discussion paper on challenges and limitations to water reuse and hygiene in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Casani, Sandra; Rouhany, Mahbod; Knchel, Susanne

    2005-03-01

    Drinking water is becoming a scarce resource in many areas and both use of water and wastewater outlet are of major ecological and economical importance in many countries. Consumption and discharge may be considerably minimized by means of water reuse. The food industry has a large consumption of water, but until now very limited reuse has taken place due to legislations constraints and hygienic concerns. Legal space for use of water of qualities other than drinking water has been opened with the current legislation. This will, however, in many cases require careful analyses of individual cases based on a thorough understanding of the hazards involved in order to avoid compromising the safety of the food product and thereby the health of consumers. Implementation of water reuse practices in the food industry presents a great challenge for both companies and public health authorities regarding knowledge, technical expertise and documentation. Regulatory, technological, monitoring, verification and ethical aspects associated with microbiologically safe reuse of water in the food industry are discussed and some examples of the challenges ahead and possible approaches are given. PMID:15766968

  4. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  5. Hand hygiene regimens for the reduction of risk in food service environments.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. PMID:22980014

  6. Toward harmonization of the European food hygiene/veterinary public health curriculum.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Frans J M; Buncic, Sava; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Huey, Robert J; Korkeala, Hannu; Prieto, Miguel; Steinhauserova, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Prompted by developments in the agri-food industry and associated recent changes in European legislation, the responsibilities of veterinarians professionally active in veterinary public health (VPH), and particularly in food hygiene (FH), have increasingly shifted from the traditional end-product control toward longitudinally integrated safety assurance. This necessitates the restructuring of university training programs to provide starting competence in this area for veterinary graduates or a sub-population of them. To date, there are substantial differences in Europe in the way in which graduate programs in FH/VPH are structured and in the time allocated to this important curricular group of subjects. Having recognized this, the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE) recently instituted a working group to analyze the current situation, with a view to produce standard operating procedures allowing fair and transparent evaluations of universities/faculties constituting its membership and in concurrence with explicit European legislation on the professional qualifications deemed necessary for this veterinary discipline. This article summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations of the working group and seeks to contribute to the international efforts to optimize veterinary training in FH/VPH. PMID:22718004

  7. Physico-chemical and hygienic property modifications of stainless steel surfaces induced by conditioning with food and detergent.

    PubMed

    Jullien, C; Benezech, T; Gentil, C Le; Boulange-Petermann, L; Dubois, P E; Tissier, J P; Traisnel, M; Faille, C

    2008-01-01

    The effect of repeated conditioning procedures (25 runs), consisting of soiling (milk and meat products) and cleaning steps, on the hygienic status, physico-chemical properties and surface chemical composition of stainless steel (SS) surfaces, was investigated. Five SSs differing in grade and finish were used. Both soiling and surface cleaning/conditioning procedures resulted in a similar increase in the surface contamination with carbon, while the changes in the basic component of the surface free energy depended on the conditioning procedure. The passive film was also affected, the Fe/Cr ratio in particular. The hygienic status was also changed, especially with milk as shown by monitoring the number of residual adhering Bacillus cereus spores after contaminating the surface with spores followed by cleaning. The results show that in food environments, the presence and the nature of conditioning molecules play a major role in the hygienic status of SS surfaces. PMID:18348006

  8. Hygienic food handling behaviors: attempting to bridge the intention-behavior gap using aspects from temporal self-regulation theory.

    PubMed

    Fulham, Elizabeth; Mullan, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    An estimated 25% of the populations of both the United States and Australia suffer from foodborne illness every year, generally as a result of incorrect food handling practices. The aim of the current study was to determine through the application of the theory of planned behavior what motivates these behaviors and to supplement the model with two aspects of temporal self-regulation theory--behavioral prepotency and executive function--in an attempt to bridge the "intention-behavior gap." A prospective 1-week design was utilized to investigate the prediction of food hygiene using the theory of planned behavior with the additional variables of behavioral prepotency and executive function. One hundred forty-nine undergraduate psychology students completed two neurocognitive executive function tasks and a self-report questionnaire assessing theory of planned behavior variables, behavioral prepotency, and intentions to perform hygienic food handling behaviors. A week later, behavior was assessed via a follow-up self-report questionnaire. It was found that subjective norm and perceived behavioral control predicted intentions and intentions predicted behavior. However, behavioral prepotency was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior, over and above intentions, suggesting that food hygiene behavior is habitual. Neither executive function measure of self-regulation predicted any additional variance. These results provide support for the utility of the theory of planned behavior in this health domain, but the augmentation of the theory with two aspects of temporal self-regulation theory was only partially successful. PMID:21669069

  9. Microbiological quality of open ready-to-eat salad vegetables: effectiveness of food hygiene training of management.

    PubMed

    Sagoo, S K; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    During September and October 2001, a microbiological study of open, ready-to-eat, prepared salad vegetables from catering or retail premises was undertaken to determine their microbiological quality. The study focused on those salad vegetables that were unwrapped and handled either by staff or customers in the premises where the sample was taken. Examination of salad vegetables from food service areas and customer self-service bars revealed that most (97%; 2,862 of 2,950) were of satisfactory or acceptable microbiological quality, 3% (87) were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality because of Escherichia coli levels in the range of 10(2) to 10(5) colony-forming units per gram. One (<1%) sample was of unacceptable microbiological quality because of the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at 840 colony-forming units per gram. The pathogens E. coli O157, Campylobacter spp., and salmonellas were not detected in any of the samples examined. The display area for most food service and preparation areas (95%) and self-service salad bars (98%) that were visited was judged to be visibly clean by the sampling officer. Most self-service bars (87%) were regularly supervised or inspected by staff during opening hours, and designated serving utensils were used in most salad bars (92%) but in only a minority of food service areas (35%). A hazard analysis system was in place in most (80%) premises, and in 61%, it was documented. Most (90%) managers had received food hygiene training. A direct relationship was shown between increased confidence in the food business management and the presence of food safety procedures and the training of management in food hygiene. PMID:14503709

  10. Computational fluid dynamics approaches in quality and hygienic production of semisolid low-moisture foods: a review of critical factors.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Arpita; Buchanan, Robert L; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-10-01

    Low-moisture foods have been responsible for a number of salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide over the last few decades, with cross contamination from contaminated equipment being the most predominant source. To date, actions have been focused on stringent hygienic practices prior to production, namely periodical sanitization of the processing equipment and lines. Not only does optimum sanitization require in-depth knowledge on the type and source of contaminants, but also the heat resistance of microorganisms is unique and often dependent on the heat transfer characteristics of the low-moisture foods. Rheological properties, including viscosity, degree of turbulence, and flow characteristics (for example, Newtonian or non-Newtonian) of both liquid and semisolid foods are critical factors impacting the flow behavior that consequently interferes heat transfer and related control elements. The demand for progressively more accurate prediction of complex fluid phenomena has called for the employment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model mass and heat transfer during processing of various food products, ranging from drying to baking. With the aim of improving the quality and safety of low-moisture foods, this article critically reviewed the published literature concerning microbial survival in semisolid low-moisture foods, including chocolate, honey, and peanut butter. Critical rheological properties and state-of-the-art CFD application relevant to quality production of those products were also addressed. It is anticipated that adequate prediction of specific transport properties during optimum sanitization through CFD could be used to solve current and future food safety challenges. PMID:25224872

  11. Food intake, oral hygiene and gingival bleeding in pregnancy: does lifestyle make a difference? A cross sectional exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Gaffar, Balgis O.; El Tantawi, Maha M.A.; AlAgl, Adel S.; Al-Ansari, Asim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between lifestyle factors (food intake, sugary snacks consumption and oral health practices) and gingival bleeding during pregnancy. Methods A cross sectional exploratory study was conducted in the Maternity hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It included pregnant Saudi women selected using a convenience sample. Information was collected concerning participants’ background, oral hygiene practices and visits to dentists. They were asked about the amount of food they consumed and their use of sugary snacks. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between lifestyle factors and gingival bleeding. Results Responses were obtained from 197 women (92.1% response rate). Most women brushed their teeth but had < the recommended intake in the various food groups. Brushing was associated with lower odd of gingival bleeding (odds ratio= 0.47, 95% confidence interval= 0.23, 0.93) whereas intake of fewer servings than the recommended amounts in all food groups was associated with higher odds (odds ratio = 3.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.12, 11.82) Conclusion Brushing and food intake during pregnancy are associated with gingival bleeding. Pregnant women can potentially improve their oral health by modifying their lifestyle and following healthier practices. PMID:27004053

  12. Multicenter study of street foods in 13 towns on four continents by the food and environmental hygiene study group of the international network of pasteur and associated institutes.

    PubMed

    Garin, B; Adara, A; Spiegel, A; Arrive, P; Bastaraud, A; Cartel, J L; Aissa, R Ben; Duval, P; Gay, M; Gherardi, C; Gouali, M; Karou, T G; Kruy, S L; Soares, J L; Mouffok, F; Ravaonindrina, N; Rasolofonirina, N; Pham, M T; Wouafo, M; Catteau, M; Mathiot, C; Mauclere, P; Rocourt, J

    2002-01-01

    An international multicenter study of ready-to-eat foods, sandwiches, and ice creams or sorbets sold in the streets and their vendors was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of these foods and to identify characteristics of the vendors possibly associated with pathogens. Thirteen towns in Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania were involved in the study. A single protocol was used in all 13 centers: representative sampling was by random selection of vendors and a sample of foods bought from each of these vendors at a time and date selected at random. Microbiological analyses were carried out using standardized Association Franaise de Normalisation methods, and the use of a standardized questionnaire to collect data concerning the characteristics of the vendors. Fifteen surveys were carried out, with 3,003 food samples from 1,268 vendors. The proportion of unsatisfactory food samples was between 12.7 and 82.9% for ice creams and sorbets and between 11.3 and 92% for sandwiches. For ice creams and sorbets, the sale of a large number of units (>80 per day) increased the risk of unsatisfactory food by a factor of 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 5.1), lack of training in food hygiene by 6.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 50). and by a factor of 2.8 (95% CI: 1.4 to 5.4) for mobile vendors. These risk factors were not identified for sandwiches, this difference may be due to the presence of a cooking step in their preparation. These results show that the poor microbiological quality of these street foods constitutes a potential hazard to public health, that the extent of this hazard varies between the cities studied, and that vendors' health education in food safety is a crucial factor in the prevention of foodborne infections. PMID:11808786

  13. [Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].

    PubMed

    Menin, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose. PMID:23035396

  14. Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Using Computer-Based and Face-to-Face Personal Hygiene Training Methods in Food Processing Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…

  15. Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…

  16. Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Using Computer-Based and Face-to-Face Personal Hygiene Training Methods in Food Processing Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved

  17. Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,

  18. Association between the Hygiene Index Values of Live Fresh Aquatic Products and Food-Borne Diarrhea in the Population of the Ningbo Area in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Lu, Lu; Shu, Liye; Chen, Jianjun; Zou, Baobo; Zhou, Qi; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhao, Jinshun; Lin, Xialu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of the hygiene index values of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), histamine (HIS), indole, tetrodotoxin (TTX), and paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic and diarrhetic shellfish poisons (PSP, NSP, ASP, and DSP, respectively) in the samples of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea cases in six studied districts were analyzed. Results indicate that the incidence rate of food-borne diarrhea is related to the hygiene index values. Aside from VBN, the main risk factors related to food-borne diarrhea in edible aquatic products include DSP (in marine fish, shrimp, and other shellfishes), NSP, and ASP (in marine shrimp and crab). Hygiene index values among different species were significantly different. No significant difference in the monitoring index values was found among the six different studied districts. The reported cases of food-borne diarrhea were positively associated with VBN and DSP in aquatic products in Haishu, Jiangbei, Zhenhai, and Beilun, as well as VBN and NSP in aquatic products in Jiangdong and Yinzhou. In conclusion, VBN, DSP, NSP, and ASP are important risk factors for the occurring of food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. PMID:26258783

  19. [Molecular characterization of Listeria monocytogenes and the significance for food hygiene].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Hein, Ingeborg; Grif, Katharina; Sumerkan, A Blent; Esel, Duygu; Allerberger, Franz

    2003-01-01

    Research on the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a key issue both for the clinical and the food microbiologist owing to the unique pathway of infection and the exposure of humans via contaminated foods. Although, in Austria, the incidence of listeriosis is about 870-fold lower than the incidence for Salmonella infection, the food law manages both foodborne pathogens with a comparable stringency. The current risk management is based on the assumption that environmental L. monocytogenes isolates, from which the pool of "foodborne" isolates is recruited, are of similar pathogenicity compared to clinical and outbreak isolates. This verdict became doubted in the recent years. Characterization of L. monocytogenes by virulence gene sequencing, virulence studies in vivo and in vitro and by molecular typing was considerably stimulating the discussion on virulence variability in L. monocytogenes. This article provides insights in the value of epidemiological follow-up studies by presenting a typing study on 15 cases of listeriosis observed in a district hospital in Turkey. Furthermore results from typing L. monocytogenes either by virulence gene sequencing, mismatch amplification mutation assay or by pulsed field gel electrophoresis are discussed. The close interaction of molecular microbiology with food microbiology both in applied and basic science is currently creating a new discipline of molecular food microbiology. We are convinced that veterinary medicine will contribute to this exiting development in a fruitful way. PMID:14655623

  20. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

  1. Body Hygiene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water Fluoridation Leadership Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / ... Care: Protect Your Eyes Hygiene-related Diseases Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / ...

  2. The influence of specific foods and oral hygiene on the microflora of fissures and smooth surfaces of molar teeth: A 5-day study.

    PubMed

    Beighton, D; Brailsford, S R; Lynch, E; Chen, H Y; Clark, D T

    1999-01-01

    A group of 20 students, harbouring >10(4) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva, was enrolled into the study. Models for sampling, reproducibly, the dental plaque present in specific sites (fissure and smooth surface) on the dentition were developed and validated. Withdrawal of normal oral hygiene procedures for only 1 day resulted in approximately 10-fold increases in the number of micro-organisms recovered from both sites. The effect of supplementing the subjects' diets with particular food items given 5 times per day [lemonade (5.8% w/v sugars, 250 ml), biscuits (digestive biscuits, 67.6% w/w carbohydrate of which 22% w/w was sugars and 45.6% w/w was starch), caramel toffees and sugar lumps] on the number of micro-organisms recovered and on the composition of the flora at both sites was determined. Dental plaque samples were taken after 5 days and it was found that supplementation of the diet with toffee and sugar lumps resulted in significantly more micro-organisms at both sampling sites. The supplementation of the diets with lemonade or biscuits did not significantly alter the numbers of micro-organisms recovered from either site. The percentage composition of the plaque samples from both dental sites remained relatively unaffected by oral hygiene although there were lower levels of mutans streptococci which might be related to the use of an antimicrobial toothpaste containing fluoride, triclosan and zinc citrate. This study suggests that the cariogenicity of certain sucrose-containing foods may, in part, be due to the enhancement of plaque accumulation in addition to other effects on the percentage composition of the plaque which may become manifest on prolonged usage of these dietary foodstuffs. These observations are consistent with dietary survey findings which often find consumption of confectionery related to caries experience or incidence. PMID:10460958

  3. A training course on food hygiene for butchers: measuring its effectiveness through microbiological analysis and the use of an inspection checklist.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Maria Luiza Santomauro; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Sigulem, Dirce Maria; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2005-11-01

    The effectiveness of food hygiene training for a group of retail butchers was evaluated with the aim of verifying whether the butchers modified their behavior in the light of knowledge gained and whether their acquired knowledge or behavior change was sustained over a period of time. Microbiological analysis (enumeration of mesophilic and coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli) of a raw semiprocessed product (stuffed rolled beef) was conducted, and an inspection checklist was issued before the training course (T0). Initial results were later compared with results obtained 1 month (T1) and 6 months (T6) after the training. The checklist comprised 89 items classified into five categories: A, approved suppliers and product reception; B, storage conditions and temperature control; C, flow process, food handling procedures, and conditions of the window display unit; D, facility design and proper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment, utensils, and work surfaces; and E, pest control system, water supply control, and garbage disposal. The inspection results were recorded as "yes" or "no" for each item. Compliance with food safety procedures was recorded as the percentage of "yes" answers. The bacterial counts were significantly higher at T0. At T6, there was no significant increase in bacterial counts. There was a significant improvement in food safety practices at T1 and T6 compared with T0 for all categories. When comparing T0 and T1, the largest increases in the compliance scores were seen within categories C and D. No significant decrease in scores for compliance with food safety practices was observed at T6. Supervision and refresher activities may be necessary to maintain behavioral changes for a longer period of time. PMID:16300085

  4. [Hygienic aspects of animal carcass disposal].

    PubMed

    Bulling, E

    1983-09-01

    Summarising, it can be stated that the disposal of carcases primarily represents a problem of epidemic hygiene but it also concerns fodder and food hygiene as well as the hygiene of waste water and air purity. Factories under the obligation to satisfy the sanitary demands mentioned and ensure low-cost operation at the same time, are occasionally confronted with great difficulties. In view of the present upward trend of the energy costs, these problems will not become less. PMID:6685957

  5. Evaluation of the hygiene of ready-to-eat food preparation areas and practices in mobile food vendors in the UK.

    PubMed

    Little, Christine; Sagoo, Satnam

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to surfaces sampled. Surfaces that were visually dirty, wet, and chopping boards that were plastic or damaged also had high levels of these bacteria. Fifty-four percent of potable water samples were of poor microbiological quality; i.e. contained coliforms, E. coli and/or enterococci. A documented food safety management system was only evident in 40.1% of vendors and cleaning schedules were only used by 43.6%. Deficiencies in the correct use of cleaning materials, such as dilution factors and the minimum contact time for disinfectants, were identified. PMID:20183200

  6. Gamma radiation used as hygienization technique for foods does not induce viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Saroj, Sunil; Shashidhar, R; Bandekar, Jayant

    2009-10-01

    Gamma radiation has been widely used for hygienization of food products. Whether gamma radiation stress induces VBNC state in Salmonella is of great concern. Therefore, the study was carried out to determine whether gamma radiation exposure induces VBNC state in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). The parameters tested were culturability on agar medium, transcriptional activity by RT-PCR, cytoplasmic membrane integrity, and direct viable count using LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit. The LIVE/DEAD BacLight counts for S. typhimurium cells treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy radiation dose were 0.8 and 0.1% of the control, respectively. Plate counts for S. typhimurium cells treated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy radiation dose were 0.7 and 0.05% of the control, respectively. No viable cells of S. typhimurium were detected by both plate count and LIVE/DEAD BacLight after radiation treatment with 2 kGy. No transcriptional activity was detected in cells treated with 2 kGy radiation dose. If there were VBNC cells present, then significant differences in the counts between the LIVE/DEAD BacLight microscopic counts and plate agar counts must be observed. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the counts were observed. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment with 2 kGy results in complete killing and does not induce VBNC state in S. typhimurium. PMID:19641961

  7. Clothing and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  8. Auditing hand hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    Hand hygiene is regarded as the most effective way of preventing healthcare-associated infections. Thus hand hygiene audits are frequently undertaken by infection prevention and control teams. Although apparently straightforward, hand hygiene audit requires careful planning and conduct. Healthcare professionals need to understand the principles that underpin effective hand hygiene audit to improve their own practice and help patients, carers and the public to interpret the findings. PMID:20949824

  9. [Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisngela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvo, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression. PMID:25481924

  10. [Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisngela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvo, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression. PMID:25508776

  11. Synthesis of nonionic-anionic colloidal systems based on alkaline and ammonium β-nonylphenol polyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20) propionates/dodecylbenzenesulfonates with prospects for food hygiene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The main objective of this work was to obtain a binary system of surface-active components (nonionic soap – alkaline and/or ammonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) with potential competences in food hygiene, by accessing a scheme of classical reactions (cyanoethylation, total acid hydrolysis and stoichiometric neutralization with inorganic alkaline and/or organic ammonium bases) adapted to heterogeneously polyethoxylated nonylphenols (n = 3-20). In the processing system mentioned, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, initially the acid catalyst for the exhaustive hydrolysis of β-nonylphenolpolyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20) propionitriles, becomes together with the nonionic soap formed the second surface-active component of the binary system. Results In the reaction scheme adopted the influence of the main operating (duration, temperature, molar ratio of reagents) and structural parameters (degree of oligomerization of the polyoxyethylene chain) on the processing yields for the synthetic steps was followed. The favorable role of the polyoxyethylene chain size is remarked, through its specific conformation and its alkaline cations sequestration competences on the yields of cyanoethylation, but also the beneficial influence of phase-transfer catalysts in the total acid hydrolysis step. The chemical stability of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSH) at the temperature and strongly acidic pH of the reaction environment is confirmed. The controlled change of the amount of DBSH in the final binary system will later confer it potential colloidal competences in food hygiene receipts. Conclusions The preliminary synthetic tests performed confirmed the prospect of obtaining a broad range of useful colloidal competences in various food hygiene scenarios. PMID:22958389

  12. Headache Hygiene -- What Is It?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is it? Print Email Headache Hygiene - What is it? ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter ... your e-mail address below. Headache Hygiene - What is it? Headache hygiene is the practice of taking ...

  13. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  14. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  15. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  18. Chemical hygiene plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  19. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The

  20. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    MedlinePLUS

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... from its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  1. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements for food processing plants. (b) Toilets and dressing rooms shall be kept clean and adequately....560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  2. Chemical Hygiene Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayor, Antoinette C.

    1999-01-01

    The Chemical Management Team is responsible for ensuring compliance with the OSHA Laboratory Standard. The program at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) evolved over many years to include training, developing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPS) for each laboratory process, coordinating with other safety and health organizations and teams at the Center, and issuing an SOP binder. The Chemical Hygiene Policy was first established for the Center. The Chemical Hygiene Plan was established and reviewed by technical, laboratory and management for viability and applicability to the Center. A risk assessment was conducted for each laboratory. The laboratories were prioritized by order of risk, higher risk taking priority. A Chemical Management Team staff member interviewed the lead researcher for each laboratory process to gather the information needed to develop the SOP for the process. A binder containing the Chemical Hygiene Plan, the SOP, a map of the laboratory identifying the personal protective equipment and best egress, and glove guides, as well as other guides for safety and health. Each laboratory process has been captured in the form of an SOP. The chemicals used in the procedure have been identified and the information is used to reduce the number of chemicals in the lab. The Chemical Hygiene Plan binder is used as a training tool for new employees. LeRC is in compliance with the OSHA Standard. The program was designed to comply with the OSHA standard. In the process, we have been able to assess the usage of chemicals in the laboratories, as well as reduce or relocate the chemicals being stored in the laboratory. Our researchers are trained on the hazards of the materials they work with and have a better understanding of the hazards of the process and what is needed to prevent any incident. From the SOP process, we have been able to reduce our chemical inventory, determine and implement better hygiene procedures and equipment in the laboratories, and provide specific training to our employees. As a result of this program, we are adding labeling to the laboratories for emergency responders and initiating a certified chemical user program.

  3. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comit de Salubrit de la Seine" or "Conseil de Sant des Armes", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. PMID:24780835

  4. A natural history of hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-01-01

    In unpacking the Pandora's box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease. PMID:18923689

  5. Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Bonnie

    This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and

  6. Dental Hygiene Realpolitik Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…

  7. Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Bonnie

    This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…

  8. [Hygiene in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Esser, J

    1979-05-17

    Feminine hygiene is a concern not only in the reproductive years, but should be observed throughout life. Childhood is the formative period for behavior and every day routine, thus proper education and guidance of little girls are essential. Recognizing the importance of good personal hygiene habits for the prevention of diseases, the medical doctor should advise and motivate wherever possible. PMID:447154

  9. [Hospital hygiene - Influenza].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, Klaus; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2009-06-01

    Influenza is a severe, febrile disease of the airways that occurs epidemically in the winter months. It is caused by influenza viruses. In cycles of about 30 years, these seasonal epidemics progress to pandemics with high numbers of infections and deaths worldwide. In order to prevent just this situation, so-called pandemic plans have been developed worldwide. Besides vaccination, general hygienic precautions and antiviral therapies are the most important measures in the management of influenza. We can only wait and see whether or not the newly appeared H1N1 variant of the influenza virus A (Mexican flu, swine flu) will actually turn out to be a new worldwide pandemic. PMID:19526445

  10. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements...

  11. Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water Fluoridation Leadership Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Information on Water-related Hygiene Handwashing It is estimated that washing ...

  12. Space Station personal hygiene study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  13. Industrial Hygiene Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisbin, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    This breakout session is a traditional conference instrument used by the NASA industrial hygiene personnel as a method to convene personnel across the Agency with common interests. This particular session focused on two key topics, training systems and automation of industrial hygiene data. During the FY 98 NASA Occupational Health Benchmarking study, the training system under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was deemed to represent a "best business practice." The EPA has invested extensively in the development of computer based training covering a broad range of safety, health and environmental topics. Currently, five compact disks have been developed covering the topics listed: Safety, Health and Environmental Management Training for Field Inspection Activities; EPA Basic Radiation Training Safety Course; The OSHA 600 Collateral Duty Safety and Health Course; and Key program topics in environmental compliance, health and safety. Mr. Chris Johnson presented an overview of the EPA compact disk-based training system and answered questions on its deployment and use across the EPA. This training system has also recently been broadly distributed across other Federal Agencies. The EPA training system is considered "public domain" and, as such, is available to NASA at no cost in its current form. Copies of the five CD set of training programs were distributed to each NASA Center represented in the breakout session. Mr. Brisbin requested that each NASA Center review the training materials and determine whether there is interest in using the materials as it is or requesting that EPA tailor the training modules to suit NASA's training program needs. The Safety, Health and Medical Services organization at Ames Research Center has completed automation of several key program areas. Mr. Patrick Hogan, Safety Program Manager for Ames Research Center, presented a demonstration of the automated systems, which are described by the following: (1) Safety, Health and Environmental Training. This system includes an assessment of training needs for every NASA Center organization, course descriptions, schedules and automated course scheduling, and presentation of training program metrics; (2) Safety and Health Inspection Information. This system documents the findings from each facility inspection, tracks abatement status on those findings and presents metrics on each department for senior management review; (3) Safety Performance Evaluation Profile. The survey system used by NASA to evaluate employee and supervisory perceptions of safety programs is automated in this system; and (4) Documentation Tracking System. Electronic archive and retrieval of all correspondence and technical reports generated by the Safety, Health and Medical Services Office are provided by this system.

  14. [Hygienic studies of obstetric departments].

    PubMed

    Grossmann, G; Liebetrau, B

    1977-01-01

    After a literature survey about problems of the infectious hospitalism in obstetrical departments it is reported about own examinations in nine clinics. The results of the general hygienic and microbiological studies are discussed, conclusions are being drawn. PMID:899362

  15. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL HYGIENE

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Donald B.

    1915-01-01

    Doctor Armstrong uses New York City as an example in his thoughtful paper. What he says of school hygiene there will be found to apply with equal, if not greater, force elsewhere. There is always the danger that in the pressure of routine duties the larger objects are apt to be lost sight of. Doctor Armstrong's excellent analysis should make us pause and take stock of the broader views of the whole question of School Hygiene. PMID:18009363

  16. [Hygiene rules for community nurses].

    PubMed

    Ciabrini, Batrice

    2011-12-01

    Community nurses must respect hygiene measures in order to maintain the health of the home patient. The patient, however, does not always consider him/herself to be ill which requires the nurse to tactfully explain basic hygiene rules. The patient's environment must also be kept scrupulously clean. On this point the nurse has an important role to play in educating the patient and his/her family. PMID:22256527

  17. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental

  18. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  19. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  20. Filtration in industrial hygiene.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C

    2001-01-01

    Filters used in industrial hygiene are of two basic types, corresponding with the two basic airborne hazards: particulate and vapor. They are as different in their construction as they are in their purpose, and each gives negligible protection against the other hazard. By use of the correct type, adequate filtration efficiency can usually be achieved. Most particulate filters are made from fibers, and finer fibers result in higher efficiency. Filters can capture particles much smaller than the fiber diameter, as a result of diffusional motion of the airborne particles and, in the case of filters that hold a permanent electric charge, electrostatic attraction. Most vapor filters are made from granules of activated carbon, which have an extremely large effective surface area, where molecules of contaminant are adsorbed. The performance of all filters tends to alter as the filter material becomes loaded. Electrically neutral particulate filters become more efficient but at the expense of increased resistance to airflow. Particulate filters that act by electric forces may become less efficient, and are often less inclined to clog. Vapor filters usually have a high initial efficiency, but the penetration of vapor increases as the filters become saturated with adsorbed vapor, and the performance of these filters is normally expressed in terms of their lifetime rather than their efficiency. It is important that the choice of a filter should be made with close reference to the situation in which it is to be used, and optimum respiratory protection should be sought, rather than maximum filtration efficiency. Special problems of filters are illustrated by some case histories, and finally the use of filters as size selectors for dust samplers is briefly described. PMID:11669390

  1. [Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lódź, Toruń, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Poznań (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanisławów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brześć/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German supervision. PZH activities were restored in 1945 with new branches in Gdańsk, Wrocław(1945), Olsztyn and Szczecin (1947), and Rzeszów (1950). In 1951 there were already 14 country branches of National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) in voivodeship cities and 4 minor branches in Zakopane, Radom, Czestochowa and Walbrzych. In 31th December branches of the National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) were restructured and named Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. PMID:19209733

  2. Hygiene yesterday, today, tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Mse, Josef R

    2007-01-01

    I began my career in 1945 by tracing the footsteps of the legendary Max von Pettenkofer and Robert Koch. At that time their influence was still discernible, and continues to be.The first major innovation was the introduction of antibiotics, which some people believed would now dispense with the need for disinfection and sterilization. The next major development was the introduction of hospital hygiene as a discipline in its own right, aimed at highlighting the growing risk of nosocomial infections, albeit also against the background of the, admittedly, brilliant but unceasingly innovative armamentarium of medical paraphernalia and fittings. As regards the pathogens, viruses were seen to play an increasingly more prominent role as nosocomial pathogens, giving rise to completely novel challenges and problems in the field of disinfection and sterilization. In 1956 at Prof. Pette's institute in Hamburg it generally took weeks to produce the results to diagnose poliomyelitis. Their value was immensely important for science - but their value to the doctor and patients was questionable. The introduction of inexpensive sterile disposable syringes and other disposable equipment represented, in my opinion, the next milestone. In the meantime, there was a dramatic increase in the overall constellation of problems caused by the continuing upsurge in antibiotic bacterial resistance. And with growing awareness of environmental issues, the late 60s set in motion a new avalanche where one had to strive not only to keep abreast of matters, but also to ensure that science continued to prevail as the highest instance. Today we are facing completely different, but in principle still similar problems in consolidating the status of disinfection and sterilization, e.g. when it comes to the ultra delicate devices that in some cases are heavily contaminated after routine clinical use. Hence we elderly infection control experts still have a task to accomplish: to issue warnings again and again against accepting as "fate" the unresolved problems, but instead to highlight the very core of the problem. Disinfection and sterilization is a topical issue and will always continue to be just that: to protect the population and patients, and to protect ourselves as well as personnel in hospitals, medical practice and research. PMID:20200671

  3. Access to Safe Water and Personal Hygiene Practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem).

    PubMed

    Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz; Blackwood, R Alexander

    2015-12-22

    Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI) burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%), while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related matters. This is the first study to assess the water and personal hygiene practices at the Kulandia refugee ramp. This study demonstrates that hygiene education and better practices are closely associated with the rate at which individuals and households suffer from diarrheal illnesses within the Kulandia refugee camp. There are significant hygiene deficits in the camp, which likely result from a lack of formal hygiene education and a lack of awareness concerning the connection between diarrheal illness and hygiene. With respect to practices, our results elucidate several areas where basic, communal programming - including lessons on appropriate hand washing and food preparation - will likely improve hygiene practices and decrease overall GI burden. PMID:26753084

  4. Access to Safe Water and Personal Hygiene Practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem)

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI) burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%), while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related matters. This is the first study to assess the water and personal hygiene practices at the Kulandia refugee ramp. This study demonstrates that hygiene education and better practices are closely associated with the rate at which individuals and households suffer from diarrheal illnesses within the Kulandia refugee camp. There are significant hygiene deficits in the camp, which likely result from a lack of formal hygiene education and a lack of awareness concerning the connection between diarrheal illness and hygiene. With respect to practices, our results elucidate several areas where basic, communal programming – including lessons on appropriate hand washing and food preparation – will likely improve hygiene practices and decrease overall GI burden. PMID:26753084

  5. [Water hygiene in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, H G

    1986-12-01

    After defining what we mean by water hygiene and a short survey of contamination sources for water of drinking-water quality in a hospital, we describe by 2 focal points of water demand, namely dialysis and physical therapy (hydrotherapy pools): at which points and by which means water may suffer from microbiological contamination or by alterations of chemical parameters, which infectious agents and chemical parameters primarily are involved, which measures are required to secure the quality of this water. The major regulations and DIN-standards pertinent to water hygiene are pointed out, and the importance of considering measures of water hygiene for the supply of qualitatively unobjectionable water in the hospital is demonstrated. PMID:3107264

  6. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  7. Veterinary urban hygiene: a challenge for India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Ghatak, S; Banga, H S; Gill, J P S; Singh, B

    2013-12-01

    India is confronted with many hygiene problems in urban areas that are related to animal populations. While some of these issues have been present for many years, others are only now emerging. A livestock census in 2003 and another in 2007 revealed that populations of crossbred cattle, goats and poultry are all increasing in urban areas, since this enables easy market access, which, in turn, reduces transportation costs and adds to profits. The canine population has increased along with the human population, largely due to a lack of control measures such as impounding stray animals and euthanasia. These increases in populations of both food-producing animals and stray animals in cities exacerbate such public health hazards as the transmission of zoonoses, vector-borne diseases, occcupational health hazards and environmental pollution, as well as compromising animal welfare. At present, public health hazards due to urban animal husbandry practices are considerably under-estimated. To improve veterinary-related urban hygiene and to facilitate livestock production operations in urban areas, there is an urgent need to develop sound, science-based strategies enforced through stringent regulations. The use of One Health teams may provide an answer to these highly integrated public health problems. PMID:24761721

  8. Gender and the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Clough, Sharyn

    2011-02-01

    The hygiene hypothesis offers an explanation for the correlation, well-established in the industrialized nations of North and West, between increased hygiene and sanitation, and increased rates of asthma and allergies. Recent studies have added to the scope of the hypothesis, showing a link between decreased exposure to certain bacteria and parasitic worms, and increased rates of depression and intestinal auto-immune disorders, respectively. What remains less often discussed in the research on these links is that women have higher rates than men of asthma and allergies, as well as many auto-immune disorders, and also depression. The current paper introduces a feminist understanding of gender socialization to the epidemiological and immunological picture. That standards of cleanliness are generally higher for girls than boys, especially under the age of five when children are more likely to be under close adult supervision, is a robust phenomenon in industrialized nations, and some research points to a cross-cultural pattern. I conclude that, insofar as the hygiene hypothesis successfully identifies standards of hygiene and sanitation as mediators of immune health, then attention to the relevant patterns of gender socialization is important. The review also makes clear that adding a feminist analysis of gender socialization to the hygiene hypothesis helps explain variation in morbidity rates not addressed by other sources and responds to a number of outstanding puzzles in current research. Alternative explanations for the sex differences in the relevant morbidity rates are also discussed (e.g., the effects of estrogens). Finally, new sources of evidence for the hygiene hypothesis are suggested in the form of cross-cultural and other natural experiments. PMID:21195519

  9. [Comprehensive hygienic assessment of solaria].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, O K

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data on the positive and negative effects of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It provides the hygienic characteristics of solaria used to produce an artificial tan. This device has been found to present a high health risk to its users. There are considerable problems in the hygienic assessment of this type of exposure. The ways of solving the arising problems in developing the metrological monitoring of UVR and compiling a document regulating the sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance of solaria are defined. PMID:22250385

  10. SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

  11. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  12. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  13. Industrial Hygiene: A Bright Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolrich, Paul F.

    1979-01-01

    Development of programs of instruction in industrial hygiene include first the establishment of criteria for technical content of programs, competency of faculty, adequacy of resources, equipment and environment, and institutional administrative support. Secondly, these criteria need to be validated at selected institutions representing several

  14. Health & Hygiene in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Mary

    Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School with input from employees--both workplace literacy students and nonstudents--this guide contains activities for teaching health and hygiene on the job. Flowing from a perspective of respecting cultural diversity and guided by a common thread of good work practices, the activities…

  15. Patient Hand Hygiene at Home Predicts Their Hand Hygiene Practices in the Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections. PMID:24709731

  16. A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

  17. Educational Hygiene. Bulletin, 1923, No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Willard S.

    1923-01-01

    The early history of educational hygiene was largely the history of "school hygiene." The name was accurately indicative of character--the hygiene of the school as an environment rather than as a "community of children" learning under the leadership of teachers to know and live health. Environment bulked large; the education of individuals for

  18. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6... Grooming 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene....

  19. [Johann Sigismund Elsholtz--the forgotten pioneer and German-speaking hygiene].

    PubMed

    Fiedler, K

    1997-10-01

    In 1682, the term "hygiene" appeared for the first time in the German language, in Johann Sigismund Elsholtz's Diaeteticon. In the author's meaning this term is used to describe the tenet of the maintenance of good health. In his book, Elsholtz who was physician at the court of Frederick William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg, makes suggestions for wholesome food and drinking. He demands the availability of clean water and of a good air and draws attention to the importance of personal hygiene. Thus, Elsholtz should be referred to as a German pioneer of hygiene whose recognition has been long overdue. PMID:9638886

  20. [DEONTOLOGICAL ISSUES IN RAILWAY HYGIENE].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the main ethical and deontological problems encountered in practice and research activities of the hygienist in transport. There is shown the importance of strict compliance with hygienic standards, disregard for the principle of "technical attainability", the necessity of continuous training, improvement of skills of sanitary-educational activity and readiness to solve emerging ethical issues in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress. PMID:26302557

  1. Obesity - extending the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Isolauri, Erika; Kalliomäki, Marko; Rautava, Samuli; Salminen, Seppo; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the growing epidemic of atopic eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma is related to reduced exposure to microbes at an early age as a result of environmental changes in the industrialized world. These include improved sanitation and living conditions, vaccinations and antimicrobial therapy, together with declining family size and changes in dietary intake. Recent scientific advances demonstrate that the hygiene hypothesis needs to be extended in three respects. Firstly, rigorous research in the field of probiotics points to the importance of the collective composition and the compositional development of the gut microbiota in consolidation of healthy immune responsiveness. Secondly, immunomodulatory and suppressive immune responses have been shown to complement the original immunological basis of the hygiene hypothesis, the so-called T helper 1/T helper 2 paradigm. Thirdly, host-microbe interaction appears to affect the risk of developing not only atopic disease but also other inflammatory Western lifestyle diseases, including obesity. The results of experimental studies suggest that deviations in gut microbiota composition predispose to excessive energy storage and obesity, and, more recently in humans, aberrant compositional development of the gut microbiota has been shown to precede overweight, inviting enormous possibilities to reach preventive and therapeutic applications in weight management. PMID:19710516

  2. Industrial Hygiene Laboratory accreditation: The JSC experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadner, Dawn E.

    1993-01-01

    The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) is a society of professionals dedicated to the health and safety of workers and community. With more than 10,000 members, the AIHA is the largest international association serving occupational and environmental health professionals practicing industrial hygiene in private industry, academia, government, labor, and independent organizations. In 1973, AIHA developed a National Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Accreditation Program. The purposes of this program are shown.

  3. [Current challenges on hospital hygiene].

    PubMed

    Dettenkofer, M

    2001-08-01

    Although microorganisms are the main cause of nosocomial infections, they are by no means their only determinants. Patient-associated factors play a major role (especially immune status), the therapeutic conditions (personnel behaviour, 'devices') and the patient's environment. The hospital infection control team is responsible for implementing and operating an efficient and cost-effective infection control and prevention system. Scientific data must be evaluated and every effort made to continuously improve recommendations. In order to implement an efficient and cost-effective infection control and prevention system, the infection control team must formulate sound, evidence-based recommendations and question established 'rituals'. Inappropriate measures, e. g. the routine disinfection of floors in wards and hallways place a burden on staff, patients and the environment, and distract staff from other critical measures such as proper hand hygiene. Nosocomial pneumonia, urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections and catheter-associated sepsis are the commonest hospital-acquired infections, and Intensive Care Units have become the foci of antibiotic resistance. Although the antimicrobial resistance situation is better in Germany than in other countries, e. g. Eastern and Southern European countries and the USA, substantial regional differences exist. The increase in methicillin (oxacillin) resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is particularly worrying. Building up an effective surveillance system for nosocomial infections, as demanded by the new German infection control act has far-reaching implications and entails recording risk-adjusted infection rates (KISS project = Hospital Infection Surveillance System of the National Reference Center for Hospital Hygiene in cooperation with the Robert Koch-institute). Proper collaboration between hospital staff in implementing infection control measures, and especially hand hygiene is of paramount importance. PMID:11533877

  4. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  5. Appropriate technologies for environmental hygiene.

    PubMed

    McGarry, M G

    1980-07-28

    Appropriate technologies for environmental hygiene usually centre on the delivery of adequate and accessible water supply, and proper treatment and disposal of excreta and refuse. In the face of the International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade of 1981-90, several research efforts are under way in the developing countries to develop technologies and approaches for improving environmental hygiene in both rural areas and urban squatter settlements. These are discussed and include the technical development and field testing of infiltration galleries, low-cost slow and fast filtration processes for water treatment, handpumps, on-site excreta disposal using aqua-privy and compost toilets, and excreta treatment and refuse through composting with refuse, biogas generation, fish culture and use of excreta as crop fertilizer. The relevant technology 'hardware' is but one of several components necessary for effective delivery of services. The dearth of qualified manpower at all levels is described as being the major constraint to the Water and Sanitation Decade. PMID:6106941

  6. [Hygiene is not cleanliness. For a new definition of hygiene promotion in emergency humanitarian aid].

    PubMed

    Larose, L

    2001-03-01

    Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation. PMID:11525045

  7. [Hygienic evaluation of new laser technology units].

    PubMed

    Lipkina, L I; Levina, A V; Polynkova, A A; Tsirkova, N L

    1990-01-01

    The study revealed that the levels of lazer irradiation diffusion in working places, in case with the "Biryuza" technological equipment, were lower MAC. The other occupational factors, violating the accepted hygienic norms, were connected with improper hygienic control measures at the stage of equipment processing and usage. A set of labour conditions improvement measures was proposed. PMID:2394402

  8. Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene Education: Creating a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayman, Dona E.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the meaning of baccalaureate dental hygiene education is the offering of upper-division courses in the theory and practice of dental hygiene itself. Restructuring the associate programs as strictly two-year, lower-division programs would require standardization of baccalaureate programs as strictly upper-division curricula. (MLW)

  9. Model Teacher - School Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lowell W.

    The purpose of this study, which was carried out during the 1972-73 school year at three parochial schools in the Houston area, was to determine the effectiveness of the Toothkeeper Program, a multimedia program of oral hygiene training carefully developed and packaged to establish effective long-term dental hygiene practice. The study population…

  10. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  11. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oral Health > Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Healthy Living Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Page Content Article Body As you might guess, the number-one dental problem among preschoolers is tooth decay . One out of 10 two- year-olds already ...

  12. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  13. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  14. Recent developments in hygiene behaviour research: an emphasis on methods and meaning.

    PubMed

    Almedom, A M

    1996-04-01

    This paper discusses some of the recent developments in hygiene behaviour research, focusing on operational research. A series of "rapid' assessments of hygiene behaviour were carried out in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia with a view to preparing a field handbook entitled Hygiene Evaluation Procedures (HEP). The HEP handbook is intended primarily for field personnel in water supply, sanitation and health/hygiene education projects who want to design and conduct their own systematic assessments of hygiene behaviour in their localities. The short studies provided useful practical insights into the concerns and needs of project staff for whom research allowances (human, material and time resources) are often very limited. In this paper emphasis is placed on both methodological and heuristic developments as the two are inseparable. It is suggested that in the domestic sphere, hygiene behaviour with respect to the disposal of children's faeces and domestic water use are two of the key areas that remain of universal relevance to water/sanitation related interventions. These can be assessed rapidly and effectively by using two indicators: means of disposal of children's faeces and handwashing at 'critical' times--after defaecation, after handling and/or disposing of children's faeces, before handling food and before feeding young children and eating. Appropriate combinations of anthropological methods and participatory tools for measuring these indicators are described. The practical relevance of the resulting data for project design and implementation is highlighted. PMID:8665381

  15. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  16. Moral reasoning in dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Newell, K J; Young, L J; Yamoor, C M

    1985-02-01

    Sixty-five students participated in a study designed to identify the level of moral reasoning of dental hygiene students. Comparisons were made with typical college students and a normative group composed of individuals representing a cross-section of ages and educational levels. The relationships among level of moral reasoning and clinical performance, other selected academic measures, and cognitive style were also assessed. The results indicated that post-certificate dental hygiene students reasoned about moral dilemmas at a higher level than the normative group and at the same level as the college student group. In addition, clinical performance, National Board Dental Hygiene Examination scores, Dental Hygiene Aptitude Test (reading scores), high school rank, and cognitive style correlated positively with level of moral reasoning and specific stages of moral development for postcertificate students. PMID:3855430

  17. [Various hygienic problems in ambulatory dental surgery].

    PubMed

    Prickler, H; Schnberger, A; Weuffen, W

    1977-04-01

    Oral surgical interventions on an outpatient basis are attended by considerable hygienic hazards. The main reasons of this, which are in part subjective and in part objective, are presented. Some typical examples show that at least minimal hygienic requirements may be met by the physician and by the patient also under apparently unfavourable conditions. An optimal solution must be aimed at, but this requires certain prerequisites as to equipment and premises. In any case, it must be called for in planning and establishing greater stomatological services that sould be preferred for this reason to single practices also from the viewpoint of hygiene. Consequently, the propagation of hospitalism and infections caused by pathogenic organisms may be controlled by strict hygienic measures also in our specialty. PMID:267369

  18. Ultrasound: Biological Effects and Industrial Hygiene Concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Wiernicki, C.

    1984-12-03

    This paper discusses biological effects associated with overexposure to ultrasound, exposure standards proposed for airborne and contact ultrasound, industrial hygiene controls that can be employed to minimize exposure, and the instrumentation that is required for evaluating exposures.

  19. Implementing AORN recommended practices for hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Marcia; Van Wicklin, Sharon A

    2012-04-01

    This article focuses on implementing the revised AORN "Recommended practices for hand hygiene in the perioperative setting." The content of the document has been expanded and reorganized from the previous iteration and now includes specific activity statements about water temperature, water and soap dispensing controls, the type of dispensers to use, paper towel dispenser requirements, placement of soap and rub dispensers, and regulatory requirements for products and recommendations for hand hygiene practices. A successful hand hygiene program allows end users to have input into the selection and evaluation of products and should include educating personnel about proper hand hygiene, product composition and safety, and how and when to use specific products. Measures for competency evaluation and compliance monitoring include observations, quizzes, skills labs, electronic monitoring systems, handheld device applications, and data collection forms. PMID:22464622

  20. Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Methods 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Results While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002) and after using the toilet (p = .001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting. Further research into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate whether surface decontamination is an effective target of hygiene interventions in this population. PMID:24312303

  1. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  2. Moving research knowledge into dental hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Cobban, Sandra J; Edgington, Eunice M; Clovis, Joanne B

    2008-01-01

    Dental hygiene, as an emerging profession, needs to increase the number of intervention studies that identify improvements in oral health outcomes for clients. Historically, dental hygiene studies have typically been atheoretical, but the use of theoretical frameworks to guide these studies will increase their meaningfulness. Rogers' theory of diffusion of innovations has been used to study research utilization across many disciplines, and may offer insights to the study of research use in dental hygiene. Research use is an important component of evidence-based practice (EBP), and diffusion of research knowledge is an important process in implementing EBP. The purpose of this paper is to use diffusion of innovations theory to examine knowledge movement in dental hygiene, specifically through the example of the preventive practice of oral cancer screening by dental hygienists, considered as an innovation. Diffusion is considered to be the process by which an innovation moves through communication channels over time among a social network. We suggest diffusion theory holds promise for the study of knowledge movement in dental hygiene, but there are limitations including access to and understanding research studies as innovations. Nevertheless, using a theoretical framework such as Rogers' diffusion of innovations will strengthen the quality of intervention research in dental hygiene, and subsequently, health outcomes for clients. PMID:18416990

  3. Hygienic tendencies correlate with low geohelminth infection in free-ranging macaques.

    PubMed

    Sarabian, Cecile; MacIntosh, Andrew J J

    2015-11-01

    Parasites are ubiquitous in nature and can be costly to animal fitness, so hosts have evolved behavioural counter-strategies to mitigate infection risk. We investigated feeding-related infection-avoidance strategies in Japanese macaques via field-experimentation and observation. We first examined risk sensitivity during foraging tasks involving faecally contaminated or debris-covered food items, and then investigated individual tendencies to manipulate food items during natural foraging bouts. We concurrently monitored geohelminth infection in all subjects. We ran a principal component analysis on the observational/experimental data to generate a hygienic index across individuals and found that hygienic tendencies towards faeces avoidance and food manipulation correlated negatively with geohelminth infection. Females scored higher in hygienic tendencies than males, which might contribute to the common vertebrate pattern of male-biased infection. The behavioural tendencies observed may reflect a general form of hygiene, providing a mechanism of behavioural immunity against parasites with implications for the evolution and diversification of health maintenance strategies in humans. PMID:26538539

  4. Public health campaign to promote hand hygiene before meals in a college of veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (p<.01). Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 2/42 samples, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 4/42 samples. A short-term public health campaign targeting veterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals. PMID:24981423

  5. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

  6. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine

  7. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    PubMed Central

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

  8. Food practices during diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Kaur, P; Singh, G

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out the pattern of food and fluid practices during diarrhoea among 2,160 children under five. Mothers were educated to give home made fluids during diarrhoea. Their personal hygiene was studied and a positive correlation between diarrhoea and poor personal hygiene was found. After the health education programme, it was observed that mothers started giving home made fluids to the children during diarrhoea but the amount was not increased. Normal feeding was continued only in 38.2% of the episodes. PMID:7835997

  9. An integrated occupational hygiene consultation model for the catering industry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2010-07-01

    Vegetable oil used in food processing, during high-temperature exposure, will generate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are carcinogenic chemical compounds, with the potential to cause lung disease for restaurant kitchen staff. This study's design includes a three-stage consultation process with eight major consultation items, in order to build an integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene. This model combines inspection and consultation, targeting Chinese restaurants in the catering industry. Characteristics of the integrated consultation model include cooperation between different government departments and collaboration with nongovernmental, professional consulting organizations. An additional benefit of the model is the building of a good partnership relationship with the Catering Trade Association. The consultation model helps Chinese restaurants attain improvements in their work environments with minimal investment. Postconsultation, results show a 63.35% and 61.98% (P < 0.001) decrease in the mean time-weighted concentration of exposure to PM and PAHs, respectively. The overall regulation compliance rate of Chinese restaurants significantly increased from 34.3% to 89.6%. These results show that the integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene not only helps small and medium enterprises reduce exposure concentrations in the workplace but also has specific potential for successful implementation in Taiwan. PMID:20332160

  10. Improving hand hygiene after neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lynsay; Gibbison, Lucy; McMahon, Victoria

    Caring for hands tightened by spasticity after stroke, brain injury or other neurological conditions can be challenging for care staff. Opening and cleaning the hand, managing pressure areas, cutting nails and reducing pain becomes more complex if muscles are tight and short. Hand hygiene is key for staff but literature on patients' hand and nail care is lacking, so specialist education and care planning may be needed to help staff ensure these activities are done well. This article outlines the importance of maintaining patients' hand hygiene, explores the barriers to providing effective care and discusses how they might be overcome. PMID:26665632

  11. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygiene compliance and perceptions toward hand hygiene among medical personnel were compared between the second quarter of 2009 (before the start of a hand hygiene promotion program) and the second quarter of 2012. We assessed adherence to hand hygiene among medical personnel quarterly according to the WHO recommended method for direct observation. Also, we used a modified self-report questionnaire to collect perception data. Results Hand hygiene compliance among physicians and nurses improved significantly from 19.0% in 2009 to 74.5% in 2012 (P < 0001), and from 52.3% to 91.2% (P < 0.001), respectively. These improvements were observed in all professional status or all medical specialties that were compared between two periods, regardless of the level of the risk for cross-transmission. Hand hygiene compliance among the medical personnel continued to improve, with a slight decline in 2013. Perceptions toward hand hygiene improved significantly between 2009 and 2012. Specifically, improvements were evident in intention to adhere to hand hygiene, knowledge about hand hygiene methods, knowledge about hand hygiene indications including care of a dirty and a clean body site on the same patient, perceived behavioral and subjective norms, positive attitude toward hand hygiene promotion campaign, perception of difficulty in adhering to hand hygiene, and motivation to improve adherence to hand hygiene. Conclusions The examined hand hygiene promotion program resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. The improved perception increased hand hygiene compliance. Especially, the perception of being a role model for other colleagues is very important to improve hand hygiene compliance among clinicians. PMID:25298905

  12. [Modern trends of research in nutritiology and nutrition hygiene].

    PubMed

    Zhminchenko, V M; Gapparov, M M G

    2015-01-01

    Advances in instrumental analysis and new knowledge in biology and medicine have allowed nutritiology and nutrition hygiene: 1) to go from studies of dietary intake of the population and the establishment of standards nutrient and energy needs to ensuring of public health and prevention of diseases by changing the composition and structure of nutrition; 2) to assume that the nutrition includes all the processes of cell and organism vital functions; 3) to develop an individualized nutrition and dietetics purposeful; 4) to evaluate energy value of ontogeny; 5) to ensure food safety at all stages of its manufacture; 6) to combine many disciplines into a single unit to achieve scientific and practical problems. Nutritiology achievements of the 21st century will be based on the development of cell biology as a basis for systematic studies of ontogenetic development of a unicellular or multicellular organism on the external factors, including food. OMICs-disciplines should be used for these purposes in order to understand the physiological meaning of transmission and coding signals to food interaction of genes, proteins, metabolites inside cells or in the organism, to reveal the mechanisms of encoding cell responses to these specific interactions. The nutrition process covers all aspects of life of the cell and organism. Postnatal ontogenetic development of placental mammals has its own specific energy dimension. Consumption of 100 kJ/kg body weight provides 1/50,000 of their ontogeny. A hypothesis of lifespan regulating by changing the rate of ontogenetic development (aging) of organs and tissues of mammals, depending on the amount of energy consumed and food has been offered. Heterochronicity of internal organs and tissues aging depends on the work they are doing and the specific impact on them of food and substances. Research should be directed at identifying the regulatory properties of food substances on pre- and postnatal ontogenetic development of human. This knowledge will serve as a basis for the development of care to ensure the health of the population. PMID:26402937

  13. North Seattle Community College Chemical Hygiene Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Seattle Community Coll., WA.

    The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…

  14. Outcomes Assessment in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ellen B.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 22 dental-hygiene-program directors found that programs routinely and effectively assess student outcomes and use the information for program improvements and to demonstrate accountability. Both policy and faculty/administrative support were deemed important to implementation. Time constraints were a major barrier. Outcomes-assessment…

  15. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook. 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…

  16. Public farms: hygiene and zoonotic agents.

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, A E; Valkenburgh, S M; Tilburg, J J H C; Van Heerwaarden, C; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, J T M; De Boer, E

    2007-10-01

    In three successive years, we visited petting farms (n=132), care farms (n=91), and farmyard campsites (n=84), respectively, and completed a standard questionnaire with the objective of determining the hygienic status of these farms and describing hygiene measures implemented to reduce the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents from the animals to humans. For at least 85% of the farms, the overall impression of hygiene was recorded as good. However, more attention must be paid to: informing visitors on hygiene and handwashing, provision of handwashing facilities, and a footwear cleaning facility. Examination of samples of freshly voided faeces resulted in the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and/or Salmonella spp. and/or Campylobacter spp. at almost two-thirds (64.9%) of the petting farms, and around half of the care farms (56.0%) and farmyard campsites (45.2%). These data reinforce the need for control measures for both public and private farms to reduce human exposure to livestock faeces and thus the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases. Public awareness of the risk associated with handling animals or faecal material should be increased. PMID:17313696

  17. Prospectus for Dental Hygiene. April 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…

  18. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration of... as necessary to prevent adulteration of product and the creation of insanitary conditions. (c... from any operations which could result in product adulteration and the creation of...

  19. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration of... as necessary to prevent adulteration of product and the creation of insanitary conditions. (c... from any operations which could result in product adulteration and the creation of...

  20. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration of... as necessary to prevent adulteration of product and the creation of insanitary conditions. (c... from any operations which could result in product adulteration and the creation of...

  1. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration of... as necessary to prevent adulteration of product and the creation of insanitary conditions. (c... from any operations which could result in product adulteration and the creation of...

  2. Prospectus for Dental Hygiene. April 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the

  3. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  4. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  5. Industrial Hygiene Technologist Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joliet Junior Coll., IL.

    A project revised the existing Occupational Safety Program at Joliet Junior College (JJC) to indicate an AAS degree option in Industrial Hygiene Technology (IHT). Its objectives were to (1) utilize, where possible, existing courses within the college's curricula; (2) align the structure of the proposed curriculum with accreditation/certification

  6. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Floyd R.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of five learning modules to instruct dental patients and the general public in the fundamental principles of dental hygiene. The first module, "Identify the Responsibilities for Your Oral Health" by Floyd R. Tanner, discusses the respective roles of the dentist and the patient in

  7. Internal audit criteria for industrial hygiene programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    An effective industrial hygiene program must comply with a variety of guidelines, regulations, and good practice procedures. New and changing regulations in the areas of toxic substances control, noise and hearing conservation, hazardous waste management, hazard communications, and cleanup of old disposal sites have added some extremely complex requirements. In response to these regulations, DOE instructions establish the basic requirements within DOE for conducting both functional and managerial appraisals of health and safety programs. Within this procedural framework, each DOE facility must conduct internal audits to assist in evaluating the effectiveness of the facility's industrial hygiene program and to identify potential noncompliance situations and future problem areas. This manual has been prepared for use by a DOE facility as an aid for conducting internal industrial hygiene program audit. The manual is organized in modular format, with each module covering a separate area of industrial hygiene. Each module has been structured to stand-alone with an overview, objective, scope, and interrogative checklist so that extensive time and effort need not be spent in developing narrative responses. For those questions requiring a written response, the reviewer is expected to supply only sufficient information to clarify an answer.

  8. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty

  9. [Hygiene in otorhinolaryngology: Requirements and reality].

    PubMed

    Jager, E; Heudorf, U

    2015-12-01

    Considering the physiological contamination of skin and mucous membranes in the ear, nose, and throat region by facultative pathogen microorganisms, as well as the increase in multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO), it is mandatory that hygienic procedures be observed in ENT institutions, in order to prevent transmission of bacteria and infections in patients. General guidelines for hygiene in otorhinolaryngology are presented based on the recommendations published by the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO). These encompass hand hygiene, surface disinfection, and reprocessing of medical devices. The correct reprocessing of the various components of ENT treatment units (including endoscopes, water bearing systems) is reported. Although law requires and KRINKO recommends that manufacturers of medical devices publish instructions for reprocessing their products, these reprocessing recommendations are often insufficient. Manufacturers should thus be called upon to improve their recommendations. In this paper, the requirements for handling of ENT treatment units are compared with the observations made by the Public Health Department in 7 ENT clinics and 32 ENT practices in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 2014. PMID:26597135

  10. Relationship between Systems-Level Factors and Hand Hygiene Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Cohen, Bevin; Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Jordan, Sarah; Larson, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of acute care hospitals in California to describe staff hand hygiene compliance and related predictors, and explore the relationship between hand hygiene adherence to health care-associated infections. Although there was a relatively small sample size, institutions with morning huddles reported a significantly higher proportion of ?95% hand hygiene compliance. Huddles are an organizational tool to improve teamwork and communication and may offer promise to influence hand hygiene adherence. PMID:20489659

  11. New technologies to monitor healthcare worker hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Marra, A R; Edmond, M B

    2014-01-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene is a good quality indicator for hospital patient safety programmes. Hand hygiene is a major infection control prevention intervention, but in many medical centres compliance rates are only c. 50%. Given the enormous number of hand hygiene opportunities in hospitals, direct observation to monitor compliance is very inefficient. However, technologies are emerging to obviate the need for direct observation. These new technologies for monitoring hand hygiene compliance are discussed in this article. PMID:24245809

  12. Promoting Critical Thinking among Dental Hygiene Students: Strategies for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,

  13. Promoting Critical Thinking among Dental Hygiene Students: Strategies for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…

  14. Commentary on the article 'Understanding Muslim patients: cross-sectional dental hygiene care'.

    PubMed

    Musrati, Ahmed Ali

    2015-08-01

    I have read with interest the article ''Understanding Muslim patients: cross-sectional dental hygiene care'' by ML Sirois etal. In the time that I see their article as a faithful, unbiased image showing a Muslim's religious life and conduct from the oral and systemic health perspective, I still have two main concerns about certain facts which were denoted with imprecise connotations. These are related to food and Ramadan fasting. PMID:25399787

  15. Too clean, or not too clean: the Hygiene Hypothesis and home hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, SF; Stanwell-Smith, R; Crevel, RWR; Pickup, J

    2006-01-01

    Summary The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ as originally formulated by Strachan, proposes that a cause of the recent rapid rise in atopic disorders could be a lower incidence of infection in early childhood, transmitted by unhygienic contact with older siblings. Use of the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ has led to several interpretations, some of which are not supported by a broader survey of the evidence. The increase in allergic disorders does not correlate with the decrease in infection with pathogenic organisms, nor can it be explained by changes in domestic hygiene. A consensus is beginning to develop round the view that more fundamental changes in lifestyle have led to decreased exposure to certain microbial or other species, such as helminths, that are important for the development of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Although this review concludes that the relationship of the hypothesis to hygiene practice is not proven, it lends strong support to initiatives seeking to improve hygiene practice. It would however be helpful if the hypothesis were renamed, e.g. as the ‘microbial exposure’ hypothesis, or ‘microbial deprivation’ hypothesis, as proposed for instance by Bjorksten. Avoiding the term ‘hygiene’ would help focus attention on determining the true impact of microbes on atopic diseases, while minimizing risks of discouraging good hygiene practice. PMID:16630145

  16. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  17. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and

  18. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and risk factors for noncompliance and proposes strategies for promoting hand hygiene. PMID:11294714

  19. Effect of hygiene and medication on preweaning survival and growth of Djallonk sheep in Atacora, Benin.

    PubMed

    Doko, Sanni Y; Degla, Pamphile; Edoun, Gilbert O; Bosma, Roel H

    2013-01-01

    Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonk sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested hygienic measures and medication in improved housing. The effect of the two treatments and their combination on lamb performance and the internal rate of return (IRR) were compared to a control. For each treatment, survival and growth were observed in 20 lambs, living in 38 herds. Good housing and hygiene (daily cleaning and fortnightly disinfection of stable and water and feed troughs) reduced mortality and increased growth of suckling lambs until 3 months. Good housing plus medication (unique injection of vitamins and amino acids and with ivermectine for deworming, weekly tick treatment by spraying, and in case of diarrhea, antibiotic treatment) reduced mortality, but growth was not higher than the control. Accounting labor opportunity, the IRR was about equal for both, but capital investment was lower for the hygiene treatment which is thus more accessible to poor farmers. The combination of both treatments increased growth and benefits compared with the hygiene treatment, but decreased the IRR. PMID:22644730

  20. [National Institute of Hygiene during the World War 1939-1944].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The article presents history of the National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) in the period from September 1939 until the fall of Warsaw Uprising (1944). German occupation left unaltered activities, structure and Polish personnel of the Institute, enforcing commissoner board by professor Ernst Nauck, and subsequently--professor Robert Kudicke from Frankfurt. German production of vaccine against typhus exanthematous for German army was managed by German physician--Herman Wohlrab. National Institute of Hygiene was to be a place modelled on Institute for Tropical Diseases in Hamburg. Polish personnel was subject to military regime, however Feliks Przesmycki, PhD started underground production of vaccine against typhus exanthematous for Polish citizens, which was distributed to prisons (Pawiak Prison) and ghetto. Hospital personnel in Warsaw was also vaccinated. Underground studies programme, including editing handbooks, was set up for the students of closed Microbiology Faculty of Warsaw University, and other wartime conspiracy actions were taken. Personnel of National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) protected research equipment and supplies from war plundering, and supported Polish civilians by e.g. reporting about harmfulness of low-quality and polluted food for the Polish, which Germans supplied market with. During Warsaw Uprising Personnel helped the injured and protected the premises of National Institute of Hygiene (PZH) from burning down; mobile army surgical hospital and pharmacy for the participans of Warsaw Uprising functioned within PZH. PMID:19209734

  1. Bygiene: The New Paradigm of Bidirectional Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Knights, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The pervasive dogma surrounding the evolution of virulence - namely, that a pathogen's virulence decreases over time to prevent threatening its host - is an archaic assertion that is more appropriately cast as an optimization of virulence cost and benefit. However, the prevailing attitudes underlying practices of medical hygiene and sanitization remain entrenched in these pass ideas. This is true despite the emergence of evidence linking those practices to mounting virulence and antimicrobial resistance in the hospital. It is, therefore, our position that just as the microbe has sought an optimized balance in virulence, so should we seek such an optimized balance in vigilance, complementing warfare with restoration. We call this approach "bygiene," or bidirectional hygiene. PMID:26604859

  2. Hand hygiene posters: selling the message.

    PubMed

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-02-01

    This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders. PMID:15702513

  3. Bygiene: The New Paradigm of Bidirectional Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Knights, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive dogma surrounding the evolution of virulence — namely, that a pathogen’s virulence decreases over time to prevent threatening its host — is an archaic assertion that is more appropriately cast as an optimization of virulence cost and benefit. However, the prevailing attitudes underlying practices of medical hygiene and sanitization remain entrenched in these passé ideas. This is true despite the emergence of evidence linking those practices to mounting virulence and antimicrobial resistance in the hospital. It is, therefore, our position that just as the microbe has sought an optimized balance in virulence, so should we seek such an optimized balance in vigilance, complementing warfare with restoration. We call this approach “bygiene,” or bidirectional hygiene. PMID:26604859

  4. Pilot Overmyer looks over food selections and experiments with beverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Overmyer, using beverage container and drinking straw secured in meal tray assembly (ASSY), experiments with microgravity chararcteristics of liquid on middeck in front of forward lockers. Overmyer also looks over packages of food attached to middeck lockers in meal tray assemblies. Carry-on food warmer appears overhead and other meal tray assemblies, personal hygiene mirror assy, personal hygiene kit, and portrait of G.W.S. Abbey, JSC's Director of Flight Operations, appear on lockers.

  5. Developing and promoting hygiene in the home and community.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, S F; Signorelli, C; Fara, G

    2010-01-01

    The last two decades have seen infectious diseases (IDs) moving back up the health agenda. If the burden of ID is to be contained, the responsibility must be shared by the public. The International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH) is working to raise awareness of the role of home hygiene, and promote understanding of hygiene practice. To develop a strategy for home hygiene, IFH has used the available scientific data to formulate a risk-based approach. This "targeted hygiene" approach maximises protection against infection, whilst minimising any impact on the environment from cleaning and disinfection products, minimising any risks associated antimicrobial resistance, and sustaining interaction with the microbial flora of the environment. IFH has developed a comprehensive range of materials which are being promoted through the IFH website and other channels. Analysis of website traffic indicates significant demand for home hygiene information including scientific material and information in "plain language". PMID:20476658

  6. The effects of mandatory HACCP implementation on microbiological indicators of process hygiene in meat processing and retail establishments in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Tomasevic, Igor; Kuzmanović, Jelena; Anđelković, Aleksandra; Saračević, Miroslava; Stojanović, Marija M; Djekic, Ilija

    2016-04-01

    A total of 48,246 microbiological test results were collected from 130 meat processing plants and 220 meat retail facilities over a seven year period: 41months before and 43months after HACCP implementation. Our results confirm a strong positive effect of mandatory HACCP implementation on process hygiene indicators in meat establishments. Significant reductions were observed in the number of hygiene indicator organisms on all types of surfaces examined and types of meat establishments investigated. The improvement of process hygiene was articulated as aerobic colony count reduction of at least 1.0log10CFU/cm(2) for food contact surfaces and over 2log10CFU/cm(2) for cooling facilities (refrigerators, freezers and other meat cooling devices). Meat handlers' hands hygiene was least positively affected. The period after mandatory HACCP implementation was also marked by a steady decline of positive Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus samples. Process hygiene advances for meat processing plants and meat retail facilities were similar. PMID:26735573

  7. [Hygienic assessment of waste of soda production].

    PubMed

    Samutin, N M; Vaisman, Y I; Rudakova, L V; Kalinina, E V; Glushankova, I S; Batrakova, G M

    2013-01-01

    The object of investigations was soda industry waste. Slimes are formed at slimes storage which occupy considerable areas and are considered to be the source of permanent impact on the hydrosphere objects. Slimes storage placement within settlement boundaries and water protection zone of large watercourses leads to the deterioration of sanitary, hygienic and environmental situation and to the rising of risks to health of communities. Waste processing with getting new materials on the base of soda industry waste with wide application is seems to be one of the way for problem solving. It is essential to take into account sanitary and hygienic characteristics of slimes within justifying possible directions of its use. Thus, researches concerning assessment of physical, chemical and toxicological waste characteristics are considered to be actual. The aim of researches is to examine physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of soda production slimes for justifying directions of its use including delivery of new materials respondent to the all regulatory sanitary and hygienic requirements. Experimental investigations of assessment physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of slimes were carried out according to standard methods. Within assessment of toxicological slimes characteristics the following test-objects were used: Ceriodaphnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum. As a result of investigations watered slime samples were determined to be referred to the 4th hazard level (low-hazard) waste; samples with preliminary mechanical dehydration are referred to the 5th hazard level (practically nonhazardous) waste for environment. These are correspond to the 3rd and 4th hazard level according to sanitary regulations, respectively. PMID:24003694

  8. Respiratory hygiene in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Richard E; Irvin, Charlene B; Moran, Gregory J; Sauer, Lauren; Bradshaw, Ylisabyth S; Fry, Robert B; Josephson, Elaine B; Josephine, Elaine B; Ledyard, Holly K; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2006-11-01

    The emergency department (ED) is an essential component of the public health response plan for control of acute respiratory infectious threats. Effective respiratory hygiene in the ED is imperative to limit the spread of dangerous respiratory pathogens, including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and bioterrorism agents, particularly given that these agents may not be immediately identifiable. Sustaining effective respiratory control measures is especially challenging in the ED because of patient crowding, inadequate staffing and resources, and ever-increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients. Threat of contagion exists not only for ED patients but also for visitors, health care workers, and inpatient populations. Potential physical sites for respiratory disease transmission extend from out-of-hospital care, to triage, waiting room, ED treatment area, and the hospital at large. This article presents a summary of the most current information available in the literature about respiratory hygiene in the ED, including administrative, patient, and legal issues. Wherever possible, specific recommendations and references to practical information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are provided. The "Administrative Issues" section describes coordination with public health departments, procedures for effective facility planning, and measures for health care worker protection (education, staffing optimization, and vaccination). The patient care section addresses the potentially infected ED patient, including emergency medical services concerns, triage planning, and patient transport. "Legal Issues" discusses the interplay between public safety and patient privacy. Emergency physicians play a critical role in early identification, treatment, and containment of potentially lethal respiratory pathogens. This brief synopsis should help clinicians and administrators understand, develop, and implement appropriate policies and procedures to address respiratory hygiene in the ED. PMID:17052558

  9. Respiratory hygiene in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Richard E; Irvin, Charlene B; Moran, Gregory J; Sauer, Lauren; Bradshaw, Ylisabyth S; Fry, Robert B; Josephine, Elaine B; Ledyard, Holly K; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2007-04-01

    The emergency department (ED) is an essential component of the public health response plan for control of acute respiratory infectious threats. Effective respiratory hygiene in the ED is imperative to limit the spread of dangerous respiratory pathogens, including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and bioterrorism agents, particularly given that these agents may not be immediately identifiable. Sustaining effective respiratory control measures is especially challenging in the ED because of patient crowding, inadequate staffing and resources, and ever-increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients. Threat of contagion exists not only for ED patients but also for visitors, health care workers, and inpatient populations. Potential physical sites for respiratory disease transmission extend from out-of-hospital care, to triage, waiting room, ED treatment area, and the hospital at large. This article presents a summary of the most current information available in the literature about respiratory hygiene in the ED, including administrative, patient, and legal issues. Wherever possible, specific recommendations and references to practical information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are provided. The "Administrative Issues" section describes coordination with public health departments, procedures for effective facility planning, and measures for health care worker protection (education, staffing optimization, and vaccination). The patient care section addresses the potentially infected ED patient, including emergency medical services concerns, triage planning, and patient transport. "Legal Issues" discusses the interplay between public safety and patient privacy. Emergency physicians play a critical role in early identification, treatment, and containment of potentially lethal respiratory pathogens. This brief synopsis should help clinicians and administrators understand, develop, and implement appropriate policies and procedures to address respiratory hygiene in the ED. PMID:17379028

  10. Dental Hygiene Students’ Perceptions of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D. Leann

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students’ attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students’ anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience. PMID:25480277

  11. Creating and implementing a chemical hygiene plan.

    PubMed

    Gile, T J; Hupp, D O; Street, B S; Morris, M W

    1991-01-01

    January 31, 1991 was the deadline for laboratories to have developed and implemented their chemical hygiene plans (CHPs). OSHA may fine laboratories that do no comply--up to $2,500 per day. Managers have a responsibility to their employees to ensure a safe working environment, and the CHP is a useful tool for reducing risks and for informing employees about possible health hazards. Preparing a CHP does not have to be an arduous task--especially if you work from a model plan. This month's As We See It should help you refine (or develop) your CHP. PMID:10115128

  12. Hand hygiene performance and beliefs among public university employees.

    PubMed

    Stedman-Smith, Maggie; DuBois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott F

    2015-10-01

    The workplace is an important location to access community members, and employers have a direct interest in employee well-being. A survey administered to a random sample of employees at a Midwestern US university tested the ability of a model informed by the theory of planned behavior to predict hand hygiene practices and beliefs using structural equation modeling. Questions demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. Constructs predicted self-reported hand hygiene behaviors, and hand hygiene behaviors reduced the odds of reporting sickness from respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections. The findings support multi-modal hand hygiene improvement interventions. PMID:24265297

  13. Dental Hygiene Program Directors' Perceptions of Graduate Dental Hygiene Education and Future Faculty Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Rebecca S.; Mann, Ginger; Tishk, Maxine

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 161 dental-hygiene-program directors investigated perceived future needs for faculty, preferences for type of faculty degree for selection and promotion, the extent to which master's programs are meeting those needs in both numbers and skills, and how the programs can better prepare graduates for the millennium. (MSE)

  14. Building health: The need for electromagnetic hygiene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, Isaac A.; Holdstock, Paul; ApSimon, Helen M.; Bell, J. Nigel B.

    2010-04-01

    Whilst the electromagnetic nature of the built environment has changed considerably over the past century, little thought is at present given to the possible advantages of creating electromagnetic microenvironments that more closely resemble those found in nature and/or developing biologically-friendly technology aligned more closely to its operating principles. This review paper examines how more natural exposures to a variety of electromagnetic phenomena could be re-introduced into the built environment, possible benefits that might arise, and discusses the extent to which there may be tangible benefits obtainable from introducing more rigorous properly considered electromagnetic hygiene measures. Amongst the matters discussed are: the effects of different materials, finishes and electrical items on charge generation (and the effects of excess charge on contaminant deposition); the possible benefits of suitably grounding conductive objects (including humans) in order to reduce excess charge and contaminant deposition; how the presence of vertical electric field regimes, similar to those found in nature, may enhance biological performance; and possible pitfalls to avoid when seeking to introduce appropriate electromagnetic hygiene regimes.

  15. Hygiene and Sanitation in Biogas Plants.

    PubMed

    Frschle, Bianca; Heiermann, Monika; Lebuhn, Michael; Messelhusser, Ute; Plchl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of agricultural biogas plants and higher amounts of digestate spread on agricultural land arouse a considerable interest in the hygiene situation of digested products. This chapter reviews the current knowledge on sanitation during anaerobic digestion and the hygienic status of digestate concerning a multitude of pathogens potentially compromising the health of humans, animals and plants. Physical, chemical and biological parameters influencing the efficiency of sanitation in anaerobic digestion are considered. The degree of germ reduction depends particularly on the resistance of the pathogen of concern, the processing conditions, the feedstock composition and the diligence of the operation management. Most scientific studies facing sanitation in biogas plants have provided data ascertaining reduction of pathogens by the biogas process. Some pathogens, however, are able to persist virtually unaffected due to the ability to build resistant permanent forms. As compared to the feedstock, the sanitary status of the digestate is thus improved or in the worst case, the sanitary quality remains almost unchanged. According to this, the spreading of digestate on agricultural area in accordance to current rules and best practice recommendations is considered to impose no additional risk for the health of humans, animals and plants. PMID:26337844

  16. Prospects of international trade in irradiated foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    Irradiation is gaining recognition as a physical process for reducing food losses, enhancing hygienic quality of food and facilitating food trade. At present, 36 countries have approved the use of irradiation for processing collectively over 40 food items either on an unconditional or restricted basis. Commercial use of irradiated foods and food ingredients is being carried out in 22 countries. Technology transfer on food irradiation is being intensified to local industry in different regions. worldwide, a total of 40 commercial/demonstration irradiators available for treating foods have been or are being constructed. Acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods were discussed at the International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, jointly convened by FAO, IAEA, WHO and ITC-UNCTAD/GATT in Geneva, Switzerland, 12-16 December 1988. An "International Document on Food Irradiation" was adopted by consensus at this Conference which will facilitate wider acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods.

  17. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  18. [Ecological and hygienic evaluation of production waste of diagnostic preparations].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    For the first time eco-hygienic evaluation of waste materials of production of diagnostic products has been performed. The methodology of risk assessment included consideration of the technology for their delivery, assessment of potential hazards (biological, chemical, and toxicological) based on the study of physico-chemical properties and performance of toxicological, hygienic and ecological research. PMID:23082680

  19. Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Eugene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

  20. Changes in Generic and Degree Completion Dental Hygiene Student Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sandra; Rubinstein, Linda

    1989-01-01

    A study compared the characteristics of dental hygiene students in two programs (bachelor's degree and two-year professional dental hygiene training) in 1978 and 1987 to assess changes over time. Results are presented and the implications for enrollment management are discussed. (MSE)

  1. The Effect of Recent Trends on Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Chester W.

    1991-01-01

    Six trends affecting dental hygiene practice are discussed: demographic changes; disease pattern changes; higher societal expectations; financing and delivery system changes; technological advancement; and regulatory and legislative trends. It is argued that, though the trends reflect positively on dental hygiene, practitioners need to increase…

  2. Dental Hygiene Curriculum Model for Transition to Future Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paarmann, Carlene S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of the baccalaureate degree as the minimum entry level for dental hygiene practice centers around three main concerns: changes in health care delivery, awarding of a degree commensurate with students' educational background, and the credibility of dental hygiene as a profession. A curriculum model is discussed. (MLW)

  3. Use of Case-Based Learning in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.

    1998-01-01

    A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…

  4. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.27 Hygiene facilities and practices. (a) General. The responsible employer must assure that in areas where workers are exposed to beryllium...

  5. Occupational Safety. Hygiene Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…

  6. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  7. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  8. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

  9. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  10. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  11. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there

  12. Personal hygienic concerns in long term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Data from numerous experiments and hardware inventories were scanned for Skylab personal hygiene use. A computer program was formulated for predicting the degree of man's involvement with personal hygiene needs. A tabulation was kept for such events as water intake, frequency of urination and defecation, accidents or events requiring clean-up, methods of clean-up, microbiological environment and shower water contamination.

  13. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of

  14. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  15. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  16. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  17. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime

  18. Understanding the Determinants of Australian Hospital Nurses' Hand Hygiene Decisions Following the Implementation of a National Hand Hygiene Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Starfelt, Louise C.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G.; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The "5 critical moments" of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this

  19. Understanding the Determinants of Australian Hospital Nurses' Hand Hygiene Decisions Following the Implementation of a National Hand Hygiene Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Starfelt, Louise C.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G.; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The "5 critical moments" of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this…

  20. [MRSA - hygiene management, diagnostics and treatment].

    PubMed

    Wagener, J; Seybold, U

    2014-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphyococcus aureus strains remain a challenge to both patient care and infection control efforts. In addition to the defining resistance to beta-lactams several other antibiotic classes may be ineffective. Some resistance phenotypes exhibit a characteristic distribution pattern between healthcare-associated, community-associated, and livestock-associated MRSA strains. For patients with defined risk factors a search-, destroy-, follow-up-strategy is recommended in order to identify and eliminate MRSA colonization. Mupirocin nasal ointment and extensive hygiene measures are the mainstays of decolonization efforts. Besides vancomycin several other antimicrobials such as rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol, clindamycin, linezolid, and daptomycin are used to treat specific MRSA infections. PMID:24648177

  1. Autism, Asthma, Inflammation, and the Hygiene Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kevin G.

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation and the genes, molecules, and biological pathways that lead to inflammatory processes influence many important and disparate biological processes and disease states that are quite often not generally considered classical inflammatory or autoimmune disorders. These include development, reproduction, aging, tumor development and tumor rejection, cardiovascular pathologies, metabolic disorders, as well as neurological and psychiatric disorders. This paper compares parallel aspects of autism and inflammatory disorders with an emphasis on asthma. These comparisons include epidemiological, morphometric, molecular, and genetic aspects of both disease types, contributing to a hypothesis of autism in the context of the immune based hygiene hypothesis. This hypothesis is meant to address the apparent rise in the prevalence of autism in the population. PMID:17412520

  2. [Industrial hygiene for subway train operators].

    PubMed

    Elizarov, B B; Sin'kov, A V

    1995-01-01

    Subway train drivers work in specific conditions of underground surroundings, face psychoemotional stress due to high intensity of signals analyzed in short time for the decision, prominent responsibility for passengers' lives. The work is also associated with significant levels of noise, minor artificial illumination, air pollution with dust and unfavorable microclimate. By the end of working shift the drivers demonstrate marked changes in blood pressure, prolonged oculomotor reactions, depressed visual function. Morbidity with transitory disablement is high among the drivers, presenting especially cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. Unfavorable changes of ageing process are seen in the drivers over 35, in age group of 40-49 years (with length of service at least 20 years). The complex investigations helped to elaborate hygienic norms for new subway cars, to base rational schedule ot work and rest for the drivers. PMID:7767606

  3. Mapping the literature of dental hygiene.

    PubMed Central

    Haaland, A

    1999-01-01

    Despite the long history of the dental hygiene profession, little research has been conducted on the characteristics of its literature. In this study, the bibliometric method was used to identify the core journals in the discipline and the extent of indexing of these journals. The study was a part of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section's project to map the allied health literature. Five journals were found to provide one-third of all references studied. Forty-two journals yielded an additional one-third of the references. MEDLINE had the best indexing coverage with 87% of the journals receiving indexing for at least one-half of the articles included. Limited coverage was provided by EMBASE/Excerpta Medica (11%) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (9%). The findings identified titles that should be added by indexing services as well as those that should have more complete coverage. PMID:10427428

  4. Industrial hygiene air monitoring of phenylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Bauer, D; Parrat, J; Ruch, B

    1982-11-19

    Two gas chromatographic (GC) methods for the analysis of phenylhydrazine have been examined with phenyl- and rho-chlorophenylhydrazine and a new method using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The NIOSH GC method (2-furalphenylhydrazone derivatization), which is classified as "proposed", was found to yield two derivatization peaks, which could only be separated with capillary columns. The other GC method (acetone phenylhydrazone derivatization) gave a single peak, however, of limited stability. In the newly developed TLC method the fluorescamine derivative of phenylhydrazine is separated and detected either visually or with a TLC-fluorescence scanner after fluorescence enhancement with paraffin wax. With ordinary TLC techniques the quantification of phenylhydrazine was possible down to 200 pg per spot. The sensitivity of the TLC method is generally sufficient for the requirements of industrial hygiene air monitoring of phenylhydrazine. PMID:7153299

  5. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Aruoma, Okezie I

    2006-04-01

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer. PMID:16483706

  6. [The evolution and characteristics of social hygiene in modern Japan].

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is the clarification of the theory of social hygiene and its conception in modern society. The theory of social hygiene in modern society was mainly formed by the influence of social democracy and the social reform movement. Social hygiene in modern Japan was presented by Germany in the middle Meiji era and prevailed in the Taisho era. Yoshie Fukuhara, Gito Terouka and Teido Kunisaki developed the mainstream of the theory about social hygiene in modern Japan. The principle of social hygiene in Japan was that the target group of social hygienic activities (such as laborers, poor people, consumers of medical service and so on) should establish the idea of self-government and autonomy of their lives. Social supports to the target group were recognized as combining with the idea of self-government and autonomy of lives. Some of those activities influenced by the principle were performed. Particularly, the work of Tetsuo Hoshino was unique in showing the relation between health and human culture. The work has shown that human health is reflected in human cultural activities. Social hygiene was important to the foundation of introduction and evolution of the thoughts of public health, health culture and medical insurance in modern Japan. PMID:11639780

  7. [Hygiene barriers in the hospital--psychological aspects].

    PubMed

    Bergler, R

    1991-03-01

    This study was made necessary due to the great extent of hospital infections (720,000 cases) in the Federal Republic of Germany and the fact that the nosocomial infection is the most common infectious disease. Starting with a theoretical explanatory model of hygiene behaviour in clinics, 25 senior physicians, 38 assistant doctors, 31 members of the nursing staff and 20 members of the cleaning personnel and domestic staff in university clinics (surgery, orthopaedics, anaesthesia, gynaecology, paediatrics) were examined in a two-stage sociopsychological investigation. To be checked was the hypothesis that the quality and intensity of hygiene behaviour in clinics rises with the extent of personal hygiene sensitivity, knowledge about hygiene essentials, hygiene risks, causes of infection and possibilities of prophylaxis, exemplary and supervisory behaviour on the part of principals and staff in the clinic, as well as the absoluteness, succinctness, clinic-specificity and compulsoriness of rules of hygiene. General findings: (1) During training hygiene was a subject which did not arouse much interest; 57% admit big deficiencies in training; 60.4% of all those asked saw a big lack of information concerning basic knowledge of hospital hygiene, use of non-reusable materials, disinfection of endoscopes, laser probes etc., antibiotic therapy and strategy, development of resistant germs and their disinfection, ways and chains of infection, asepsis in the operating theatre, disposal of contaminated material, rules of hygiene in dealing with HIV-patients, sterilization of implants etc. (2) Doctors and nursing staff assume a relatively high incidence of hospital infections in their own clinic and in their wake an increase in psychological strain on the part of the patients, as well as higher costs in the health service. The most common hygiene deficiencies are lack of space and storage rooms, no separation of septic and aseptic patients, deficiencies in toilets and bathrooms, inadequate personal hygiene behaviour of staff, lack of protective clothing or no regular change of clothing, shortcomings in disinfection, incorrect use of syringes, stethoscopes, etc., no sterile dressings for wounds, no systematic hygiene control and no official consequences for wrong behaviour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2059279

  8. Understanding non-compliance with hand hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Gluyas, Heather

    2015-04-29

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) continue to be a challenge in developed and developing countries. Hand hygiene practice is considered to be the most effective strategy to prevent HCAIs, but healthcare workers' compliance is poor. Using a human factors perspective, this article explores elements that affect healthcare workers' hand hygiene compliance. Slips, lapses and mistakes can occur depending on the worker's skills and knowledge levels. Violations of protocols may also occur, and these may be associated with the intention to provide care efficiently. Strong leadership and an understanding of why non-compliance with hand hygiene occurs assists with developing strategies to improve compliance. PMID:25922027

  9. [Retrospection on Hygiene Congress organisation in Opatija 1950].

    PubMed

    Bakasun, Vjekoslav; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    In years following to the second world war the convention organisator was faced with major technical difficulties due to universal shortage of resources. During the 50's, two conventions of health workers with topics related to preventive medicine were held in Opatija. On both occasion Sanitary Bureau of Rijeka (Institute of Hygiene) was the main organisator. Reviewing the correspondance in Institute of Hygiene archive, one can monitor the preparations for the congress. In order to meet the participant's expectation, director of Institute of Hygiene, requested from the local entrepreneur adequate supply of postcard and cigarettes. PMID:23607176

  10. Recovery of hygiene water by multifiltration. [in space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, David F.; Jolly, Clifford D.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Price, Don

    1989-01-01

    A multifiltration hygiene water reclamation process that utilizes adsorption and particulate filtration techniques is described and evaluated. The applicability of the process is tested using a simulation of a 4-man subsystem operation for 240 days. It is proposed the process has a 10 year life, weighs 236 kg, and uses 88 kg of expendable filters and adsorption beds to process 8424 kg of water. The data reveal that the multifiltration is an efficient nonphase change technique for hygiene water recovery and that the chemical and microbiological purity of the product water is within the standards specified for the Space Station hygiene water.

  11. Odors and the perception of hygiene.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Kara-Lynne; Rosero, Stephanie Joyce; Doty, Richard L

    2005-02-01

    Although certain odors, such as lemon, are commonly associated with cleanliness and positive hygiene, empirical assessment of such associations for other odors and attributes is generally lacking. Moreover, differences between men and women in such associations have not been established. In this study of lemon, onion, pine, and smoke odors, ratings were obtained from 142 men and 336 women (M age= 30.1 yr., SD = 12.3) for odor intensity, gender association (masculine/feminine), and the success, sociability, intelligence, cleanliness, and attractiveness of a hypothetical person whose clothes smell like the odor in question. Ratings of the pleasantness or unpleasantness one would attribute to each odor in various rooms of the home were obtained, as well as a specification of whether such ratings are influenced by laundry habits, e.g., whether laundry is smelled before or after washing. Numerous associations were found. For example, a hypothetical person whose clothes smell of pine was rated as relatively more successful, intelligent, sociable, sanitary, and attractive than one whose clothes smelled of lemon, onion, or smoke. Sex differences, as well as differences between people who reported smelling their own laundry, were also found. PMID:15773704

  12. Ernst Rdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A

    2013-01-01

    Ernst Rdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rdin and his associates. PMID:23180223

  13. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter. PMID:26837829

  14. [Health structures and hygiene in Lebanese prisons].

    PubMed

    Haidar, A; Adib, S M

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the civil war in Lebanon (1991), the jailed population has more than doubled, while the real capacity of jails remained the same as in the 70s. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1999 in all 17 jails then operating in the country, to evaluate the impact of this newly developing situation regarding the structures of hygiene and health services available to prisoners. The stated objectives of this survey were: 1) To identify structural problems; 2) To appreciate those variables affecting the structures which could be modified; 3) To recommend improvement in health conditions in jails The survey included a visit to each jail to evaluate the health structures and services using a standardized check-list, and to interview the jail director. Results indicated that health conditions in jails were inadequate. Each prisoner had 1.3 m2 of personal space on average, in cells most often overcrowded. There were 1.3 shower/100 prisoners on average, with soap and toilet paper rarely provided by the administration. On average, less than 2 general practitioners were found providing about 3 weekly visits per 100 prisoners. Possible interventions involving various social entities were discussed. PMID:12416501

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Parasites among Food Handlers in Yebu Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Tamirat; Mebrie, Getye

    2014-01-01

    Background As a result of urbanization, eating and drinking from food service establishments is becoming a common practice in developing countries like Ethiopia, which increases the chances of food borne diseases. The health status and hygiene practices of food handlers are the major determinants of food contamination. In developing countries where there are poor regulatory systems for food hygiene, food handlers are often appointed without screening for possible infections associated with poor hygiene like intestinal parasites. Objective This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites and assessing the hygiene practices among food handlers in Yebu Town, southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 118 food handlers in Yebu Town in January 2011. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using both direct wet mount and Formol ether concentration techniques. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects was 44.1% (52/118). Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm spp were the predominant parasites identified from the stool of study participants. Age above 35 years (AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 21.8), no regular practice of washing hands before a meal (AOR: 7.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 24.8), and untrimmed finger nail (AOR: 14.7, 95% CI: 2.8, 75.4) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. Conclusion The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects. The study also revealed poor personal hygiene like poor practice of hand washing and poor finger nail hygiene. Therefore, much has to be done to improve the personal hygiene of the food handlers. Pre-placement and periodic screening of food handlers for parasites and prompt treatment, and health education on regular trimming or cleaning of fingernails would be the way forward for prevention of food borne diseases. PMID:25329050

  16. [Hand hygiene: health professionals' knowledge and areas for improvement].

    PubMed

    Prez-Prez, Pastora; Herrera-Usagre, Manuel; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Alonso-Humada, Mara Soledad; Buiza-Camacho, Begoa; Vzquez-Vzquez, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze knowledge on hand hygiene among staff workers in the Andalusian Public Health System (Spain). This was a cross-sectional study with surveys (2011) using the Hand Hygiene Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire for Healthcare Workers with the latent class analysis technique. The average number of questions answered correctly was 17.513.68. Questions with lower percentages of correct responses were those on hand hygiene for prevention of microorganism transmission to patients and those on hand- rubbing versus hand-washing. We obtained a model with 7 latent classes. Workers with lower knowledge tended to be younger, males, and non-healthcare workers. Having received previous training did not necessarily ensure excellent knowledge. The study concludes that hand hygiene training programs need to be revised in order to improve knowledge on conceptual characteristics involved in the transmission of microorganisms via the hands. PMID:25715299

  17. Assessing Interdisciplinary Education in U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Lorie; Bray, Kimberly; Mayberry, Bill; Overman, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 136 of 216 dental hygiene programs indicated that 31% included interdisciplinary activities in the curriculum; only 15% included both clinical and instructional interdisciplinary coursework. However, 74% felt that students would benefit from interdisciplinary experiences. (SK)

  18. Use of Distance Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ellen B.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed dental hygiene programs to determine the prevalence of distance education use. Found that 22 percent have distance education, and that most were satisfied with it as an adequate alternative to traditional approaches. (EV)

  19. Pilot Overmyer completes hygiene activities / demostrates IVA foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Overmyer, drying his face with a towel from forward single tray personal item stowage locker, completes personal hygiene activities (shaving) and demostrates use of intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraint on floor.

  20. Task Force on Innovation in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, James; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The background, origins, functions, and recommendations of the American Association of Dental Schools' task force investigating improvement of access to dental hygiene training programs and of curriculum and program design are presented. (MSE)

  1. Hygiene of the skin: when is clean too clean?

    PubMed Central

    Larson, E.

    2001-01-01

    Skin hygiene, particularly of the hands, is a primary mechanism for reducing contact and fecal-oral transmission of infectious agents. Widespread use of antimicrobial products has prompted concern about emergence of resistance to antiseptics and damage to the skin barrier associated with frequent washing. This article reviews evidence for the relationship between skin hygiene and infection, the effects of washing on skin integrity, and recommendations for skin care practices. PMID:11294712

  2. [Sorption method of water regeneration for cosmonaut personal hygiene].

    PubMed

    Ga?dadymov, V A; Prishchep, A G; Zarubina, K V; Balashova, L E; Tsareva, S P

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes sanitary-hygienic and technological investigations aimed at development of the sorption method of water reclamation for personal hygiene needs of cosmonauts from wash water. Catamine-AB was used as a detergent with bactericidal properties. Manned experiments helped to identify the conditions that provided an adequate cleaning of skin and simultaneous sterilization of wash water. The technology of wash water purification was developed, proper sorbents were selected and recommended values of their use were established. PMID:2804

  3. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Conclusion: Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene. PMID:26229382

  4. Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 C or by an 80 C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

  5. CONTRIBUTION OF CHLIDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO LEAD CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the relationship of children's hygiene habits and food handling behaviors on lead levels on hands and handled foods for toddlers living in lead contaminated homes. Forty eight inner city toddlers who had previously been identified as having elevated blood le...

  6. [Prevention of food poisioning in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Custovi?, Amer; Ibrahimagi?, Omer

    2005-01-01

    Epidemic food poisioning caused by food contaminated by microorganisms, its toxins or chemical toxic substances, emerge in the hospitals as specific kind of intrahospital infections. An occurrence of food poisoning in hospitals is facilitated by several facts as: centralized food preparation, kinds of food, staff carriers, an unfavourable hygienic regime in the kitchens and at the places where food is shared, crossing of clean and unclean paths in a kitchen, carelessness, non-education etc. Danger that contaminated food brought to hospitals is more serious since it is about consumers with disrupted health. Main goal of work was to show conditions in the central kitchen and restaurants in University clinical center Tuzla in regard to sanitary care of the staff hands, which are in direct and indirect contact with food, cutlery and working surfaces, that are in direct contact with food. PMID:16134753

  7. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene. PMID:12163918

  8. Understanding the determinants of Australian hospital nurses' hand hygiene decisions following the implementation of a national hand hygiene initiative.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-12-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The '5 critical moments' of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this study was to understand the determinants of nurses' hand hygiene decisions, using an extension of a common health decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), to inform future health education strategies to increase compliance. Nurses from 50 Australian hospitals (n = 2378) completed standard TPB measures (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control [PBC], intention) and the extended variables of group norm, risk perceptions (susceptibility, severity) and knowledge (subjective, objective) at Time 1, while a sub-sample (n = 797) reported their hand hygiene behaviour 2 weeks later. Regression analyses identified subjective norm, PBC, group norm, subjective knowledge and risk susceptibility as the significant predictors of nurses' hand hygiene intentions, with intention and PBC predicting their compliance behaviour. Rather than targeting attitudes which are already very favourable among nurses, health education strategies should focus on normative influences and perceptions of control and risk in efforts to encourage hand hygiene adherence. PMID:26590244

  9. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare worker hand hygiene is thought to be one of the most important strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but compliance is generally poor. Hand hygiene improvement interventions must include audits of compliance (almost always with feedback), which are most often done by direct observation - a method that is expensive, subjective, and prone to bias. New technologies, including electronic and video hand hygiene monitoring systems, have the potential to provide continuous and objective monitoring of hand hygiene, regular feedback, and for some systems, real-time reminders. We propose a systematic review of the evidence supporting the effectiveness of these systems. The primary objective is to determine whether hand hygiene monitoring systems yield sustainable improvements in hand hygiene compliance when compared to usual care. Methods/Design MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other relevant databases will be searched for randomized control studies and quasi-experimental studies evaluating a video or electronic hand hygiene monitoring system. A standard data collection form will be used to abstract relevant information from included studies. Bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Studies will be reviewed independently by two reviewers, with disputes resolved by a third reviewer. The primary outcome is directly observed hand hygiene compliance. Secondary outcomes include healthcare-associated infection incidence and improvements in hand hygiene compliance as measured by alternative metrics. Results will be qualitatively summarized with comparisons made between study quality, the measured outcome, and study-specific factors that may be expected to affect outcome (for example, study duration, frequency of feedback, use of real-time reminders). Meta-analysis will be performed if there is more than one study of similar systems with comparable outcome definitions. Discussion Electronic and video monitoring systems have the potential to improve hand hygiene compliance and prevent healthcare-associated infection, but are expensive, difficult to install and maintain, and may not be accepted by all healthcare workers. This review will assess the current evidence of effectiveness of these systems before their widespread adoption. Study registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004519 PMID:24219817

  10. [Efficient hygiene precautions in the household today].

    PubMed

    Borneff, J

    1989-04-01

    The results of epidemiological investigations justifies the assumption that increasing health defects, especially enteritis infectiosa, are caused inter alia by inadequate hygienic conditions in households. The number of such diseases ranges between 100,000 and more than 1,000,000 cases per year in the FRG. Responsible for this development is a lack of information about the behaviour of microorganisms in the environment and its pathways of distribution. In addition risks are growing with the recommendation of cleansing methods, which had been adequate for the kitchen techniques in former centuries, but must fall under the conditions of the modern supply, processing and conservation. The described investigations are directed at the determination of the distribution of germs by working in normal household kitchens and at the effectiveness of surface-decontamination-cleansers (so-called FD-preparations). Test principle was the production of a complete dinner by each of 79 housewives with use of minced meat, which was contaminated with micrococcus luteus. After final cleaning of the kitchen we determined the degree of contamination of surfaces, machines and of the components of the meal with use of rodacplates, swabs and quantitative cultures respectively. The experiments are completed by interviews with the housewives. The results let conclude that the use of household cleansers with germicidal properties even in the hand of housewives will reduce the distribution of unwanted microorganisms in the kitchens. In this respect surfaces, on which components of the meal are prepared, and the machines, like cutting machines, waring blenders a.o., are of utmost importance. Disinfections of other parts of the flats including toilets are unnecessary (exception: severe infectious diseases). Therefore the use of FD-preparations outside of the kitchens is not required, but acceptable (it is not necessary to use a cleanser in the kitchen, another one in the toilet and a third one for the bath tube etc.). We do not recommend adapting cleaning and disinfective methods of the hospitals to the normal households. Instead of medical disinfections one should use detergents with nontoxic germicidal additives (e.g. H2O2) in this area, which do not require changing the traditional cleaning techniques. They also should guarantee that cleanliness, absence of odor and minimization of germs are achieved. In addition normal kitchen soaps should be replaced by HD-preparations. PMID:2500806

  11. [Hygienic and microbiological quality of starters and coagulants used in the production of sheep's milk cheese].

    PubMed

    Cosentino, S; Matza, O; Fadda, M E; Palmas, F

    1989-01-01

    The hygienic level of the raw materials is prevailing in the determination of microbial quality of finished product in food production. Not all alimentary products have the same possibilities of being contaminated. They develop, with a series of intermediate passages, from products that can not be contaminated to products that can be easily attached from micro-organisms. It is essential to locate the points of possible pollution and monitor them with appropriate modalities for a good quality of finished products. The "starters" and "coagulants" of dairy industry may be carrier of microbial pollution if they are improperly handled during the processing and storage. 202 samples of starters and 128 of coagulants, produced by large and small industries have been examined in this work. Total viable count, total Coliforms, anaerobic bacteria and Yeasts have been determined. A quantitative valuation has been also carried out above the lactic bacteria in all samples of starters. The starters results have shown a clean quantitative difference between the industrial products and natural cultures about the lactic microflora value, as well as more high frequency of pollution in samples in which lactic acid bacteria were found below standard. Among the coagulants, no microbial pollution has been detected in the commercial enzymes, whereas serious hygienic problems have shown up in the "rennets"; they have also presented an high anaerobic bacteria number/gr. of product. According to the related data, the AA. think starters and coagulants can have not unfavourable influence on dairy production only is some hygienic operations requirements are followed in their preparation. PMID:2484485

  12. An oral hygiene brochure for your implant overdenture patients.

    PubMed

    Mok, Joanna; Emami, Elham; Kobayashi, Taira; Feine, Jocelyne S

    2007-10-01

    Although there may not be a direct association between oral hygiene and implant failure, oral hygiene must be maintained around implants in the edentulous mouth. Bacterial plaque on dentures can act as a reservoir for pathogens that cause respiratory disease. Unfortunately, many edentulous patients have poor oral hygiene. In this article, we describe the development of a brochure to educate patients wearing mandibular overdentures supported by 2 implants as a supplement to the dentist"s verbal instructions. Dental literature and several specialists were consulted during preparation of the brochure, which contains photographs accompanying oral hygiene instructions. It was sent to 25 participants who were subsequently called and questioned regarding its content and their oral hygiene habits. The 24 respondents found the brochure useful; most reported that they would keep the brochure for future reference and that they learned something new about how to maintain their implants properly. No one found the brochure too long or unclear. Most participants read the brochure entirely, rather than skimming it. The brochure is available to all clinicians who wish to incorporate this tool into their implant overdenture therapeutic approach. PMID:17949538

  13. Academic integrity violations: a national study of dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Honny, Jean M; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Overman, Pamela R; Wilkins, Kristi; Petersen, Floyd

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of academic integrity violations reported by a national sample of dental hygiene students as compared to general undergraduate students. This study also examined the influence of student variables such as gender, age, and level of education, along with honor codes and other contextual factors, on academic integrity. A total of 2,050 surveys were mailed to a random selection of the schools with dental hygiene degree programs in each of the twelve American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) districts. A total of 794 usable surveys were returned for an overall response rate of 39 percent. The respondents were predominantly twenty to twenty-nine years of age (85 percent), and 97.7 percent were female. The largest percentage of respondents (38.5 percent) had completed four or more years of undergraduate education at the time of the survey, with the majority of the coursework taken in a community college setting (39 percent). Approximately 53 percent were from associate programs and 47 percent from baccalaureate programs. Of those responding, 11.3 percent reported cheating during their dental hygiene program, and 30.2 percent were aware of someone cheating in their program. A comparison of academic violations for dental hygiene students to students in other undergraduate programs reveals that a smaller proportion of dental hygiene students report violations. PMID:20203325

  14. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Badawi, Karima; El-Fedawy, Sanaa

    2005-11-01

    Learning about menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. This study among 664 schoolgirls aged 14-18 in Mansoura, Egypt, asked about type of sanitary protection used, frequency of changing pads or cloths, means of disposal and bathing during menstruation. Girls were selected by cluster sampling technique in public secondary schools in urban and rural areas. Data were collected through an anonymous, self-administered, open-ended questionnaire during class time. The significant predictors of use of sanitary pads were availability of mass media at home, high and middle social class and urban residence. Use of sanitary pads may be increasing, but not among girls from rural and poor families, and other aspects of personal hygiene were generally found to be poor, such as not changing pads regularly or at night, and not bathing during menstruation. Lack of privacy was an important problem. Mass media were the main source of information about menstrual hygiene, followed by mothers, but a large majority of girls said they needed more information. Instruction in menstrual hygiene should be linked to an expanded programme of health education in schools. A supportive environment for menstrual hygiene has to be provided both at home and in school and sanitary pads made more affordable. PMID:16291496

  15. [Hospital hygiene from the point of view of the medical administration (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Steuer, W

    1977-04-01

    The task of medical administration in hospital hygiene is external control, promotion and counseling. This applies, for example, to the personel sector when establishing the internal institutions: hygiene committee, hospital hygienist, hygiene commissioner, specialist hygiene nurse. In addition, it is however necessary to improve the structural and functional facilities and possibilities within the framework of the hospital finance law. This includes early, supraregional guidance in cases of hospital planning as well as cooperation in hygiene committees. Medical administration can only create the necessary preconditions for good hospital hygiene. It is , however, the task of the members of the personel themselves to make full use of them. PMID:858634

  16. Hand Hygiene Practices Reported by Nurse Aides in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas; Handler, Steven; Wagner, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Information from nurse aides describing their opinions of hand hygiene practices in nursing homes including perceived barriers to hand hygiene is presented. The information comes from a questionnaire developed for this investigation, with items addressing compliance, facility guidelines and protocols, training, hand washing facilities and materials, and hand washing barriers. Information from 4,211 nurse aides (response rate of 56%) working in a nationally representative sample of 767 nursing homes (participation rate = 51%) is used. We find that 57.4% of nurse aides comply with hand washing when caring for residents most of the time, while 21.7% always comply. With facilities, 43.3% sometimes check that hand washing is performed. In summary, self-reported compliance was poor, and facilities and materials were often lacking. These findings are useful in identifying issues and interventions, including the need for further initiatives to address hand hygiene practices. PMID:24652917

  17. Clinical review: Airway hygiene in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Jelic, Sanja; Cunningham, Jennifer A; Factor, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few are substantiated by clinical data. This review focuses on the impact of oral hygiene, tracheal suctioning, bronchoscopy, mucus-controlling agents, and kinetic therapy on the incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory infections, length of stay in the hospital and the ICU, and mortality in critically ill patients. Available data are distilled into recommendations for the maintenance of airway hygiene in ICU patients. PMID:18423061

  18. SAFETY, SECURITY, HYGIENE AND PRIVACY IN MIGRANT FARMWORKER HOUSING

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Weir, Maria M.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F.; Bischoff, Werner E.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed. PMID:22776578

  19. A survey on oral hygiene practices among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Esa, R; Razak, I A; Jallaudin, R L; Jaafar, N

    1992-01-01

    A survey on oral hygiene practices was conducted on 537 dentate adult patients aged 15 years and over. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in dental behavior with regards to socio-demographic factors, namely age, sex, ethnicity, income, education and occupational status. Patients attending nine randomly selected government dental clinics were interviewed on their daily oral hygiene practices. The majority (89.7%) of the subjects reported that they brushed their teeth, 68% used toothpaste containing fluoride, but only 8.4% flossed their teeth. Generally the younger group had better oral hygiene habits. The higher the socioeconomic status of the adults, the better their toothcleaning practices. Awareness concerning dental floss was low regardless of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that there is a need to improve the dental health practices of adults in Malaysia. PMID:1499238

  20. The hygienic quality of vegetables grown in or imported into the Netherlands: a tentative survey.

    PubMed Central

    Tamminga, S. K.; Beumer, R. R.; Kampelmacher, E. H.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of 61 home grown and 199 imported vegetables of different varieties were examined for Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci and, when E. coli was present, for salmonellas. Eleven per cent of samples contained greater than 10(4) E. coli per 100 g, and 14% greater than 10(6) faecal streptococci per 100 g. Salmonellas were isolated from 23 out of 103 samples examined. Salmonellas were isolated from 8% of 76 samples with E. coli less than 10(4)/100 g, but from 63% of 27 samples with E. coli exceeding 10(4)/100 g; from 6% of 65 samples containing less than 10(6) faecal streptococci/100 g but from 51% of 37 samples containing more than 10(6)/100 g. S. typhi was isolated from one sample of vegetables imported from the tropics. To our knowledge this is the first isolation of S. typhi from food in the Netherlands. Products from tropical countries were found to present the highest level of contamination. The hygienic quality of Dutch products is sometimes inferior to that of similar imported products, although the different seasons of sampling may have influenced the result. For the prevention of risk to the consumer of vegetables, good kitchen hygiene would appear to be the most important factor. PMID:340581

  1. Trichuris suis ova: testing a helminth-based therapy as an extension of the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jouvin, Marie-Hélène; Kinet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-07-01

    The hygiene hypothesis, which was put forward more than 20 years ago by Strachan, proposes that the recent increase in allergic and autoimmune diseases is due to increasing hygiene standards. Since then, numerous epidemiologic and animal studies have provided support for this hypothesis and showed that certain microorganisms, helminths in particular, have immunomodulatory effects. More recently, studies have led to the identification of some of the mechanisms underlying these immunomodulatory effects. Substances, or crude extracts, produced by worms and responsible for these effects have been analyzed. Clinical trials have been performed mainly with pig whipworm, which was chosen because it is likely to be nonpathogenic in human subjects. Eggs of the pig whipworm (Trichuris suis ova) have been shown to be safe in multiple studies. Efficacy has been demonstrated in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and in 1 case of pecan allergy. Altogether, this information supports further investigation of T suis ova in patients with immune-mediated diseases, particularly in areas in which there is currently no therapy, such as food allergy. PMID:22742834

  2. Oral hygiene, dietary pattern and smoking habits of Bedouin (nomadic Arabs) population in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almas, K; al-Amri, M; al-Eid, A; al-Shahrani, S

    2003-09-01

    The estimated population of the Bedouins are up to two million in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but relatively little information is available about them. The aim of the study was to assess the oral hygiene dietary pattern and smoking habits of Saudi Bedouins population around Medina, Qaseen and Khamis Moshayte areas. Five hundred and twenty five Bedouins (296 male, 229 female) with the age range 2-90 years were interviewed and examined clinically over a period of four months (July to October 1998). It was found that 25% of the subjects were miswak users, 30% used miswak and tooth brush, while 26% never cleaned their teeth. Almost 50% of the subjects were regular in their oral hygiene habits. Seventy percent were rice eaters while meat and dates were second and third preference. Tea was the most common drink with 2-3 teaspoons of sugar per cup. Only ten percent were cigarette smokers and less than 5% used shisha (traditional smoking pipe). It is concluded from the study that within the surveyed Bedouin population one fourth of them never cleaned their teeth while almost the same number used miswak (Chewing stick) to clean their teeth. Rice was the most common food item, while tea with refined sugar was the most common drink. Only 15% were smoker. Further research is needed with a larger and a more representative sample of Bedouins from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:14705374

  3. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: a systematic review of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Gardam, M; Fernie, G; Lightfoot, D; Lebovic, G; Muller, M P

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and video monitoring systems (EMS/VMS) may improve hand hygiene by providing feedback, real-time reminders or via the Hawthorne effect. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of EMS/VMS in improving hand hygiene or reducing the incidence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they measured any hand hygiene outcome and/or HCAI incidence. Of the studies included, seven used system-defined compliance (SDC) (N = 6) or hand hygiene event rate (N = 1) as their outcome. SDC differed for all systems. Most (N = 6) were single ward studies. Two uncontrolled pretest?post-test studies evaluating EMS that provided voice prompts showed increases in SDC, but risk of bias was high. Two uncontrolled time-series analyses of VMS that provided aggregate feedback demonstrated large, sustained improvement in SDC and were at moderate risk of bias. One non-randomized controlled trial of EMS with aggregate feedback found no difference in hand hygiene frequency but was at high risk of bias. Two studies evaluated EMS providing individual feedback and real-time reminders. A pretest?post-test study at high risk of bias showed an increase in SDC. An RCT at low risk of bias showed 6.8% higher SDC in the intervention arm partially due to a fall in SDC in the control arm. In conclusion, the overall study quality was poor. The study at lowest risk of bias showed only a small increase in SDC. VMS studies at moderate risk of bias showed rapid and sustained increases in SDC. Data were insufficient to recommend EMS/VMS. Future studies should prioritize testing of VMS using stronger study designs including control arms and validated, system-independent measures of hand hygiene. PMID:25480021

  4. Quantitative impact of direct, personal feedback on hand hygiene technique.

    PubMed

    Lehotsky, ; Szilgyi, L; Ferenci, T; Kovcs, L; Pethes, R; Wber, G; Haidegger, T

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of targeting hand hygiene technique using a new training device that provides objective, personal and quantitative feedback. One hundred and thirty-six healthcare workers in three Hungarian hospitals participated in a repetitive hand hygiene technique assessment study. Ultraviolet (UV)-labelled hand rub was used at each event, and digital images of the hands were subsequently taken under UV light. Immediate objective visual feedback was given to participants, showing missed areas on their hands. The rate of inadequate hand rubbing reduced from 50% to 15% (P < 0.001). However, maintenance of this reduced rate is likely to require continuous use of the electronic equipment. PMID:26136103

  5. Applying industrial hygiene to chemical and petroleum projects.

    PubMed

    Brief, R S; Lynch, J

    1980-11-01

    An effective strategy to prevent health hazards will utilize industrial hygiene principles in all phases of a project, including process development, the design bases, the final design, during construction, and during and after start-up. The involvement of industrial hygiene in engineering design results in cost-effective minimization of health hazards from toxic chemicals and harmful physical agents. Measurements of post start-up emission levels and employee exposures can be utilized to evaluate the performance of the controls which were implemented in the design. This will aid in the development of future designs and identify where research is needed to develop better controls to prevent health hazards. PMID:7457374

  6. [Hygienic aspects of health hazards at school age].

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, I I

    2005-01-01

    The researchers have developed a method of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk factors in various types of educational institution. The use of this method in the system of social-and-hygienic monitoring makes it possible to take into account a greater number of objects of vital activity environment, objectively characterize factors of vital activity environment that are hazardous to schoolchildren, and determine the order and extent of necessary preventive measures. Use of computer techniques in hygienic investigations promotes early prenosological diagnostics of school-age conditions that develop under the influence of factors of vital activity environment, and allows their timely correction. PMID:15852714

  7. Potties, pits and pipes: explaining hygiene behaviour in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Curtis, V; Kanki, B; Mertens, T; Traor, E; Diallo, I; Tall, F; Cousens, S

    1995-08-01

    Stool disposal practices have been shown to be associated with childhood diarrhoea. However, efforts to promote improved hygiene behaviour are hampered by a lack of understanding of what determines those behaviours. Data from 2793 household interviews with mothers of children from the town of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso were analyzed to examine what differentiated mothers who reported using safer stool disposal practices from those who did not. Three 'outcomes' were considered: where the child was reported to defaecate; where the mother reported disposing of the child stools; and whether excreta were observed in the compound. Regression models were developed to identify those factors with the strongest independent associations with the outcomes. There was a consistent association between the source of water and the outcomes. Mothers with access to a tap in the yard reported using safe hygiene practices three times more often than mothers using wells outside the compound and twice as often as mothers who used public standpipes or wells within the yard. The source of water showed a similar pattern of association with observations of faecal matter in the environment. Improved sources of water may contribute to safer stool hygiene by reducing the time spent on water collection or by encouraging mothers to conform to higher standards of hygiene. Other factors which played a role in predicting the hygiene behaviour of mothers were the husbands' occupation, the number of health education sessions that she had attended, her zone of residence and family ownership of certain valuable objects. These factors are likely to be related and to be, to some extent, proxies for the real determinants of her behaviour. A model of the cultural, psycho-social and infrastructural proximate determinants of hygiene behaviour is proposed. Data from focus group discussions suggested that the main purpose of hygienic behaviour is to conform to existing norms of social etiquette. Trials of interventions based on changing such norms are needed to test whether this is an effective means of promoting of safer hygiene practices. PMID:7481932

  8. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E.

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  9. [A photographic competition on hand hygiene in a nursing home].

    PubMed

    Guerre, Graziella; Aho-Glele, Ludwig-Serge; Astruc, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is often considered as the attribute of caregivers. However, it is the patient who is increasingly targeted by improved communication around hygiene in care notably in the framework of the "Clean Hands Mission". In this sense, the French regional centres for the fight against nosocomial infections in Burgundy has proved itself innovative on two levels by organising a photo competition in nursing homes. The aim was to show residents how to prevent care-related infections through the simple act of handwashing. PMID:26976317

  10. Enhanced hygiene measures and norovirus transmission during an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Heijne, Janneke C M; Teunis, Peter; Morroy, Gabriella; Wijkmans, Clementine; Oostveen, Sandy; Duizer, Erwin; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We analyzed norovirus outbreaks in 7 camps at an international scouting jamboree in the Netherlands during 2004. Implementation of hygiene measures coincided with an 84.8% (95% predictive interval 81.2%-86.6%) reduction in reproduction number. This reduction was unexpectedly large but still below the reduction needed to contain a norovirus outbreak. Even more stringent control measures are required to break the chain of transmission of norovirus. PMID:19116045

  11. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were equally as effective as hand washing with soap at reducing indicator organisms on farmworker hands. Based on these results, ABHS is an efficacious hand hygiene solution for produce handlers, even on soiled hands. PMID:26555526

  12. New discoveries and directions for medical, dental and dental hygiene research: low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    McCombs, G B; Darby, M L

    2010-02-01

    The study of plasma integrates physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering, and has recently engaged medicine and dental hygiene in research efforts. The study of plasma holds promise for a myriad of applications ranging from lasers and electronics, hazardous waste management, decontamination, sterilization and disinfection of foods, soil, water, instruments, to medical uses in wound healing and treating certain types of tumours and cancers. Plasma represents a new state-of-the-art sterilization and disinfection treatment for certain oral and enviornmental pathogens, heat-sensitive materials, contaminated medical waste, hard and soft surfaces, and ventilation systems may assist health care facilities in the management of various health concerns. The role that Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (LTAPP) could play in the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms might prove to be a new, faster, noncorrosive, more economical alternative, as well as support green healthcare. PMID:20096076

  13. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.

    2008-01-01

    Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made. PMID:19325772

  14. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that contain ...

  15. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  16. Rhizopus Keratitis Associated with Poor Contact Lens Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Warner, David B.; WrightIII, Hugh E.; Rosenbaum, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Rhizopus keratitis in a young woman with poor contact lens hygiene. The mold was highly sensitive to treatment with amphotericin 0.15% drops, after a relatively prompt diagnosis. Obtaining cultures of both corneal infiltrates and presumably infected contact lenses may help to avoid a delay in proper treatment. PMID:26889155

  17. Hand hygiene assessment in the workplace using a UV lamp.

    PubMed

    kodov, Manuela; Garca Urra, Fernando; Gimeno Bentez, Alfredo; Jimnez Romano, Maria Ramona; Gimeno Ortiz, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the quality of the hand hygiene (HH) technique of healthcare workers (HCW) in real conditions, without previous education or training. All 705 participants did the World Health Organization sequence for HH correctly, but only 9.5% actually achieved the highest rating (ie, all hand areas with hand rub distribution). PMID:26297523

  18. A Vocal Hygiene Program for High-School Cheerleaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Virginia L.; Madison, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-six female cheerleaders and their advisors from four high schools participated in the development and evaluation of a preventative vocal hygiene program designed to communicate information about voice and vocal abuse. Pretest/posttest comparison indicated a significant improvement in participants' knowledge and awareness of vocally abusive…

  19. External Evaluation of CDC Homestudy Course 3010-G, "Community Hygiene."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.

    A study examined the impact of the Centers for Disease Control's home study course in community hygiene on the job performance of 45 sanitarians in 30 districts throughout North Carolina. Data were collected from: (1) pre- and post-tests that evaluated the sanitarians' mastery of knowledge in such areas as water supply, sewage disposal, solid…

  20. [Medical and technical problems of water transport hygiene].

    PubMed

    Matsevich, L M; Vishnevski?, A M; Razletova, A B

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of causes for sea accidents proves importance of human factor in a system "human--environment--transport". The authors consider possibility that such physical factors as noise, vibration, direct and alternate magnetic fields harm sailing staff's functional state. A universal water transport system of hygienic control over physical factors on ships is considered expedient. PMID:11965741

  1. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence sustainability. Regional sustainability indicator results showed there was a statistically significant decline in access to water. The presence of sanitation facilities had not changed since the beginning of the project; however, maintenance and use of latrines declined but continued to meet the goal of 75% use after 7 years. The hygiene indicator, hand washing, initially declined and then increased. Declines in water access were due to operational problems related to storm events and population changes. Sanitation facilities were still present and sometimes used even though they reached or surpassed their original design life. Changes in hygiene practices appeared related to ongoing hygiene promotion from outside organizations. These results provide useful input for making WASH programs more sustainable and informing future, more in-depth research into factors influencing sustainability. PMID:26413262

  2. Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgarnie, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

  3. The Use of Gaming in a Dental Hygiene Review Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Charlotte A.; Mauriello, Sally M.; Caplan, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of gaming to create an interactive, stimulating learning environment as a review format for the Dental Hygiene National Board examination. Students (n=28) participated in either the gaming or a lecture review format. The gaming group scored higher on the exam on eight of 12 topics as well as on the case-based learning…

  4. A Vocal Hygiene Program for High-School Cheerleaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Virginia L.; Madison, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-six female cheerleaders and their advisors from four high schools participated in the development and evaluation of a preventative vocal hygiene program designed to communicate information about voice and vocal abuse. Pretest/posttest comparison indicated a significant improvement in participants' knowledge and awareness of vocally abusive

  5. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... handwashing facilities, and lunchroom facilities must comply with 29 CFR 1910.141, Sanitation. ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program...

  6. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... handwashing facilities, and lunchroom facilities must comply with 29 CFR 1910.141, Sanitation. ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program...

  7. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... handwashing facilities, and lunchroom facilities must comply with 29 CFR 1910.141, Sanitation. ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program...

  8. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

  9. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  10. Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Among Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…

  11. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS IN MODERN PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Badamshina, G G; Karimova, L K; Timasheva, G V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are reported the results of the performance of hygiene assessment of working conditions in petrochemical industry. The studies have shown that workers' body is exposed to a complex of hazardous occupational factors including a chemical factor, noise, the severity and intensity of the working process. An overall assessment of working conditions corresponds to Class 3.3. PMID:26302562

  12. Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

    1992-01-01

    At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

  13. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Care for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for dental hygiene curriculum cover the scope and definitions of care for the handicapped, interrelationships between disciplines and courses, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, and

  14. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics for Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    American Association of Dental Schools guidelines consist of an introduction to the field and its interrelationships with other fields of dental hygiene; an overview of the curriculum; outlines of primary educational goals, prerequisites, and specific content-related and clinical behavioral objectives; and recommendations concerning sequencing,

  15. Evaluating a Hygiene Education Program for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petri, Cynthia J.; Winnail, Scott D.; Geiger, Brian F.; Artz, Lynn M.; Mason, J. W.

    Children, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to several infectious diseases as a result of contact with child care centers. This pilot program, implemented in a rural county in a southeastern state, was designed to enhance knowledge and skills related to improved hygiene practices in a child care setting. The target audience for the…

  16. Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene and Recapped Brood Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees bred for “suppression of mite reproduction” resist the growth of Varroa destructor through the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped brood. This is varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH), and the bees are called VSH bees. VSH is a multi-step process that involves detection, uncapping of th...

  17. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

  18. Evidence-based practice and the professionalization of dental hygiene.

    PubMed

    Cobban, Sandra J

    2004-11-01

    The application of knowledge is fundamental to human problem solving. In health disciplines, knowledge utilization commonly manifests through evidence-based decision making in practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in health professions in general, and dental hygiene in particular, and to examine its relationship to the professionalization agenda of dental hygiene in Canada. EBP means integrating practitioner expertise with the best available external evidence from research. Proponents of EBP believe that it holds promise for reducing a research-practice gap by encouraging clinicians to seek current research results. Both the Canadian and American Dental Hygienists Associations support practice based on current research evidence, yet recent studies show variation in practice. Professionalization refers to the developmental stages through which an organized occupation passes as it develops traits that characterize it as a profession. The status conferred by professionalization privileges a group to make and monitor its own decisions relative to practice. Dental hygiene's success in acquiring attributes of a profession suggests that transformation to a profession is occurring. This paper compares the assumptions and challenges of both movements, and argues the need for a principal focus on the development of a culture of evidence-based dental hygiene practice. PMID:16451489

  19. Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgarnie, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared

  20. External Evaluation of CDC Homestudy Course 3010-G "Community Hygiene."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnatt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to determine if successful completion of a community hygiene course by sanitarians resulted in measurable changes in acquired knowledge and behavior and skills related to job performance. Results indicated that both knowledge and skills improved significantly and that both participants and supervisors perceived an

  1. Industrial Hygiene Technology: A Curriculum Planning Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Walter D.; Spetz, Sally H.

    This curriculum resource guide, one of seven developed by the State of Illinois to present information on new and emerging curricula existing in the nation, can be used as a basis for local educators to determine the resources needed to offer industrial hygiene technician curricula and to initiate curriculum development at the local level.

  2. Utilization of Radiographs for a State Dental Hygiene Board Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Brad G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study documented the number of x-rays acquired during screening and subsequent treatment of patients for a state dental hygiene licensing examination for 109 candidates. Results indicate that patient exposure guidelines attempt to minimize radiographic exposure but that some exposures should be reevaluated for need and effect on patients. (MSE)

  3. Desalinated water hygiene and scientific bases for its investigation.

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, G I; Rakhmanin YuA

    1978-01-01

    In view of the increasing scarcity of fresh water reserves in many countries of the world, a thorough hygienic evaluation of the different methods of desalinating highly mineralized underground and sea waters for economic and drinking purpose becomes indispensable. In addition to generally accepted hygienic criteria (favourable organoleptic properties, innocuous chemical composition and epidemiological safety), introduction of supplementary criteria for the assessment of the characteristic of the quality of freshened drinking water is necessary, i.e., its full value in the physiological sense and stability of drinking properties. The necessity of hygienic tests concerned with the study and regulation of the mineral and microelement composition of desalinated drinking water as well as of its microbial composition, structural peculiarities, the so-called "deuterium number" and the presence of various organic substances in desalinated water was pointed out. A certain degree of priority should be given to the study of the mentioned indices in hygienic assessment of the different methods of water desalination (distillation, freezing out, ion exchange, electrodialysis, inverse osmosis and others). PMID:570985

  4. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by

  5. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and

  6. Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS) and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48) and the creation of legislation (n = 44); response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6%) of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2%) for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6%) of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44). The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44) of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5%) declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6%) and 39 (81.3%) authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48) of the responding authorities and 20.8% (10 out of 48) of the port authorities of other countries. Conclusion This study revealed a diversity of approaches and practices in the conduct of inspections, differences in the qualifications/knowledge/experience of inspectors, the legislation applied during inspections, and the lack of communication and training among many EU countries. An integrated European inspection programme involving competent expert inspectors in each EU Member States and special training for ship hygiene delivered to crew members and inspectors would help to minimize the risk of communicable diseases. Common inspection tools at a European level for hygiene inspection practices and port-to-port communication are needed. PMID:20219097

  7. Dental Hygiene Entry-Level Program Administrators' Strategies for Overcoming Challenges of Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Bette A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the…

  8. The Effect of Teaching Experience on Service-Learning Beliefs of Dental Hygiene Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Sharlee Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental causal-comparative study was to determine if service-learning teaching experience affects dental hygiene faculty perceptions of service-learning benefits and barriers in the United States. Dental hygiene educators from entry-level dental hygiene education programs in the United States completed the Web-based…

  9. Dental Hygiene Entry-Level Program Administrators' Strategies for Overcoming Challenges of Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Bette A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the

  10. State-of-the-art hand hygiene in community medicine.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Gnter

    2003-10-01

    Hand hygiene becomes more important in community medicine not only since antibiotic resistant bacteria such as MRSA spread within the community. Hands may be colonized with transient microorganism in up to 75%. Among those transient pathogens S. aureus, C. difficile or the hepatitis C virus may be found. During patient care the number of microorganisms on the hands steadily increases. In addition hands may be contaminated with different kinds of germs even if only "clean" activities are carried out. Gloves may be worn but do not provide complete protection from contamination due to leaks. Therefore hands should always be treated after gloves are taken off. State-of-the-art treatment of hands is the hygienic hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. They are more effective, quicker to carry out, better tolerated by the skin, with a positive effect on compliance, and cost effective in comparison to antiseptic soaps based on chlorhexidine or triclosan and in comparison to normal non-medicated soaps. Healthy skin easily tolerates alcohol-based products from the beginning on. Only health care workers with an underlying irritative contact dermatitis which is often caused by bar or liquid antiseptic soaps may have difficulties to use alcohol-based products initially. In such a case treatment of the underlying skin condition is the way to go and not staying with a preparation which has caused the dermatitis. All this knowledge is now reflected in current guidelines on hand hygiene. Beside liquids alcohol-based gels can be used if they have an antimicrobial activity equal to alcohol-based liquid preparations. Hand hygiene remains the single most important tool to avoid cross transmission of microorganisms between patients. This state-of-the-art hand hygiene should also be emphasized more in community medicine. This review may help to go the first step into this direction. PMID:14626894

  11. Marketing hand hygiene in hospitals--a case study.

    PubMed

    Gopal Rao, G; Jeanes, A; Osman, M; Aylott, C; Green, J

    2002-01-01

    Hand hygiene of healthcare workers is frequently poor despite the efforts of infection control teams to promote hand decontamination as the most important method to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. In this case study, we describe how principles of societal marketing were applied to improve hand hygiene. Pre-marketing analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to implementation; attention to product, price, promotion and placement; and post-marketing 'customer' surveys were the essential components of the marketing strategy and its implementation. Placement of an alcohol-based gel decontaminant (Spirigel) at the bedside of every patient was widely welcomed in the hospital, and has played a major role in improving hand hygiene of healthcare workers. In the twelve months following the implementation, the decontaminant was used at least 440,000 times. The cost of purchasing the decontaminant was approximately 5000 pounds sterling. Following the introduction of Spirigel, there was a consistent reduction in the proportion of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in each of the quarters of 2000-2001 compared with 1999-2000. In the period 1999-2000, nearly 50% of the MRSA were hospital acquired compared with 39% in 2000-2001. Similarly, the average incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) decreased in each of the quarters in 2000-2001 following the introduction of Spirigel. During this period, there was an average incidence of 9.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions compared with 11.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions in 1999-2000. This represents a 17.4% reduction in the incidence of CDAD. However, this reduction was not statistically significant (P=0.2). Our case study demonstrates that principles of societal marketing methods can be used effectively to promote and sustain hand hygiene in hospitals. Improvement in hand hygiene will lead to considerable reduction in hospital-acquired infections. PMID:11825051

  12. Randomized trial of "bleach baths" plus routine hygienic measures vs. routine hygienic measures alone for prevention of recurrent infections.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Sheldon L; Forbes, Andrea; Hammerman, Wendy A; Lamberth, Linda; Hulten, Kristina G; Minard, Charles G; Mason, Edward O

    2014-03-01

    Children with probable community-associated Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue or invasive infections were randomized to routine daily hygienic measures with or without "bleach baths" twice a week for 3 months. Within 12 months, a medically attended recurrence occurred in 84 of 495 (17%) children using bleach baths compared to 103 of 492 (21%) of control participants (P = .15). PMID:24265356

  13. Dental Hygiene Education Workshop: Proceedings of Workshop on Dental Hygiene Education (Denver, Colorado, July 22-23, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    Proceedings from the first in a yearly series of conferences on dental hygiene education sponsored by the American Dental Hygienists' Association are presented. Three sessions are as follows: (1) "Society at Large: Economics, Cultural Trends, Work Trends, Demographics, and Technology" (Felix Kaufmann); (2) "The Health Care System: Changes and

  14. Impact of INICC Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach in ICUs in Four Cities in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Viegas, Mnica; Sztokhamer, Daniel; Benchetrit, Guillermo; Santoro, Beatriz; Lastra, Carlos Esteban; Romani, Adriana; Di Nbila, Beatriz Marta Alicia; Lanzetta, Diana; Fernndez, Leonardo J; Rossetti, Mara Adelaida; Migazzi, Claudia; Barolin, Clarisa; Martnez, Estela; Bonaventura, Claudio; Caridi, Maria de Los ngeles; Messina, Adriana; Ricci, Beatriz; Soroka, Luisa C; Fras, Mara Laura

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium multidimensional approach to hand hygiene in 11 intensive care units in 4 cities in Argentina and analyzed predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. We had a baseline period and a follow-up period. We observed 21 100 hand hygiene opportunities. Hand hygiene compliance increased from 28.3% to 64.8% (P = .0001). Males versus females (56.8% vs 66.4%; P < .001) and physicians versus nurses (46.6% vs 67.8%; P < .001) were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance. PMID:26035705

  15. Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana

    In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water to meet all domestic demands. Domestic water supply must be accompanied by appropriate sanitation and hygienic education.

  16. Microbial processes in frozen food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiges, O.

    Deep freezing of food and storage at -19 degC is a standard conservation procedure in food technology. The lower limit of growth of bacteria in food is from about -5 degC to about -8 degC, whereas the reproduction limit of yeasts is 2 to 3 degC lower. Storage temperatures above -10 degC should therefore not be used. At -18 degC, a commonly used storage temperature, no growth of microorganisms will occur. The microorganisms mainly found at the lower growth limit are Pseudomonas sp. and basidiomycete yeasts. The reduction in the number of microorganisms due to freezing, storage, and thawing is not of practical importance. Microbial enzymes, in particular lipases and proteases, are still active at -18 degC. Therefore, the quality of raw products and good hygiene at the production site are most important.

  17. Measuring healthcare worker hand hygiene activity: current practices and emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene compliance and providing healthcare workers with feedback regarding their performance are considered integral parts of multidisciplinary hand hygiene improvement programs. Observational surveys conducted by trained personnel are currently considered the "gold standard" method for establishing compliance rates, but they are time-consuming and have a number of shortcomings. Monitoring hand hygiene product consumption is less time-consuming and can provide useful information regarding the frequency of hand hygiene that can be used to give caregivers feedback. Electronic counting devices placed in hand hygiene product dispensers provide detailed information about hand hygiene frequency over time, by unit and during interventions. Electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems that utilize wireless systems to monitor room entry and exit of healthcare workers and their use of hand hygiene product dispensers can provide individual and unit-based data on compliance with the most common hand hygiene indications. Some systems include badges (tags) that can provide healthcare workers with real-time reminders to clean their hands upon entering and exiting patient rooms. Preliminary studies suggest that use of electronic monitoring systems is associated with increased hand hygiene compliance rates and that such systems may be acceptable to care givers. Although there are many questions remaining about the practicality, accuracy, cost, and long-term impact of electronic monitoring systems on compliance rates, they appear to have considerable promise for improving our efforts to monitor and improve hand hygiene practices among healthcare workers. PMID:21931253

  18. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff. PMID:26450863

  19. A Prospective Controlled Trial of an Electronic Hand Hygiene Reminder System.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Richard T; Barysauskas, Constance M; Rundensteiner, Elke A; Wang, Di; Barton, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    Background. ?The use of electronic hand hygiene reminder systems has been proposed as an approach to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, although information on efficacy is limited. We prospectively assessed whether hand hygiene activities among healthcare workers could be increased using an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and reminder system. Methods. ?A prospective controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 medical intensive care units (ICUs) at an academic medical center with comparable patient populations, healthcare staff, and physical layout. Hand hygiene activity was monitored concurrently in both ICUs, and the reminder system was installed in the test ICU. The reminder system was tested during 3 administered phases including: room entry/exit chimes, display of real-time hand hygiene activity, and a combination of the 2. Results. ?In the test ICU, the mean number of hand hygiene events increased from 1538 per day at baseline to 1911 per day (24% increase) with the use of a combination of room entry/exit chimes, real-time displays of hand hygiene activity, and manager reports (P < .001); in addition, the ratio of hand hygiene to room entry/exit events also increased from 26.1% to 36.6% (40% increase, P < .001). The performance returned to baseline (1473 hand hygiene events per day) during the follow-up phase. There was no significant change in hand hygiene activity in the control ICU during the course of the trial. Conclusions. ?In an ICU setting, an electronic hand hygiene reminder system that provided real-time feedback on overall unit-wide hand hygiene performance significantly increased hand hygiene activity. PMID:26430698

  20. A Prospective Controlled Trial of an Electronic Hand Hygiene Reminder System

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Richard T.; Barysauskas, Constance M.; Rundensteiner, Elke A.; Wang, Di; Barton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of electronic hand hygiene reminder systems has been proposed as an approach to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, although information on efficacy is limited. We prospectively assessed whether hand hygiene activities among healthcare workers could be increased using an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and reminder system. Methods. A prospective controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 medical intensive care units (ICUs) at an academic medical center with comparable patient populations, healthcare staff, and physical layout. Hand hygiene activity was monitored concurrently in both ICUs, and the reminder system was installed in the test ICU. The reminder system was tested during 3 administered phases including: room entry/exit chimes, display of real-time hand hygiene activity, and a combination of the 2. Results. In the test ICU, the mean number of hand hygiene events increased from 1538 per day at baseline to 1911 per day (24% increase) with the use of a combination of room entry/exit chimes, real-time displays of hand hygiene activity, and manager reports (P < .001); in addition, the ratio of hand hygiene to room entry/exit events also increased from 26.1% to 36.6% (40% increase, P < .001). The performance returned to baseline (1473 hand hygiene events per day) during the follow-up phase. There was no significant change in hand hygiene activity in the control ICU during the course of the trial. Conclusions. In an ICU setting, an electronic hand hygiene reminder system that provided real-time feedback on overall unit-wide hand hygiene performance significantly increased hand hygiene activity. PMID:26430698

  1. [Aspects of professional hygiene in dental technical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Brlcanu, L; Ichim, I; Adam, C; Constantin, I; Airinei, P

    1990-01-01

    Investigations on hygiene and sanitary conditions in a laboratory for dental techniques consisted in physico-chemical determinations on microclimate (temperature, humidity, air currents), determination of dust particles (suspended and sedimented), determination of gases (CO, CO2, NO2, NH3, SO4(2-), chloride ions), and determination of microelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd). In certain conditions the concentrations for dust, NO2, NH3, SO2(4-), chlorine and Cu were above the maximal accepted levels. Measures should be taken for the prevention and for the elimination of these noxious factors by implementing optimal hygienic conditions (heat, humidity, ventilation), by reducing gas emanations, by using protections equipment (mask, eyeglasses, gloves), and by periodic controls of the health status of dental technicians. PMID:2101266

  2. Enhanced Hygiene Measures and Norovirus Transmission during an Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Teunis, Peter; Morroy, Gabriella; Wijkmans, Clementine; Oostveen, Sandy; Duizer, Erwin; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We analyzed norovirus outbreaks in 7 camps at an international scouting jamboree in the Netherlands during 2004. Implementation of hygiene measures coincided with an 84.8% (95% predictive interval 81.2%–86.6%) reduction in reproduction number. This reduction was unexpectedly large but still below the reduction needed to contain a norovirus outbreak. Even more stringent control measures are required to break the chain of transmission of norovirus. PMID:19116045

  3. [Ergonomics, hygiene and rationality: the "electric house" of Monza (1930)].

    PubMed

    Colombo, A; Porro, A; Franchini, A F

    2012-01-01

    The "Electric House" of Monza is seen as one of the early example of rationalist architecture produced in Italy. Sponsored by the Italian Edison General Company for Electricity and produced by the Group 7, it was built for the "IV International Triennial Exhibition of Decorative and Modern Industry Arts", held in Monza in 1930. It was conceived as an environment in which the designers showed their interest towards new concepts of rationalist hygiene. Special care was taken to select the environments in relation to the surrounding nature and the needs of life of the house inhabitants: new materials more comfortable, hygienic and rational were inserted. In the kitchen, for example, the architect P. Bottoni, created a space in which the housewife's work was marked by lower energy expenditure, thanks to a careful study of the actions and movements according to the principles of taylorism, here applied to domestic work. PMID:23405778

  4. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A A ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  5. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  6. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed. PMID:15211822

  7. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention.

    PubMed

    Luong, T V

    2003-06-01

    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases. PMID:12775391

  8. Hygiene in the home: relating bugs and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Val; Biran, Adam; Deverell, Katie; Hughes, Clarissa; Bellamy, Kate; Drasar, Bo

    2003-08-01

    Much infectious intestinal disease (IID) arises in the home environment. If programmes to prevent infection are to be effective it is essential to both identify the particular practices that risk disease transmission, and to understand the reasons for these practices. An in-depth, multidisciplinary study of carer and child hygiene in the domestic environment in the Wirral, UK, employed structured observation, surface swabbing for polio vaccine virus and enteric marker organisms, semi-structured interviews, projective interviews and focus group discussions. Observations revealed that child carers washed hands with soap after changing a dirty nappy on 42% of occasions, and that one in five toilet users did not wash hands with soap afterwards. Microbiological samples were taken from household surfaces at sites thought likely to be involved in the transfer of faecal material. 15% of bathroom samples showed contamination with polio vaccine virus. Nappy changing took place mainly in living rooms. Contact with living room surfaces and objects during nappy changing was frequent and evidence of faecal contamination was found in 12% of living room samples. Evidence of faecal contamination was also found in kitchens, again on surfaces thought likely to be involved in the transmission of faeces (taps and soap dispensers). Key factors motivating hygiene were the desire to give a good impression to others, protection of the child and aesthetics. In this setting, the particular risk practices to be addressed included washing hands with soap after stool and nappy contact and preventing the transfer of pathogenic organisms to the kitchen. The occasion of the birth of a child may be a privileged moment for the promotion of safer home hygiene practices. Using polio vaccine virus as an indicator of faecal contamination produces results that could be used in large-scale studies of household disease transmission. A better understanding of the household transmission of the agents of IID using multidisciplinary methods is needed if effective hygiene promotion programmes are to be designed. PMID:12821014

  9. Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board. PMID:24385532

  10. Influence of legal standards on the practice of industrial hygiene.

    PubMed

    Corn, M

    1976-06-01

    Prescriptive standards for the work environment affect the professional practice of industrial hygiene. Among the advantages are: legal requirements reinforce professional recommendations; penalties encourage abatement of hazards; compliance should ensure a safe and healthful environment; recordkeeping requirements will provide a basis for future action. Among the disadvantages are: rigid evaluation procedures, reporting format, etc., discourage professional judgment and development of new methods; professional reports become legal documents; single standards do not focus on the total environment. PMID:937174

  11. Food, Environment and Health: A Guide for Primary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trefor; And Others

    This book for primary school teachers provides a practical collection of facts, advice, projects, games, stories, and sample questions for use in teaching children the importance of healthy habits. Food, personal hygiene, and the home environment are areas of particular concern. Details range from advice on ways to start a school garden or design

  12. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and

  13. Variety in dustiness and hygiene quality of peat bedding.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Sanna; Heiskanen, Minna-Liisa; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Laitinen, Juha; Laitinen, Sirpa; Linnainmaa, Markku; Rautiala, Sirpa

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory exposure to organic dust induces chronic pulmonary diseases both in farmers and horses. The aim of this study was to examine the variation of dustiness and hygiene quality of peat moss bedding. Materials studied were weakly decomposed sphagnum peat (A), weakly decomposed sphagnum peat warmed up in storage (> 30 degrees C) (B) and two more decomposed few-flowered sedge peats (C and D). The geometric mean of mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinomycetes were determined from the material. Samples of inhalable dust and endotoxins were collected with IOM samplers and respirable dust with 10M foam samplers when the peat was rotated in a cylinder. The number of particles was detected with an optical particle counter. An LAL assay was used for analysing endotoxins from the filter samples. There were differences in the hygiene quality and dustiness between peat materials (p < 0.01). The geometric mean of fungi was smallest in material A. Warming-up increased the number of fungi in sphagnum peat, but on the other hand, it decreased the content of endotoxin (p < 0.01). Few-flowered peat materials contained thermophilic actinomycetes and material D also contained Aspergillus fumigatus. The concentrations of inhalable dust, respirable dust and the number of particles were smaller in the few-flowered peats (C-D) than in the sphagnum peats (A-B). It is concluded that there are differences in the dustiness and hygiene quality of peat bedding. PMID:16028867

  14. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. PMID:26838891

  15. Measuring hygiene and health perfomance of buildings: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Capolongo, S; Buffoli, M; Oppio, A; Rizzitiello, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative and transparent methodology to support the "ASL Milano" (Local Health Agency) in the hygiene and health evaluation of construction projects, in order to highlight their positive and negative performance beyond the requirements imposed by the current laws and regulations regarding buildings' hygiene performance, which are too old and therefore unsuitable to ascertain the real quality of indoor environments. The compliance with laws or regulations, mostly out of date, and the assessment of performance involving only a part of the current emerging needs and problems, in fact, should be considered as a necessary, although not a sufficient step, to ensure high quality indoors. Consequently, it is necessary to identify and test an assessment tool which could provide an effective and flexible support for the development of hygiene and health statements regarding projects at building scale (new construction, conversion of the existing, rehabilitation, extension, change of use, etc). The assessment tool suggested by this paper is tailored for the metropolitan area of the city of Milan, but its evaluation framework could be developed and applied to other contexts. PMID:23471453

  16. Army occupational health and AEJA (Army Environmental Hygiene Agency)

    SciTech Connect

    Kneessy, A.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (AEHA) recently celebrated 38 years of continuous service in support of occupational health programs of the Army. This report briefly reviews its historical development, examine some of its current occupational and industrial hygiene programs, and touches on future program efforts. The Army Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, conducts surveys and investigations concerning occupational health hazards in Army-owned and operated industrial plants, arsenals and depots, and privately owned and operated ordnance explosive establishments. The end of World War II was the beginning of the nuclear age and attendant Medical Department responsibilities for radiation protection programs beyond the traditional concern for x-ray protection. The US Army has undertaken the demilitarization of obsolete and excess chemical munitions. The Medical Systems Safety and Health Branch is tasked to survey Army hospitals within the United States, to identify and recommend corrective action for safety and health hazards. At present, a continuing study is underway to evaluate the waste anesthetic gases to operating room personnel in Army hospitals. Noise-induced hearing loss is considered the most widespread occupational injury incurred by DA personnel.

  17. [Oral hygiene in pregnant women versus cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Gogacz, Ma?gorzata; Koby?ecka, Elzbieta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Proper oral hygiene is an essential element of dental caries prophylaxis and periodontitis. The aim of the study was evaluation of the oral health state and the state of periodontal in pregnant women in relation to the status of cigarette smoking. Survey and clinical studies were conducted in the group of 100 women--80% pregnant women and 20% in the first week of puerperium remaining at the gynaecological and obstetric hospital wards in Lublin and its region. The mean age of the investigated was 27.94. Study results revealed no correlation between the frequency of pregnant women tooth-brushing and the status of cigarette smoking or non-smoking. The average oral hygiene evaluated on the basis of API index was stated essentially more frequently in the group of non-smoking women (50%) in comparison with the smoking women (24.14%),, whereas improper oral hygiene was stated essentially more frequently in the group of smoking women (31.03%) in comparison with non-smokers (11.29%) (chi = 7.82, p < 0.05). No correlation was stated between the state of periodontal in smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. PMID:24501798

  18. Oral Health and Hygiene Content in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Rita A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the quantity and quality of oral hygiene content in a representative sample of before-licensure nursing fundamentals textbooks. Seven textbooks were examined. Quantity was operationalized as the actual page count and percentage of content devoted to oral health and hygiene. Quality of content was operationalized as congruency with best mouth care practices. Best mouth care practices included evidence-based and consensus-based practices as published primarily by the American Dental Association and supported by both published nursing research and review articles specific to mouth care and published dental research and review articles specific to mouth care. Content devoted to oral health and hygiene averaged 0.6%. Although the quality of the content was highly variable, nearly every textbook contained some erroneous or outdated information. The most common areas for inaccuracy included the use of foam sponges for mouth care in dentate persons instead of soft toothbrushes and improper denture removal. PMID:22567224

  19. [Oral hygiene customs in 6-12 year old schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Martnez, Csar Tadeo; Medina-Sols, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Mendoza-Rodrguez, Martha; Veras-Hernndez, Miriam; De la Rosa-Santillana, Rubn; Escoffi-Ramrez, Mauricio; Mrquez-Rodrguez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize utilization of oral hygiene devices and customs in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 schoolchildren (6- 12 year olds) from 14 public schools in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mxico, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic variables and 1) Tooth brushing frequency (<1/d vs. at least 1/d), 2) Use of toothpaste (not always vs. always), 3) Flossing (never, does not know vs. at least 1/week), 4) Use of mouthwash (never, does not know vs. at least 1/week). Analyses were performed with nonparametric tests. RESULTS. Mean age was 8.97 1.99 years; 50.1% were male. Prevalence of utilization of oral hygiene devices and associated customs were 85.5% tooth brushing, 90.9% toothpaste, 19.4% flossing, and 28.2% mouthwash. Only 11.8% of participants reported utilization in all 4 categories. We observed differences (p < 0.05) across sexes only in the use of toothpaste, as women used it more often. Differences across age were observed (p < 0.05) for tooth brushing (younger children brushed more often) and flossing (older children flossed more often). CONCLUSIONS. Tooth brushing was the oral hygiene practice more often performed in this sample, with other frequencies being relatively low. There were differences by age and sex across some variables. PMID:24960326

  20. Vaginal Hygiene and Douching: Perspectives of Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    Mckee, M Diane; Baquero, María; Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal douching is widely practiced by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction, and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women, and none has included the perspective of men, though limited data suggests that women may douche to please male partners. The present study seeks to identify the socially and culturally shaped beliefs and attitudes that influence douching practices from the perspective of Latino men. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews in English or Spanish with adult Latino men seeking primary care at a community health centre in New York City (USA). Results indicate that these Latino men (mostly of Caribbean descent) are emphatic about the role of cleanliness in vaginal health, reporting that it substantially influences their choice of partner. Most are very supportive of douching, which they consider a necessary hygiene activity. Vaginal health is perceived as a state that must be attained and maintained through proactive hygiene measures that remove seminal residue, menstrual blood, sweat and bacteria that contaminate the vagina. The implications of these findings for interventions with Latina women are discussed. PMID:19247860

  1. Bacterial contamination of stored water and stored food: a potential source of diarrhoeal disease in West Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Mlbak, K.; Hjlyng, N.; Jepsen, S.; Gaarslev, K.

    1989-01-01

    The food and water hygiene in two Liberian communities was studied in a house-to-house diarrhoea survey. The level of contamination with enterobacteria of drinking water stored in the households was significantly higher than at the water sources. Food hygiene standards were low, particularly in the urban slum where storage of cooked food for long periods led to bacterial multiplication at high levels. Infant foods were particularly heavily contaminated. It is concluded that when water supply programmes are planned, the presence of other risk factors for water-related diseases should be investigated. To ensure maximum health benefits, water projects should as a rule be accompanied by other interventions. PMID:2703024

  2. [The state of the art on nutrition, food safety and food security].

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Lorini, Chiara; Porchia, Barbara Rita; Capecchi, Leonardo; Malavolti, Marcella; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, public health is experiencing a phase of crisis. A contraction of services and a staff reallocation have affected in particular Food Hygiene services. We explored Pubmed and Google Ngram Viewer to define the state of the art of research in food and nutritional field from a quantitative point of view and we focused on some areas of interest in terms of improvement of professional practice. The Italian contribution to food and nutritional research is still limited. Our findings seem to demonstrate the need of an alliance between the world of research and Public Health services, so as to develop a sustainable and effective health system. PMID:25759336

  3. Thought for Food: A Starting Point for Children's Nutritional Meals. Accreditation and Beyond Series, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Debbie

    This publication is designed to assist early childhood providers, cooks, and parents in hygienic food preparation and a healthy diet provision for young children in Australian child care. The guide recommends nutritional requirements for children, using the five food groups as a guide for meal planning. The Australian dietary guidelines are also

  4. Food Safety and Sanitation Audiovisuals. January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegrove, Natalie

    The citations in this annotated bibliography focus on hygiene and sanitation in the preparation of food and standards for food service to the public. Materials cited can be obtained through interlibrary loan through a local library or directly from the National Agricultural Library. The bibliography was derived from online searches of the AGRICOLA

  5. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  6. Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Rheinlnder, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-11-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as 'purity', 'contamination', 'hygiene puzzles', and 'impression behaviors' from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives. PMID:18821020

  7. The effect of nanometer dimension topographical features on the hygienic status of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Verran, J; Rowe, D L; Boyd, R D

    2001-08-01

    Wear of food contact surfaces through abrasion may increase the surface roughness and introduce different topographical features. Both of these properties may enhance retention of soil and microorganisms and affect the surface cleanability. To test this hypothesis, stainless steel surfaces with topographical features and surface roughness (Ra) values simulating those of worn in-use surfaces were prepared. Surfaces were imaged and Ra values determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). These ranged from 23 to 900 nm. Surfaces were sprayed with standardized cell suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus and allowed to air dry and were then cleaned using a nonionic detergent delivered via a manual linear cleaning device. There was a 2-log reduction in numbers attached after cleaning, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the cleanability of the surfaces in terms of the numbers of cells per unit area remaining after cleaning, although cells appeared to be retained within topographical features. Thus, the simulated effect of wear of a hygienic food contact surface did not affect its cleanability after a one-off microbiological soiling event. AFM provided hitherto unavailable information on the topography of worn stainless steel surfaces. In future work, the surfaces will be repeatedly challenged with an organic soil-microorganism mixture after cleaning events, to provide a more rigorous, realistic test. PMID:11510657

  8. Impact of a Hygiene Curriculum and the Installation of Simple Handwashing and Drinking Water Stations in Rural Kenyan Primary Schools on Student Health and Hygiene Practices

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Minal K.; Harris, Julie R.; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

    2012-01-01

    School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half (intervention schools). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention. PMID:22869631

  9. Keeping Up Appearances: Perceptions of Street Food Safety in Urban Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food—not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as ‘purity’, ‘contamination’, ‘hygiene puzzles’, and ‘impression behaviors’ from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives. PMID:18821020

  10. Microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation.

    PubMed

    Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M

    2012-04-01

    The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place. PMID:22488059

  11. Food and waste management biotechnology for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.

  12. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a component of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Improving the infection control culture in veterinary medicine would facilitate future campaigns and studies in this area, as well as overall patient and staff safety. PMID:24885304

  13. Food system galley for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.; Turner, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Galley, a 42 man-day meal preparation facility (with flexibility to accomodate 210 man-days) is described. The facility is designed for minimum meal preparation and clean-up time in zero g and ease of servicing, maintenance, and removal in one gravity. The Galley provides a centralized location for performing all of the food-related functions (except dining) within the orbiter. Consideration is given to the oven-water heater, personal hygiene station, water dispensers, and water supply subsystem. The Galley is positioned in the orbiting mid deck, interfacing with rehydratable food packages and the waste collector subsystem.

  14. Effect of Hand Hygiene on Infectious Disease Risk in the Community Setting: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Allison E.; Coulborn, Rebecca M.; Perez, Vanessa; Larson, Elaine L.

    2008-01-01

    To quantify the effect of hand-hygiene interventions on rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses and to identify interventions that provide the greatest efficacy, we searched 4 electronic databases for hand-hygiene trials published from January 1960 through May 2007 and conducted meta-analyses to generate pooled rate ratios across interventions (N=30 studies). Improvements in hand hygiene resulted in reductions in gastrointestinal illness of 31% (95% confidence intervals [CI]=19%, 42%) and reductions in respiratory illness of 21% (95% CI=5%, 34%). The most beneficial intervention was hand-hygiene education with use of nonantibacterial soap. Use of antibacterial soap showed little added benefit compared with use of nonantibacterial soap. Hand hygiene is clearly effective against gastrointestinal and, to a lesser extent, respiratory infections. Studies examining hygiene practices during respiratory illness and interventions targeting aerosol transmission are needed. PMID:18556606

  15. The role of self-regulation in predicting sleep hygiene in university students.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jemma; Mullan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    University students have poor sleep hygiene, leading to poorer health. Facets of self-regulation such as planning, behavioural inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory were explored in relation to three sleep hygiene behaviours: Avoiding stress or anxiety before bed, avoiding going to bed hungry or thirsty, and making the bedroom restful. One hundred and thirty-seven participants took part in an Internet-based survey over two time points separated by a period of two weeks. Only cognitive flexibility and behavioural inhibition correlated with sleep hygiene. Cognitive flexibility significantly predicted an aspect of sleep hygiene after controlling for past behaviour. However, when past behaviour was controlled for, behavioural inhibition no longer predicted sleep hygiene. Thus, cognitive flexibility may play a role in explaining sleep hygiene; however, behavioural inhibition does not appear as important as previously assumed. Further research could build on this study to determine whether cognitive flexibility can be experimentally improved. PMID:22788412

  16. Oral Hygiene Status of Institutionalised Dependent Elderly in India a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The mean Debris Index and Plaque Index scores of dentate elderly were 2.870.22 and 3.170.40, respectively, the mean Denture Plaque and Denture Stomatitis scores were 3.150.47 and 1.430.68, respectively. Conclusion The dental hygiene was inadequate. This study emphasizes the care demand and the need for help in oral hygiene procedures for the dependent institutionalized elderly. PMID:26180560

  17. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training. PMID:25699224

  18. Culture change in infection control: applying psychological principles to improve hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Cumbler, Ethan; Castillo, Leilani; Satorie, Laura; Ford, Deborah; Hagman, Jan; Hodge, Therese; Price, Lisa; Wald, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Hand hygiene occurs at the intersection of habit and culture. Psychological and social principles, including operant conditioning and peer pressure of conforming social norms, facilitate behavior change. Participatory leadership and level hierarchies are needed for sustainable patient safety culture. Application of these principles progressively and significantly improved hand hygiene compared with the hospital aggregate control. Changes to hand hygiene auditing and response processes demonstrate ability to improve and sustain adherence rates within a clinical microsystem. PMID:23669615

  19. Saving time and resources: observational research to support adoption of a hand hygiene promotion campaign.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching; Mabry, Amanda; Champlin, Sara; Stroever, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent the spread of health care-associated infections, but many facilities may not have the resources or expertise to develop their own hand hygiene promotion campaign. This observational study demonstrated that a campaign developed for 1 facility could successfully contribute to behavior change at another, unrelated facility. It serves as a model and evidence that health care facilities can successfully adopt hand hygiene promotion campaigns developed and validated at other facilities. PMID:25841650

  20. Industrial Hygiene Group: 1986 Annual report on research and special activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, H.J.

    1987-11-01

    This report details all the 1986 research activities and some selected operational programs of the Industrial Hygiene Group. During 1986, research studies were directed at: respiratory protection, personal protective clothing, applied industrial hygiene, and aerosols and air cleaning. In several instances, the transfer of technology, previously developed by the Industrial Hygiene Group, is described together with the application of research developments to operational health protection programs.

  1. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers. PMID:26219368

  2. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such factors. Efficient and individualized sleep hygiene strategies may consequently be proposed. PMID:26275673

  3. Sequential hygienic behavior in Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica).

    PubMed

    Gramacho, K P; Gonalves, L S

    2009-01-01

    We examined the sequence, order or steps of hygienic behavior (HB) from pin-killed pupae until the removal of them by the bees. We conducted our study with four colonies of Apis mellifera carnica in Germany and made four repetitions. The pin-killing method was used for evaluation of the HB of bees. The data were collected every 2 h after perforation, totaling 13 observations. Additionally, for one hygienic colony and another non-hygienic colony, individual analyses of each dead pupa were made at every observation, including all details, steps or sequences of HB. The bees recognize the cells containing dead pupae within 2 h after perforation, initially making a hole in the capping, which is the beginning of HB. Uncapping of the dead brood cell reached maximum values from 4 to 6 h after perforation; after 24 h, practically all cells were already uncapped. Another variable, called brood partially removed, was analyzed 4 h after perforation, after the cells had been perforated, which involved uncapping, followed by partial or total removal of the brood. Maximum values of brood partially removed were found 10 h after perforation, though such cells could be found up to 48 h after perforation. The most frequent sequence of events in both colonies was: capped cell --> punctured cell --> brood partially removed --> empty cell. A new model of three pairs of recessive genes (uncapping u1, u2 and remover r) was proposed in order to explain the genetic control of the HB in Apis mellifera. We recommend evaluating HB 24 h after perforation and using a correction factor to compensate for control removal levels. We found a series of details of HB, which allow a study of how various factors may affect the sequence of the activities involved in HB and investigation of the genetics that controls this process. PMID:19554764

  4. Oral hygiene and root caries occurrence in Slovenian adults.

    PubMed

    Vehkalahti, M M; Vrbic, V L; Peric, L M; Matvoz, E S

    1997-02-01

    This study investigated root caries related findings made in connection with basic clinical dental routines. A total of 410 adults, mean age 42.8 years, seeking dental care in two Slovenian communities, rural Ravne and urban Ljubljana, during a three-month period, were clinically examined for root caries. Primary root caries was defined as a softened yellowish-brown lesion gently penetrable by an explorer and situated principally on a root surface. Past root caries was defined as fillings at a similar location. A subject's oral hygiene was judged clinically as good, fair or poor, based on presence of dental plaque and subgingival calculus. Subjects' background variables included age, gender, and number of teeth. Subjects had on average 23.1 teeth, from which 0.8 teeth had primary root caries and 0.4 had fillings on root surfaces. Primary root caries occurred in 42 per cent of subjects, in 38 per cent of men and 45 per cent of women (P = 0.21), but fillings on root surfaces in only 19 per cent of the subjects, 11 per cent of men and 25 per cent of women (P = 0.001). The strongest factors explaining the presence of root caries, with control for other factors, were poor oral hygiene (odds ratio 3.1), smaller number of teeth (odds ratio 2.3 to 2.7), and older age (odds ratio 2.1). In conclusion, in everyday clinical dental practice, more emphasis should be placed on patients' proper oral hygiene and their encouragement and motivation to achieve it. PMID:9448786

  5. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public–private partnerships. PMID:23530770

  6. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  7. Problems of equipment creation for hygienic treatment of textiles (underwear, garments, hygienic towels and napkins) for long-term space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilina, I.

    Impossibility of just in time stocks delivery to the International Space Station ISS because of Shuttle space flights absence has led to forced changing of standards of underwear garments and personal hygiene means using Therefore hygienic treatment of textiles underwear garments towels and napkins are necessary for long-term space flight missions Investigations into the ways of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply are prepared The resent equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply were created for space flight conditions with an opportunity of stocks updating This investigations are confirm necessity of new generation system creation for cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply and special designing of hygienic treatment laundry drying equipment and technologies for long-term space flights without an opportunity of stocks updating in particular for martian mission One from main requirements for equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply is full safety for human organisms under systematic and long-term application in space flight conditions small energy consumption and combining with space Life-Support Systems Method and program of experimental investigations of textiles laundry with application of washing means for long-term space flight conditions are prepared It is necessary to estimate opportunity and efficiency of washing means application for textiles laundry for space flight missions also to estimate compatibility of washing means for textiles laundry and for washing

  8. [The organic carbon--issues of hygienic regulation and harmonization].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, E A; Kuznetsov, E O; Smagina, N V; Slyshkina, T V; Akramov, R L; Brusnitsina, L A; Nitsak, G B; Nikonova, S V

    2013-01-01

    This study is devoted to the investigation of possibility to use the total organic carbon as regulated index in drinking water as well as to the issues of hygienic regulation and harmonizing this index with the standards of other countries. Basing on the results of 3 years lasting investigation carried out by Municipal Unitary Enterprise "Vodokanal" of Yekaterinburg city permits to propose as the most informative and reliable index of the presence of organic substances in drinking water the content of total organic carbon in comparison with currently regulated permanganate oxidability, chemical and biochemical oxygen consumption. PMID:24624824

  9. [The success of hygiene in the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Thofern, E

    1989-04-01

    In Germany, the last period of the Second World War and the following years were characterized by deficiencies of hygiene which had not occurred previously in Middle Europe during the 20th century. There were focuses of typhus, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, and meningitis. Insufficiencies in the removal of faeces caused high incidences of shigellosis, hepatitis A, and ascariasis. As a result of insufficient body care, many people were infested with fleas, lice and scabies. The migration of large proportions of the population resulted in an increasing prevalence of syphilis an gonorrhea. As the population resettled, the first steps towards reorganization of public health could be done. The spread of typhoid fever was controlled by drinking-water disinfection with chlorine, repair of sewage systems, and patient isolation. The application of DDT helped to reduce scabies and pediculosis, resulting in decreasing typhus risks. During the first two decades after the war, there was a steady decrease of the incidence of infectious diseases. The reconstruction of the towns resulted in improved housing conditions and a decreasing number of persons per housing area, reducing the intensity of physical contacts of the inhabitants with each other. The nutrition and clothing situation of the population improved, which, in addition to a general rise of the standards of hygiene, brought about an increase of the individual resistance to infection. A further reduction of sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases was achieved by the introduction of chemotherapy and antibiotics. Increasing prosperity was accompanied by new problems of hygiene. Infectious diseases almost eradicated in West Germany, were imported by air travellers. Ten imported cases of smallpox were reported between 1957 and 1972, eight of which originated from Southeast Asia. Malaria, imported by German and foreign soldiers, had not been uncommon after the end of the war but had been easy to control by insecticides and antimalarials. As tourism expanded, a new wave of imported malaria cases was reported. In West Germany there is, however, no more spread of the disease under present conditions, cholera caused similar problems. The 1961 cholera epidemic started in Southeast Asia and caused minor outbreaks in Mediterranean countries like Italy and Spain. A significant spread of the disease throughout Europe was prevented by generally high standards of drinking water and sewage treatment. Sporadic cases of typhoid fever were imported from countries with low standards of hygiene.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2500798

  10. Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

    2015-02-01

    The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P=0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P=0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P=0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3)colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen production and audits in such AI centers for the external control of hygiene parameters. PMID:25459424

  11. [Visual hygiene in LED lighting. Modern scientific imaginations].

    PubMed

    Deynego, V N; Kaptsov, V A

    2014-01-01

    There are considered a classic and modern paradigm of perception of light and its impact on human health. To consider the perception of light as a complex self-organizing synergistic system of compression of information in the process of its sequencing was supposed. This allowed to develop a complex of interrelated measures, which may become the basis for modern hygiene, and determine requirements for the led lamp with biologically adequate spectrum of the light, for which there were obtained patents in Russia, Europe and USA. PMID:25831930

  12. [The making of hygienic modernity in Meiji Japan, 1868-1905].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2003-06-01

    This article is based on conceptual and methodological understanding of hygienic modernity in the nineteenth-century Western countries: one is the concept of modern hygiene in the context of modern state and the other is methodological relation of modern hygiene to scientific theory of germ . While modern state calls for the institutionalization of medical police as an administrative tool for consolidating the governmentality what Michel Foucault calls, scientific 'invention' of germ may be considered as 'logical, philosophical and historiographical'. Furthermore, the Meiji medicine men preferred Koch's to Pasteur's laboratory framework, not because the former was scientific than the latter but because Koch's programs were more compatible with imperial needs. The objective of this paper is to investigate four ways in which hygienic modernity had been established in Meiji Japan; (i) how Meiji imperialists perceived and managed to control Japanese hygienic condition, (ii) how Meiji-leading doctors learned about the German modern system of hygiene to consolidate Meiji empire; (iii) how modern germ theory functioned as the formation of imperial bodies in Meiji period; and (iv) how modem military hygiene contributed to Japanese defeat of Russia. Although I try to contend that modern hygiene was adopted as one of the most significant strategies for intensifying and extending the Meiji empire, this paper has some limits in not identifying how Japanese perception of infectious diseases were culturally adaptive to science-based hygienic programs the Meiji administrators had installed. PMID:14565202

  13. The relationship between hand hygiene and health care-associated infection: it’s complicated

    PubMed Central

    McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The reasoning that improved hand hygiene compliance contributes to the prevention of health care-associated infections is widely accepted. It is also accepted that high hand hygiene alone cannot impact formidable risk factors, such as older age, immunosuppression, admission to the intensive care unit, longer length of stay, and indwelling devices. When hand hygiene interventions are concurrently undertaken with other routine or special preventive strategies, there is a potential for these concurrent strategies to confound the effect of the hand hygiene program. The result may be an overestimation of the hand hygiene intervention unless the design of the intervention or analysis controls the effect of the potential confounders. Other epidemiologic principles that may also impact the result of a hand hygiene program include failure to consider measurement error of the content of the hand hygiene program and the measurement error of compliance. Some epidemiological errors in hand hygiene programs aimed at reducing health care-associated infections are inherent and not easily controlled. Nevertheless, the inadvertent omission by authors to report these common epidemiological errors, including concurrent infection prevention strategies, suggests to readers that the effect of hand hygiene is greater than the sum of all infection prevention strategies. Worse still, this omission does not assist evidence-based practice. PMID:25678805

  14. The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Irish, Leah A; Kline, Christopher E; Gunn, Heather E; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica H

    2015-08-01

    The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) improve sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over sleep has increased demand for sleep promotion strategies accessible to the population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene strategies apply outside clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for sleep hygiene recommendations regarding exercise, stress management, noise, sleep timing, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed. PMID:25454674

  15. Industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.F.

    1992-07-23

    The Industrial Hygiene Section of the Health Protection Department provides industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site. This report describes support operations and summarizes the industrial hygiene data collected from July 31, 1989 through June 30, 1991. Air quality data were collected by means of personnel sampling by active and passive techniques using various kinds of industrial hygiene instrumentation and through localized and general area monitoring. The data collected were used to evaluate underground air quality and quantity requirements; evaluate worker exposures to a variety of air contaminants; determine the applicability and effectiveness of personal protective equipment.

  16. Food control in Switzerland: an overview.

    PubMed

    Deflorin, Otmar

    2014-10-01

    Switzerland is a confederation consisting of 26 states, the so-called 'cantons'. In the field of food control, the Swiss federal state is in charge of issuing the regulations (Food law and associated texts), whereas enforcement is assigned to the cantons. The offices in charge of food control are the cantonal laboratories headed by a 'Cantonal chemist'. These offices pursue three main goals: to protect consumer health, to protect the consumer against frauds and to ensure food handling under good hygiene conditions. To that purpose, the Cantonal chemist heads both a laboratory and a staff of inspectors, who are responsible for the control of food products (including meat and drinking water), the control of hygiene and production at factories, stores, restaurants, etc. as well as the control of common goods and household items such as toys, clothing, make-up, dishes, cookware, jewelry and so on. All laboratories and inspection bodies are accredited according to ISO norms EN 17'020 and EN 17'025. The offices headed by the cantonal chemists analyze annually about 110'000 samples on sale or from factories, whereas the inspection bodies perform roughly 45'000 inspections (without primary producers and occasional importers). PMID:25437157

  17. Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Children / Preschoolers Food Safety Print Share Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. ...

  18. Food allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    Allergy to food ... that contain gluten ( celiac disease ) A true food allergy is much less common. The immune system normally ... a problem. In a person with a food allergy, the immune response is oversensitive. When it recognizes ...

  19. Probiotics and food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the “hygiene hypothesis” low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions. Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells. Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders. PMID:23895430

  20. Recruitment of Dental Hygiene Students from Underrepresented Minority Groups: A National Survey of U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer M; Kinney, Janet S; Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how U.S. undergraduate dental hygiene programs recruit students, especially students from underrepresented minority (URM) groups, and how the program directors value recruiting those students, how satisfied they are with their efforts, which practices they use, and which challenges they encounter. Relationships between diversity-related recruitment motivation and satisfaction and the program and recruitment characteristics were also explored. Survey data were collected from 56 of the 287 programs that could be successfully contacted with individual emails to their directors (response rate: 20%). The majority of responding programs recruited students into their programs by using written materials (91%), websites (91%), on-campus events (77%), and high school visits (52%). However, only 20% had written materials and 13% special events for recruiting students from URM groups. While 75% of the responding program directors considered high grade point averages (GPAs) to be a priority and 85% thought high GPAs were important/very important when recruiting students, only 17% considered it a priority to recruit URM students, and only 35% reported thinking it was important/very important to do so. The more of a priority it was to have a diverse student body and the more important the respondents considered it, the more likely they were to have written URM-specific recruitment materials (r=0.34; p<0.05/r=0.39; p<0.01). The more the respondents valued ACT scores, the less likely they were to engage in URM-specific recruitment efforts (r=-0.38; p<0.05/r=-0.34; p<0.05). If the dental hygiene profession is to better reflect the racial/ethnic makeup of the U.S. population, dental hygiene programs' considerations and efforts related to the recruitment of URM students need to be reconsidered. PMID:26427776

  1. Fluoride concentration in saliva after use of oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Campus, Guglielmo; Lallai, Maria Rosario; Carboni, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this in vivo, single-blind, randomized study was to compare fluoride concentrations in saliva of patients treated with oral hygiene products containing different fluoride salts. The study involved 104 students attending the University of Sassari. Participants were subdivided: group A used a sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP) toothpaste; groups B and C used an amine fluoride (AmF) toothpaste; group D used a toothpaste and a mouthwash both based on AmF, and group E used a toothpaste and a varnish both on an NaMFP base. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected at baseline (t(0)), at the end of the 20 days' treatment phase (t(1)) and after 24 h, during which the volunteers refrained from any oral hygiene measure (t(2)). Saliva fluoride concentrations were measured using an ion-specific electrode. All measurements were made in triplicate and analysed statistically using ANOVA. In saliva, the mean fluoride concentration increased significantly in each treatment group. In conclusion, the fluoride concentration in saliva can be maintained to an optimal therapeutic level with the regular use of fluoridated products. PMID:12566642

  2. [Hygienic and commercial quality of Senegalese frozen shrimp].

    PubMed

    Seydi, M; Niang, P N

    1993-01-01

    100 samples of shrimps (frozen entire raw shrimps: FERS and frozen peeled raw shrimps: FPRS) collected in one urban factory, were studied to assess their hygienic and commercial quality. In addition to bacteriological analysis, the dosage of residual bisulphite content was carried out. It appeared that: level of aerobic plate was high for FERS: 2.55.10(4)/g and weak for FPRS: 2.45.10(5)/g; level of psychrotophic micro organisms was relatively high for FERS: 1.07.10(4)/g and very weak for FPRS: 0.53.10(4)/g; level of fecal coliform was high for fers: 30.62/g and FPRS: 68.75/g; Staphylococcus aureus and Anaerobic sulphite reducing organisms counts were low; neither salmonella nor Vibrio parahaemolyticus was found; residual bisulphite content is higher than the standard in 10 p.100 of samples. The upholding of the exported level of senegalese shrimps implies and improvement of their hygienic quality. PMID:7882843

  3. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Sandy; Hunt, Caroline; Boisson, Sophie; Bostoen, Kristof; Curtis, Val; Fung, Isaac CH; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Ever since John Snows intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality. Methods We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta disposal, respectively. The estimated effect on diarrhoea mortality was determined by applying the rules adopted for this supplement, where appropriate. Results The striking effect of handwashing with soap is consistent across various study designs and pathogens, though it depends on access to water. The effect of water treatment appears similarly large, but is not found in few blinded studies, suggesting that it may be partly due to the placebo effect. There is very little rigorous evidence for the health benefit of sanitation; four intervention studies were eventually identified, though they were all quasi-randomized, had morbidity as the outcome, and were in Chinese. Conclusion We propose diarrhoea risk reductions of 48, 17 and 36%, associated respectively, with handwashing with soap, improved water quality and excreta disposal as the estimates of effect for the LiST model. Most of the evidence is of poor quality. More trials are needed, but the evidence is nonetheless strong enough to support the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene for all. PMID:20348121

  4. Is the Hygiene Hypothesis an Example of Hormesis?

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, John A.; Lewis, R. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    The “hygiene hypothesis” has been suggested to explain the rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries. The postulated mechanism is that infectious and/or microbial agents stimulate the immune system toward Th1 (allergy fighting) rather than Th2 (allergy promoting) response. This paper reviews the evidence related to early life infectious/microbial exposures and subsequent atopic disorders and evaluates whether these data suggest a hormetic effect. Our review indicates an insufficient and contradictory association for bacterial/viral infections, with protective effects being either absent or specific to certain infections and/or populations. Chronic, heavy parasitic burdens appear to confer protection against atopic disorders, but are associated with considerable pathology. Moreover, light parasitic burden may increase allergic responses (i.e., no “low dose” beneficial effect). In contrast, there is consistent evidence that general microbial exposures, particularly gut commensals, may be protective against allergy development, which is consistent with a hormetic effect (i.e., potentially beneficial effects at low doses and detrimental effects at high levels). Conclusion: General microbial exposures in relation to the “hygiene hypothesis” may represent a hormetic effect, although further research with more rigorous study methods (i.e., prospective designs and measurement of exposure timing, dose, route, etc.) are needed. PMID:19330119

  5. A successful multifaceted strategy to improve hand hygiene compliance rates.

    PubMed

    Midturi, John K; Narasimhan, Aarthi; Barnett, Teresa; Sodek, Jamie; Schreier, William; Barnett, Jesse; Wheeler, Charlotte; Barton, Libby; Stock, Eileen M; Arroliga, Alejandro C

    2015-05-01

    Health care-acquired infections are a major contributor of mortality; therefore, prevention of these infections is a priority. Hand hygiene compliance among health care workers is low. We report the process at our institution to increase the hand hygiene compliance rate (HHCR).We implemented interventions over 6months. The periods were divided into preintervention, intervention, and postintervention, and the monthly HHCR was calculated. The primary objective was to measure the HHCR after the intervention period and ensure sustainability. There were 25,372 observations, with 22,501 compliant events, for an overall HHCR of 88.7%. The HHCR improved over time (preintervention, 72.7%; invention, 79.7%; postintervention, 93.2%), with significance between pre-and postintervention periods (P<.002). The HHCR stabilized after all interventions and was sustained over 22months. Our study highlights a multifaceted intervention, including administrative leadership, that led to an increase in the HHCR. Institutions should individualize their multimodal approach to include administrative leadership to achieve a high, sustained HHCR. PMID:25769618

  6. [Construction hygiene in the area of bathing and recreation].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, H G

    1992-08-01

    Construction hygiene in the bathing and recreation areas underwent many changes during the decades. In each case it was accomplished very intensively and defined by the actual needs of the population or by those responsible for the population. With regard to the development of bathing since the Romans, the bathing habits of the Roman times, during the Middle Ages, at the 18th century, at the beginning of the 19th century and of today are characterized broadly. The respective constructional as well as the hygienic measures are also shown and discussed in this context. Whereas the Roman thermals created prerequisites for physical activity as well as possibilities for spare time, and in the early Middle Ages, sexual excesses and the risk factors connected thereby led to the transfer of infectious diseases and consequently to the elimination of the public baths. At the beginning of the 18th century first the cleaning of the body and at the beginning of the 20th century physical activity became very important. With the help of the construction plans for baths and shower-baths and swimming pools of 1906 the aims and purposes of the baths are discussed and the respective constructional changes are shown the example of warm water baths (swimming pools) in Hamburg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1392278

  7. eBug--teaching children hygiene principles using educational games.

    PubMed

    Kostkova, Patty; Farrell, David; de Quincey, Ed; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna; McNulty, Cliodna

    2010-01-01

    Technology enhanced education has been recently established as a new approach for all stages of education. However, among these new IT media it is computer games playing the central role in delivering education in particular to children and teenagers, however, real world sound evaluation is often given little attention. The EU funded e-Bug project developed web games aimed at children to teach basic principles of prudent antibiotics use, hand and respiratory hygiene and aims to reinforces an awareness of microbes, hand and respiratory hygiene among junior and senior school children in 10 countries in Europe. An educational pack implemented in schools across Europe is complemented by Internet web games for two age groups teaching a set of learning objectives (LOs) using a fast and interactive platform game design for junior children and investigate detective games based on PBL principles for senior children. In this paper, we present the design of e-Bug junior and senior games and evaluation results. PMID:20841757

  8. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  9. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  10. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

  11. CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

  12. Development of an empirical mathematical model for describing and optimizing the hygiene potential of a thermophilic anaerobic bioreactor treating faeces.

    PubMed

    Lbken, M; Wichern, M; Bischof, F; Prechtl, S; Horn, H

    2007-01-01

    Poor sanitation and insufficient disposal of sewage and faeces are primarily responsible for water associated health problems in developing countries. Domestic sewage and faeces are prevalently discharged into surface waters which are used by the inhabitants as a source for drinking water. This paper presents a decentralized anaerobic process technique for handling of such domestic organic waste. Such an efficient and compact system for treating faeces and food waste may be of great benefit for developing countries. Besides a stable biogas production for energy generation, the reduction of bacterial pathogens is of particular importance. In our research we investigated the removal capacity of the reactor concerning pathogens, which has been operated under thermophilic conditions. Faecal coliforms and intestinal enterococci have been detected as indicator organisms for bacterial pathogens. By the multiple regression analysis technique an empirical mathematical model has been developed. The model shows a high correlation between removal efficiency and both, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature. By this model an optimized HRT for defined bacterial pathogens effluent standards can be easily calculated. Thus, hygiene potential can be evaluated along with economic aspects. In this paper not only results for describing the hygiene potential of a thermophilic anaerobic bioreactor are presented, but also an exemplary method to draw the right conclusions out of biological tests with the aid of mathematical tools. PMID:17506425

  13. [Procedures for hand hygiene in German-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    Rotter, M

    1996-12-01

    According to the field of application, strategies for the prevention of the transfer of microbial skin flora from the hands must consider the various categories of flora: transient, resident or stemming from infected lesions on the hands (infection flora). Depending on the species and virulence of the microorganism and of the susceptibility of the infection target, transient flora may or may not be of pathogenic importance. In contrast, resident skin flora is usually regarded as pathogenic only under certain circumstances such as in surgery, especially with transplantation of foreign bodies and in highly susceptible hosts. Microorganisms stemming from infected lesions are of proven pathogenicity. In the non-surgical field, only the transient and infection flora from the hands play a role. Such lesions are an absolute contraindication for patient-care, preparation of pharmaceuticals or foodstuff. In some procedures, the transmission of transient flora can be prevented by use of the non-touch technique ("instruments instead of fingers") or by the intelligent use of protective gloves. Hands already contaminated may be rendered safe by procedures for the elimination of transients such as handwashing, hygienic handwash and hygienic hand rub (in the order of increasing efficacy). Among all useable chemicals, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol (in the order of increasing efficacy) are the strongest and fastest agents. Furthermore, the duration of treatment (between 30 and 60 s) significantly influences the achievable reduction of microbial release. According to the new European standards (CEN) for testing chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, products for hygienic handwash must be significantly more efficacious than unmedicated soap, on artificially contaminated hands. In contrast, products for the hygienic hand rub must not be significantly less efficacious than a reference disinfection including isopropanol 60% vol rubbed onto the hands of the same volunteers during 1 min. By this, the average reduction of microbial release amounts to 4.2 to 4.4 lg, in our hands. The effectiveness of procedures for the hygienic handwash is usually significantly lower than that of alcoholic rubs. Therefore, in hospitals, they can be used only in certain indications such as patient care in reverse isolation, preparation of pharmaceuticals or foodstuff. In the surgical field, where not only transient but also resident flora is a cause of post-operative infection, the microbial release from the hands of the surgical team into the surgical wound must be prevented by using surgical gloves. Because of frequent glove lesions, a surgical hand disinfection is usually performed before donning gloves to keep a possible inoculumn as small as possible. Also in this field of application, alcoholic rubs proved to be significantly more effective than washing hands with antiseptic detergents. There exists a strong positive correlation of the reduction of microbial release and the duration of hand treatment, between 1 and 5 min. The European test standards (CEN) require products for surgical hand disinfection to be at least as efficacious as a reference disinfection of clean hands, which are constantly rubbed and kept wet with n-propanol 60% vol during 3 min. By this, the achievable average reduction of the microbial release ranges between 2.0 and 2.4 lg. In contrast, antiseptic washing procedures with preparations containing povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate or triclosan reduce the bacterial release within 2-5 min only by 0.5 to 1.2 lg. Some of them exert a bacteriostatic sustaining effect which is not found with alcoholic preparations. This, however, is not necessary with the latter as the initial bacterial reduction is that strong that restitution of the skin flora takes > 3 hours. Alcoholic preparations are at least as tolerable for the skin as antiseptic detergents, if not better, if they contain suitable emollients. Because dilution renders alcohols i PMID:9409922

  14. [Hygienic characteristics of food hydrolysates made from small ocean fish and krill].

    PubMed

    Solomko, G I; Prudnikova, L V; Prokopenko, O V; Orlova, T A

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the biological value of acid and enzymatic hydrolysates from capelin, luminous anchovy and krill. Hydrolysates were obtained with the use of protosubtilin G-10-X or hydrochloric acid. The products were found to contain 39 to 64% of "crude" protein, with about 40% of total nitrogen belonging to non-protein one, 0.47-2.07% of lipids, 29.7-54.3% of mineral substances including 26.6-52.4% of sodium chloride. All the hydrolysates were limited in tryptophan, the deficiency being more demonstrable in acid hydrolysates. Enzymatic hydrolysate from luminous anchovy was rich in sulfur-containing amino acids (score 112%), whereas the remaining products were marked by their deficiency (score 53-90%). The products were rich in lysine, leucine, isoleucine, and aromatic amino acids. The anabolic efficacy was discovered to be the highest for enzymatic hydrolysate from luminous anchovy, exceeding the analogous characteristics for casein. The biological value of hydrolysate from capelin and krill was lower than that of casein. This was supported by the amino acid analysis data. The assimilability of all hydrolysates was established as fairly high. Hydrolysates are employed for manufacturing broth bricks and pastes. PMID:4082514

  15. [Current trends in the preservation of frozen fruits, as markers of hygienic quality of food].

    PubMed

    Martnez Javega, J M

    1995-03-01

    Spore germination and growth rate of pathogens can be greatly reduced by cooling right after harvest. Most tropical or subtropical crops, and even some temperate, fruits undergo from chilling injury (CI) at temperatures considerably above their freezing point. Several procedures have been designed to increase tolerance to CI. Prestorage temperature conditioning can reduce CI in subsequent cold storage. Intermittent warming interrupting the chilling period by periods at nonchilling temperatures may become a practical treatment to prolong the storage of chilling sensitive crops. Modified atmospheres extend the postharvest life of fruit by reducing their respiration rate. The maintenance of fruit in good physiological condition may result in considerable disease resistance. A direct effect against pathogens is also possible at concentrations of O2 lower than 1.8% or concentrations of CO2 higher than 10%. PMID:7546439

  16. 76 FR 59381 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs...). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Additional Public Notification Public awareness...

  17. 75 FR 61119 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation... opportunity provider and employer. Additional Public Notification Public awareness of all segments...

  18. Food safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on to the next food item. If your hands have any cuts or sores, wear gloves suitable for handling food or avoid preparing food. Avoid cross-contaminating food items. Separate meat, poultry, and ... your hands, utensils, and cutting board after they come into ...

  19. The development of a 'clean sheep policy' in compliance with the new Hygiene Regulation (EC) 853/2004 (Hygiene 2).

    PubMed

    Byrne, B; Dunne, G; Lyng, J; Bolton, D J

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the risk factors associated with the transfer of bacterial contamination from the fleece to the ovine carcass thereby providing the scientific basis for the development and validation of a clean sheep policy. Two hundred sheep in lairage were graded into five categories each consisting of 40 sheep. The categories were as follows; (A) clean and dry; (B) clean and wet; (C) dirty and dry; (D) dirty and wet and (E) visible dags (dung-clotted tufts of wool) categorized by the chief veterinary inspector at the slaughter plant based on the visual inspection of the hygienic status of the fleece. Microbiological evaluations of the carcasses were conducted using swab sampling methods. Total viable counts (TVCs), Enterobacteriaceae and coliform counts were obtained from 40 animals per category at four separate sites (brisket, shoulder, flank and rump) immediately after pelt removal. Statistical analysis of TVC data obtained from the carcass indicated that the dirt level of the fleece had a significant effect on contamination levels when the fleece was dry. Enterobacteriaceae and coliform counts suggest that dirt was a contributing risk factor regardless of wetness or dryness of the animal. The clean sheep policy should therefore differentiate between clean and dirty sheep and mandate additional hygiene measures for the latter. PMID:17188209

  20. [Food intolerance].

    PubMed

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana

    2009-05-01

    Adverse food reactions are common in the general population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the structure of food allergens and of the mechanisms involved is poor. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification based on the causative pathogenic mechanism. According to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into food allergies when they recognize immunological mechanisms and food intolerance when there are no immunological implications. The treatment of food intolerance is avoidance of the particular food. There are specific treatments for some food intolerance (beta-galactosidases for the management of lactose intolerance). PMID:19627745

  1. Student Perceptions of Effective Clinical Teaching Characteristics in Dental Hygiene Programs in Northeastern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearor, Dawn E.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical education component provided to dental hygiene students is an essential part of their development as competent practitioners. Instructor approaches to clinical teaching are therefore critical in providing quality clinical learning experiences. This study sought to identify dental hygiene students' perceptions of "best"

  2. Responses to Varroa by honey bees with different levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mite-resistance trait called suppression of mite reproduction (SMR) is a form of hygienic behavior that we have named varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). With VSH, adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) disrupt the population growth of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) by removing mite-infested bee p...

  3. Determinants of personal and household hygiene among college students in New York City, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Miko, Benjamin A.; Cohen, Bevin; Conway, Laurie; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have characterized the hygiene habits of college students, few have assessed the determinants underlying such behaviors. Objectives Our study sought to describe students' knowledge, practices, and beliefs about hygiene and determine whether there is an association between reported behaviors and frequency of illness. Methods A sample of 299 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, personal and household hygiene behaviors, beliefs and knowledge about hygiene, and general health status. Results Variation in reported hygiene habits was noted across several demographic factors. Women reported “always” washing their hands after using the toilet (87.1%) more than men (65.3%, P = .001). Similarly, freshmen reported such behavior (80.4%) more than sophomores (71.9%), juniors (67.7%), or seniors (50%, P = .011). Whereas 96.6% of participants thought that handwashing was either “very important” or “somewhat important” for preventing disease, smaller proportions thought it could prevent upper respiratory infections (85.1%) or gastroenteritis (48.3%), specifically. There was no significant relationship between reported behaviors and self-reported health status. Conclusion The hygiene habits of college students may be motivated by perceptions of socially acceptable behavior rather than scientific knowledge. Interventions targeting the social norms of incoming and continuing students may be effective in improving hygiene determinants and ultimately hygiene practices. PMID:22464037

  4. The Effect of an Extramural Program on the Perceived Clinical Competence of Dental Hygiene Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Janice M.; Vaught, Randall L.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the effect of an extramural rotation on dental-hygiene students' self-perceptions of competence in specific clinical areas. Results indicate student perceptions of competence improved significantly on six of 19 dimensions of dental-hygiene practice over the course of the rotation, suggesting that rotation is a valuable…

  5. Student Perceptions of Effective Clinical Teaching Characteristics in Dental Hygiene Programs in Northeastern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearor, Dawn E.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical education component provided to dental hygiene students is an essential part of their development as competent practitioners. Instructor approaches to clinical teaching are therefore critical in providing quality clinical learning experiences. This study sought to identify dental hygiene students' perceptions of "best"…

  6. Issues Associated with Developing a Dental Hygiene Baccalaureate Completion Program in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) and the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) supported the notion that the baccalaureate degree should be the entry-level degree for the dental hygiene profession. There was also clear evidence that there was a national shortage of baccalaureate-earned-minimum dental hygiene

  7. VARROA-INFESTED CELLS THAT ARE NOT REMOVED BY BEES WITH VARROA-SENSITIVE HYGIENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mite-resistance trait called suppression of mite reproduction (SMR) can be explained by a form of hygienic behavior that we call varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). With VSH, adult honey bees remove worker-bee pupae from brood cells infested with Varroa destructor. Objectives were (1) to define whic...

  8. Sleep Hygiene and Melatonin Treatment for Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Initial Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Margaret D.; Wasdell, Michael B.; Bomben, Melissa M.; Rea, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for initial insomnia in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-seven stimulant-treated children (6-14 years of age) with ADHD and initial insomnia (greater than 60 minutes) received sleep hygiene intervention. Nonresponders were…

  9. Improving the Awareness of Personal and Oral Hygiene in Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meleskie-Lippert, Kathleen

    The practicum reported here involved the design of a hygiene awareness unit to help 30 second-grade students in an inner-city school become aware of and improve their personal and oral hygiene, and to provide necessary knowledge concerning pediculosis. Surveys of students and faculty prior to the program demonstrated the need for such a program as…

  10. Early Childhood Special Education. Dental and Oral Hygiene Procedures for Young Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluder, R. S.; Luder, Linda C.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that children with special needs often require specific considerations with regard to dental care. Discusses some of the physical disabilities and how they interfere with dental hygiene, and how child caregivers can modify daily routines and assist disabled children with areas of hygiene the children may find difficult. (HTH)

  11. Knowledge of Dental Health and Oral Hygiene Practices of Taiwanese Visually Impaired and Sighted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.

  12. Knowledge of hand hygiene in undergraduate medical, dental, and nursing students: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Vaishnavi S.; Jadhav, Pradeep R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is of paramount importance for the prevention of healthcare associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. There is a need to explore the concept of hand hygiene among the cross-disciplinary undergraduate healthcare students. Aim: To evaluate and compare the knowledge of hand hygiene among medical, dental, and nursing undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 84 medical, 74 dental, and 40 nursing undergraduate students in a Tertiary Care Teaching Institute in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Knowledge was assessed using the World Health Organization hand hygiene questionnaire. The scores for each were calculated and compared. The scores were further graded as low, moderate, and good. Results: Overall, only 7.5% of the participants had good knowledge regarding hand hygiene while majority (69.1%) had moderate knowledge. Medical students’ hand hygiene knowledge was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of dental and nursing students. Conclusion: The overall low scores on hand hygiene knowledge indicate that undergraduate healthcare students require increased emphasis on hand hygiene education, behavior, and improvement in their current primary training as well as undergraduate curricula.

  13. Sleep Hygiene and Melatonin Treatment for Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Initial Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Margaret D.; Wasdell, Michael B.; Bomben, Melissa M.; Rea, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for initial insomnia in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-seven stimulant-treated children (6-14 years of age) with ADHD and initial insomnia (greater than 60 minutes) received sleep hygiene intervention. Nonresponders were

  14. Hygiene hypothesis in inflammatory bowel disease: A critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Koloski, Natasha A; Bret, Laurel; Radford-Smith, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The hygiene hypothesis is thought to be a significant contributor to the growing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) around the world, although the evidence for specific factors that underlie the hygiene hypothesis in IBD is unclear. We aimed to systematically review the literature to determine which hygiene-related factors are associated with the development of IBD. Publications identified from a broad based MEDLINE and Current Contents search between 1966 and 2007 on key terms relevant to the 'hygiene hypothesis' and IBD including H pylori exposure, helminths, cold chain hypothesis, measles infection and vaccination, antibiotic use, breastfeeding, family size, sibship, urban upbringing, day care attendance and domestic hygiene were reviewed. The literature suggests that the hygiene hypothesis and its association with decreased microbial exposure in childhood probably plays an important role in the development of IBD, although the strength of the supporting data for each of the factors varies considerably. The most promising factors that may potentially be associated with development of IBD include H pylori exposure, helminths, breastfeeding and sibship. However, the vast majority of studies in this area are plagued by serious methodological shortcomings, particularly the reliance on retrospective recall of information making it difficult to truly ascertain the importance of a 'hygiene hypothesis' in IBD. The 'hygiene hypothesis' in IBD is an important area of research that may give clues to the aetiology of this disease. Directions for future research are recommended. PMID:18186549

  15. Effects of brood type on Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) by worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees have been selectively bred for varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of pupae that are infested by Varroa destructor from capped brood cells. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells are inspected, and then brood is either remo...

  16. Penile Hygiene: Puberty, Paraphimosis and Personal Care for Men and Boys with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, N. J.; Cumella, S.; Parmenter, T. R.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Shuttleworth, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Supporting men and boys with an intellectual disability (ID) to meet their penile hygiene needs is perhaps one of the least acknowledged but most confronting issues facing care staff. The delivery of intimate hygiene can be a challenging topic particularly as it has been drawn into the emerging sexuality discourse and the ongoing abuse

  17. The impact of hygiene and localised treatment on the quality of drinking water in Masaka, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Uwimpuhwe, Monique; Reddy, Poovendhree; Barratt, Graham; Bux, Faizal

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of waterborne diseases has been attributed to the lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene. This study evaluated socio-demographic factors, microbiological quality of water at source and point of use (POU) at households, water handling and sanitation practices in a rural Rwandan community. Thirty five water samples from the source, Nyabarongo River, and water at point of use (POU) treated with the Slow Sand Filter (SSF) and Sr'Eau methods, were analysed for total coliform and faecal coliform counts. Turbidity was measured in household samples. A structured questionnaire regarding water collection, storage, usage and waterborne disease awareness was administered to 324 women. Despite the significant reduction in coliforms and faecal coliforms from the Nyabarongo River following treatment using either SSF or Sr'Eau, the water at point of use was found to be unsafe for human consumption. The frequency of diarrheal diseases were significantly higher among people who did not wash hands before food preparation (P = 0.002) and after using a toilet (P = 0.007) than among those who did. There was a statistically significant association between education levels and water treatment practices at the households (P < 0.05). Participants had limited knowledge regarding water storage practices for prevention of household water contamination. A combination of treatment methods with appropriate water handling should be considered. In addition, education is a fundamental precursor to advocating water treatment at POU. PMID:24345241

  18. Industrial-hygiene walk-through survey report of Tetra Pak, Inc. , Denton, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S.; Krishnan, E.R.; Goodman, R.J.

    1987-06-05

    A walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at the Tetra Pak Denton facility in Denton, Texas to determine possible employee exposure to acrylates or methacrylates. Acrylated inks and coatings have been used at this facility since 1984 to produce aseptic flexible packaging material for the food industry. There were three offset printing press lines used at the company, each with five offset presses to apply different colored inks. As many as five separate wet-on-wet applications of acrylated ink formulations sometimes preceded the coating application. After the inks were applied they were passed through an offset blanket coater. Following this step an electron-beam-curing unit radiated the inks and coating. Environmental enclosures surrounded the offset-printing presses in order to cut down on noise and mist. Of the 176 employees at this company, 37 had potential contact with acrylates. No air monitoring has been conducted at this facility for acrylates. One case of dermatitis arose at the company since 1984 and possibly was related directly to skin contact with acrylates. There was a safety program in place at the company and personnel records were maintained for each employee.

  19. [Disinfectants - bacterial cells interactions in the view of hygiene and public health].

    PubMed

    Książczyk, Marta; Krzyżewska, Eva; Futoma-Kołoch, Bożena; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of biocides has increased rapidly. One common example is triclosan, with wide application in households as well as medical and industrial fields, especially food industry and animal husbandry. Chemical disinfection is a major mean to control and eliminate pathogenic bacteria, particularly those with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. However, exposition to biocides results in an adaptive response in microorganisms, causing them to display a wide range of resistance mechanisms. Numerous microorganisms are characterized by either natural resistance to chemical compounds or an ability to adapt to biocides using various strategies, such as: modification of cell surface structures (lipopolisaccharide), membrane fatty acids), over-expression of efflux pumps (a system for active transport of toxic compounds out of bacterial cell), enzymatic inactivation of biocides or altering biocide targets. For instance, it was shown that in vitro exposition of Salmonella Typhimurium to subinhibitory concentration of biocides (triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds [QACs]) resulted in selection of variants resistant to tested biocides and, additionally, to acridine dyes and antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus strains isolated from chlorine dioxide containing disinfection devices were found to be resistant to chlorine dioxide and also to other oxidizing compounds, such as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Interaction between chemical compounds, including disinfectants and microbial cells, can create a serious threat to public health and sanitary-hygienic security. This phenomenon is connected with factor risk that intensify the probability of selection and dissemination of multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26400890

  20. Direct observation of hygiene in a Peruvian shantytown: not enough handwashing and too little water

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, William E.; Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Lescano, Andres G.; Cabrera, Lilia; Leontsini, Elli; Pan, William K.; Soldan, Valerie Paz; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To document frequency of hygiene practices of mothers and children in a shantytown in Lima, Peru. METHODS Continuous monitoring over three 12-h sessions in households without in-house water connections to measure: (i) water and soap use of 32 mothers; (ii) frequency of interrupting faecal-hand contamination by washing; and (iii) the time until faecal-hand contamination became a possible transmission event. RESULTS During 1008 h of observation, 55% (65/119) of mothers’ and 69% (37/54) of children's faecal-hand contamination events were not followed within 15 min by handwashing or bathing. Nearly 40% (67/173) of faecal-hand contamination events became possible faecal-oral transmission events. There was no difference in the time-until-transmission between mothers and children (P = 0.43). Potential transmission of faecal material to food or mouth occurred in 64% of cases within 1 h of hand contamination. Mean water usage (6.5 l) was low compared to international disaster relief standards. CONCLUSIONS We observed low volumes of water usage, inadequate handwashing, and frequent opportunities for faecal contamination and possible transmission in this water-scarce community. PMID:19055623

  1. Assessment of the hygienic performances of hamburger patty production processes.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Rahn, K; Sloan, K; McMullen, L M

    1997-05-20

    The hygienic conditions of the hamburger patties collected from three patty manufacturing plants and six retail outlets were examined. At each manufacturing plant a sample from newly formed, chilled patties and one from frozen patties were collected from each of 25 batches of patties selected at random. At three, two or one retail outlet, respectively, 25 samples from frozen, chilled or both frozen and chilled patties were collected at random. Each sample consisted of 30 g of meat obtained from five or six patties. Total aerobic, coliform and Escherichia coli counts per gram were enumerated for each sample. The mean log (x) and standard deviation (s) were calculated for the log10 values for each set of 25 counts, on the assumption that the distribution of counts approximated the log normal. A value for the log10 of the arithmetic mean (log A) was calculated for each set from the values of x and s. A chi2 statistic was calculated for each set as a test of the assumption of the log normal distribution. The chi2 statistic was calculable for 32 of the 39 sets. Four of the sets gave chi2 values indicative of gross deviation from log normality. On inspection of those sets, distributions obviously differing from the log normal were apparent in two. Log A values for total, coliform and E. coli counts for chilled patties from manufacturing plants ranged from 4.4 to 5.1, 1.7 to 2.3 and 0.9 to 1.5, respectively. Log A values for frozen patties from manufacturing plants were between < 0.1 and 0.5 log10 units less than the equivalent values for chilled patties. Log A values for total, coliform and E. coli counts for frozen patties on retail sale ranged from 3.8 to 8.5, < 0.5 to 3.6 and < 0 to 1.9, respectively. The equivalent ranges for chilled patties on retail sale were 4.8 to 8.5, 1.8 to 3.7 and 1.4 to 2.7, respectively. The findings indicate that the general hygienic condition of hamburgers patties could be improved by their being manufactured from only manufacturing beef of superior hygienic quality, and by the better management of chilled patties at retail outlets. PMID:9217106

  2. Needs assessment for emerging oral microbiome knowledge in dental hygiene education

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett

    2015-01-01

    The curricula of dental hygiene education reflect the knowledge gained through research and clinical advances. Emerging knowledge is often complex and tentative. The purpose of this study is to assess dental hygiene students' confidence in their knowledge about the oral microbiome and to conduct a knowledge needs assessment for expanding their exposure to emerging knowledge about the oral microbiome. Sixty dental hygiene students were surveyed, using a Likert-type scale about their confidence and about current and emerging bacteriological research. The majority of students (60%) reported being confident in their knowledge. The mean score for the ten items was 35.2% (standard deviation, 20.6%). The results of this study indicate a need for emphasis on emerging oral microbiome research in dental hygiene education. This is important so that dental hygiene students can properly share information with their patients about advances in dental care. PMID:26251844

  3. Reactivity in Rapidly Collected Hygiene and Toilet Spot Check Measurements: A Cautionary Note for Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Benjamin F.; Khush, Ranjiv S.; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford Jr., John M.

    2015-01-01

    Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hygiene or toilet promotion activities. Our data included hygiene and toilet spot checks from 10,427 household visits. We found substantial evidence of participant reactivity to spot check observations of hygiene practices that were easy to modify on short notice. For example, soap observed at the household's primary handwashing location increased from 49% at enrollment to 81% by the fourth visit and remained at or above 77% for the remainder of the study. PMID:25385856

  4. [Oral hygiene in the hadiths of the Holy Prophet, Mohammed S.A.V.S].

    PubMed

    Redzepagi?, S

    1997-01-01

    The problem of oral hygiene in contemporary dental medicine is the problem of successful maintainance of oral health. Contemporary dental medicine recommends the methods for maintaining of total oral hygiene, as preventive action against dental ills. Hadith of Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s. is a note about what he has done, recommended or amended. Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s. recommended entire hygiene of teeth, gums, through tooth brushing and washing mouths by water three times. Actually, this was the first time in the available literature that someone recommended maintaining of oral hygiene. It can be said without reserve that Muhammad s.a.v.s. has established a preventive dental medicine. Muslims are recommended to maintain hygiene through Holly Qor'an: "There are the people that like washing themselves in it (mosque), and Allah loves those, who clean themselves very much." PMID:9324571

  5. The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignc Flp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the Regimen Sanitatis Salerni has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later. PMID:25212979

  6. Interim evaluation of a large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme on childhood diarrhea and respiratory disease in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huda, Tarique Md Nurul; Unicomb, Leanne; Johnston, Richard B; Halder, Amal K; Yushuf Sharker, Md Abu; Luby, Stephen P

    2012-08-01

    Started in 2007, the Sanitation Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh (SHEWA-B) project aims to improve the hygiene, sanitation and water supply for 20 million people in Bangladesh, and thus reduce disease among this population. This paper assesses the effectiveness of SHEWA-B on changing behaviors and reducing diarrhea and respiratory illness among children < 5 years of age. We assessed behaviors at baseline in 2007 and after 6 months and 18 months by conducting structured observation of handwashing behavior in 500 intervention and 500 control households. In addition we conducted spot checks of water and sanitation facilities in 850 intervention and 850 control households. We also collected monthly data on diarrhea and respiratory illness from 500 intervention and 500 control households from October 2007 to September 2009. Participants washed their hands with soap < 3% of the time around food related events in both intervention and control households at baseline and after 18 months. Washing both hands with soap or ash after cleaning a child's anus increased from 22% to 36%, and no access to a latrine decreased from 10% to 6.8% from baseline to 18 months. The prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory illness, among children <5 years of age were similar in intervention and control communities throughout the study. This large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme resulted in improvements in a few of its targeted behaviors, but these modest behavior changes have not yet resulted in a measurable reduction in childhood diarrhea and respiratory illness. PMID:22197292

  7. Hygienic and health characteristics of donkey milk during a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pilla, Rachel; Daprà, Valentina; Zecconi, Alfonso; Piccinini, Renata

    2010-11-01

    For its characteristics, donkey milk has been proposed as an alternative to goat or artificial milk to feed allergic infants. Therefore, it is important to increase our knowledge on health and immunological characteristics of donkey milk. Ten donkeys, bred as companion animals, were enrolled in this study and sampled once a month, for eight months. Milk (10 ml) was collected from each half udder for somatic cell count (SCC), bacteriological analysis and total bacteria count (TBC). The major pathogens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were further genotyped by nanoarray analysis. Whey lysozyme and NAGase (NAG) activities were also assessed. Overall, 101 half-udder milk samples were taken. They showed very low values of TBC (<250 cfu/ml) and SCC (<50 000 cells/ml) and a minor prevalence of pathogens: Staph. aureus was isolated only from 5 milk samples (3 animals), Streptococcus equi from 2 samples and Str. equisimilis from a single sample. All the isolates were sensitive to all antibiotic classes used in veterinary medicine. None of the Staph. aureus isolates were shown to harbour genes coding for any enterotoxin, toxic-shock syndrome toxin or antibiotic resistance. Lysozyme levels were always very high (4000-5000 U/ml), while NAG values were mostly low (<50 U/ml), out of the last part of lactation. The results of this study confirmed the low prevalence of intramammary infections in donkey and the absence of food-borne pathogens, suggesting that donkey milk could be a safe food, if the mammary gland is healthy and the animals are milked in proper hygienic conditions. PMID:20883563

  8. Creation of Integrated System of Cosmonauts Sanitary-Hygienic Supply: Researches, Problems and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.

    The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) of Hygiene among School Children in Angolela, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Alyssa; Gelaye, Bizu; Aboset, Nigusu; Kumie, Abera; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries. This study evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of hygiene among rural school children in Ethiopia and assessed the extent to which proper knowledge of hygiene was associated with personal hygiene characteristics. Methods This cross-sectional study was comprised of 669 students who were interviewed by trained staff. Participants were in grades 1-6 at Angolela Primary School, located in rural Ethiopia. Data consisted of hygiene and hand washing practices, knowledge about sanitation, personal hygiene characteristics, and presence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection. Results Approximately 52% of students were classified as having adequate knowledge of proper hygiene. Most students reported hand washing before meals (99.0%), but only 36.2% reported using soap. Although 76.7% of students reported that washing hands after defecation was important, only 14.8% reported actually following this practice. Students with adequate knowledge of proper hygiene were more likely to have clean clothes (AOR 1.62, CI 1.14-2.29) and to have a lower risk of parasitic infection (AOR 0.78, CI 0.56-1.09) although statistical significance was not achieved for the latter. Discussion and conclusion Study findings underscore the need for more hand washing and hygiene education in schools; and provide objective evidence that may guide the development of comprehensive health and hygiene intervention programs in rural Ethiopian schools. Successful implementation of these programs is likely to substantially attenuate the transmissible disease burden borne by school children in rural settings. PMID:21155409

  10. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Oulis, Constantine; Reppa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the oral hygiene facilitators and barriers for 10 years old Greek children, via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 266, 10 years old, children recruited from schools in 3 locations in Greece. Data were collected via questionnaires and clinical examination. Questionnaires referred to Children’s oral hygiene knowledge, behavior and attitude as well as parents’ oral hygiene behavior and educational level. Children were clinically examined by two calibrated pediatric dentists using a WHO probe and artificial light to assess dental plaque (hygiene index-HI), gingivitis (simplified gingival index-GIs) and dental caries (DMFT-BASCD criteria). Results: Regarding oral hygiene knowledge, although 80% of the children were literate of the proper means of oral hygiene, only 58.64% brushed their teeth twice daily and 36.84% used dental floss. Children’s oral hygiene knowledge was positively correlated with both parental brushing frequency (ρ = 0.175, p < 0.05) and educational level (ρ = -0.216, p < 0.05). Toothpaste use was reported by 92.11% of the children. Regarding Children’s attitude, 62.28% were concerned whether their teeth were clean, with girls showing greater concern than boys (p < 0.001). Their reported beliefs regarding brushing avoidance were boredom (84.06%), low oral health literacy (73.91%) and forgetfulness (56.52%). Conclusion: Oral hygiene facilitators were found to be the concern about how clean were their teeth, oral health literacy of both children and parents and toothpaste appeal to children. Oral hygiene barriers were Children’s boredom, low oral health literacy, forgetfulness and low socioeconomic level. How to cite this article: Angelopoulou M, Kavvadia K, Oulis C, Reppa C. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):87-93. PMID:26379373

  11. [School hygiene in the past, present and future--in the opinion of the Inspector of Pediatrics and School Medicine and member of the European Society for Social Pediatrics (ESSOP)].

    PubMed

    Zaba, Ryszard; Bukartyk-Rusek, Bogna

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday. School hygiene acted in a clear way. Physician, pediatrician, nurse and hygienist were employed at school and were responsible for carrying out periodic examination, vaccination of school children and youth. They also supervised groups of children with posture defects, obesity, underweight, circulatory system and respiratory tract (asthma, anaphylaxis), diseases nervous system disorders and also propagated health education at school. Inspector of Pediatrics and School Medicine was in charge of School Medical Care. Today. Reform of the Public Health System. Medical examination and services have their value in money. A school physician, some hygienists and school nurses have been dismissed to decrease the financial costs of school hygiene. All medical services must be bought by the National Health Service. Public and private medical services at doctors and nurses are organized at schools. Each service performs examinations, vaccinations bought by the National Health Service or parents. A pupil is a subject of buying medical services. He may be vaccinated by a nurse but a medical examination must be either bought or performed by home doctor. The supervision of school children with different illnesses is not conducted by a school doctor. At present all the threats of contemporary world such as alcohol, tobacco, drug addiction, nervous system illnesses and allergies which are destructive for youth start when they are teenagers. School is an important place for carrying out on a large scale prophylactic services with medical teams of paediatricians, rehabilitation specialists and psychologists. Tomorrow. School Hygiene at School. Not at home doctor's. Recommendations, Daily Hygiene: personal, oral, food mental.... Hygiene of studying, rest and daily effort. Struggle with mass media, alcohol, drug, Internet, Computer addiction, violence, stupidity and poverty. School Hygiene should be adjusted to youth's health needs in accordance with the recommendations of European Society for Social Pediatrics (ESSOP) and Committee on Public Education, American Academy of Pediatrics and reinforced, it should not be eliminated. PMID:15002312

  12. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 6, occupational hygiene

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.

  13. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene at the World's Largest Mass Gathering.

    PubMed

    Vortmann, Michael; Balsari, Satchit; Holman, Susan R; Greenough, P Gregg

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Kumbh Mela, a Hindu religious festival and the largest human gathering on earth, drew an estimated 120 million pilgrims to bathe at the holy confluence of the Ganga (Ganges) and Yamuna rivers. To accommodate the massive numbers, the Indian government constructed a temporary city on the flood plains of the two rivers and provided it with roads, electricity, water and sanitation facilities, police stations, and a tiered healthcare system. This phenomenal operation and its impacts have gone largely undocumented. To address this gap, the authors undertook an evaluation and systematic monitoring initiative to study preparedness and response to public health emergencies at the event. This paper describes the water, sanitation, and hygiene components, with particular emphasis on preventive and mitigation strategies; the capacity for surveillance and response to diarrheal disease outbreaks; and the implications of lessons learned for other mass gatherings. PMID:25783442

  14. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Haiti: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013-2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation. PMID:24106193

  15. [Hygiene and security management in medical biology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Vinner, E; Odou, M F; Fovet, B; Ghnassia, J C

    2013-06-01

    Risk management in Medical Biology Laboratory (MBL) which includes hygiene and waste management, is an integrated process to the whole MBL organisation. It is composed of three stages: risks factors identification, grading and prioritization, and their evaluation in the system. From the legislation and NF EN ISO 15189 standard's requirements viewpoint, prevention and protection actions to implement are described, at premises level, but also at work station environment's one (human resources and equipments) towards biological, chemical, linked to gas, to ionizing or non ionizing radiations and fire riks, in order not to compromise patients safety, employees safety, and quality results. Then, although NF EN 15189 standard only enacts requirements in terms of prevention, curative actions after established blood or chemical exposure accident are defined. PMID:23765027

  16. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 20132022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation. PMID:24106193

  17. Is a bed centre in a hospital a hygienic hazard?

    PubMed Central

    Hambraeus, A.; Malmborg, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    The contamination of linen and air in a bed centre, supply station and ward were compared, as well as the contamination of gowns used by the staff working in the 'clean' and the 'dirty' rooms of the bed-centre. The contamination of linen and air was low and there was no significant difference between the tested areas. The contamination on gowns used by the staff working in the 'dirty' room was significantly higher than that on gowns used by the staff working in the 'clean' room. This stresses the importance of dividing a bed centre into 'clean' and 'dirty' rooms. So organized, a bed centre does not seem to be a hygienic hazard. PMID:7057024

  18. Standard of hygiene and immune adaptation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Kallionp, Henna; Laajala, Essi; ling, Viveka; Hrknen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V; Ilonen, Jorma; Lhdesmki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise in the developed world. In order to explore differences in the gene expression patterns induced in utero in infants born in contrasting standards of living and hygiene, we collected umbilical cord blood RNA samples from infants born in Finland (modern society), Estonia (rapidly developing society) and the Republic of Karelia, Russia (poor economic conditions). The whole blood transcriptome of Finnish and Estonian neonates differed from their Karelian counterparts, suggesting exposure to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and a more matured immune response in infants born in Karelia. These results further support the concept of a conspicuous plasticity in the developing immune system: the environmental factors that play a role in the susceptibility/protection towards immune-mediated diseases begin to shape the neonatal immunity already in utero and direct the maturation in accordance with the surrounding microbial milieu. PMID:25245264

  19. [Infrastructure and adherence to hand hygiene: challenges to patient safety].

    PubMed

    Bathke, Janana; de Cunico, Priscila Almeida; Maziero, Eliane Cristina Sanches; Cauduro, Fernanda Leticia Frates; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; de Cruz, Elaine Drehmer Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Considering the importance of hands in the chain of transmission of microorganisms, this observational research investigated the material infrastructure and compliance of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit in the south of Brazil in 2010. The data was collected by direct non-participant observation and through the use of self-administered questionnaires to be completed by the 39 participants, which was analyzed with the assistance of the chi2 Test, descriptive statistics and quantitative discourse analysis. Although health professionals overestimate compliance rates, recognize the practice as relevant to the prevention of infection and refer there are no impeding factors, of the 1,277 opportunities observed, compliance was 26% and significantly lower before patient contact and the use of aseptic procedures than after patient contact: infrastructure was shown to be deficient. The results indicate risk to patient safety, and thus, the planning of corrective actions to promote hand washing is relevant. PMID:24015465

  20. Commodity culture: tropical health and hygiene in the British Empire.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan

    2008-06-01

    Before heading to a 'tropical' region of the Empire, British men and women spent considerable time and effort gathering outfit believed essential for their impending trip. Ordinary items such as soap, clothing, foodstuffs and bedding became transformed into potentially life-saving items that required the fastidious attention of any would-be traveller. Everyone from scientists and physicians to missionaries and administrators was bombarded by relentless advertising and abundant advice about the outfit needed to preserve health in a tropical climate. A closer look at this marketing exercise reveals much about the way people thought about tropical people, places, health and hygiene and how scientific and commercial influences shaped this Imperial commodity culture. PMID:18462798

  1. Oral Hygiene Behaviors and Caries Experience in Northwest PRECEDENT Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Marilynn; Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Zhou, Lingmei; Mancl, Lloyd; Jones, Jackie S.; Berg, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between oral hygiene behaviors (toothbrushing, water rinsing after brushing, interproximal cleaning, and adjunctive use of fluoride products) and recent caries (past 24 months) in a random sample of patients in Northwest PRECEDENT practices. Methods Practitioner-members of Northwest PRECEDENT dental Practice-based Research Network (PBRN) conducted a longitudinal study on caries risk assessment. At baseline patients completed a questionnaire on oral self-care, snacking, health, and socio-demographics. A dental exam recorded readily-visible heavy plaque and DMFT; chart review captured new caries and treatments in the previous 24 months. Bivariate and multiple GEE log-linear regression models stratified by age groups were used to relate oral hygiene behaviors to the primary outcome of mean dental caries in the past 24 months on data from 1400 patients in 63 practices. The primary exposure of interest was fluoride toothbrushing frequency. Results Fluoride toothbrushing once per day or more by patients 9-17 was significantly associated with a 50% lower mean caries rate compared to fluoride toothbrushing less than once per day, after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, income, between-meal carbohydrate snacks, sugar-added beverages, alcohol consumption, smoking, BMI, exercise, stimulated salivary pH, number of teeth, and all other oral hygiene behaviors captured [Rate Ratio (RR)=0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8]. After adjustment, for patients 18-64 fluoride toothbrushing two or more times per day was significantly associated with a 40% lower recent mean caries rate (RR=0.6; 95%CI=0.4-0.9); in patients 65+, twice a day or more fluoride toothbrushing was not associated with lower caries rates (RR=1.1; 95%CI=0.7-1.8). Of the other oral hygiene variables, after adjustment, patients 18-64 who rinsed with water after brushing had a 40% lower mean caries rate compared to no rinsing (RR=0.6; 95%CI=0.4-0.9) and the presence of readily-visible heavy plaque was significantly associated with an increase in the mean caries rate for patients 18-64 (RR=1.6; 95%CI=1.2-2.2) and 65+ (RR=2.5; 95%CI=1.8-3.5). Conclusions In the present study, the frequency of fluoride toothbrushing and the presence of readily-visible heavy plaque were the factors most strongly associated with mean caries rate. In young patients with permanent dentition the daily application of fluoride toothpaste appears more important than emphasis on thorough plaque removal. While for adults, the protective effect of twice daily fluoride toothbrushing disappears with advancing age and the presence of readily-visible heavy plaque becomes increasingly associated with caries risk. PMID:24766464

  2. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768 PMID:21385426

  3. Enteroviruses, hygiene and type 1 diabetes: toward a preventive vaccine.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Kristen M; von Herrath, Matthias; Tracy, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses and humans have long co-existed. Although recognized in ancient times, poliomyelitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D) were exceptionally rare and not epidemic, due in large part to poor sanitation and personal hygiene which resulted in repeated exposure to fecal-oral transmitted viruses and other infectious agents and viruses and the generation of a broad protective immunity. As a function of a growing acceptance of the benefits of hygienic practices and microbiologically clean(er) water supplies, the likelihood of exposure to diverse infectious agents and viruses declined. The effort to vaccinate against poliomyelitis demonstrated that enteroviral diseases are preventable by vaccination and led to understanding how to successfully attenuate enteroviruses. Type 1 diabetes onset has been convincingly linked to infection by numerous enteroviruses including the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), while studies of CVB infections in NOD mice have demonstrated not only a clear link between disease onset but an ability to reduce the incidence of T1D as well: CVB infections can suppress naturally occurring autoimmune T1D. We propose here that if we can harness and develop the capacity to use attenuated enteroviral strains to induce regulatory T cell populations in the host through vaccination, then a vaccine could be considered that should function to protect against both autoimmune as well as virus-triggered T1D. Such a vaccine would not only specifically protect from certain enterovirus types but more importantly, also reset the organism's regulatory rheostat making the further development of pathogenic autoimmunity less likely. PMID:25430610

  4. [Intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Catalonia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Sobrequés, Jordi; Espuñes, Jordi; Bañeres, Joaquim

    2014-07-01

    Hand hygiene (HM) is the single most important measure and effective in reducing the risk of Healthcare acquired infections (IRAS). Although HM is an effective, simple and cheap measure, it is usual to find results of low compliance among health professionals. The main objective of this strategy has been to give new force to the promotion of HM in hospitals and educate professionals about the importance of this single action. The strategy was planned as a multicenter intervention study to promote HM in health centers of Catalonia in 2009-2010. The intervention is based on 4 main areas: a survey of barriers and facilitators, distribution of graphic material, training at different levels and measure of quality indicators. With this strategy a total of 57% of the number of acute beds in the concerted public and private network of hospitals were reached. The survey revealed that training was perceived as the main facilitator of the HM action. 15,376 professionals registered to the on-line training. The overall compliance with HM indications (based on "five moments for HM") was 56.45% in the acute areas. The campaigns and programs to promote HM carried out in the last four years in Catalonia has helped to achieve an increasing number of hospitals associated to the strategy of the Alliance for Patient Safety in Catalonia. The on-line curse acceptance was very high and seems a powerful tool to improve hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among health professionals. The compliance of HM seems to increase in the hospitals of Catalonia evaluated. PMID:25128358

  5. Food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David T; Dobmeier, Stephen G; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2007-05-01

    Food poisoning is encountered throughout the world. Many of the toxins responsible for specific food poisoning syndromes are no longer limited to isolated geographic locations. With increased travel and the ease of transporting food products, it is likely that a patient may present to any emergency department with the clinical effects of food poisoning. Recognizing specific food poisoning syndromes allows emergency health care providers not only to initiate appropriate treatment rapidly but also to notify health departments early and thereby prevent further poisoning cases. This article reviews several potential food-borne poisons and describes each agent's mechanism of toxicity, expected clinical presentation, and currently accepted treatment. PMID:17482025

  6. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise. PMID:21364287

  7. Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: The broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Graham A W

    2009-01-01

    Man has moved rapidly from the hunter–gatherer environment to the living conditions of the rich industrialized countries. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that the resulting changed and reduced pattern of exposure to microorganisms has led to disordered regulation of the immune system, and hence to increases in certain inflammatory disorders. The concept began with the allergic disorders, but there are now good reasons for extending it to autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease, neuroinflammatory disorders, atherosclerosis, depression associated with raised inflammatory cytokines, and some cancers. This review discusses these possibilities in the context of Darwinian medicine, which uses knowledge of evolution to cast light on human diseases. The Darwinian approach enables one to correctly identify some of the organisms that are important for the ‘Hygiene’ or ‘Old Friends’ hypothesis, and to point to the potential exploitation of these organisms or their components in novel types of prophylaxis with applications in several branches of medicine. PMID:19120493

  8. Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behaviour: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT).

    PubMed

    McAteer, J; Stone, S; Fuller, C; Charlett, A; Cookson, B; Slade, R; Michie, S

    2008-03-01

    Previous observational measures of healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour (HHB) fail to provide adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs), accounts of inter-rater agreement testing or evidence of sensitivity to change. This study reports the development of an observational tool in a way that addresses these deficiencies. Observational categories were developed systematically, guided by a clinical guideline, previous measures and pilot hand-hygiene behaviour observations (HHOs). The measure, a simpler version of the Geneva tool, consists of HHOs (before and after low-risk, high-risk or unobserved contact), HHBs (soap, alcohol hand rub, no action, unknown), and type of HCW. Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units. Raw agreement (%) and Kappa were 77% and 0.68 for HHB; 83% and 0.77 for HHO; and 90% and 0.77 for HCW. Inter-observer agreement for overall compliance of a group of HCWs was assessed by observation of 1191 HHOs and HHBs by two pairs of independent observers. Overall agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). Sensitivity to change was examined by autoregressive time-series modelling of longitudinal observations for 8 months on the intensive therapy unit during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak and subsequent strengthening of infection control measures. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated by a rise in compliance from 80 to 98% with an odds ratio of increased compliance of 7.00 (95% confidence interval: 4.02-12.2) P < 0.001. PMID:18478625

  9. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... condition that may mimic food allergy symptoms is celiac disease . People with celiac disease are not able to tolerate gluten, a protein ... About Kissing? Egg Allergy Food Allergies and Travel Celiac Disease Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Milk Allergy Shellfish Allergy ...

  10. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergy by 2 or 3 years of age. Symptoms of milk allergy include hives, vomiting and breathing problems after consuming ... nausea, gas and diarrhea. Symptoms What are the symptoms of food allergy? The most common immediate symptoms of food allergy ...

  11. Food additives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling foods Salt, to preserve meats "Indirect" ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is reviewed regularly. Some substances that ...

  12. Overview of the Development of the Temporary Sleep Station Hygiene Liner Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the crew had performed hygiene activities within the aisle way (the habitable volume, not including the sleep areas) of the ISS. The Crew used wet towels, re-hydrated body soap, and "no-rinse" shampoo to cleanse themselves amongst the stowage and systems hardware, referred to as "racks", even without a designated area to dry the wet items. Performing hygiene in this manner became an accepted method; no isolated location was available to the Crew. After several years of hygiene operations, some of the fabric-covered racks began to grow biological material (generically described as mold) and soon became a Crew health concern. Hygiene has one of the strongest impacts on Crew morale, and mandating changes to the Crew routine would have been met with strong resistance. The answer to the conundrum was to develop a liner to be placed within the Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS), one of the Crew s sleeping racks. This liner provided the Crew a means to perform hygiene activities within a private, enclosed area that also significantly decreased the potential to grow mold. This paper will describe the development of the TeSS Hygiene Liner, its impacts on the ISS and Crew, as well as its contribution to hygiene activities used in space today.

  13. It's not all about me: motivating hand hygiene among health care professionals by focusing on patients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M; Hofmann, David A

    2011-12-01

    Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands. Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviors, it is important to highlight the personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that emphasized personal safety ("Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases") or patient safety ("Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases"). We assessed hand hygiene by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1) and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals' hand-hygiene behaviors (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated meaningful changes in behavior: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were reminded of the implications for themselves. PMID:22075239

  14. Students' perceptions of effective classroom and clinical teaching in dental and dental hygiene education.

    PubMed

    Schnwetter, Dieter J; Lavigne, Salme; Mazurat, Randy; Nazarko, Orla

    2006-06-01

    Effective teaching behaviors have been studied in various arenas in higher education. However, there is limited research documenting effective teaching behaviors in dentistry and dental hygiene. Our qualitative study attempts to define effective teaching in both the classroom and clinic for dentistry and dental hygiene students. A total of 175 dental and dental hygiene undergraduate students nominated a total of forty instructors for teaching awards, providing a total of 695 qualitative statements reflecting their teaching in two learning contexts: the classroom and the clinic. Seven categories of effective teaching qualities were identified: individual rapport, organization, enthusiasm, learning, group interaction, exams and assignments, and breadth. Based on the frequency of the themes, effective teaching in the classroom was best defined by organization and rapport, whereas in the clinic, rapport was the most frequently described behavior. Moreover, dentistry students perceived enthusiasm as an effective teaching quality more frequently than did dental hygiene students, whereas dental hygiene students provided more responses to learning. These findings can provide guidance in preparing undergraduate dental and dental hygiene educators to enter the teaching environment. The ultimate goal to be achieved from identification of effective teaching qualities, as determined in this study, is improvement in clinical and classroom teaching for dentistry and dental hygiene programs. PMID:16741130

  15. Assessing Critical Thinking Outcomes of Dental Hygiene Students Utilizing Virtual Patient Simulation: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Joanna L

    2015-09-01

    Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study. PMID:26329033

  16. Resistance to Chalkbrood disease in Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with different hygienic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, C; Rivas, F; Bettucci, L

    2011-01-01

    Chalkbrood disease affects the larvae of honeybees Apis mellifera L. and is caused by the fungus Ascosphaera apis. Infected larvae die when they are stretched in the cap cell and suffer a gradual hardening that ends in a very hard structure (mummie). Several studies have demonstrated that colonies that express an efficient hygienic behaviour (uncapping of cell and subsequent removal of dead brood) exhibit a higher resistance to the disease. However, it remains unclear whether the advantage of hygienic colonies over less hygienic ones lies in the ability to remove mummies or in the early detection of infected larvae and its cannibalization before they harden. To elucidate this aspect, the hygienic behaviour of 24 colonies, which were subsequently provided with pollen cakes containig A. apis, was evaluated. The number of mummies and the number of partially cannibalized and whole larvae in uncapped cells were recorded. The most hygienic colonies controlled the disease better. These colonies also had a higher tendency to uncap cells that contained infected larvae and cannibalize them. The presence of A. apis in partially cannibalized and whole larvae in uncapped cells indicate that the advantage of hygienic colonies over less hygienic ones lies in the early detection of infected larvae death and their quick removal from the cell before they become mummies. PMID:21437479

  17. [The hygienic disposal and rendering of dead animals and animal waste].

    PubMed

    Oosterom, J

    1986-08-15

    In this publication an overview is made of both the fundamental and practical approaches laid down in the 'WHO Guidelines on the hygienic disposal and rendering of dead animals and animal wastes to protect human and animal health'. It describes methods that can be used both in developed and developing countries for the hygienic disposal and rendering of contaminated animal materials. In view of the various veterinary-hygienic measures that might be taken a distinction is made between low-risk materials (for instance slaughter offal of healthy animals) and high-risk materials (for instance animals that died because of infectious diseases). The hygienic disposal of low-risk materials is usually done by sterilisation in autoclaves or by cooking, so that proteins and fat may be re-used, mostly in the form of animal feed components. High-risk materials should at the least be sterilised or otherwise be burnt. Attention is also paid to the hygiene in rendering plants, particularly concerning the avoidance of cross-contamination from raw to decontaminated materials. Finally aspects of environmental hygiene are discussed and attention is paid to the protection of the personnel that is involved in the hygienic disposal and rendering of dead animals and animal wastes. PMID:3750305

  18. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  19. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2

  20. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  1. Monitoring food safety violation reports from internet forums.

    PubMed

    Kate, Kiran; Negi, Sumit; Kalagnanam, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne illness is a growing public health concern in the world. Government bodies, which regulate and monitor the state of food safety, solicit citizen feedback about food hygiene practices followed by food establishments. They use traditional channels like call center, e-mail for such feedback collection. With the growing popularity of Web 2.0 and social media, citizens often post such feedback on internet forums, message boards etc. The system proposed in this paper applies text mining techniques to identify and mine such food safety complaints posted by citizens on web data sources thereby enabling the government agencies to gather more information about the state of food safety. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of our system and the text mining methods used. We also present results which demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in a real-world deployment. PMID:25160357

  2. Monitoring food safety violation reports from internet forums.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kate K; Negi S; Kalagnanam J

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne illness is a growing public health concern in the world. Government bodies, which regulate and monitor the state of food safety, solicit citizen feedback about food hygiene practices followed by food establishments. They use traditional channels like call center, e-mail for such feedback collection. With the growing popularity of Web 2.0 and social media, citizens often post such feedback on internet forums, message boards etc. The system proposed in this paper applies text mining techniques to identify and mine such food safety complaints posted by citizens on web data sources thereby enabling the government agencies to gather more information about the state of food safety. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of our system and the text mining methods used. We also present results which demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in a real-world deployment.

  3. Survey of food safety awareness among HIV positive individuals.

    PubMed

    Heathcock, R; McLauchlin, J; Newton, L H; Soltanpoor, N; Coker, R; Bignardi, G; McEvoy, M

    1998-04-01

    A survey was carried out by personal interview to assess the awareness of basic food hygiene and food safety amongst 77 HIV-positive individuals attending a single hospital. There was some confusion and lack of knowledge about aspects of food storage and despite the fact that 74% of subjects had modified their diet since learning their HIV status (mainly for nutritional reasons) only 25% reported receiving information on food safety. Of the subjects interviewed 96%, 66% and 23% were aware of the risks of infection from Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Cryptosporidium, respectively; although most were not aware of the UK Government's advice on the consumption of eggs, soft cheese, pt and cook-chill foods. Over 40% of those interviewed reported that they did not drink tap water (most drank bottled water instead), but few were aware of infections potentially transmitted through water. Although pets represent a potential source of a wide variety of infectious agents, there was a high level of awareness of this problem. This study highlights the need for improving the availability of information on food hygiene and infections acquired through food and water to HIV-positive individuals. PMID:9625907

  4. [Implementation of hygiene procedures, microbial and physical controls and environmental monitoring in radiopharmacy department].

    PubMed

    Duez, C; Pons-Kerjean, N; Paycha, F; Callanquin, M

    2009-11-01

    Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for injection involves compliance with the regulations for pharmaceutical drugs and radionuclides. The microbiological quality must be ensured, radiation exposure limited, and radioactive contamination of personnel and the environment prevented. Based on work concerning compliance and in accordance with changes in recent regulations, the facilities of the radiopharmacy department of the Louis Mourier Hospital have been optimized. Physical and microbiological controls of equipment and facilities have been implemented to monitor workstations and their environment with respect to microbiological quality. Three hygiene guidelines have also been implemented: improving hygiene practices, personal clothing, practical training on hygiene and its evaluation. PMID:19900606

  5. [Hygienic standardization of physical factors generated by civil aviation in residential areas].

    PubMed

    Soldatchenkov, V N

    1989-10-01

    The study was designed to analyze the hygienic characteristics of civil aircraft institutions (airports, facilities for air traffic safety control, meteorological service) as the main sources of electromagnetic energy and noise at the adjacent residential territory. The problems of hygienic standardization of electromagnetic emission in the radio frequency range of 4-9 produced by various radio engineering airport devices were studied together with other physical environmental factors (noise, temperature). Methodological approaches to the regulation of the above factors on the basis of hygienic standards were proposed. PMID:2599397

  6. Food allergies and food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A

    2006-01-01

    Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

  7. [Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ada Couto Dinucci; Mancuso, Ana Maria Cervato; Heitz, Sarah Jeanne Jorge

    2014-05-01

    In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this study is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates. PMID:24897213

  8. Precepts of community health and hygiene from the Holy Bible.

    PubMed

    Subhaktha, P K J P; Prasad, P V V; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Every Society, in its unending process of evolution, devises its own methods of survival in ethical, medical and emotional aspects. The urge for good and healthy living, the desire for longevity of life are not only inherent but also largely evident in all the societies right from the time of its primitivity. Jews are a wonder community. Though negligible in numbers, they managed to win 17.5% of noble prizes announced so far. Besides, almost all the major inventions in the world are by Jews. This despite the years of persecution and trials the community was subjected to in the history. The pages of the human history are smeared with the blood patches of the Jews in the hands of oppressors for several centuries. Apart from the fact that theirs is the community chosen specially by God, the intellectual prowess and tenacity of the Jewish community basically stems from the discipline and dietary code they received from their leader Moses in wilderness. Jewish nation was conceived in the vision of their patriarch Abraham but in fact, born on the night they left as slaves from Egypt for good under the dynamic leadership of Moses. Mosaic code for all aspects of life has made Jews or Israelites what they are today. A modest effort is being made in this article to trace their community's health and hygiene social behavioral precepts as given by Moses. PMID:19580107

  9. Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

  10. Hygienic quality of faeces treated in urine diverting vermicomposting toilets.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia H; Hill, Geoffrey B; Vinners, Bjrn

    2013-11-01

    On-site sanitation solutions have gained much interest in recent years. One such solution is the urine diverting vermicomposting toilet (UDVT). This study evaluated the hygienic quality of the composted material in six UDVTs in operation in France. Samples were taken from three sampling positions in each toilet, with increasing distance from the fresh material. The concentration of Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp., thermotolarent coliforms and coliphages were analysed and plotted against a number of variables. The variables found to have the greatest impact was the pH (for Enterococcus spp. and thermotolarent coliforms (TTC)) and time since last maintenance (coliphages). The pH was found to correlate with the material maturity. The current practise of maintenance can cause recontamination of the stabilised material and increase the risk of regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms. A modification in the maintenance procedure, in which a fourth maturation point is introduced, would eliminate this risk. UDVTs were found to be a good on-site sanitation option as the maintenance requirement is small and the system effectively reduced odour and concentration of pathogen and indicator organisms in human waste while keeping the accumulation of material down to a minimum. If the vermicompost is to be used for crops consumed raw, an additional sanitisation step is recommended. PMID:23932466

  11. Industrial hygiene characterization of automotive wood model shops

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S. Jr.; Robinson, C.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Roscoe, R.

    1985-07-01

    A suspicion of an excess cancer risk in automotive model shops prompted the Industrywide Studies Branch, NIOSH, to conduct a proportionate mortality study and an industrial hygiene characterization of operations in these shops. The mortality study showed a statistically significant excess proportion of deaths due to colon cancer and leukemia (for woodshops only). The materials used in the model shops include various natural woods, laminated woods, plastics, resins, varnishes, putties and paints. Personal breathing zone samples were collected for total and respirable dust, amines, various hydrocarbons (including styrene, and toluene), formaldehyde, and nitrosamines. Particle size distribution studies were conducted on the wood dust and bulk airborne samples of dusts were subjected to various mutagenicity test systems. Work practices, ventilation and general housekeeping were checked. Total wood dust samples ranged from 0.03 to 25 mg/m3 with an average around 1.0 mg/m3. The percent respirable dust ranged from 19 to 38% as measured with Andersen impactors. Solvent exposure samples ranged from non-detectable to about 10% of the OSHA Permissible Exposure Levels. Relevant recommendations for improvement of contaminant control were made.

  12. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF INFORMATIZATION OF EDUCATION AND UP-BRINGING].

    PubMed

    Kuchma, V R; Tkachuk, E A

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade the quality of children's health declined, the level of children's aggression and aggressiveness increased. The consistent trend to increasing the quantity of children with the signs of motor disinhibition in different forms and manifestations was noted. In a study on the example of educational institutions of Irkutsk there was made an assessment of the impact of the intensification and informatization of education and up-bringing with the use of the index of the level of informatization. In preschool children over the information period mental performance was found to be characterized by an increase in the speed and decline in the quality of information processing, there are dominated increased aggressive background and unmotivated fears "out home", there are reduced values of endurance ratio of the cardiovascular system, higher levels of morbidity rate were noted. There was proposed a hygienic assessment of informatization of education and up-bringing with the use of the index of the level of informatization. PMID:26856134

  13. Graves' hyperthyroidism and the hygiene hypothesis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji; McLachlan, Sandra M; Rapoport, Basil; Oishi, Kazunori

    2004-11-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is an organ-specific autoimmune disease mediated by stimulatory autoantibodies against the TSH receptor (TSHR; thyroid-stimulating antibodies), causing thyroid hyperplasia and hyperthyroidism. Development of this ailment is well known to be under polygenic and environmental control. For example, we recently demonstrated that parasite helminth Schistosoma mansoni infection suppressed a T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-type anti-TSHR immune response and prevented disease development in our mouse model of Graves' disease using adenovirus coding for the TSHR. In the present study we examined the outcome of infection with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), a Th1-promoting infectious pathogen, on Graves' disease. Our results show that prior infection with M. bovis BCG differentiates the TSHR-specific immune response toward a Th1 phenotype, as demonstrated by enhanced secretion of a Th1 cytokine interferon-gamma and impaired production of a Th2 cytokine IL-10 from splenocytes stimulated in vitro with TSHR antigen. M. bovis BCG also significantly suppressed disease induction. These data together with our recent report that coinjection of adenovirus expressing the Th1 cytokine IL-12 induced a Th1-polarized, TSHR-specific immune response without affecting disease development support the hygiene hypothesis, rather than Th1-mediated disease suppression. Thus, some infectious pathogens may influence the development of Graves' disease regardless of their ability to modify the Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:15308620

  14. Nursing the tropics: nurses as agents of imperial hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Howell, J.; Rafferty, A.M.; Wall, R.; Snaith, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mrs Francis Piggott proposed the Colonial Nursing Association in 1895 as a means of supplying Britain's colonies and dominions with trained professional nurses, who would support the health of white colonists abroad. Over 8400 nurses were placed between 1896 and the Association's end in 1966. Despite the burgeoning of scholarship on gender and empire over the last few decades, there is still more research to be done examining nurses as professional, working women, who present a fascinating variation on the figure of the woman traveler. Methods This essay focuses on 18961927, exploring how nurses were prepared for their labor abroad and how these skills were challenged and adapted within a foreign environment. We contextualize this discussion with examples from literary tales of exploration and adventure and discourses of empire. Results/conclusions Though the sources of disease against which nurses fought changed during this period, we assert that the underlying role of the nurse continued the same: she was meant to use the tools of personal as well as public hygiene to create both physical and cultural boundaries around her white patients and herself, setting colonists apart from their colonial setting. PMID:23729785

  15. [The significance of Giardia lamblia for water hygiene].

    PubMed

    Andrik, P; Tumer, L

    1990-05-01

    This paper gives a literature review about Giardia lamblia, an unicellular infectious agent, which is responsible for parasitic intestine-diseases. Morphologically, life-cycle, occurrence and caused symptoms of illnesses are described. The content of this publication is the question about the meaning of the importance of the pathogenic agent for water-borne epidemics. During the past 15-20 years the number of cases of water-transmitted giardiasis has increased enormously, especially in the USA, but in other countries, too. Modes of transmission of drinking-water supplied with surface-water are the origins as a rule. The set of problems becomes more interesting, because in Hungary cysts of Giardia lamblia in drinking-water were isolated recently. In this context it is to refer to the not unimportant number of unspecific diarrhoea with obscure origin in general. That's why it is necessary to value Giardia lamblia under the conditions of using surface-water for drinking-water as a potential water hygienic factor of risk. PMID:2195785

  16. Study of fifteen respirable aerosol samplers used in occupational hygiene.

    PubMed

    Grner, P; Wrobel, R; Micka, V; Skoda, V; Denis, J; Fabris, J F

    2001-01-01

    European and international standards lay down criteria for the size-selective aerosol sampling in occupational hygiene. Aerosol samplers are supposed to match these target sampling criteria. This study focused on 15 aerosol samplers used to sample the conventional respirable fraction. An aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) method was used to measure the sampling efficiency of the samplers in a low-velocity wind tunnel. Polydisperse coal dust was generated as the test aerosol. The data were fitted by an appropriate mathematical model. For some instruments the results show serious deviations from the conventional target curve, whereas other devices meet the convention quite well. The flow rate of certain cyclone-separator-based instruments was optimized to adjust their sampling efficiency. The mass concentration bias and accuracy of the samplers were calculated for a number of ranges of particle size distributions of aerosols commonly found in industrial workplaces. Finally, the performance of each sampler was evaluated using bias and accuracy maps. Most of these samplers are suitable for sampling the CEN-ISO-ACGIH respirable fraction of aerosols, but several require modification of the flow rate. For real industrial situations, the rough knowledge of the aerosol size distribution can guide the choice of an appropriate sampling technique. PMID:11137698

  17. Measuring Curricular Impact on Dental Hygiene Students' Transformative Learning.

    PubMed

    Springfield, Emily C; Smiler, Andrew P; Gwozdek, Anne E

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that transformative learning can be fostered in higher education by creating active learning experiences that are directly related to content taught, are personally engaging, and can stimulate reflection. The aim of this qualitative study was to assess changes experienced by students in an e-learning dental hygiene degree completion program beyond attainment of competence-changes that may be described as transformative learning. The data used were transcripts of focus groups that had been conducted with each of the first five cohorts of students to graduate from the program; a total of 30 of the 42 students in the five cohorts (71%) participated. Using their previously developed Transformation Rubric for Engaged Learning, the authors categorized focus group data to identify changes in students' confidence, pride, skills, perceptions of the world, and personal identity at the transformative and nontransformative levels. Every participant reported at least one change; overall, the students averaged 8.3 changes. The vast majority (84%) of these changes were transformative. Middle-performing students showed a disproportionately higher rate of transformational changes in the areas of confidence and pride. The e-learning program appeared to have had a significant transformative impact on students, but additional research on the effect on middle-performing students is warranted. PMID:26632296

  18. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lbke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals. PMID:25872258

  19. Astronautical Hygiene - A New Discipline to Protect the Health of Astronauts Working in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, J. R.

    This paper outlines the rationale for a new scientific discipline namely astronautical hygiene. Astronautical hygiene is an applied science that utilises a knowledge of space toxicology, space medicine, astronautics, occupational hygiene etc. to identify the hazards, assess the exposure risks to health, and thereby determine the measures to mitigate exposure to protect the health of astronauts during living and working in space. This paper describes the nature of the hazards (i.e. physical, chemical, microbial and psychological) encountered during space flight. It discusses exposure risk assessment and the use of sampling techniques to assess astronaut health risks. This paper then discusses the measures used to mitigate exposure to the exposure hazards during space exploration. A case study of the application of the principles of astronautical hygiene to control lunar dust exposure is then described.

  20. The intra-oral camera, dental health communication and oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Willershausen, B; Schlsser, E; Ernst, C P

    1999-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral-hygiene instruction in improving oral health in 100 patients following oral hygiene instruction, with and without use of an intra-oral camera. The two groups of 50 patients were similar in age and sex distributions, frequency of caries, plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding. Prospective improvements in oral hygiene and compliance were measured by means of plaque levels and gingival bleeding at baseline and four weeks later. While both groups showed a clear reduction in plaque accumulation, the test group benefited from the use of the intra-oral camera. A majority of patients (88 per cent) thought that the extra information provided by the camera was helpful and desirable. This study demonstrates that the intra-oral camera can effectively augment oral-hygiene instruction and help create improvements in patient compliance. PMID:10858739

  1. Longitudinal Analysis of Student Performance in a Dental Hygiene Distance Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Jodi L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined over the course of five years whether learners who receive face-to-face instruction in a dental hygiene program performed statistically better on established benchmark assessments than learners at a distance. Found no significant differences. (EV)

  2. Predictors of Success in Dental Hygiene Education: A Six-Year Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Mary C.; Collins, Marie A.; Browning, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the predictive reliability of incoming grade point average (GPA), incoming math/science GPA, and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores in predicting success in dental hygiene education. Found that GPA was the most significant predictor of success. (EV)

  3. Effects of an Oral Hygiene Punishment Procedure on Chronic Rumination and Collateral Behaviors in Monozygous Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    When an oral hygiene punishment procedure was introduced, rumination (regurgitation) of profoundly retarded monozygous adolescent twins was dramatically reduced. The decrease was maintained over a 6 month period and was accompanied by increased rates of socially appropriate behavior. (CL)

  4. [Hygienic significance of vitamin supplementation for women-employees of poultry factories].

    PubMed

    Pashkova, V A; Ladnova, G G; Istomin, A V

    1994-06-01

    Vitaminization of female workers of poultry factory during 3 years promoted normalization of vitamin metabolism, lowering of toxic and allergic effect of chemical substances and morbidity. Hygienic recommendations based on the results of investigation were given. PMID:7982613

  5. Implementation of a chemical hygiene plan at an R&D facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.J.

    1994-08-01

    Implementation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan at an R&D facility is accomplished in an integrated approach with other programs. While the laboratory standard specifies the requirements of a Chemical Hygiene Plan, implementation requires innovation and creativity to effectively comply with the standard and to support R&D activities. While the Chemical Hygiene Plan is a unique entity, it must be integrated with other programs (e.g., Hazard Communication Program, Hazardous Waste Management Program, and Waste Minimization Program) so that complementary activities can minimize duplication of effort. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has implemented a Chemical Hygiene Plan using an integrated approach. The overall plan is described, and decisions on key issues and the criteria used to determine the implementation approach are discussed.

  6. Teacher is Space participant Christa McAuliffe during suite/hygiene briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Teacher is Space participant Christa McAuliffe (right) is briefed on her suit and on personal hygiene equipment to be used on the STS 51-L mission. The briefing was conducted by Laura Louviere (center).

  7. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 414). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers perceptions of students hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P?=?0.002, P?hygiene is not performed properly among students and reported time constraints as a barrier to frequent hand washing. Conclusions Adding hand hygiene instruction to existing hand hygiene practices improved attendance at public elementary schools during the flu season. Standardized and brief repetitive instruction in hand hygiene holds potential to significantly reduce absenteeism. PMID:22587432

  8. Hand Hygiene in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Comparison of Two Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; dAvila, Domingos O.

    2013-01-01

    ? Introduction and Objectives: Hand hygiene is essential for preventing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. The present study compared the effectiveness of two hygiene techniques in reducing the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) on the hands of patients undergoing PD. ? Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 22 participants enrolled in the same PD program underwent a two-hand evaluation for microbiologic flora. Participants participated in two treatments: a) simple hand hygiene plus antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients washed their hands with water and glycerin soap for 1 minute and then rubbed and dried their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel; and b) antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients rubbed their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel until fully dry. To sample distal finger surfaces, we asked the participants to touch sheep blood agar plates directly. ? Results: The CFU count for both hands was significantly higher in the regular hygiene group than in the gel-only group [69.0 (16.0 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.0 (2.2 - 55.5) CFU, p < 0.010]. Growth of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus colonies was significantly higher in right-hand cultures from the regular hygiene group than in those from the gel-only group [69.5 (26.25 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.5 (1.0 - 41.7) CFU; p < 0.050]. ? Conclusions: Among patients undergoing PD, using 70% ethyl alcohol gel to cleanse the hands may be more effective than following the regular hygiene recommendations in reducing bacterial populations. PMID:24179108

  9. See one, do one, teach one: hand hygiene attitudes among medical students, interns, and faculty.

    PubMed

    Polacco, Marc A; Shinkunas, Laura; Perencevich, Eli N; Kaldjian, Lauris C; Reisinger, Heather Schacht

    2015-02-01

    An anonymous, online survey of medical students, interns, and faculty at a university hospital was conducted in 2013 to examine self-reported adherence to hand hygiene opportunities. Variation in self-reported adherence ranged from frequencies of 60%-100%. Such variation suggests the need to direct education toward hand hygiene opportunities with lower reported rates of adherence, especially toward those opportunities that are difficult to monitor. PMID:25637116

  10. Factors Affecting Hand Hygiene Adherence at a Private Hospital in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Teker, Bahri; Ogutlu, Aziz; Gozdas, Hasan Tahsin; Ruayercan, Saliha; Hacialioglu, Gulizar; Karabay, Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nosocomial infections are the main problems rising morbidity and mortality in health care settings. Hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing these infections. In this study, we aimed to investigate the factors related with hand hygiene adherence at a private hospital in Turkey. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between March and June 2010 at a private hospital in Turkey. During the observation period, employees were informed about training, then posters and images were hanged in specific places of the hospital. After the initial observation, training on nosocomial infections and hand hygiene was provided to the hospital staff in March 2010. Contacts were classified according to occupational groups and whether invasive or not. These observations were evaluated in terms of compatibility with hand hygiene guidelines. Results: Hand hygiene adherence rate of trained doctors was higher than untrained ones before patient contact and after environment contact [48% (35/73) versus 82% (92/113) p<0.05 and 23% (5/22) versus 76% (37/49) p<0.05 respectively]. Hand hygiene adherence rate of trained nurses was higher than untrained ones before patient contact [63% (50/79) versus 76% (37/49) p<0.05]. Hand hygiene adherence rate of trained assistant health personnel was higher than untrained ones before asepsis [20% (2/10) versus 73% (16/22) p<0.05]. In addition, it was seen that hand antiseptics were used when hand washing was not possible. Conclusion: The increase at the rate of hand washing after training reveals the importance of feedback of the observations, as well as the training. One of the most important ways of preventing nosocomial infections is hand hygiene training that should be continued with feedbacks. PMID:26644771

  11. [Current problems in occupational hygiene of the construction industry in hot climate conditions].

    PubMed

    Babaev, A B; Lamikhov, B Iu; Sergeev, D Iu

    1993-01-01

    The article covers results of long-standing hygienic investigations analyzing the occupational factors development in technologic process of nonmetalliferous building materials production, ferroconcrete large-panel constructions production and their assembling during various seasons and shift times. The study pointed out the main hazards influencing the quality of workplace in the stated enterprises. The hazards are hygienically evaluated in connection with the functional parameters of cardiovascular, central nervous and muscular systems, thermoregulation, work hardiness and strain. PMID:7921846

  12. Oral hygiene protocols in intensive care units in a large Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Maria Elisa de Souza; Resende, Vera Lcia Silva; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimares; Dayrell, Andr Vasconcelos; Valle, Dbora de Andrade; de Castilho, Lia Silva

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated oral hygiene protocols for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in 25 of 30 hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using a questionnaire. Although all hospital representatives said there was a protocol for the maintenance of patients' oral hygiene, it was observed that there was no standardization. Only 2 hospitals had dentists on the ICU staff. Cetylpyridinium chloride was the most frequently used antiseptic, even in patients under mechanical ventilation. PMID:25728159

  13. Effectiveness of a training programme to improve hand hygiene compliance in primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the most effective measure for preventing infections related to healthcare, and its impact on the reduction of these infections is estimated at 50%. Non-compliance has been highlighted in several studies in hospitals, although none have been carried out in primary healthcare. Main objective To evaluated the effect of a "Hand Hygiene for the reduction of healthcare-associated infections" training program for primary healthcare workers, measured by variation from correct hand hygiene compliance, according to regulatory and specific criteria, 6 months after the baseline, in the intervention group (group receiving a training program) and in the control group (a usual clinical practice). Secondary objectives -To describe knowledges, attitudes and behaviors as regards hand hygiene among the professionals, and their possible association with "professional burnout", stratifying the results by type of group (intervention and usual clinical practice). -To estimate the logistic regression model that best explains hand hygiene compliance. Methods/Design Experimental study of parallel groups, with a control group, and random assignment by Health Center. Area of study.- Health centers in north-eastern Madrid (Spain). Sample studied.- Healthcare workers (physicians, odontostomatologists, pediatricians, nurses, dental hygienists, midwife and nursing auxiliaries). Intervention.- A hand hygiene training program, including a theoretical-practical workshop, provision of alcohol-based solutions and a reminder strategy in the workplace. Other variables: sociodemographic and professional knowledges, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to hand hygiene. Statistical Analysis: descriptive and inferential, using multivariate methods (covariance analysis and logistic regression). Discussion This study will provide valuable information on the prevalence of hand hygiene non-compliance, and improve healthcare. PMID:20015368

  14. Organic food.

    PubMed

    Jukes, T H

    1977-01-01

    "Organic" or "organically grown" foods are commonly represented as "food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics etc." The substitution of "organic" for "chemical" fertilizers during the growth of plants produces no change in the nutritional or chemical properties of foods. All foods are made of "chemicals." Traces of pesticides have been reported to be present in about 20 to 30% of both "organic" and conventional foods. These traces are usually within the official tolerance levels. Such levels are set low enough to protect consumers adequately. Indeed, there is no record of a single case of injury to a consumer resulting from the application of pesticides to food crops at permitted levels. PMID:336290

  15. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives. PMID:21914711

  16. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

  17. The relationship between nurses' oral hygiene and the mouth care of their patients.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, Malka; Yaish, Yaniv; Yitzhak, Moran; Sarnat, Haim; Rakocz, Meir

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the extent to which a relationship may exist between nurses' own oral hygiene and their commitment and capability of following instructions for tooth brushing with conventional and triple-headed toothbrushes, to cerebral palsy (CP) children. The study included 43 individuals with CP and their 44 nurses. A structured questionnaire was designed to assess I. Demographic characteristics of the nurses II. Nurses' knowledge and maintenance of their own oral-hygiene and that of their CP patients. Nurses' ability to follow instruction for tooth-brushing was evaluated and scored using the TB-PS-I/Ashkenazi index following the first brushing, as well as on a recall visit one month later. More nurses (72.7%) reported routine tooth-brushing in the morning than in the evening (40.9%). Most nurses (73%) reported not flossing their teeth at all, and more than half reported visiting their dentist only when they suffer pain. A positive correlation was found between the nurses' knowledge of preventive oral measures and their compliance with their own oral hygiene and with that of their CP patients. Similarly, a positive correlation was found between nurses' receiving previous instruction for correct oral hygiene and their maintenance of their patients' oral hygiene. Institutions for CP patients should disseminate information on oral hygiene to staff, as a means of increasing their maintenance of their patients' oral health. PMID:24164226

  18. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in our study as well as the cross contamination of meat products. PMID:25600954

  19. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  20. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  1. An epidemiological study on the predictors of health status of food handlers in food establishments of teaching hospitals of North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun; Katyal, Rashmi; Chaudhary, Varsha; Narula, Kusum; Upadhayay, Deepak; Singh, Shailendra Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USDHHS-CDC 1996) revealed that the outbreaks of food borne diseases include inadequate cooking, heating, or re-heating of foods consumption of food from unsafe sources, cooling food inappropriately and allowing too much of a time lapse. As we all know that the food handlers have been working in various types of community kitchen and their health status can affect the status of food hygiene which can lead to contamination of foods attributing to acute gastroenteritis and food poisoning in various subgroups of the population e.g., medical/dental/nursing students. The background characteristics of these food handlers may have important role to affect health status of these handlers. Methods: The indexed study was carried out among the food handlers working in the food establishments the 5 teaching hospitals of Bareilly city in U.P. India during one year i.e., from August 2013 to July 2014. The survey method using schedule was conducted to get information about the background characteristics and food handlers and each food handler was examined clinically for assessing health status. Chi-Square test was used as test of significance and regression analysis was also done to nullifying the effect of confounders. Results: The health status of the mess workers was found to be significantly associated with use of gloves, hand washing after toilet and hand washing before cooking and serving food. Conclusion: The rationale of this study was that though many studies have been carried out to show the health status of the food handlers and their background characteristics, no study has highlighted the association of these background characteristics and personal hygiene practices with the health status of food handlers.

  2. Flat Ge-doped optical fibres for food irradiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, N. Mohd; Jusoh, M. A.; Razis, A. F. Abdull; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Exposing food to radiation can improve hygiene quality, germination control, retard sprouting, and enhance physical attributes of the food product. To provide for food safety, radiation dosimetry in irradiated food is required. Herein, fabricated germanium doped (Ge-doped) optical fibres have been used. The fibres have been irradiated using a gamma source irradiator, doses in the range 1 kGy to 10 kGy being delivered. Using Ge-doped optical fibres of variable size, type and dopant concentration, study has been made of linearity, reproducibility, and fading. The thermoluminescence (TL) yield of the fibres were obtained and compared. The fibres exhibit a linear dose response over the investigated range of doses, with mean reproducibility to within 2.69 % to 8.77 %, exceeding the dose range of all commercial dosimeters used in evaluating high doses for the food irradiation industry. TL fading of the Ge-doped flat fibres has been found to be < 13%.

  3. Flat Ge-doped optical fibres for food irradiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Noor, N. Mohd; Jusoh, M. A.; Razis, A. F. Abdull; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-04-24

    Exposing food to radiation can improve hygiene quality, germination control, retard sprouting, and enhance physical attributes of the food product. To provide for food safety, radiation dosimetry in irradiated food is required. Herein, fabricated germanium doped (Ge-doped) optical fibres have been used. The fibres have been irradiated using a gamma source irradiator, doses in the range 1 kGy to 10 kGy being delivered. Using Ge-doped optical fibres of variable size, type and dopant concentration, study has been made of linearity, reproducibility, and fading. The thermoluminescence (TL) yield of the fibres were obtained and compared. The fibres exhibit a linear dose response over the investigated range of doses, with mean reproducibility to within 2.69 % to 8.77 %, exceeding the dose range of all commercial dosimeters used in evaluating high doses for the food irradiation industry. TL fading of the Ge-doped flat fibres has been found to be < 13%.

  4. Microbes versus microbes: control of pathogens in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kieran; Dalmasso, Marion; Zentek, Juergen; Mader, Anneluise; Bruggeman, Geert; Wallace, John; De Medici, Dario; Fiore, Alfonsina; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Lukac, Maja; Axelsson, Lars; Holck, Askild; Ingmer, Hanne; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2014-12-01

    Foodborne illness continues as a considerable threat to public health. Despite improved hygiene management systems and increased regulation, pathogenic bacteria still contaminate food, causing sporadic cases of illness and disease outbreaks worldwide. For many centuries, microbial antagonism has been used in food processing to improve food safety. An understanding of the mode of action of this microbial antagonism has been gained in recent years and potential applications in food and feed safety are now being explored. This review focuses on the potential opportunities presented, and the limitations, of using microbial antagonism as a biocontrol mechanism to reduce contamination along the food chain; including animal feed as its first link. 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24816992

  5. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYEES OF BROADCASTING CENTER].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, A V; Brusentsova, A V; Sokhoshko, I A; Rostikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions of employees of the Omsk Regional Broadcasting Centre was performed on data of the analysis of materials of certification of workplaces. There were examined materials concerning 65 core profile workplaces, where 130 persons, including 35 women work. There was determined health risk for personnel in dependence on working conditions. The staff was noted to be exposed to the adverse impact of the following factors: chemical, physical (noise, general and local vibration, non-ionizing radiation, microclimate, lighting), severity and intensity ofwork. Class working conditions for 13,5% of workplaces on noise, 35.4% on non-ionizing radiation was assessed as a harmful of the first degree. Lightness indices at 78.5% of the workplaces did not meet the requirements of sanitary norms. At 7.7% of the workplaces levels of hardness of labor were assessed as harmful. The impact of such factors as biological, infrasound, ultrasound, ionizing radiation, aerosols with mainly fibrogenic action, was absent, their assessment was not carried out. Working conditions at 83.1% of workplaces were characterized as hazardous, including at 52.3% of the workplaces where there was established hazard class 3.1, at 30.7% of workplaces--Class 3.2. Among all the factors of occupational environment the largest contribution into the overall assessment of working conditions was made by the lightness factor (50.9%) and non-ionizing radiation (20.6%). The most harmful working conditions have been identified for workplaces of the operator of masthead antenna, engineer of radiocommunications, broadcasting and television, electromechanician of television (radiocommunication), (broadcasting), car driver. PMID:26856168

  6. [Equipment for respiratory gas conditioning under hygienic conditions].

    PubMed

    Soltau, U; Bonell, R; Kaufhold, W; Baumann, B

    1990-01-01

    The significance of respiratory gas conditioning systems as sources of germ colonization and infection of the respiratory tract results from the principle of operation and the temperature. Six respiratory air humidifiers were tested for their hygienic risk in experiments with test germs. Contrary to several reports, some humidifiers were shown to accumulate microorganisms, whereas others do not promote germ population in the respiratory tract even though the water of the humidifier is heavily contaminated. It could be confirmed that basic differences exist between "blow over" and "blow through" humidifiers in the accumulation of microorganisms in respiratory air. Moreover, our investigations revealed that even "blow over" humidifiers should not be considered completely harmless. The "blow over" apparatuses Hydrotrop 200, Aquapor and VH 620 (infant) did not cause any germ propagation in the resuscitation tubes, whereas in the "blow through" apparatuses Bennett Cascade and VH 620 (adult) germ propagation is quite considerable. The mortality kinetics of the germs differ depending on the temperature and the type of apparatus used and should be taken into account when it comes to choosing or developing respiratory gas conditioning devices. Constant heating of the water in the humidifier to a minimum of 50 degrees C provokes a bactericide behaviour of the problem germs. Therefore, it is quite justifiable to do without expensive internationally recommended measures if the humidifier is well chosen. The requirement to replace the humidifier every 24 hours in long-term artificial respiration need not be observed for devices classified as harmless if aseptic handling is guaranteed, i.e. if manual germ transmission by the staff is avoided. PMID:2222715

  7. Hygienic relevance and risk assessment of antimicrobial-impregnated textiles.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Guggenbichler, P; Heldt, P; Jnger, M; Ladwig, A; Thierbach, H; Weber, U; Daeschlein, G

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial impregnation of textiles is intended to provide protection of textiles against microbial corrosion, prevention of malodor or prophylaxis and therapy of infections, respectively. For every biocidal product a careful risk assessment for humans and the environment has to be performed. The advantage of antimicrobially active textiles has to be documented for every agent as well as for every application, and a balance has to be found between a textile's quality rating and the potential risks, e.g. sensitization, disturbance of the ecology of the skin, toxic side effects by means of systemic absorption, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and ecotoxicity. This article evaluates the applicability of silver compounds as well as the classic antimicrobials triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds, copper and further new options like chitosan and zeolite. It has to be emphasized that there are no objections against the use of antimicrobially active textiles if their use is equal or superior to other preventive or therapeutic measures. This applies to the amelioration of the course of dermatological diseases with disturbed skin flora, in particular atopic dermatitis, the prevention and therapy of acute and chronic wound infections by wound dressings, the use of impregnated surgical suture material as well as special indications in the prevention of infection in medical facilities. The use of antimicrobial textiles for the prevention of dermatomycosis by antifungal impregnation is of questionable use; the antimicrobial impregnation of textiles for deodorization purposes has to be avoided. Presently, from a hygienic point of view, the following questions have to be clearly determined: declaration of any antimicrobial impregnation; development of international standards for in vitro testing and preclinical evaluation of efficacy and tolerance; evaluation of the advantage of the antimicrobial properties for the intended use including the risk-benefit assessment. PMID:16766883

  8. Can Control Banding be better than traditional Industrial Hygiene?

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D

    2009-01-27

    The answer to this question should be 'no' if you can afford it and 'yes' if you cannot. However, Control Banding (CB) is proving itself in areas with uncertainties. This could be either a lack of knowledge--as with nanomaterials or when lacking an OEL--or with the lack or expertise, as can be seen with SMEs and in Economically Developing Countries (EDCs). Over 90% of the world's workers do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods to achieve prevention from acquiring work-related illness and injury. Although risk factors for work-related illness and disease are well known, until the recent growth of CB there had yet to be designed and implemented a comprehensive OSHH process that focuses on achieving minimization of these occupational risk factors for the vast majority of the global workforce. This problem exists for three primary reasons: (1) There are not a sufficient number of trained and qualified OSHH professionals worldwide to attempt to offer comparable levels of traditional services necessary to achieve prevention; (2) The vast majority of OSHH professionals, and the funds to afford their conventional approaches, are concentrated in Developed Countries, such as those in the EU and the US, whereas the greatest need for work-related disease, illness, and injury prevention lies within EDCs; and (3) Even within Developed Countries, the funding to acquire the services of OSHH professionals sits primarily within the largest of industries and governmental institutions. This problem renders a void of occupational risk management for the professions and trades within EDCs and similarly the SMEs within even the richest of Developed Countries. Further, conventional means to achieve such prevention rely heavily on exposure assessment sampling strategies that, although proven successful, are cost-prohibitive in these arenas.

  9. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  10. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  11. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  12. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  13. Causes, symptoms and prevention of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Kopczyński, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Currently, food allergy is considered to be one of the diseases of civilization, which occurs as a result of the changing conditions of life and environmental changes (e.g. increased popularity of cesarean delivery, excessive hygienic regime during the neonatal-infantile period). Based on medical statistics, it can be concluded that this problem will be intensified. Consumption of food is one of the main activities in human life. What and how one eats affects our health. Meals eaten regularly provide the components necessary for the energy metabolism. Multicultural society, travel, and new trends affect the diversity of food consumed. The mechanism of food allergy reaction covers all 4 types of the immune response of the classical division of Gell and Coombs. The percentage of the immune response was assessed by Chandra as follows: type I – 48%, type II – 6%, type III – 10%, and type IV – 18%. The article presents the risk factors for food allergy, most common symptoms, preventive measures and characteristics of food products that are potential allergens. PMID:24278058

  14. Social and cultural dimensions of hygiene in Cambodian health care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The frequency of bloodborne pathogen healthcare-associated infections is thought to be high in developing Southeast Asian Countries. The underlying social-cultural logics contributing to the risks of transmission are rarely studied. This report provides some insights on the social and cultural factors that shape hygiene practices in Cambodian health care settings. Methods We conducted qualitative surveys in various public and private health facilities in Phnom Penh, the capital city and in provinces. We observed and interviewed 319 participants, health care workers and patients, regarding hygiene practices and social relationships amongst the health care staff and with patients. We also examined the local perceptions of hygiene, their impact on the relationships between the health care staff and patients, and perceptions of transmission risks. Data collection stem from face to face semi-structured and open-ended interviews and focus group discussions with various health care staffs (i.e. cleaners, nurses, midwives and medical doctors) and with patients who attended the study health facilities. Results Overall responses and observations indicated that hygiene practices were burdened by the lack of adequate materials and equipements. In addition, many other factors were identified to influence and distort hygiene practices which include (1) informal and formal social rapports in hospitals, (2) major infection control roles played by the cleaners in absence of professional acknowledgment. Moreover, hygiene practices are commonly seen as an unessential matter to be devoted to low-ranking staff. Conclusion Our anthropological findings illustrate the importance of comprehensive understanding of hygiene practices; they need to be considered when designing interventions to improve infection control practices in a Cambodian medical setting. PMID:21294927

  15. Clean Hands for Life: results of a large, multicentre, multifaceted, social marketing hand-hygiene campaign.

    PubMed

    Forrester, L A; Bryce, E A; Mediaa, A K

    2010-03-01

    A year-long multifaceted hand-hygiene campaign entitled Clean Hands for Life targeting individual, environmental and organisational factors that influence healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour was implemented in 36 acute and long-term care facilities in Vancouver Coastal Health region. The campaign involved rotation of ten novel posters, two poster contests, and distribution of multiple promotional items. A social marketing approach was used to implement and monitor the effectiveness of the campaign. Evaluation included quality assurance surveys, staff surveys (baseline, mid- and post-campaign), and focus groups. A total of 141 poster contest submissions was received, 5452 staff surveys completed and 14 focus groups conducted. Overall knowledge of the importance of hand-hygiene and intention to clean hands was high at baseline. No significant differences were observed when mid- and post-campaign scores were compared to baseline. The majority (89.5%) of HCWs reported that they preferred soap and water over alcohol hand gel. A significant increase in the self-reported use of hand-hygiene products was observed particularly among HCWs not providing direct patient care. Barriers to hand-hygiene included inappropriate placement of sinks, traffic flow issues, inadequately stocked washrooms, workload and time constraints. Organisational support was visible throughout the campaign. The results showed that social marketing is an effective approach in engaging HCWs. Hand-hygiene campaigns that focus almost exclusively on increasing awareness among HCWs may not be as successful as multifaceted campaigns or campaigns that target identified barriers to hand-hygiene. PMID:20153550

  16. Protective glove use and hygiene habits modify the associations of specific pesticides with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Melissa; Tanner, Caroline M; Goldman, Samuel M; Bhudhikanok, Grace S; Blair, Aaron; Chade, Anabel; Comyns, Kathleen; Hoppin, Jane A; Kasten, Meike; Korell, Monica; Langston, J William; Marras, Connie; Meng, Cheryl; Richards, Marie; Ross, G Webster; Umbach, David M; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya

    2015-02-01

    Pesticides have been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and protective gloves and workplace hygiene can reduce pesticide exposure. We assessed whether use of gloves and workplace hygiene modified associations between pesticides and PD. The Farming and Movement Evaluation (FAME) study is a nested case-control study within the Agricultural Health Study. Use of protective gloves, other PPE, and hygiene practices were determined by questionnaire (69 cases and 237 controls were included). We considered interactions of gloves and hygiene with ever-use of pesticides for all pesticides with ?5 exposed and unexposed cases and controls in each glove-use stratum (paraquat, permethrin, rotenone, and trifluralin). 61% of respondents consistently used protective gloves and 87% consistently used ?2 hygiene practices. Protective glove use modified the associations of paraquat and permethrin with PD: neither pesticide was associated with PD among protective glove users, while both pesticides were associated with PD among non-users (paraquat OR 3.9 [95% CI 1.3, 11.7], interaction p=0.15; permethrin OR 4.3 [95% CI 1.2, 15.6] interaction p=0.05). Rotenone was associated with PD regardless of glove use. Trifluralin was associated with PD among participants who used <2 hygiene practices (OR 5.5 [95% CI 1.1, 27.1]) but was not associated with PD among participants who used 2 or more practices (interaction p=0.02). Although sample size was limited in the FAME study, protective glove use and hygiene practices appeared to be important modifiers of the association between pesticides and PD and may reduce risk of PD associated with certain pesticides. PMID:25461423

  17. The effects of gender disparities on dental hygiene education and practice in Europe.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C

    2003-11-01

    In Europe, over 96.5% of dental hygienists are women. The objective of this report was to examine the impact of gender role stereotyping on the image of the dental hygiene profession and on disparities in educational attainment and work regulations within Europe. Data pertaining to regulated or non-regulated dental hygiene practice in 22 European countries were analysed according to possible gender impact on access to education and on the structure of the delivery of care. It was examined whether there is a correlation between national differences found in the dental hygiene profession and gender related disparities found in other work-related areas. Results show that the gender bias in the dental hygiene profession has an effect on equal access to education, and on equal occupational opportunities for dental hygienists within the European Union (EU) and beyond. In northern Europe, higher educational attainment in the field of dental hygiene, more extensive professional responsibilities and greater opportunities for self-employment in autonomous practice tend to correlate with greater equality in the work force. In eastern Europe, lower educational and professional opportunities in dental hygiene correlate with greater gender disparities found in other work-related areas. In some western European countries, the profession has not been implemented because of the political impact of organised dentistry, which expects financial loss from autonomous dental hygiene practice. In order to fulfil mandates of the EU, initiatives must be taken to remove the gender bias in the delivery of preventive care and to promote equal access to educational attainment and to professional development in the whole of Europe for those who choose to do so. PMID:16451501

  18. Sleep Hygiene and Problem Behaviors in Snoring and Non-Snoring School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Witcher, Lisa A.; Gozal, David; Molfese, Dennis M.; Salathe, Scott M.; Spruyt, Karen; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The effects of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep restriction, dyssomnias, and parasomnias on daytime behavior in children have been previously assessed. However, the potential relationship(s) between sleep hygiene and childrens daytime behavior remain to be explored. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep hygiene and problematic behaviors in non-snoring and habitually snoring children. Methods Parents of 100 5- to 8-year-old children who were reported to snore frequently to almost always, and of 71 age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched children who were reported to never snore participated in this study. As part of a larger, ongoing study, children underwent nocturnal polysomnography and parents were asked to complete the Childrens Sleep Hygiene Scale (CSHS) and the Conners Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CPRS-R:L). Results In the snoring group, strong negative correlations (r = ?.39, p <.001) between the CSHS overall sleep hygiene score and the CPRS-R:L DSM-IV total scores emerged. Additionally, several subscales of the CSHS and CPRS-R:L were significantly correlated (p-values from <.000 to .004) in snoring children. No significant correlations were observed between the CSHS and the CPRS-R:L in the non-snoring children. Conclusions Parental reports of behavioral patterns in snoring children indicate that poorer sleep hygiene is more likely to be associated with behavior problems, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and oppositional behavior. In contrast, no significant relationships between sleep hygiene and problem behaviors emerged among non-snoring children. These results indicate that children at risk for sleep disordered breathing are susceptible to daytime behavior impairments when concurrently coupled with poor sleep hygiene practices. PMID:22647496

  19. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy. PMID:22166142

  20. Food fears: a national survey on the attitudes of Australian adults about the safety and quality of food.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Stirling, Emma; Keynes, Nick

    2004-01-01

    A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 1200 Australian adults was conducted in March 2002 in order to identify the factors of greatest concern to consumers in relation to the safety and quality of food, to measure recent trends in views about hazards in the food supply, to explore beliefs about the safety of additives and to discover whether consumers use food labels to check for ingredients of concern. Forty five percent of Australians responded that they were more concerned about the safety and quality of food than they were five years previously, while only 5% were less concerned. The most common potential hazards volunteered were additives and chemical residues (28%), followed by food processing/handling/freshness (21%), food hygiene or contamination (14%), and also genetic modification (14%). More than half of the respondents believe that additives and preservatives are harmful to your health and that many foods contain high levels of pesticides. A greater proportion of consumers claimed to be conscious of checking for additives, either general or specific, on food labels than for information on the salt or sugar content of products. Food regulators, journalists, the food industry and health professionals need to work together to correct misconceptions about the risks to health posed by common food additives and pesticide residues. PMID:15003912