Science.gov

Sample records for food processors association

  1. Memorandum of Understanding with Northwest Food Processors Association

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    The Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy entered into this memorandum of understanding to work collaboratively to reduce energy intensity by 25% within ten years.

  2. Food Processors Skills Building Project. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Eileen Casey

    The Food Processors Skills Building project was undertaken by four Oregon community colleges, with funds from the Oregon Economic Development Department and 11 local food processing companies, to address basic skills needs in the food processing industry through the development and implementation of an industry-specific curriculum. Based on…

  3. Food processors requirements met by radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Raymond W.

    2002-03-01

    Processing food using irradiation provides significant advantages to food producers by destroying harmful pathogens and extending shelf life without any detectable physical or chemical changes. It is expected that through increased public education, food irradiation will emerge as a viable commercial industry. Food production in most countries involves state of the art manufacturing, packaging, labeling, and shipping techniques that provides maximum efficiency and profit. In the United States, food sales are extremely competitive and profit margins small. Most food producers have heavily invested in equipment and are hesitant to modify their equipment. Meat and poultry producers in particular utilize sophisticated production machinery that processes enormous volumes of product on a continuous basis. It is incumbent on the food irradiation equipment suppliers to develop equipment that can easily merge with existing processes without requiring major changes to either the final food product or the process utilized to produce that product. Before a food producer can include irradiation as part of their food production process, they must be certain the available equipment meets their needs. This paper will examine several major requirements of food processors that will most likely have to be provided by the supplier of the irradiation equipment.

  4. Associative massively parallel processor for video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikelis, Argy; Tawiah, T.

    1996-03-01

    Massively parallel processing architectures have matured primarily through image processing and computer vision application. The similarity of processing requirements between these areas and video processing suggest that they should be very appropriate for video processing applications. This research describes the use of an associative massively parallel processing based system for video compression which includes architectural and system description, discussion of the implementation of compression tasks such as DCT/IDCT, Motion Estimation and Quantization and system evaluation. The core of the processing system is the ASP (Associative String Processor) architecture a modular massively parallel, programmable and inherently fault-tolerant fine-grain SIMD processing architecture incorporating a string of identical APEs (Associative Processing Elements), a reconfigurable inter-processor communication network and a Vector Data Buffer for fully-overlapped data input-output. For video compression applications a prototype system is developed, which is using ASP modules to implement the required compression tasks. This scheme leads to a linear speed up of the computation by simply adding more APEs to the modules.

  5. Efficient searching and sorting applications using an associative array processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, W.; Quinn, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of searching and sorting data by using some of the unique capabilities of an associative array processor. To understand the application, the associative array processor is described in detail. In particular, the content addressable memory and flip network are discussed because these two unique elements give the associative array processor the power to rapidly sort and search. A simple alphanumeric sorting example is explained in hardware and software terms. The hardware used to explain the application is the STARAN (Goodyear Aerospace Corporation) associative array processor. The software used is the APPLE (Array Processor Programming Language) programming language. Some applications of the array processor are discussed. This summary tries to differentiate between the techniques of the sequential machine and the associative array processor.

  6. Soft electron processor for surface sterilization of food material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Takashi; Kaneko, Hiromi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2004-09-01

    As frozen or chilled foods have become popular nowadays, it has become very important to provide raw materials with lower level microbial contamination to food processing companies. Consequently, the sterilization of food material is one of the major topics for food processing. Dried materials like grains, beans and spices, etc., are not typically deeply contaminated by microorganisms, which reside on the surfaces of materials, so it is very useful to take low energetic, lower than 300 keV, electrons with small penetration power (Soft-Electrons), as a sterilization method for such materials. Soft-Electrons is researched and named by Dr. Hayashi et al. This is a non-thermal method, so one can keep foods hygienic without serious deterioration. It is also a physical method, so is free from residues of chemicals in foods. Recently, Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd. have developed and manufactured equipment for commercial use of Soft-Electrons (Soft Electron Processor), which can process 500 kg/h of grains. This report introduces the Soft Electron Processor and shows the results of sterilization of wheat and brown rice by the equipment.

  7. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  8. Error-correction coding in an associative processor.

    PubMed

    Liebowitz, S; Casasent, D

    1987-03-15

    A technique for encoding binary outputs from optical filters or matrix memories used in an associative processor for object recognition is discussed. Binary coded output vectors (rather than unit vectors) are used and considerably improve storage capacity. The output codes or matrix memories are chosen from coding theory to enable error correction and detection. The error classification rate for the coded scheme is compared to the noncoded version for different amounts of noise in the input and output planes. Discussion of extensions to more classes, more errors, and multilevel coding are included. PMID:20454260

  9. Ionizing Solutions to Future Processor Demands for Safe Food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Irradiation is a safe and effective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved process that can be used to disinfest or delay the maturation of fruits and vegetables, improve the microbiological safety of shellfish, eggs, raw meat and poultry, spices, and seeds used for sprouting. FDA ap...

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wood, O B; Bruhn, C M

    2000-02-01

    Food irradiation has been identified a sa safe technology to reduce the risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling, and preparation. Food irradiation's history of scientific research , evaluation, and testing spans more than 40 countries around the world and it has been endorsed or support by numerous national and international food and organizations and professional groups. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organism. Often referred to as "cold pasteurization," food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. Food irradiation does not replace proper food production, processing, handling, or preparation, nor can it enhance the quality of or prevent contact with foodborne bacteria after irradiation. In the United States, manufacturers are required to identify irradiated food sold to consumers with an international symbol (Radura) and and terminology describing the process on product labels. In addiction, food irradiation facilities are thoroughly regulated and monitored for worker and environmental safety. Members of The American Dietetic Association (ADA) and other food, nutrition, and health professionals have a responsibility to educate consumers, food processors, manufacturers and retailers about the safety and application of the technology. When consumers are educated about food irradiation, many prefer irradiated products because of their increased safety. It is the position of ADA that food irradiation enhances the safety and quality of the food supply and helps protect consumers from foodborne illness. The ADA encourages the government, food manufactures, food commodity groups, and qualified food and nutrition professionals to work together to educate consumers about this additional food safety tool and make this choice

  11. Protein-Based Three-Dimensional Memories and Associative Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birge, Robert

    2008-03-01

    The field of bioelectronics has benefited from the fact that nature has often solved problems of a similar nature to those which must be solved to create molecular electronic or photonic devices that operate with efficiency and reliability. Retinal proteins show great promise in bioelectronic devices because they operate with high efficiency (˜0.65%), high cyclicity (>10^7), operate over an extended wavelength range (360 -- 630 nm) and can convert light into changes in voltage, pH, absorption or refractive index. This talk will focus on a retinal protein called bacteriorhodopsin, the proton pump of the organism Halobacterium salinarum. Two memories based on this protein will be described. The first is an optical three-dimensional memory. This memory stores information using volume elements (voxels), and provides as much as a thousand-fold improvement in effective capacity over current technology. A unique branching reaction of a variant of bacteriorhodopsin is used to turn each protein into an optically addressed latched AND gate. Although three working prototypes have been developed, a number of cost/performance and architectural issues must be resolved prior to commercialization. The major issue is that the native protein provides a very inefficient branching reaction. Genetic engineering has improved performance by nearly 500-fold, but a further order of magnitude improvement is needed. Protein-based holographic associative memories will also be discussed. The human brain stores and retrieves information via association, and human intelligence is intimately connected to the nature and enormous capacity of this associative search and retrieval process. To a first order approximation, creativity can be viewed as the association of two seemingly disparate concepts to form a totally new construct. Thus, artificial intelligence requires large scale associative memories. Current computer hardware does not provide an optimal environment for creating artificial

  12. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  13. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  14. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  15. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  16. WARP: Weight Associative Rule Processor. A dedicated VLSI fuzzy logic megacell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagni, A.; Poluzzi, R.; Rizzotto, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    During the last five years Fuzzy Logic has gained enormous popularity in the academic and industrial worlds. The success of this new methodology has led the microelectronics industry to create a new class of machines, called Fuzzy Machines, to overcome the limitations of traditional computing systems when utilized as Fuzzy Systems. This paper gives an overview of the methods by which Fuzzy Logic data structures are represented in the machines (each with its own advantages and inefficiencies). Next, the paper introduces WARP (Weight Associative Rule Processor) which is a dedicated VLSI megacell allowing the realization of a fuzzy controller suitable for a wide range of applications. WARP represents an innovative approach to VLSI Fuzzy controllers by utilizing different types of data structures for characterizing the membership functions during the various stages of the Fuzzy processing. WARP dedicated architecture has been designed in order to achieve high performance by exploiting the computational advantages offered by the different data representations.

  17. Guide for frozen food processors. Reducing energy costs means a better bottom line

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Energy management questions in the food processing (freezing) industry are answered in this handbook. The handbook tells how to change equipment maintenance practices to save energy; what technology can help save energy costs; and how to make capital investments that provide significant returns on investment dollars. Specific energy-conserving measures discussed for the frozen foods industry are: reducing the cost of process energy; reducing lighting costs; and reducing heating costs. (MCW)

  18. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. Design and subjects: In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and −10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Results: Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00–1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Conclusion: Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing. PMID:23208414

  19. Energy and Cost Optimized Technology Options to Meet Energy Needs of Food Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Hoffman, Michael G.; Wagner, Anne W.; Thornton, John

    2015-05-01

    Full Paper Submission for: Combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) distributed generation (DG) systems can provide electric power and, heating and cooling capability to commercial and industrial facilities directly onsite, while increasing energy efficiency, security of energy supply, grid independence and enhancing the environmental and economic situation for the site. Food processing industries often have simultaneous requirements for heat, steam, chilling and electricity making them well suited for the use of such systems to supply base-load or as peak reducing generators enabling reduction of overall energy use intensity. This paper documents analysis from a project evaluating opportunities enabled by CCHPDG for emission and cost reductions and energy storage systems installed onsite at food processing facilities. In addition, this distributed generation coupled with energy storage demonstrates a non-wires solution to delay or eliminate the need for upgrades to electric distribution systems. It was found that a dairy processing plant in the Pacific Northwest currently purchasing 15,000 MWh/yr of electricity and 190,000 MMBtu/yr of gas could be provided with a 1.1 MW CCHP system reducing the amount of electric power purchased to 450 MWh/yr while increasing the gas demand to 255,000 MMBtu/yr. The high percentage of hydro-power in this region resulted in CO2 emissions from CCHP to be higher than that attributed to the electric utility/regional energy mix. The value of this work is in documenting a real-world example demonstrating the value of CCHP to facility owners and financial decision makers to encourage them to more seriously consider CCHP systems when building or upgrading facilities.

  20. Energy and Cost Optimized Technology Options to Meet Energy Needs of Food Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Hoffman, Michael G.; Wagner, Anne W.; Thornton, John

    2015-04-02

    ABSTRACT Combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) distributed generation (DG) systems can provide electricity, heat, and cooling power to buildings and industrial processes directly onsite, while significantly increasing energy efficiency, security of energy supply, and grid independence. Fruit, vegetable, dairy and meat processing industries with simultaneous requirements for heat, steam, chilling and electricity, are well suited for the use of such systems to supply base-load electrical demand or as peak reducing generators with heat recovery in the forms of hot water, steam and/or chilled water. This paper documents results and analysis from a pilot project to evaluate opportunities for energy, emission, and cost for CCHP-DG and energy storage systems installed onsite at food processing facilities. It was found that a dairy processing plant purchasing 15,000 MWh of electricity will need to purchase 450 MWh with the integration of a 1.1 MW CCHP system. Here, the natural gas to be purchased increased from 190,000 MMBtu to 255,000 MMBtu given the fuel requirements of the CCHP system. CCHP systems lower emissions, however, in the Pacific Northwest the high percentage of hydro-power results in CO2 emissions from CCHP were higher than that attributed to the electric utility/regional energy mix. The value of this paper is in promoting and educating financial decision makers to seriously consider CCHP systems when building or upgrading facilities. The distributed generation aspect can reduce utility costs for industrial facilities and show non-wires solution benefits to delay or eliminate the need for upgrades to local electric transmission and distribution systems.

  1. The epsilon dataflow processor

    SciTech Connect

    Grafe, V.G.; Davidson, G.S.; Hoch, J.E.; Holmes, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    The epsilon dataflow architecture is designed for high speed uniprocessor execution as well as for parallel processing. The epsilon architecture directly matches ready operands, thus eliminating the need for associative matching stores. epsilon also supports low cost data fan out and critical sections. A 10 MFLOPS CMOS/TTL processor prototype is running and its performance has been measured with several benchmarks. The prototype processor has demonstrated sustained performance exceeding that of comparable control flow processors running at higher clock rates (three times faster than a 20 MHz transputer and 24 times faster than a Sun on a suite of arithmetic tests, for example). 22 refs., 16 figs.

  2. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    PubMed

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. PMID:27208014

  3. Stream Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J.

    Stream processors, like other multi core architectures partition their functional units and storage into multiple processing elements. In contrast to typical architectures, which contain symmetric general-purpose cores and a cache hierarchy, stream processors have a significantly leaner design. Stream processors are specifically designed for the stream execution model, in which applications have large amounts of explicit parallel computation, structured and predictable control, and memory accesses that can be performed at a coarse granularity. Applications in the streaming model are expressed in a gather-compute-scatter form, yielding programs with explicit control over transferring data to and from on-chip memory. Relying on these characteristics, which are common to many media processing and scientific computing applications, stream architectures redefine the boundary between software and hardware responsibilities with software bearing much of the complexity required to manage concurrency, locality, and latency tolerance. Thus, stream processors have minimal control consisting of fetching medium- and coarse-grained instructions and executing them directly on the many ALUs. Moreover, the on-chip storage hierarchy of stream processors is under explicit software control, as is all communication, eliminating the need for complex reactive hardware mechanisms.

  4. The meta-Gaussian Bayesian Processor of forecasts and associated preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fajing; Jiao, Meiyan; Chen, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Public weather services are trending toward providing users with probabilistic weather forecasts, in place of traditional deterministic forecasts. Probabilistic forecasting techniques are continually being improved to optimize available forecasting information. The Bayesian Processor of Forecast (BPF), a new statistical method for probabilistic forecast, can transform a deterministic forecast into a probabilistic forecast according to the historical statistical relationship between observations and forecasts generated by that forecasting system. This technique accounts for the typical forecasting performance of a deterministic forecasting system in quantifying the forecast uncertainty. The meta-Gaussian likelihood model is suitable for a variety of stochastic dependence structures with monotone likelihood ratios. The meta-Gaussian BPF adopting this kind of likelihood model can therefore be applied across many fields, including meteorology and hydrology. The Bayes theorem with two continuous random variables and the normal-linear BPF are briefly introduced. The meta-Gaussian BPF for a continuous predictand using a single predictor is then presented and discussed. The performance of the meta-Gaussian BPF is tested in a preliminary experiment. Control forecasts of daily surface temperature at 0000 UTC at Changsha and Wuhan stations are used as the deterministic forecast data. These control forecasts are taken from ensemble predictions with a 96-h lead time generated by the National Meteorological Center of the China Meteorological Administration, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction during January 2008. The results of the experiment show that the meta-Gaussian BPF can transform a deterministic control forecast of surface temperature from any one of the three ensemble predictions into a useful probabilistic forecast of surface temperature. These probabilistic forecasts quantify the uncertainty

  5. Foods for a Mission to Mars: Equivalent System Mass and Development of a Multipurpose Small-Scale Seed Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandolph, J.; Chen, G.; Weiss, I.; Perchonok, D. M.; Wijeratne, W.; Fortune, S.; Corvalan, C.; Campanella, O.; Okos, M.; Mauer, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    The candidate crops for planetary food systems include: wheat, white and sweet potatoes, soybean, peanut, strawberry, dry bean including le ntil and pinto, radish, rice, lettuce, carrot, green onion, tomato, p eppers, spinach, and cabbage. Crops such as wheat, potatoes, soybean, peanut, dry bean, and rice can only be utilized after processing, while others are classified as ready-to-eat. To process foods in space, the food processing subsystem must be capable of producing a variety of nutritious, acceptable, and safe edible ingredients and food produ cts from pre-packaged and resupply foods as well as salad crops grown on the transit vehicle or other crops grown on planetary surfaces. D esigning, building, developing, and maintaining such a subsystem is b ound to many constraints and restrictions. The limited power supply, storage locations, variety of crops, crew time, need to minimize waste , and other equivalent system mass (ESM) parameters must be considere d in the selection of processing equipment and techniques.

  6. 21 CFR 864.3875 - Automated tissue processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated tissue processor. 864.3875 Section 864.3875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Automated tissue processor. (a) Identification. An automated tissue processor is an automated system used...

  7. 21 CFR 864.3875 - Automated tissue processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated tissue processor. 864.3875 Section 864.3875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Automated tissue processor. (a) Identification. An automated tissue processor is an automated system used...

  8. 21 CFR 864.3875 - Automated tissue processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated tissue processor. 864.3875 Section 864.3875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Automated tissue processor. (a) Identification. An automated tissue processor is an automated system used...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3875 - Automated tissue processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated tissue processor. 864.3875 Section 864.3875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Automated tissue processor. (a) Identification. An automated tissue processor is an automated system used...

  10. 21 CFR 864.3875 - Automated tissue processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated tissue processor. 864.3875 Section 864.3875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Automated tissue processor. (a) Identification. An automated tissue processor is an automated system used...

  11. Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo; Taylor, Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia - MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p < 0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p < 0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p < 0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p < 0.0001), similarly, MANA food supplement intakes were greatest in households reporting the most food insecurity (p < 0.001). The results of this study are important to describe characteristics of the population benefiting from the MANA nutrition intervention by their unique level of household food security status. PMID:21090176

  12. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Julie A; Nagy-Nero, Debe

    2009-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among food and nutrition professionals, academics, representatives of the agricultural and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technological innovation and applications, and supporting further research. New food and water safety issues evolve as the environment changes. Food and nutrition professionals should collaborate with food and agriculture industries and members of the medical community in a joint effort to address these issues. Recent food- and waterborne illnesses have occurred in new settings and/or unique foods not traditionally associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. New issues associated with food safety and security that have emerged support the need for continued education and research. Government programs have developed powerful tools such as FoodNet and PulseNet to detect food- and waterborne illness outbreaks in the United States. These government programs have provided the data to enhance public policy and educational programs such as FightBac! Mandatory and voluntary adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points in the foodservice and processing industries have contributed to a decrease in foodborne illness outbreaks from traditional foods and some microorganisms usually associated with foodborne illnesses. Food and nutrition professionals are positioned to provide food and water safety education in community, clinical settings, and foodservice operations and food industries. With an aging population and an increased number of people at risk due to medical conditions for food- and waterborne illness, food and nutrition professionals should be involved in collaborative food and water safety issues in educational, research, and policy agenda settings. As

  13. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  14. Massively parallel computation of lattice associative memory classifiers on multicore processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Gerhard X.; Schmalz, Mark S.; Hayden, Eric T.

    2011-09-01

    Over the past quarter century, concepts and theory derived from neural networks (NNs) have featured prominently in the literature of pattern recognition. Implementationally, classical NNs based on the linear inner product can present performance challenges due to the use of multiplication operations. In contrast, NNs having nonlinear kernels based on Lattice Associative Memories (LAM) theory tend to concentrate primarily on addition and maximum/minimum operations. More generally, the emergence of LAM-based NNs, with their superior information storage capacity, fast convergence and training due to relatively lower computational cost, as well as noise-tolerant classification has extended the capabilities of neural networks far beyond the limited applications potential of classical NNs. This paper explores theory and algorithmic approaches for the efficient computation of LAM-based neural networks, in particular lattice neural nets and dendritic lattice associative memories. Of particular interest are massively parallel architectures such as multicore CPUs and graphics processing units (GPUs). Originally developed for video gaming applications, GPUs hold the promise of high computational throughput without compromising numerical accuracy. Unfortunately, currently-available GPU architectures tend to have idiosyncratic memory hierarchies that can produce unacceptably high data movement latencies for relatively simple operations, unless careful design of theory and algorithms is employed. Advantageously, some GPUs (e.g., the Nvidia Fermi GPU) are optimized for efficient streaming computation (e.g., concurrent multiply and add operations). As a result, the linear or nonlinear inner product structures of NNs are inherently suited to multicore GPU computational capabilities. In this paper, the authors' recent research in lattice associative memories and their implementation on multicores is overviewed, with results that show utility for a wide variety of pattern

  15. A review of visual cues associated with food on food acceptance and consumption.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Devina; Capaldi-Phillips, Elizabeth D

    2014-01-01

    Several sensory cues affect food intake including appearance, taste, odor, texture, temperature, and flavor. Although taste is an important factor regulating food intake, in most cases, the first sensory contact with food is through the eyes. Few studies have examined the effects of the appearance of a food portion on food acceptance and consumption. The purpose of this review is to identify the various visual factors associated with food such as proximity, visibility, color, variety, portion size, height, shape, number, volume, and the surface area and their effects on food acceptance and consumption. We suggest some ways that visual cues can be used to increase fruit and vegetable intake in children and decrease excessive food intake in adults. In addition, we discuss the need for future studies that can further establish the relationship between several unexplored visual dimensions of food (specifically shape, number, size, and surface area) and food intake. PMID:24411766

  16. Potential food contaminants and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Peshin, Sharda Shah; Lall, Shyam Bala; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2002-03-01

    The potential toxicants in food are derived from natural or industrial sources. Compounds like lectins and glycoalkaloids that are toxic to man are naturally present in some vegetables like potatoes or legumes. A wide variety of marine toxins mostly produced by dinoflagellates occurring secondarily in molluscs and mussels are usually ingested by human beings causing poisoning. On the other hand, toxic compounds find their way into food during manufacture, storage, or transportation. These include largely the industrial contaminants, persistent organic pollutants (POP), pesticides, heavy metals, and toxins of fungal and bacterial origin. Further, toxic compounds like higher alcohols may be produced as byproducts during processing. Migration of compounds from packaging materials into packaged food like contamination with lead from solder in certain metal cans is well known. Additives (emulsifiers, preservatives, and antioxidants) could also influence the quality of foods. Solvent residues may find their way into food as a result of their use in extraction processes like the use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride in decaffeination of coffee. In addition, poor hygiene, storage, and preparation may also lead to food contamination by various microbes and ova or cysts of nematodes. The problem of food contamination can be overcome to a great extent by regular surveillance and monitoring programmes and strict implementation of food and adulteration act. In the present review some of these aspects of food contamination have been discussed in detail. PMID:11918841

  17. Array processor architecture connection network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A connection network is disclosed for use between a parallel array of processors and a parallel array of memory modules for establishing non-conflicting data communications paths between requested memory modules and requesting processors. The connection network includes a plurality of switching elements interposed between the processor array and the memory modules array in an Omega networking architecture. Each switching element includes a first and a second processor side port, a first and a second memory module side port, and control logic circuitry for providing data connections between the first and second processor ports and the first and second memory module ports. The control logic circuitry includes strobe logic for examining data arriving at the first and the second processor ports to indicate when the data arriving is requesting data from a requesting processor to a requested memory module. Further, connection circuitry is associated with the strobe logic for examining requesting data arriving at the first and the second processor ports for providing a data connection therefrom to the first and the second memory module ports in response thereto when the data connection so provided does not conflict with a pre-established data connection currently in use.

  18. Socioeconomic differences in the association between competitive food laws and the school food environment

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. METHODS Fifth- and 8th-grade school administrators reported foods and beverages sold in school; index measures of the food/beverage environments were constructed from these data. Schools were classified into SES tertiles based on median household income of students’ ZIP code. Regression models were used to estimate SES differences in: (1) Healthy School Food Environment Index (HSFEI) score, Healthy School Beverage Environment Index (HSBEI) score, and specific food/beverage sales, and (2) associations between state competitive food/beverage laws and HSFEI score, HSBEI score, and specific food/beverage sales. RESULTS Strong competitive food laws were positively associated with HSFEI in 8th grade, regardless of SES. Strong competitive beverage laws were positively associated with HSBEI particularly in low-SES schools in 8th grade. These associations were attributable to schools selling fewer unhealthy items, not providing healthy alternatives. High-SES schools sold more healthy items than low-SES schools regardless of state laws. CONCLUSIONS Strong competitive food laws may reduce access to unhealthy foods/beverages in middle schools, but additional initiatives are needed to provide students with healthy options, particularly in low-SES areas. PMID:26201754

  19. Selected pathogens of concern to industrial food processors: infectious, toxigenic, toxico-infectious, selected emerging pathogenic bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a rod-shaped bacterium that has been implicated in rare cases of neonatal sepsis, meningitis and is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis in infants. Over 80 cases of E. sakazakii-related illness have been reported, although few of these have occurred in adults. There...

  20. Effect of peptide YY (PYY) on food-associated conflict.

    PubMed

    Hagan, M M; Moss, D E

    1995-10-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) administered centrally in rats induces powerful overeating. PYY also occurs endogenously in humans and is elevated in abstaining bulimic patients. To examine the effect of PYY in an environment that parallels some aspects of bulimia, rats were tested in a paradigm associated with approach-avoidance behavior, choosing a preferred (sweet) food paired with shock, over regular food safe from shock. PYY-treated rats chose to sustain shock to retrieve and consume the preferred food, at a significantly greater speed and quantity. The number of approaches that were met without retrieval of food due to anxiety after PYY treatment indicates that PYY increased motivation towards feeding, rather than anxiolysis. This effect of PYY in a model of conflict associated with food choice resembles aspects of bulimic binge-eating, which is characterized by the repetitive, rapid intake of food, despite anxiety associated with this behavior. PMID:8559783

  1. An introduction to the interim digital SAR processor and the characteristics of the associated Seasat SAR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.; Barkan, B.; Huneycutt, B.; Leang, C.; Pang, S.

    1981-01-01

    Basic engineering data regarding the Interim Digital SAR Processor (IDP) and the digitally correlated Seasat synthetic aperature radar (SAR) imagery are presented. The correlation function and IDP hardware/software configuration are described, and a preliminary performance assessment presented. The geometric and radiometric characteristics, with special emphasis on those peculiar to the IDP produced imagery, are described.

  2. Adaptive optical processors.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A

    1989-06-15

    There are two different approaches for improving the accuracy of analog optical associative processors: postprocessing with a bimodal system and preprocessing with a preconditioner. These two approaches can be combined to develop an adaptive optical multiprocessor that can adjust the computational steps depending on the data and produce solutions of linear algebra problems with a specified accuracy in a given amount of time. PMID:19752909

  3. Implicit Approach-Avoidance Associations for Craved Food Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Martin, Rachel; Elliott, Mecia

    2013-01-01

    Implicit approach associations are well documented for substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. This study reports two experiments designed to establish and modify such associations specifically in the food craving domain. Experiment 1 used a pictorial implicit association task to examine approach-avoidance associations with…

  4. Association between household food insecurity and annual health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Dachner, Naomi; Gundersen, Craig; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Household food insecurity, a measure of income-related problems of food access, is growing in Canada and is tightly linked to poorer health status. We examined the association between household food insecurity status and annual health care costs. Methods: We obtained data for 67 033 people aged 18–64 years in Ontario who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007/08 or 2009/10 to assess their household food insecurity status in the 12 months before the survey interview. We linked these data with administrative health care data to determine individuals’ direct health care costs during the same 12-month period. Results: Total health care costs and mean costs for inpatient hospital care, emergency department visits, physician services, same-day surgeries, home care services and prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program rose systematically with increasing severity of household food insecurity. Compared with total annual health care costs in food-secure households, adjusted annual costs were 16% ($235) higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–23% [$141–$334]), 32% ($455) higher in households with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 25%–39% [$361–$553]) and 76% ($1092) higher in households with severe food insecurity (95% CI 65%–88% [$934–$1260]). When costs of prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program were included, the adjusted annual costs were 23% higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% CI 16%–31%), 49% higher in those with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 41%–57%) and 121% higher in those with severe food insecurity (95% CI 107%–136%). Interpretation: Household food insecurity was a robust predictor of health care utilization and costs incurred by working-age adults, independent of other social determinants of health. Policy interventions at the provincial or federal level designed to reduce household food

  5. 78 FR 20664 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Administration: Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good... Society of Clinical Research Associates (SOCRA). The conference on FDA's clinical trial requirements is... relationships among FDA and clinical trial staff, investigators, and institutional review boards...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  7. Neural Signaling of Food Healthiness Associated with Emotion Processing.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Uwe; Dhum, Matthias; Hittmeyer, Anna; Opialla, Sarah; Scherpiet, Sigrid; Keller, Carmen; Brühl, Annette B; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The ability to differentiate healthy from unhealthy foods is important in order to promote good health. Food, however, may have an emotional connotation, which could be inversely related to healthiness. The neurobiological background of differentiating healthy and unhealthy food and its relations to emotion processing are not yet well understood. We addressed the neural activations, particularly considering the single subject level, when one evaluates a food item to be of a higher, compared to a lower grade of healthiness with a particular view on emotion processing brain regions. Thirty-seven healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating the healthiness of food presented as photographs with a subsequent rating on a visual analog scale. We compared individual evaluations of high and low healthiness of food items and also considered gender differences. We found increased activation when food was evaluated to be healthy in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus in whole brain analyses. In ROI analyses, perceived and rated higher healthiness was associated with lower amygdala activity and higher ventral striatal and orbitofrontal cortex activity. Females exerted a higher activation in midbrain areas when rating food items as being healthy. Our results underline the close relationship between food and emotion processing, which makes sense considering evolutionary aspects. Actively evaluating and deciding whether food is healthy is accompanied by neural signaling associated with reward and self-relevance, which could promote salutary nutrition behavior. The involved brain regions may be amenable to mechanisms of emotion regulation in the context of psychotherapeutic regulation of food intake. PMID:26903859

  8. Neural Signaling of Food Healthiness Associated with Emotion Processing

    PubMed Central

    Herwig, Uwe; Dhum, Matthias; Hittmeyer, Anna; Opialla, Sarah; Scherpiet, Sigrid; Keller, Carmen; Brühl, Annette B.; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The ability to differentiate healthy from unhealthy foods is important in order to promote good health. Food, however, may have an emotional connotation, which could be inversely related to healthiness. The neurobiological background of differentiating healthy and unhealthy food and its relations to emotion processing are not yet well understood. We addressed the neural activations, particularly considering the single subject level, when one evaluates a food item to be of a higher, compared to a lower grade of healthiness with a particular view on emotion processing brain regions. Thirty-seven healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating the healthiness of food presented as photographs with a subsequent rating on a visual analog scale. We compared individual evaluations of high and low healthiness of food items and also considered gender differences. We found increased activation when food was evaluated to be healthy in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus in whole brain analyses. In ROI analyses, perceived and rated higher healthiness was associated with lower amygdala activity and higher ventral striatal and orbitofrontal cortex activity. Females exerted a higher activation in midbrain areas when rating food items as being healthy. Our results underline the close relationship between food and emotion processing, which makes sense considering evolutionary aspects. Actively evaluating and deciding whether food is healthy is accompanied by neural signaling associated with reward and self-relevance, which could promote salutary nutrition behavior. The involved brain regions may be amenable to mechanisms of emotion regulation in the context of psychotherapeutic regulation of food intake. PMID:26903859

  9. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  10. Association between food assistance program participation and overweight.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, M Pia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Harrison, Gail G

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity according to poverty level. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of data from 46,217 non-pregnant and non-lactating women in Lima, Peru was conducted; these data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from the years 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2008-2010. The dependent variable was overweight/obesity, and the independent variable was food assistance program participation. Poisson regression was used to stratify the data by family socioeconomic level, area of residence (Lima versus the rest of the country; urban versus rural), and survey year (2003-2006 versus 2008-2010). The models were adjusted for age, education level, urbanization, and survey year. RESULTS Food assistance program participation was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity in women living in homes without poverty indicators [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06;1.57]. When stratified by area of residence, similar associations were observed for women living in Lima and urban areas; no associations were found between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity among women living outside of Lima or in rural areas, regardless of the poverty status. CONCLUSIONS Food assistance program participation was associated with overweight/obesity in non-poor women. Additional studies are required in countries facing both aspects of malnutrition. PMID:26039391

  11. Association between food assistance program participation and overweight

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, M Pia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Harrison, Gail G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity according to poverty level. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of data from 46,217 non-pregnant and non-lactating women in Lima, Peru was conducted; these data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from the years 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2008-2010. The dependent variable was overweight/obesity, and the independent variable was food assistance program participation. Poisson regression was used to stratify the data by family socioeconomic level, area of residence (Lima versus the rest of the country; urban versus rural), and survey year (2003-2006 versus 2008-2010). The models were adjusted for age, education level, urbanization, and survey year. RESULTS Food assistance program participation was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity in women living in homes without poverty indicators [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06;1.57]. When stratified by area of residence, similar associations were observed for women living in Lima and urban areas; no associations were found between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity among women living outside of Lima or in rural areas, regardless of the poverty status. CONCLUSIONS Food assistance program participation was associated with overweight/obesity in non-poor women. Additional studies are required in countries facing both aspects of malnutrition. PMID:26039391

  12. Picky eating: Associations with child eating characteristics and food intake.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Klazine; Deming, Denise M; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Carr, B Thomas; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2016-08-01

    Food rejection behaviors such as picky eating are of concern for many parents and attempts to increase healthy food intake can cause distress at mealtimes. An important limitation in most of the picky eating studies is that they cover few characteristics of picky eating behaviors and use limited measures of food intake. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between picky eating, child eating characteristics, and food intake among toddlers 12-47.9 months old (n = 2371) using data from the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographic and feeding characteristics and picky eater status. Differences in food group intake between picky and non-picky eaters were analyzed. Picky eaters were more likely to be neophobic, texture resistant, and to eat only favorite foods, In addition, the parents of picky eaters tend to offer new food a greater number of times than those of non-picky eaters before deciding that the child does not like it. Picky eaters showed significant lower intakes of eggs, burritos/tacos/enchiladas/nachos and sandwiches than non-picky eaters. Picky eaters consumed fewer vegetables from the "other vegetables" category and less raw vegetables than non-picky eaters. Neophobia, eating only favorite foods and difficulties with texture are all important characteristics of picky eaters which need to be integrated in studies measuring picky eating behaviors. Food intake of picky eaters differs only slightly from non-picky eaters. Because picky eating is a major parental concern, feeding strategies and advice related to the relevant characteristics of picky eating behavior need to be developed and assessed for their effectiveness. PMID:27120094

  13. Computer Processor Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    The Compute Processor Allocator (CPA) provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for managing and allotting processors in a massively parallel (MP) computer. It maintains information in a database on the health. configuration and allocation of each processor. This persistent information is factored in to each allocation decision. The CPA runs in a distributed fashion to avoid a single point of failure.

  14. Sandia secure processor : a native Java processor.

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Gale, Jason Carl; Ma, Kwok Kee

    2003-08-01

    The Sandia Secure Processor (SSP) is a new native Java processor that has been specifically designed for embedded applications. The SSP's design is a system composed of a core Java processor that directly executes Java bytecodes, on-chip intelligent IO modules, and a suite of software tools for simulation and compiling executable binary files. The SSP is unique in that it provides a way to control real-time IO modules for embedded applications. The system software for the SSP is a 'class loader' that takes Java .class files (created with your favorite Java compiler), links them together, and compiles a binary. The complete SSP system provides very powerful functionality with very light hardware requirements with the potential to be used in a wide variety of small-system embedded applications. This paper gives a detail description of the Sandia Secure Processor and its unique features.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS STRAINS ASSOCIATED WITH FOOD AND FOOD-BORNE DISEASE.

    PubMed

    HALL, H E; ANGELOTTI, R; LEWIS, K H; FOTER, M J

    1963-05-01

    Hall, Herbert E. (Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio), Robert Angelotti, Keith H. Lewis, and Milton J. Foter. Characteristics of Clostridium perfringens strains associated with food and food-borne disease. J. Bacteriol. 85:1094-1103. 1963.-A total of 83 strains of Clostridium perfringens-30 from England, Europe, and Asia, associated with food-poisoning outbreaks; 28 from the United States, associated with outbreaks or contaminated foods; and 25 from natural or pathological sources-have been studied to determine their serological relationships, sporulation and heat-resistance of spores, and their hemolytic activity on mammalian bloods. A comparison of the results obtained with these three groups of strains reveals that the Eurasian group is characterized by serological typability, poor sporulation with the production of heat-resistant spores, and a hemolytic activity limited to the production of partial hemolysis on horse, ox, and sheep bloods, whereas the strains from natural and pathological sources in this country are not serologically typable, sporulate well but the spores are not heat-resistant, and are hemolytically active, producing both partial and complete hemolysis on horse, ox, and sheep bloods. The American food-poisoning strains have a wide variety of characteristics. Some strains resemble the Eurasian in their serological typability and the production of heat-resistant spores, but sporulation and hemolytic activity are more like the strains from classical sources. On the basis of these data, it appears unlikely that C. perfringens food-poisoning outbreaks in the United States are restricted to strains meeting the criteria of classification described by British workers and that the isolation of large numbers of any strain of this organism from an incriminated food must be considered as having a possible bearing on the etiology of the outbreak. PMID:14044000

  16. Compact optical neuro-processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Eung Gi; Wullert, John R., II; Von Lehman, Ann C.; Patel, Jayantilal S.; Martin, Russ

    1991-11-01

    We demonstrate two optical neuro-processors based on coherent optics: An associative memory for word-break recognition and an on-line learning machine for multicategory classification. Finally, we show how both of the systems can be compacterized using recent devices including surface-emitting micro-laser arrays.

  17. A highly parallel signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigham, Jackson D., Jr.

    There is an increasing need for signal processors functional across a broad range of problems, from radar systems to E-O and ESM applications. To meet this challenge, a signal processing system capable of efficiently meeting the processing requirements over a broad range of avionics sensor systems has been developed. The CDC Parallel Modular Signal Processor (PMSP) is a complete MIL/E-5400-qualified digital signal processing system capable of computation rates greater than 600 MOPS (million operations per second). The signal processing element of the PMSP is the Micro-AFP. It is an all-VLSI processor capable of executing multiple simultaneous operations. Up to five Micro-AFPs and 12 MB of main store memory (MSM), along with associated control and I/O functions, are contained in the PMSP's standard ATR enclosure.

  18. A 600-µW ultra-low-power associative processor for image pattern recognition employing magnetic tunnel junction-based nonvolatile memories with autonomic intelligent power-gating scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yitao; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    A novel associative processor using magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based nonvolatile memories has been proposed and fabricated under a 90 nm CMOS/70 nm perpendicular-MTJ (p-MTJ) hybrid process for achieving the exceptionally low-power performance of image pattern recognition. A four-transistor 2-MTJ (4T-2MTJ) spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory was adopted to completely eliminate the standby power. A self-directed intelligent power-gating (IPG) scheme specialized for this associative processor is employed to optimize the operation power by only autonomously activating currently accessed memory cells. The operations of a prototype chip at 20 MHz are demonstrated by measurement. The proposed processor can successfully carry out single texture pattern matching within 6.5 µs using 128-dimension bag-of-feature patterns, and the measured average operation power of the entire processor core is only 600 µW. Compared with the twin chip designed with 6T static random access memory, 91.2% power reductions are achieved. More than 88.0% power reductions are obtained compared with the latest associative memories. The further power performance analysis is discussed in detail, which verifies the special superiority of the proposed processor in power consumption for large-capacity memory-based VLSI systems.

  19. Sequence information signal processor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, John C.; Chow, Edward T.; Waterman, Michael S.; Hunkapillar, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit is used to compare two sequences, such as genetic sequences, to determine which alignment of the sequences produces the greatest similarity. The circuit includes a linear array of series-connected processors, each of which stores a single element from one of the sequences and compares that element with each successive element in the other sequence. For each comparison, the processor generates a scoring parameter that indicates which segment ending at those two elements produces the greatest degree of similarity between the sequences. The processor uses the scoring parameter to generate a similar scoring parameter for a comparison between the stored element and the next successive element from the other sequence. The processor also delivers the scoring parameter to the next processor in the array for use in generating a similar scoring parameter for another pair of elements. The electronic circuit determines which processor and alignment of the sequences produce the scoring parameter with the highest value.

  20. "Food addiction" is associated with night eating severity.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Laurence J; Geliebter, Allan

    2016-03-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) and "food addiction" (FA) are associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and disturbed eating behavior. The present study was conducted to examine whether NES is associated with FA, and whether BMI, depression and sleep quality contribute to any relationship between NES and FA. Two groups were studied: a sample of 254 university students and a sample of 244 older adults. All completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Zung Self-report Depression Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and BMI was computed from height and weight. In both samples, higher global NEQ scores were significantly correlated with more FA symptoms, elevated depression, and poorer sleep quality, and these correlations were significantly higher in the older adult sample than in the younger student sample. Higher BMI was significantly correlated with NEQ score only in the older adult sample. The hypothesis that the prediction of NEQ by YFAS was moderated by BMI and group membership (moderated moderation) was tested; while the prediction of NEQ by YFAS was not moderated by BMI, elevated YFAS predicted higher NEQ in the adult sample than it did in the student sample. In addition, multiple regression revealed that "continued use of food despite adverse effects" was the sole FA symptom predictive of NES symptoms in students while in older adults food tolerance was the only predictor of NES. Thus, NES appears to be associated with FA, more strongly in an older community sample; higher food tolerance in NES may contribute to a desire to eat late in the evening and/or when awakening at night. PMID:26724725

  1. Biofilm-associated persistence of food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bridier, A; Sanchez-Vizuete, P; Guilbaud, M; Piard, J-C; Naïtali, M; Briandet, R

    2015-02-01

    Microbial life abounds on surfaces in both natural and industrial environments, one of which is the food industry. A solid substrate, water and some nutrients are sufficient to allow the construction of a microbial fortress, a so-called biofilm. Survival strategies developed by these surface-associated ecosystems are beginning to be deciphered in the context of rudimentary laboratory biofilms. Gelatinous organic matrices consisting of complex mixtures of self-produced biopolymers ensure the cohesion of these biological structures and contribute to their resistance and persistence. Moreover, far from being just simple three-dimensional assemblies of identical cells, biofilms are composed of heterogeneous sub-populations with distinctive behaviours that contribute to their global ecological success. In the clinical field, biofilm-associated infections (BAI) are known to trigger chronic infections that require dedicated therapies. A similar belief emerging in the food industry, where biofilm tolerance to environmental stresses, including cleaning and disinfection/sanitation, can result in the persistence of bacterial pathogens and the recurrent cross-contamination of food products. The present review focuses on the principal mechanisms involved in the formation of biofilms of food-borne pathogens, where biofilm behaviour is driven by its three-dimensional heterogeneity and by species interactions within these biostructures, and we look at some emergent control strategies. PMID:25500382

  2. Reconfigurable VLSI architecture for a database processor

    SciTech Connect

    Oflazer, K.

    1983-01-01

    This work brings together the processing potential offered by regularly structured VLSI processing units and the architecture of a database processor-the relational associative processor (RAP). The main motivations are to integrate a RAP cell processor on a few VLSI chips and improve performance by employing procedures exploiting these VLSI chips and the system level reconfigurability of processing resources. The resulting VLSI database processor consists of parallel processing cells that can be reconfigured into a large processor to execute the hard operations of projection and semijoin efficiently. It is shown that such a configuration can provide 2 to 3 orders of magnitude of performance improvement over previous implementations of the RAP system in the execution of such operations. 27 refs.

  3. 76 FR 50741 - 2011 Parenteral Drug Association/Food and Drug Administration Joint Public Conference; Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2011 Parenteral Drug Association/Food and Drug... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The Food and Drug.... Written requests are to be sent to Division of Freedom of Information (ELEM-1029), Food and...

  4. Food insufficiency in the households of reproductive-age Ecuadorian women: association with food and nutritional status indicators.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Maria Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of Ecuadorian households with reproductive-aged women (n = 10,784) were used to analyze the prevalence of household food insufficiency (HFI) and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, food acquisition and expenditure patterns, dietary diversity, and anthropometric indicators. Fifteen percent of households had food insufficiency and 15% had marginal food sufficiency. HFI was associated with poverty-linked indicators. Marginally food sufficient households reported social and economic capital than food which appeared protective against HFI. Food insufficiency was associated with reduced household acquisition/expenditures on high quality protein and micronutrient-rich food sources. HFI was not associated with adult or adolescent female overweight/obesity but was associated with short adult stature (< 1.45 m). The ongoing nutrition transition in Ecuador is expected to continue to modify population food security, diet, and nutrition. Systematic surveillance of household level food security is needed to inform recent food-related policies and programs implemented by the Ecuadorian government. PMID:25347579

  5. Array processors in chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  6. 21 CFR 120.25 - Process verification for certain processors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Process verification for certain processors. 120.25 Section 120.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS Pathogen Reduction § 120.25 Process...

  7. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (≥85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. PMID:21439918

  8. Associations between microalbuminuria and animal foods, plant foods, and dietary patterns in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis2

    PubMed Central

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Steffen, Lyn M; Palmas, Walter; Burke, Gregory L; Jacobs, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background The balance between the intake of animal and the intake of plant foods may influence renal vascular integrity as reflected by urinary albumin excretion. Objective We assessed cross-sectional associations between urinary albumin excretion and dietary patterns and intake of plant and animal foods. Design At baseline, diet (food-frequency questionnaire) and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR; spot urine collection) were measured in 5042 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were aged 45−84 y and were without clinical cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or macroalbuminuria (sex-adjusted ACR ≥ 250). We derived dietary patterns by principal components analysis. We also summed food groups to characterize plant food intake (fruit, fruit juice, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, and refined grains), animal food intake (red meat, processed meat, poultry, fish, high-fat dairy, and low-fat dairy), and nondairy animal food intake. Results After adjustment for multiple demographic and lifestyle confounders, a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods was associated with 20% lower ACR across quintiles (P for trend = 0.004). Neither total animal nor total plant food intake was associated with ACR. However, greater low-fat dairy consumption was associated with 13% lower ACR across quartiles (P for trend = 0.03). Total nondairy animal food consumption was associated with 11% higher ACR across quintiles (P for trend = 0.03). Conclusions A high intake of low-fat dairy foods and a dietary pattern rich in whole grains, fruit, and low-fat dairy foods were both associated with lower ACR. In contrast, collectively, nondairy animal food intake was positively associated with ACR. PMID:18541574

  9. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI☆

    PubMed Central

    Boggiano, M.M.; Wenger, L.E.; Turan, B.; Tatum, M.M.; Morgan, P.R.; Sylvester, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test–retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test–retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f2 effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

  10. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500

  11. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters

  12. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices. PMID:21599955

  13. Electroacoustic dewatering of food and other suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.C.; Zelinski, M.S.; Criner, C.L.; Senapati, N.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Jirjis, B.; Beard, R.E.; Cummings, C.; Chauhan, S.P.

    1989-05-31

    The food processing industry is a large user of energy for evaporative drying due to limited effectiveness of conventional mechanical dewatering machines. Battelle's Electroacoustic Dewatering (EAD) process improves the performance of mechanical dewatering machines by superimposing electric and ultrasonic fields. A two phase development program to demonstrate the benefits of EAD was carried out in cooperation with the food processing industry, the National Food Processors Association (NFPA) and two equipment vendors. In Phase I, laboratory scale studies were carried out on a variety of food suspensions. The process was scaled up to small commercial scale in Phase II. The technical feasibility of EAD for a variety of food materials, without adversely affecting the food properties, was successfully demonstrated during this phase, which is the subject of this report. Two Process Research Units (PRUs) were designed and built through joint efforts between Battelle and two equipment vendors. A 0.5-meter wide belt press was tested on apple mash, corn fiber, and corn gluten at sites provided by two food processors. A high speed citrus juice finisher (a hybrid form of screw press and centrifuge) was tested on orange pulp. These tests were carried out jointly by Battelle, equipment vendors, NFPA, and food processors. The apple and citrus juice products were analyzed by food processors and NFPA. 26 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. 3081/E processor

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.; Gravina, M.; Oxoby, G.; Rankin, P.; Trang, Q.; Ferran, P.M.; Fucci, A.; Hinton, R.; Jacobs, D.; Martin, B.

    1984-04-01

    The 3081/E project was formed to prepare a much improved IBM mainframe emulator for the future. Its design is based on a large amount of experience in using the 168/E processor to increase available CPU power in both online and offline environments. The processor will be at least equal to the execution speed of a 370/168 and up to 1.5 times faster for heavy floating point code. A single processor will thus be at least four times more powerful than the VAX 11/780, and five processors on a system would equal at least the performance of the IBM 3081K. With its large memory space and simple but flexible high speed interface, the 3081/E is well suited for the online and offline needs of high energy physics in the future.

  15. Liquid sample processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.; Campen, C. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Processor is automatic and includes series of extraction tubes packed with fibrous absorbent material of large surface area. When introduced into these tubes, liquid test samples become completely absorbed by packing material as thin film.

  16. Onboard processor technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Harry F.

    1990-01-01

    The general need and requirements for the onboard embedded processors necessary to control and manipulate data in spacecraft systems are discussed. The current known requirements are reviewed from a user perspective, based on current practices in the spacecraft development process. The current capabilities of available processor technologies are then discussed, and these are projected to the generation of spacecraft computers currently under identified, funded development. An appraisal is provided for the current national developmental effort.

  17. Array processor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  18. Come dine with me: food-associated social signalling in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    King, Stephanie L; Janik, Vincent M

    2015-07-01

    Food-related signalling is widespread in the animal kingdom with some food-associated vocalizations considered functionally referential. Food calls can, however, vary greatly in the type of information they convey. Thus, there are a multitude of purposes for which food calls are used, including social recruitment, caller spacing, the indication of type, quantity, quality, divisibility of food, the caller's hunger level and even as tools to manipulate prey behaviour. Yet little work has focused on the social aspect of food calling in animals. We investigated the association of social signals in wild bottlenose dolphins with foraging behaviour where context-specific food-associated calls are commonly produced. Our data showed that specific social signals were significantly correlated with food call production and these calls rarely occurred in the absence of food calls. We suggest that animals are sharing additional information on the food patch itself with their social affiliates. PMID:25688042

  19. Food selection associated with sense of coherence in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindmark, Ulrika; Stegmayr, Birgitta; Nilsson, Berit; Lindahl, Bernt; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2005-01-01

    Background Favorable dietary habits promote health, whereas unfavorable habits link to various chronic diseases. An individual's "sense of coherence" (SOC) is reported to correlate with prevalence of some diseases to which dietary habits are linked. However, understanding what determines an individual's dietary preferences and how to change his/her behavior remains limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between dietary intake and SOC in adults. Methods Diet intake was recorded by an 84-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and SOC was measured by the 13-item Antonovsky questionnaire in 2,446 men and 2,545 women (25–74 years old) from the population based northern Sweden MONICA screening in 1999. Results Intakes of energy, total and saturated fat, ascorbic acid, sucrose, and servings of fruits, vegetables, cereals, and sweets correlated with SOC among women, whereas intakes of total and saturated fat, ascorbic acid, fiber, and alcohol, and servings of fruits, vegetables, bread, bread and cereals, fish, and potatoes correlated with SOC among men. With a few exceptions, intakes of these nutrients/foods were significantly explained by SOC quartile scores in linear GLM models. Both women and men classified into the highest SOC quartile had significantly higher age-BMI-education standardized mean intakes of vegetables than those in the lowest quartiles. Women in the highest SOC quartile also had higher intake of fruits but lower intakes of energy, total and saturated fat, sucrose, and sweets. Projection to latent structures (PLS) multivariate modeling of intakes of the 84 food items and food aggregates simultaneously on SOC scores supported low SOC to coincide with a presumably less health promoting dietary preference, e.g. intake of pizza, soft drinks, candies, sausages for main course, hamburgers, mashed potato, chips and other snacks, potato salad, French fries, whereas men and women with high SOC scores were characterized

  20. Emerging parasite zoonoses associated with water and food.

    PubMed

    Slifko, T R; Smith, H V; Rose, J B

    2000-11-01

    The environmental route of transmission is important for many protozoan and helminth parasites, with water, soil and food being particularly significant. Both the potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages and their environmental robustness, being able to survive in moist microclimates for prolonged periods of time, pose a persistent threat to public and veterinary health. The increased demands on natural resources increase the likelihood of encountering environments and produce contaminated with parasites. For waterborne diseases, the protozoa, Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Toxoplasma, are the most significant causes, yet, with the exception of Toxoplasma, the contribution of zoonotic transmission remains unclear due to the absence of 'standardised' methods. The microsporidia have been documented in one waterborne outbreak, but the role of animals as the cause of contamination was not elucidated. In foods, surface contamination is associated with the faecal-oral pathogens, and some data are available to indicate that animal wastes remain an important source of contamination (e.g. cattle faeces and apple cider outbreaks), however, further work should focus on examining the source of contamination on fruit and vegetables. Increasing recognition of the burden of human fascioliasis has occurred; it is now recognised as an emerging zoonosis by the WHO. Toxoplasma, Trichinella and Taenia spp. remain important meatborne parasites, however, others, including Pleistophora-like microsporidians may be acquired from raw or lightly cooked fish or crustaceans. With increased international travel, the public health importance of the foodborne trematodiases must also be realised. Global sourcing of food, coupled with changing consumer vogues, including the consumption of raw vegetables and undercooking to retain the natural taste and preserve heat-labile nutrients, can increase the risk of foodborne transmission. A greater awareness of parasite contamination of

  1. Socioeconomic Differences in the Association between Competitive Food Laws and the School Food Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. Methods: School administrators for fifth- and eighth grade reported foods and beverages sold in school. Index measures of the food/beverage environments…

  2. Food-associated Stimuli Enhance Barrier Properties of Gastrointestinal Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Hasan M.; Speciner, Lauren; Ozdemir, Cafer; Cohen, David E.; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Orally delivered drugs and nutrients must diffuse through mucus to enter the circulatory system, but the barrier properties of mucus and their modulation by physiological factors are generally poorly characterized. The main objective of this study was to examine the impact of physicochemical changes occurring upon food ingestion on gastrointestinal (GI) mucus barrier properties. Lipids representative of postprandial intestinal contents enhanced mucus barriers, as indicated by a 10 – 142-fold reduction in the transport rate of 200 nm microspheres through mucus, depending on surface chemistry. Physiologically relevant increases in [Ca2+] resulted in a 2 - 4-fold reduction of transport rates, likely due to enhanced cross-linking of the mucus gel network. Reduction of pH from 6.5 to 3.5 also affected mucus viscoelasticity, reducing particle transport rates approximately 5 – 10-fold. Macroscopic visual observation and micro-scale lectin staining revealed mucus gel structural changes, including clumping into regions into which particles did not penetrate. Histological examination indicated food ingestion can prevent microsphere contact with and endocytosis by intestinal epithelium. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GI mucus barriers are significantly altered by stimuli associated with eating and potentially dosing of lipid-based delivery systems; these stimuli represent broadly relevant variables to consider upon designing oral therapies. PMID:25907034

  3. Food-associated stimuli enhance barrier properties of gastrointestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Hasan M; Speciner, Lauren; Ozdemir, Cafer; Cohen, David E; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Orally delivered drugs and nutrients must diffuse through mucus to enter the circulatory system, but the barrier properties of mucus and their modulation by physiological factors are generally poorly characterized. The main objective of this study was to examine the impact of physicochemical changes occurring upon food ingestion on gastrointestinal (GI) mucus barrier properties. Lipids representative of postprandial intestinal contents enhanced mucus barriers, as indicated by a 10-142-fold reduction in the transport rate of 200 nm microspheres through mucus, depending on surface chemistry. Physiologically relevant increases in [Ca(2+)] resulted in a 2-4-fold reduction of transport rates, likely due to enhanced cross-linking of the mucus gel network. Reduction of pH from 6.5 to 3.5 also affected mucus viscoelasticity, reducing particle transport rates approximately 5-10-fold. Macroscopic visual observation and micro-scale lectin staining revealed mucus gel structural changes, including clumping into regions into which particles did not penetrate. Histological examination indicated food ingestion can prevent microsphere contact with and endocytosis by intestinal epithelium. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GI mucus barriers are significantly altered by stimuli associated with eating and potentially dosing of lipid-based delivery systems; these stimuli represent broadly relevant variables to consider upon designing oral therapies. PMID:25907034

  4. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900 Section 892.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900 Section 892.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900 Section 892.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900 Section 892.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic...

  8. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  9. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  10. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations.

    PubMed

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Jolij, Jacob; Ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food's sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice. PMID:27213567

  11. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  12. Hardware multiplier processor

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, P.E.

    A hardware processor is disclosed which in the described embodiment is a memory mapped multiplier processor that can operate in parallel with a 16 bit microcomputer. The multiplier processor decodes the address bus to receive specific instructions so that in one access it can write and automatically perform single or double precision multiplication involving a number written to it with or without addition or subtraction with a previously stored number. It can also, on a single read command automatically round and scale a previously stored number. The multiplier processor includes two concatenated 16 bit multiplier registers, two 16 bit concatenated 16 bit multipliers, and four 16 bit product registers connected to an internal 16 bit data bus. A high level address decoder determines when the multiplier processor is being addressed and first and second low level address decoders generate control signals. In addition, certain low order address lines are used to carry uncoded control signals. First and second control circuits coupled to the decoders generate further control signals and generate a plurality of clocking pulse trains in response to the decoded and address control signals.

  13. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk. PMID:19737059

  14. Food choice patterns among frail older adults: The associations between social network, food choice values, and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-01-01

    Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types. PMID:26385288

  15. 3081//sub E/ processor

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.; Gravina, M.; Oxoby, G.; Trang, Q.; Fucci, A.; Jacobs, D.; Martin, B.; Storr, K.

    1983-03-01

    Since the introduction of the 168//sub E/, emulating processors have been successful over an amazingly wide range of applications. This paper will describe a second generation processor, the 3081//sub E/. This new processor, which is being developed as a collaboration between SLAC and CERN, goes beyond just fixing the obvious faults of the 168//sub E/. Not only will the 3081//sub E/ have much more memory space, incorporate many more IBM instructions, and have much more memory space, incorporate many more IBM instructions, and have full double precision floating point arithmetic, but it will also have faster execution times and be much simpler to build, debug, and maintain. The simple interface and reasonable cost of the 168//sub E/ will be maintained for the 3081//sub E/.

  16. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; ter Horst, Gert J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food’s sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice. PMID:27213567

  17. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  18. Universal voice processor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a universal voice processor is discussed. The device is based on several circuit configurations using hybrid techniques to satisfy the electrical specifications. The steps taken during the design process are described. Circuit diagrams of the final design are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical aspects.

  19. Multispectral image processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Correlation clustering of 250,000 pixels are numerically classified in real time according to various image elements. Processor operates upon data supplied by Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Algorithmic signal manipulation is used to provide discrete control of individual image parameters.

  20. Does frequent eating out cause undesirable food choices? Association of food away from home with food consumption frequencies and obesity among Korean housewives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Kyung; Kim, Tae Yoon; Yoon, Jin-Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among socioeconomic factors, frequency of food away from home (FAFH) and food-consumption patterns of 1,070 housewives, and the association of those factors with obesity, using data from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although lower intakes of fruits, meats, and fast foods were associated with seldom eating out, no consistent pattern was observed regarding the relationship between the frequency of FAFH and food consumption for all groups of housewives. Further analysis indicated that obesity rates were lower among housewives aged 20-49 years with 7-12 years of education and moderate eating-out frequency, compared to older, less educated women. It appeared that reducing the frequency of FAFH does not always entail desirable food intakes among full-time housewives in Korea. Our findings suggest that choosing healthy meals away from home is more important for housewives than refraining from eating out. PMID:21888582

  1. Longitudinal Follow-up of Factors Associated with Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Michelle A.; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders longitudinally. Additionally explored were the stability of the relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity from time 1 to time 2 and the association between food selectivity and restricted and repetitive behavior at time…

  2. Associations between retail food store exterior advertisements and community demographic and socioeconomic composition.

    PubMed

    Isgor, Zeynep; Powell, Lisa; Rimkus, Leah; Chaloupka, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the association between the prevalence of various types of outdoor food and beverage advertising found on the building exteriors and properties of retail food outlets and community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition in a nationwide sample of food outlets in the U.S. Our major finding from multivariable analysis is that food stores in low-income communities have higher prevalence of all food and beverage ads, including those for unhealthy products such as regular soda, controlling for community racial/ethnic composition and other covariates. This adds to growing research pointing to socioeconomic disparities in food and beverage marketing exposure. PMID:26945871

  3. Local food environments are associated with girls’ energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Design Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Setting Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004–2006. Subjects Girls aged 6–8 years (n 1010). Results Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P < 0·001). Girls’ daily energy, SSB and snack foods/ sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets >1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets >3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Conclusions Girls’ frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets. PMID:24821228

  4. Frequency of takeaway food consumption and its association with major food group consumption, anthropometric measures and blood pressure during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5-44·1 % (P<0·0001). In total, 12-year-old girls compared with boys had reduced odds of takeaway foods once per week or more at the age of 17 years (P=0·01), multivariable-adjusted OR 0·63 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·90). In total, 12-year-old children who ate takeaway foods once per week or more had significantly lower mean fruit (220·3 v. 253·0 g/d; P=0·03) and vegetable consumption (213·2 v. 247·7 g/d; P=0·004), 5 years later (at 17 years of age). Frequent takeaway food consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables. PMID:27046032

  5. Food Quality and Safety: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    Food quality and safety is the foremost issue amongst the present days' consumers. Fresh fruits and vegetables are often thought of as healthful, nutritious foods having no risk of food borne illness associated with their consumption. However recent food borne illness outbreaks in countries have been traced to fresh fruits, vegetables, juices and milk. These incidences have caused producers, processors, transporters, distributors, and importers to re-evaluate quality of their fresh fruits and vegetables produce and identify the hazardous points such as production, handling and processing systems to prevent any food borne diseases.

  6. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers. PMID:24069841

  7. Multisensor tracking by cooperative processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallaina, Eduardo F.; Cernuschi Frias, Bruno

    2004-02-01

    Exploiting a new distributed cooperative processing scheme where multiple processors cooperate in finding a global minimum, we have developed a new efficient maximum likelihood (ML) based calculation method for multitarget motion analysis under a fixed networked multisensor environment. The Track estimation of targets from sensor is a crucial issue in active dynamic scene understanding. Multitarget motion analysis, where there are multiple moving targets and multiple fixed sensors which only measure bearings of the targets, is to associate targets and sensor data, and estimate target tracks based on that association. This is NP-hard problem to obtain the optimal solution, as the method easily gets trapped in one of local optima. We applied the decentralized cooperative search technique to this problem, and proved our method effective. The method uses more than one processor, each of which has its own partial search space, searching multiple possibilities in parallel. This paper shows the current status of our research, and presents two prototypes of cooperative multi-agent systems for extended multi-target motion analysis.

  8. Fast food restaurants and food stores: longitudinal associations with diet in young adults: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of cross-sectional, small-sample research has led to policy strategies to reduce food deserts – neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy foods – by limiting fast food restaurants and small food stores and increasing access to supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods. Methods We used 15 years of longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of U.S. young adults (n=5,115, 18–30 years at baseline), with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived food resource measures. Using repeated measures from four examination periods (n=15,854 person-exam observations) and conditional regression (conditioned on the individual), we modeled fast food consumption, diet quality, and meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations as a function of fast food chain, supermarket, or grocery store availability (counts per population) within 1 kilometer (km), 1–2.9km, 3–4.9km, and 5–8km of respondents’ homes. Models were sex-stratified, controlled for individual sociodemographics and neighborhood poverty, and tested for interaction by individual-level income. Results Fast food consumption was related to fast food availability in low-income respondents, particularly within 1–2.9km of homes among men [coefficient (95% CI) up to: 0.34 (0.16, 0.51)]. Greater supermarket availability was generally unrelated to diet quality and fruit and vegetable intake and relationships between grocery store availability and diet outcomes were mixed. Conclusions Our findings provide some evidence for zoning restrictions on fast food restaurants within 3km of low-income residents, but suggest that increased access to food stores may require complementary or alternative strategies to promote dietary behavior change. PMID:21747011

  9. A Population-Based Study of Preschoolers' Food Neophobia and Its Associations with Food Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Worsley, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationships between food preferences, food neophobia, and children's characteristics among a population-based sample of preschoolers. Design: A parent-report questionnaire. Setting: Child-care centers, kindergartens, playgroups, day nurseries, and swimming centers. Subjects:…

  10. Measurement of food reinforcement in preschool children: Associations with food intake, BMI, and reward sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brandi Y.; Loken, Eric; Savage, Jennifer S.; Birch, Leann L.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement have been used to measure the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of food in humans as young as 8 years old; however, developmentally appropriate measures are needed to measure RRV of food earlier in life. Study objectives were to demonstrate the validity of the RRV of food task adapted for use among for preschool children (3 to 5y), and examine individual differences in performance. Thirty-three children completed the RRV of food task in which they worked to access graham crackers. They also completed a snack task where they had free access these foods, liking and hunger assessments, and their heights and weights were measured. Parents reported on their child’s reward sensitivity. Overall, children were willing work for palatable snack foods. Boys and older children made more responses in the task, while children with higher BMI z-scores and reward sensitivity responded at a faster rate. Children who worked harder in terms of total responses and response rates consumed more calories in the snack session. This study demonstrates that with slight modifications, the RRV of food task is a valid and developmentally appropriate measure for assessing individual differences in food reinforcement among very young children. PMID:24090537

  11. Association Between Food Insecurity and Serious Psychological Distress Among Hispanic Adults Living in Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Sis-Medina, Reacheal Connie; Reyes, Alexa; Becerra, Monideepa B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Food insecurity has been associated with negative health outcomes, but the relationship between psychological distress and food insecurity among ethnic minorities has not been extensively examined in the literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether low food security and very low food security were significantly associated with past month serious psychological distress (SPD) among Hispanic adults living in poverty. Methods We studied 10,966 Hispanic respondents to the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011–2012 whose income was below 200% of the federal poverty level. The relationship between food insecurity and SPD was evaluated by using survey-weighted univariate and logistic regression analyses. Results Nearly 30% of the study population had low food security and 13% had very low food security. Low food security and very low food security were associated with 1.99 and 4.43 odds of past month SPD, respectively, and perceived low neighborhood safety was related to 1.47 odds of past month SPD. Conclusions We found that food insecurity was prevalent among Hispanic people living in poverty and was significantly associated with past month SPD. These results demonstrate the need for further targeted public health efforts, such as community gardens led by promotores, faith-based initiatives, and initiatives to reduce barriers to participation in food-assistance programs. PMID:26605706

  12. Egg Food Challenges are Associated with More Gastrointestinal Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Malika; Grossmann, Liron D.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Cianferoni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Egg allergy is a common pediatric allergy, and is usually outgrown by elementary school age. There is, therefore, a need to perform an oral food challenge (OFC) to establish the presence of food allergy to egg. In this study, we conducted a retrospective review of 2304 OFCs at a pediatric center and analyzed the severity of reactions during egg OFCs and compared them with other foods. The gastrointestinal system (GI) has been reported as more affected in egg food challenge. This study confirmed that 11% of patients undergoing egg OFC had GI symptoms vs. 7% undergoing food challenges for other foods or compared to milk, peanut and tree nut, individually. However, the involvement of lower respiratory tract was less frequent with egg than observed in peanut and tree nut OFC and similar to observed rate in milk. In conclusion, our study confirmed that OFC to egg causes more GI symptoms and less respiratory symptoms compared to other foods, in particular peanuts and tree nuts. However, 27% of children who failed egg OFC had lower respiratory tract reactions and required the use of epinephrine, similarly to children undergoing milk challenge.

  13. CORDIC processor architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Johann F.; Timmermann, D.; Hahn, H.; Hosticka, Bedrich J.

    1991-12-01

    As CORDIC algorithms receive more and more attention in elementary function evaluation and signal processing applications, the problem of their VLSI realization has attracted considerable interest. In this work we review the CORDIC fundamentals covering algorithm, architecture, and implementation issues. Various aspects of the CORDIC algorithm are investigated such as efficient scale factor compensation, redundant and non-redundant addition schemes, and convergence domain. Several CORDIC processor architectures and implementation examples are discussed.

  14. Communications Support Processor (CSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopik, M. G.; Mack, R. B.

    1983-02-01

    This report discusses the advanced capabilities developed for the Communications Support Processor and the impact these capabilities have on the system and its users. The technical performance of the CSP, and the CSP system support functions and the on-site maintenance support are detailed in this report. The improvements to the CSP system include improved transportability site-unique gateways, on-line retrieval of traffic, plain language addressing and the fully automated routing of messages.

  15. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  16. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  17. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices. PMID:18296310

  18. A Simple and Affordable TTL Processor for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Dave

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple 4 bit computer processor design that may be built using TTL chips for less than $65. In addition to describing the processor itself in detail, we discuss our experience using the laboratory kit and its associated machine instruction set to teach computer architecture to high school students. (Contains 3 figures and 5…

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association: total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information.

    PubMed

    Nitzke, Susan; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne

    2007-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of a healthful eating style. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity. The American Dietetic Association strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize a balance of foods, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies that support the total diet approach include the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, MyPyramid, the DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Dietary Reference Intakes, and nutrition labeling. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthful eating behaviors. Alternative approaches may be necessary in some health conditions. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, lifestyle, time challenges, economics, environment, attitudes and beliefs, social/cultural influences, media, food technology, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, food and nutrition professionals should utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. A focus on moderation and proportionality in the context of a healthful lifestyle, rather than specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes. PMID:17682300

  20. Dietary Associations of Household Food Insecurity Among Children of Mexican Descent: Results of a Binational Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Lisa G; Harley, Kim; Fernald, Lia CH; Guendelman, Sylvia; Mejia, Fabiola; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2015-01-01

    Background/objective Children of Mexican descent frequently experience household food insecurity both in the United States (US) and Mexico, however, little is known about the associations of food insecurity with dietary intake. This study aimed to understand the level of perceived food insecurity and its association with dietary intake among children of Mexican descent residing in the US and Mexico. Design This cross-sectional study utilized data from a 2006 binational study of five-year-old children of Mexican descent living in migrant communities in California (CA) and Mexico (MX). Methods In CA, children were 301 participants from the CHAMACOS study, a longitudinal birth cohort in a Mexican immigrant community. MX children (n=301) were participants in the Proyecto Mariposa study, which was designed to capture a sample of women and their children living in Mexico who closely resembled the CA sample, yet who never migrated to the US. Household food insecurity was measured using the US Department of Agriculture Food Security Scale and dietary intake was assessed with food frequency questionnaires. Analysis of variance was used to examine unadjusted and adjusted differences in total energy, nutrient intake, and consumption of food groups by household food security status. Results Approximately 39% of the CA mothers and 75% of the MX mothers reported low or very low food security in the last 12 months (p<0.01). Children in the US, experiencing food insecurity consumed more fat, saturated fat, sweets and fried snacks than children not experiencing food insecurity. In contrast, in Mexico food insecurity was associated with lower intake of total carbohydrates, dairy and vitamin B6. Conclusions Programs and policies addressing food insecurity in the US and Mexico may need to take steps to address dietary intake among children in households experiencing food insecurity, possibly through education and programs to increase resources to obtain healthy foods. PMID:19942017

  1. Demographic and psychographic associations of consumer intentions to purchase healthier food products

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Melissa; Wang, Wei Chun; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations of nutrition concerns, demographics, universalism (community oriented) values, perceived control over personal health and food buying, and perceived influence over the food system with intentions to purchase low fat, sugar and salt (LFSS) food products. Methods A national online survey of 2204 Australian consumers administered in November 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations of LFSS purchasing intentions with demographic, values, perceived control, and influence factors. Results Nutrition concern, perceived influence over the food system, and universalism values were key predictors of LFSS purchasing intentions. Almost two thirds (64.6%) of the variance associated with LFSS purchasing was explained by the structural equation model. Conclusion Communication programs which focus on universalism values, nutrition concern and perceived influence over the food system are likely to increase LFSS purchasing and perhaps reduce the demand for energy dense, nutrient poor foods. PMID:26844047

  2. Public health and food safety: a historical association.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, D J

    1986-01-01

    Since the initial passage in 1906 of the first Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act, public health, as measured by mortality trends, has greatly improved. These acts have been amended several times, and other laws dealing with safety of foods and drinks have been enacted. Food- and beverage-transmitted infectious diseases that were so devastating after the Civil War have been controlled. Nutritional deficiencies such as pellagra are almost nonexistent. Mass episodes of poisoning of food by chemical contaminants that have plagued some other countries have not occurred in the United States. Other factors such as refrigeration and improved transportation have helped, but it is probable that food safety regulatory activities have contributed to the saving of the 1.8 million Americans who would die each year if the public health advances since 1900 had not been made. Effective use of information was a key factor in the improvement in public health. Now, as then, effective information systems are needed. PMID:3097743

  3. The association of mavenism and pleasure with food involvement in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Food involvement is concerned with the involvement people have in the preparation and consumption of food. Little is known about older people’s food involvement or about the factors which may influence it. Therefore the main aim of this study was to examine food involvement and its associations among older Australians. Methods An Internet-based nationwide survey of 1,041 people aged 55 years and over (M = 66 years, SD 6.99) was conducted in 2012. Quota sampling was used to ensure that the age, gender and state of residence of the respondents were representative of the Australian population aged over 55 years. Bell and Marshall’s Food Involvement Scale was administered, along with questions pertaining to socio-demographic, social and hedonic factors. Results Overall predictor variables explained 45% (p = <0.0001) of variance in food involvement. Food mavenism and pleasure motivation for food were the factors most strongly associated with food involvement (β = .36; 95% CI .46, .61; p = < 0.0001 and β = .31; 95% CI .78, 1.08; p = < 0.0001, respectively). The predictive ability of demographic factors was reasonably poor. Conclusions Food mavenism and pleasure motivation are stronger predictors of Food Involvement than demographic factors. This suggests communication and health promotion opportunities among older people. PMID:24885765

  4. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p < .0001). Children living in food insecure with severe hunger households were 10.13, 10.07, and 4.54 times as likely to be underweight, stunted, and thin, respectively, as counterparts from food secure households. The findings showed food insecurity was prevalent and associated with sociodemographic factors among households with schoolchildren in southeastern Iran. Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households. PMID:27494152

  5. [Infection risks associated with importation of fresh food in Iceland].

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Karl G; Georgsson, Franklín

    2015-06-01

    Access to safe food is a privilege for people living in Iceland. Rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance, related to factory farming and antimicrobial use in agriculture, is a major threat to public health. Increasing food trade between countries and continents facilitates global spread of pathogens and resistance. Icelandic agriculture has benefitted from its isolation and small size. After interventions to reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella at poultry farms, the incidence of human campylobacteriolsis is 17-43/100.000, of which about half is domestically acquired and Salmonella infections 10-15/100.000 mainly acquired abroad. Since Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) has not been detected in domestic cattle, the low incidence of infections is not surprising (0-0.6/100.000/year). A recent outbreak due to a multiresistant EHEC strain was traced to imported lettuce. Antimicrobial use in Icelandic agriculture is among the lowest in Europe and domestic infections caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter are rarely caused by resistant strains. Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae have not been found in Iceland. Low use of antimicrobials in Icelandic agriculture and actions to limit the spread of Campylobacter and Salmonella have been successful. The public should be informed of the importance of the origin of food and that Icelandic food products are among the safest. PMID:26158536

  6. Food shopping profiles and their association with dietary patterns: A latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. Objective To identify patterns (or ‘classes’) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, “conscientious” food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. Design A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Participants/setting Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities metropolitan area (n=1,201) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Fast food and soda consumption; meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Statistical analyses Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. Results An eight-class solution was identified: “traditional shopper (14.9%),” “fresh food and supermarket shopper (14.1%),” “convenience shopper (18.8%),” “conscientious convenience shopper (13.8%),” “conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper (11.8%),” “conscientious fresh food shopper (6.6%),” “conscientious non-shopper (10.2%)”, and “non-shopper (9.8%).” “Fresh food and supermarket shoppers” and “conscientious fresh food shopper” had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar) while “convenience shoppers” and “conscientious convenience shoppers,” and “non-shoppers” had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than “traditional shoppers.” Conclusions These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of

  7. Distributed processor allocation for launching applications in a massively connected processors complex

    DOEpatents

    Pedretti, Kevin

    2008-11-18

    A compute processor allocator architecture for allocating compute processors to run applications in a multiple processor computing apparatus is distributed among a subset of processors within the computing apparatus. Each processor of the subset includes a compute processor allocator. The compute processor allocators can share a common database of information pertinent to compute processor allocation. A communication path permits retrieval of information from the database independently of the compute processor allocators.

  8. Spaceborne Processor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Schatzel, Donald V.; Whitaker, William D.; Sterling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A Spaceborne Processor Array in Multifunctional Structure (SPAMS) can lower the total mass of the electronic and structural overhead of spacecraft, resulting in reduced launch costs, while increasing the science return through dynamic onboard computing. SPAMS integrates the multifunctional structure (MFS) and the Gilgamesh Memory, Intelligence, and Network Device (MIND) multi-core in-memory computer architecture into a single-system super-architecture. This transforms every inch of a spacecraft into a sharable, interconnected, smart computing element to increase computing performance while simultaneously reducing mass. The MIND in-memory architecture provides a foundation for high-performance, low-power, and fault-tolerant computing. The MIND chip has an internal structure that includes memory, processing, and communication functionality. The Gilgamesh is a scalable system comprising multiple MIND chips interconnected to operate as a single, tightly coupled, parallel computer. The array of MIND components shares a global, virtual name space for program variables and tasks that are allocated at run time to the distributed physical memory and processing resources. Individual processor- memory nodes can be activated or powered down at run time to provide active power management and to configure around faults. A SPAMS system is comprised of a distributed Gilgamesh array built into MFS, interfaces into instrument and communication subsystems, a mass storage interface, and a radiation-hardened flight computer.

  9. Fusion processor simulation (FPSim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnell, Mark D.; Wynne, Douglas G.; Rahn, Brian J.

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Processor Simulation (FPSim) is being developed by Rome Laboratory to support the Discrimination Interceptor Technology (DITP) and Advanced Sensor Technology (ASTP) Programs of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. The purpose of the FPSim is to serve as a test bed and evaluation tool for establishing the feasibility of achieving threat engagement timelines. The FPSim supports the integration, evaluation, and demonstration of different strategies, system concepts, and Acquisition Tracking & Pointing (ATP) subsystems and components. The environment comprises a simulation capability within which users can integrate and test their application software models, algorithms and databases. The FPSim must evolve as algorithm developments mature to support independent evaluation of contractor designs and the integration of a number of fusion processor subsystem technologies. To accomplish this, the simulation contains validated modules, databases, and simulations. It possesses standardized engagement scenarios, architectures and subsystem interfaces, and provides a hardware and software framework which is flexible to support growth, reconfigurration, and simulation component modification and insertion. Key user interaction features include: (1) Visualization of platform status through displays of the surveillance scene as seen by imaging sensors. (2) User-selectable data analysis and graphics display during the simulation execution as well as during post-simulation analysis. (3) Automated, graphical tools to permit the user to reconfigure the FPSim, i.e., 'Plug and Play' various model/software modules. The FPSim is capable of hosting and executing user's software algorithms of image processing, signal processing, subsystems, and functions for evaluation purposes.

  10. VLSI array processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, E.

    1982-07-01

    The Arithmetic Processor Unit (APU) data base design check was completed. Minor design rule violations and design improvements were accomplished. The APU mask set has been fabricated and checked. Initial checking of all mask layers revealed a design rule problem in one layer. That layer was corrected, refabricated and checked out. The mask set has been delivered to the chip fabrication area. The fabrication process has been initiated. All work on the Array Processor Demonstration System (APDS) has been suspended at CHI until the additionally requested funding was received. That funding has been authorized and CHI will begin work on the APDS in July. The following activities are planned in the following quarter: 1) Complete fabrication of the first lot of VLSI APU devices. 2) Complete integration and check-out of the APDS simulator. 3) Complete integration and check-out of the APU breadboard. 4) Verify the VLSI APU wafer tests with the APU breadboard. 5) Complete check-out of the APDS using the APU breadboard.

  11. Reconfigurable data path processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.

  12. Food insecurity is inversely associated with diet quality of lower-income adults.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Epel, Elissa S; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Crawford, Patricia B; Laraia, Barbara A

    2014-12-01

    Food insecurity acts as a chronic stressor independent of poverty. Food-insecure adults may consume more highly palatable foods as a coping mechanism, leading to poorer diet quality and increased risks of chronic disease over time. Using data from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, this study aimed to examine the cross-sectional differences in dietary intake and diet quality by household food security among 8,129 lower-income adults (≤300% of the federal poverty level). Food insecurity was assessed using the 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-hour recalls and diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010. Relative mean differences in dietary outcomes by household food security were estimated using linear regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Lower-income food-insecure adults reported higher consumption of some highly palatable foods, including high-fat dairy products (P trend<0.0001) and salty snacks (P trend=0.01) compared with lower-income food-secure adults. Food insecurity was also associated with more sugar-sweetened beverages (P trend=0.003); more red/processed meat (P trend=0.005); more nuts, seeds, and legumes (P trend=0.0006); fewer vegetables (P trend<0.0001); and fewer sweets and bakery desserts (P trend=0.0002). No differences were observed for intakes of total energy and macronutrients. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower Healthy Eating Index-2005 (P trend<0.0001) and Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (P trend<0.0001). Despite no macronutrient differences, food insecurity was associated with characteristics of poor diet quality known to increase chronic disease risk. PMID:25091796

  13. Phenotypic characterization of Salmonella isolated from food production environments associated with low-water activity foods.

    PubMed

    Finn, Sarah; Hinton, Jay C D; McClure, Peter; Amézquita, Aléjandro; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can survive for extended periods of time in low-moisture environments posing a challenge for modern food production. This dangerous pathogen must be controlled throughout the production chain with a minimal risk of dissemination. Limited information is currently available describing the behavior and characteristics of this important zoonotic foodborne bacterium in low-moisture food production environments and in food. In our study, the phenotypes related to low-moisture survival of 46 Salmonella isolates were examined. Most of the isolates in the collection could form biofilms under defined laboratory conditions, with 57% being positive for curli fimbriae production and 75% of the collection positive for cellulose production, which are both linked with stronger biofilm formation. Biocides in the factory environment to manage hygiene were found to be most effective against planktonic cells but less so when the same bacteria were surface dried or present as a biofilm. Cellulose-producing isolates were better survivors when exposed to a biocide compared with cellulose-negative isolates. Examination of Salmonella growth of these 18 serotypes in NaCl, KCl, and glycerol found that glycerol was the least inhibitory of these three humectants. We identified a significant correlation between the ability to survive in glycerol and the ability to survive in KCl and biofilm formation, which may be important for food safety and the protection of public health. PMID:23992493

  14. 78 FR 55728 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Administration: Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good... workshop regarding FDA's clinical trial requirements is designed to aid the clinical research professional... interaction with FDA representatives. The program will focus on the relationships among FDA and clinical...

  15. Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacies among Canadian adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2008-03-01

    Household food insecurity constrains food selection, but whether the dietary compromises associated with this problem heighten the risk of nutrient inadequacies is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between household food security status and adults' and children's dietary intakes and to estimate the prevalence of nutrient inadequacies among adults and children, differentiating by household food security status. We analyzed 24-h recall and household food security data for persons aged 1-70 y from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 2.2). The relationship between adults' and children's nutrient and food intakes and household food security status was assessed using regression analysis. Estimates of the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes by food security status and age/sex group were calculated using probability assessment methods. Poorer dietary intakes were observed among adolescents and adults in food-insecure households and many of the differences by food security status persisted after accounting for potential confounders in multivariate analyses. Higher estimated prevalences of nutrient inadequacy were apparent among adolescents and adults in food-insecure households, with the differences most marked for protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc. Among children, few differences in dietary intakes by household food security status were apparent and there was little indication of nutrient inadequacy. This study indicates that for adults and, to some degree, adolescents, food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intakes. These findings highlight the need for concerted public policy responses to ameliorate household food insecurity. PMID:18287374

  16. Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption

    PubMed Central

    Hardin-Fanning, F; Gokun, Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Grocery vouchers that specifically target foods associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk result in increased consumption of those foods. In regions with disproportionately high CVD rates, there is little research concerning the impact of vouchers on purchases of risk-reducing foods when there are no restrictions placed on grocery voucher redemption. Since many food assistance programs place few restrictions on type of foods that can be purchased, identifying demographic factors associated with purchasing habits is a prerequisite to promoting healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of age, gender, education and income level with purchasing of healthful foods through the use of a grocery voucher in a rural food desert (poverty rate of ≥20% and ≥33% of residents living >16 km from a large grocery store) with high rates of chronic disease. Methods The effectiveness of an intervention that included a media campaign, a $5 grocery voucher, local heart healthy food branding and a grocery store event was tested. Brief nutritional articles were published in both local newspapers during four consecutive weeks. These articles explained the physiological actions of healthy foods and listed a health-promoting recipe. During the fourth week of the media campaign, a voucher for a $5 grocery gift card redeemable at one of either community grocery stores was also printed in both local newspapers. In each store, foods that are known to be associated with a reduced risk of CVD were marked with a blue logo. Participants (N=311) completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and usual servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Participants received a $5 grocery card and a list of labelled foods. Returned grocery receipts were stapled to the questionnaires to analyse the relationship between demographics and food choices. Results Participants who bought at least one labelled food item were older (M=48.5, SD=14

  17. Food insecurity, overweight and obesity among low-income African-American families in Baltimore City: Associations with food-related perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Vedovato, Gabriela M.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Han, Eunkyung; Trude, Angela C.B.; Kharmats, Anna Y.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between food insecurity, excess body weight, psychosocial factors and food behaviors among low-income African-American (AA) families. Design Cross-sectional survey of participants in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) obesity prevention trial. We collected data on socioeconomic factors, food source destinations, acquiring food, preparation methods, psychosocial factors, beliefs and attitudes, participation in food assistance programs, anthropometry and food security. We used principal component analysis to identify patterns of food source destinations and logistic regression to examine associations. Setting Fourteen low-income, predominantly AA neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Subjects 298 adult caregiver-child (10–14 years old) dyads. Results 41.6% of households had some level of food insecurity, and 12.4% experienced some level of hunger. Food insecure participants with hunger were significantly more likely to be unemployed and to have lower incomes. We found high rates of excess body weight (overweight and obese) among adults and children (82.8% and 37.9% food insecure without hunger; 89.2% and 45.9% with hunger, respectively), although there were no significant differences by security status. Food source usage patterns, food acquisition, preparation, knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions did not differ by food security. Food security was associated with perceptions that healthy foods are affordable and convenient. Greater caregiver body satisfaction was associated with food insecurity and excess body weight. Conclusions In this setting, obesity and food insecurity are major problems. For many food insecure families, perceptions of healthy foods may serve as additional barriers to their purchase and consumption. PMID:26441159

  18. THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM MODULATES THE VALENCE OF THE EMOTION ASSOCIATED TO FOOD INGESTION

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel Ernesto; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra Evelyn; Prospéro-García, O.

    2010-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are mediators of the homeostatic and hedonic systems that modulate food ingestion. Hence, eCBs, by regulating the hedonic system, may be modulating the valence of the emotion associated to food ingestion (positive: pleasant, or negative: unpleasant). Our first goal was to demonstrate that palatable food induces conditioned place preference (CPP), hence a positive valence emotion. Additionally, we analyzed if this CPP is blocked by AM251, inducing a negative valence emotion, meaning avoiding the otherwise pursued compartment. The second goal was to demonstrate that CPP induced by regular food would be strengthened by the simultaneous administration of anandamide or oleamide and if such CPP is blocked by AM251. Finally, we tested the capacity of eCBs (without food) to induce CPP. Our results indicate that rats readily developed CPP to palatable food, which was blocked by AM251. The CPP induced by regular food was strengthened by eCBs and blocked by AM251. Finally, oleamide, unlike anandamide, induced CPP. These results showed that eCBs mediate the positive valence (CPP) of the emotion associated to food ingestion. It was also observed that the blockade of the CB1 receptor causes a loss of correlation between food and CPP (negative valence: avoidance). These data further support the role of eCBs as regulators of the hedonic value of food. PMID:21182571

  19. Anthropogenic effects are associated with a lower persistence of marine food webs

    PubMed Central

    Gilarranz, Luis J.; Mora, Camilo; Bascompte, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Marine coastal ecosystems are among the most exposed to global environmental change, with reported effects on species biomass, species richness and length of trophic chains. By combining a biologically informed food-web model with information on anthropogenic influences in 701 sites across the Caribbean region, we show that fishing effort, human density and thermal stress anomaly are associated with a decrease in local food-web persistence. The conservation status of the site, in turn, is associated with an increase in food-web persistence. Some of these associations are explained through effects on food-web structure and total community biomass. Our results unveil a hidden footprint of human activities. Even when food webs may seem healthy in terms of the presence and abundance of their constituent species, they may be losing the capacity to withstand further environmental degradation. PMID:26867790

  20. Anthropogenic effects are associated with a lower persistence of marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Mora, Camilo; Bascompte, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Marine coastal ecosystems are among the most exposed to global environmental change, with reported effects on species biomass, species richness and length of trophic chains. By combining a biologically informed food-web model with information on anthropogenic influences in 701 sites across the Caribbean region, we show that fishing effort, human density and thermal stress anomaly are associated with a decrease in local food-web persistence. The conservation status of the site, in turn, is associated with an increase in food-web persistence. Some of these associations are explained through effects on food-web structure and total community biomass. Our results unveil a hidden footprint of human activities. Even when food webs may seem healthy in terms of the presence and abundance of their constituent species, they may be losing the capacity to withstand further environmental degradation. PMID:26867790

  1. Food-Associated Calling in Gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in the Wild.

    PubMed

    Luef, Eva Maria; Breuer, Thomas; Pika, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Many nonhuman primates produce food-associated vocalizations upon encountering or ingesting particular food. Concerning the great apes, only food-associated vocalizations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) have been studied in detail, providing evidence that these vocalizations can be produced flexibly in relation to a variety of factors, such as the quantity and quality of food and/or the type of audience. Only anecdotal evidence exists of eastern (Gorilla beringei) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) producing food-associated vocalizations, termed SINGING or HUMMING. To enable a better understanding of the context in which these calls are produced, we investigated and compared the vocal behavior of two free-ranging groups of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) at Mondika, Republic of Congo. Our results show that (a) food-associated call production occurs only during feeding and not in other contexts; (b) calling is not uniformly distributed across age and sex classes; (c) calls are only produced during feeding on specific foods; and (d) normally just one individual gives calls during group feeding sessions, however, certain food types elicit simultaneous calling of two or more individuals. Our findings provide new insight into the vocal abilities of gorillas but also carry larger implications for questions concerning vocal variability among the great apes. Food-associated calls of nonhuman primates have been shown to be flexible in terms of when they are used and who they are directed at, making them interesting vocalizations from the viewpoint of language evolution. Food-associated vocalizations in great apes can offer new opportunities to investigate the phylogenetic development of vocal communication within the primate lineage and can possibly contribute novel insights into the origins of human language. PMID:26909518

  2. Food-Associated Calling in Gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in the Wild

    PubMed Central

    Luef, Eva Maria; Breuer, Thomas; Pika, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Many nonhuman primates produce food-associated vocalizations upon encountering or ingesting particular food. Concerning the great apes, only food-associated vocalizations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) have been studied in detail, providing evidence that these vocalizations can be produced flexibly in relation to a variety of factors, such as the quantity and quality of food and/or the type of audience. Only anecdotal evidence exists of eastern (Gorilla beringei) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) producing food-associated vocalizations, termed singing or humming. To enable a better understanding of the context in which these calls are produced, we investigated and compared the vocal behavior of two free-ranging groups of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) at Mondika, Republic of Congo. Our results show that (a) food-associated call production occurs only during feeding and not in other contexts; (b) calling is not uniformly distributed across age and sex classes; (c) calls are only produced during feeding on specific foods; and (d) normally just one individual gives calls during group feeding sessions, however, certain food types elicit simultaneous calling of two or more individuals. Our findings provide new insight into the vocal abilities of gorillas but also carry larger implications for questions concerning vocal variability among the great apes. Food-associated calls of nonhuman primates have been shown to be flexible in terms of when they are used and who they are directed at, making them interesting vocalizations from the viewpoint of language evolution. Food-associated vocalizations in great apes can offer new opportunities to investigate the phylogenetic development of vocal communication within the primate lineage and can possibly contribute novel insights into the origins of human language. PMID:26909518

  3. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and Analysis of Associated Bacterial Communities on Food Industry Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products. PMID:23023749

  4. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  5. Food insecurity reported by children, but not by mothers, is associated with lower quality of diet and shifts in foods consumed.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-07-01

    Household food security shows little indication of nutrient inadequacy among children, according to reports made by parents. We examined the associations of food insecurity as reported by children and mothers with children's consumption of energy, macronutrients such as vitamin A, calcium, iron and zinc, and selected foods, and whether these associations differed by child's gender. This cross-sectional study had non-probabilistic 128 Venezuelan mother-child pairs. We assessed food insecurity and management strategies in children using 10- and nine-item instruments, respectively. Mothers' report of food insecurity came from a previously validated 12-item instrument. Nutrient intake of children was assessed with a 67-item food frequency questionnaire. Comparisons were made using chi-square test for contingency tables and t-tests for trends (P < 0.05). Linear regression models were used for intakes of nutrients and selected foods. We tested for interactions with gender. Prevalence of child- and mother-reported food insecurity was 83.6 and 61.7%, respectively (P < 0.01). Greater food insecurity or management strategies reported by boys was associated with lower calcium, iron and zinc intake (P < 0.05), but reported intakes were low in girls who are even food secure. Rice and corn flour consumption was higher with higher food insecurity in children. Papaya and banana were less consumed by food-insecure children. We found shifts in 13 of 67 foods consumed, with less quality in those food insecure, as reported by children. Mother-reported food insecurity was associated only with rice intake of children. In contrast to mothers' reports, food insecurity reported by children was associated with children's lower quality of diet and shifts in foods consumed. PMID:26260139

  6. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Haynie, Denise L.; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  7. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Eisenberg, Miriam H; Haynie, Denise L; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  8. Interactive digital signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mish, W. H.; Wenger, R. M.; Behannon, K. W.; Byrnes, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Interactive Digital Signal Processor (IDSP) is examined. It consists of a set of time series analysis Operators each of which operates on an input file to produce an output file. The operators can be executed in any order that makes sense and recursively, if desired. The operators are the various algorithms used in digital time series analysis work. User written operators can be easily interfaced to the sysatem. The system can be operated both interactively and in batch mode. In IDSP a file can consist of up to n (currently n=8) simultaneous time series. IDSP currently includes over thirty standard operators that range from Fourier transform operations, design and application of digital filters, eigenvalue analysis, to operators that provide graphical output, allow batch operation, editing and display information.

  9. Optical logic array processor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanida, J.; Ichioka, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A simple method for optically implementing digital logic gates in parallel has been developed. Parallel logic gates can be achieved by using a lensless shadow-casting system with a light emitting diode array as an incoherent light source. All the sixteen logic functions for two binary variables, which are the fundamental computations of Boolean algebra, can be simply realised in parallel with these gates by changing the switching modes of a led array. Parallel computation structures of the developed optical digital array processor are demonstrated by implementing pattern logics for two binary images with high space-bandwidth product. Applications of the proposed method to parallel shift operation of the image, differentiation, and processing of gray-level image are shown. 9 references.

  10. Food Insufficiency Is Associated with High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Women in Botswana and Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Sheri D; Leiter, Karen; Bangsberg, David R; Butler, Lisa M; Percy-de Korte, Fiona; Hlanze, Zakhe; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Iacopino, Vincent; Heisler, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Background Both food insufficiency and HIV infection are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the impact of food insufficiency on HIV risk behavior has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that food insufficiency is associated with HIV transmission behavior. Methods and Findings We studied the association between food insufficiency (not having enough food to eat over the previous 12 months) and inconsistent condom use, sex exchange, and other measures of risky sex in a cross-sectional population-based study of 1,255 adults in Botswana and 796 adults in Swaziland using a stratified two-stage probability design. Associations were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, clustered by country and stratified by gender. Food insufficiency was reported by 32% of women and 22% of men over the previous 12 months. Among 1,050 women in both countries, after controlling for respondent characteristics including income and education, HIV knowledge, and alcohol use, food insufficiency was associated with inconsistent condom use with a nonprimary partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–2.36), sex exchange (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74–1.93), intergenerational sexual relationships (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03–2.08), and lack of control in sexual relationships (AOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24–2.28). Associations between food insufficiency and risky sex were much attenuated among men. Conclusions Food insufficiency is an important risk factor for increased sexual risk-taking among women in Botswana and Swaziland. Targeted food assistance and income generation programs in conjunction with efforts to enhance women's legal and social rights may play an important role in decreasing HIV transmission risk for women. PMID:17958460

  11. Food sources of saturated fat and the association with mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David

    2013-09-01

    We summarized the data related to foods high in saturated fat and risk of mortality. We searched Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ProQuest for studies from January 1952 to May 2012. We identified 26 publications with individual dietary data and all-cause, total cancer, or cardiovascular mortality as endpoints. Pooled relative risk estimates demonstrated that high intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter were not associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality compared with low intakes. High intakes of meat and processed meat were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality but were associated with a decreased risk in a subanalysis of Asian studies. The overall quality of studies was variable. Associations varied by food group and population. This may be because of factors outside saturated fat content of individual foods. There is an ongoing need for improvement in assessment tools and methods that investigate food sources of saturated fat and mortality to inform dietary guidelines. PMID:23865702

  12. Associations between dairy foods, diabetes, and metabolic health: potential mechanisms and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Epidemiological evidence supports an inverse relationship between adequate intake of dairy foods and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). The biological mechanisms responsible for this association remain to be established. Evidence Acquisition & Synthesis: Epidemiological studies indica...

  13. Food Sources of Saturated Fat and the Association With Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David

    2013-01-01

    We summarized the data related to foods high in saturated fat and risk of mortality. We searched Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ProQuest for studies from January 1952 to May 2012. We identified 26 publications with individual dietary data and all-cause, total cancer, or cardiovascular mortality as endpoints. Pooled relative risk estimates demonstrated that high intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter were not associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality compared with low intakes. High intakes of meat and processed meat were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality but were associated with a decreased risk in a subanalysis of Asian studies. The overall quality of studies was variable. Associations varied by food group and population. This may be because of factors outside saturated fat content of individual foods. There is an ongoing need for improvement in assessment tools and methods that investigate food sources of saturated fat and mortality to inform dietary guidelines. PMID:23865702

  14. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials. PMID:19389606

  15. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    PubMed Central

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Fisher, Jennifer O; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%), Hispanic (29%), and White (28%). The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes) was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent), indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups) as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups), respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime. PMID:19678947

  16. Never Trust Your Word Processor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linke, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…

  17. The benthic association between a bivalve and a shell boring polychaete and their potential food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silina, A. V.; Zhukova, N. V.

    2012-09-01

    The trophic relationships in the association of the Yeso scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis and its dominant endobiontic polychaete Polydora brevipalpa, which burrows into the scallop's shell, and their potential food sources were studied using the method of fatty acid biochemical markers. It is shown that the differences in the diet of the scallop and the polychaete allow them to coexist in a close association. The trophic role of the association in the benthic community was revealed. The association selectively utilizes the food sources of the environment. It almost does not consume organic matter of bottom sediments, which allows it to coexist with other species in the community of higher order. There is minimal food competition between the association and detritivorous species; however, association can limit the development of species mostly foraging on diatom algae.

  18. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:16910351

  19. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:19364084

  20. An associative account of how the obesogenic environment biases adolescents' food choices.

    PubMed

    Watson, P; Wiers, R W; Hommel, B; Ridderinkhof, K R; de Wit, S

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and children are the targets of much food advertising, the majority of which is for unhealthy snacks. Although the effects of advertising on food preferences and consummatory behavior are well documented, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited. The present study investigates an associative (ideomotor) mechanism by which exposure to rewarding (snack) outcomes may activate behavior that previously resulted in these rewards. Specifically, we used a computerized task to investigate whether exposing adolescents to food pictures directly, or to Pavlovian cues predictive of those food pictures, would bias their subsequent responses towards the presented/signaled food. Furthermore, we assessed whether this effect was particularly pronounced with palatable, high-calorie snacks (crisps and chocolate) relative to low-calorie snacks (tomatoes and cucumber). In two experiments, adolescents learnt that certain key presses would yield particular food pictures - some high calorie and others low calorie - before learning Pavlovian associations between cues (cartoon monsters) and these same food pictures. Subsequently, in a response-priming test, we examined the extent to which the food pictures and Pavlovian cues spontaneously primed the previously associated response. The results show that we replicated, in adolescents, previous demonstrations of ideomotor response priming in adults: food pictures biased responding towards the response that previously yielded them, and this effect transferred to the Pavlovian cues. Furthermore, the priming effect was significantly stronger for high-calorie rewards than for low-calorie. These findings indicate that the ideomotor mechanism plays an important role in the detrimental effect of our obesogenic environment, with its plethora of unhealthy food reminders, on adolescents' food-related choices. PMID:26482282

  1. The association between food patterns and adiposity among Canadian children at risk of overweight.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lei; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    Identifying food patterns related to obesity can provide information for health promotion in nutrition. Food patterns and their relation with obesity among Canadian children have not been reported to date. Our aim was to identify and describe food patterns associated with obesity in children at risk of overweight. Caucasian children (n = 630) with at least 1 obese biological parent recruited into the Quebec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort were studied in cross-sectional analyses. Measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat mass percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), screen time, physical activity (accelerometer over 7 days), and dietary intake (three 24-h food recalls) were collected. Factor analysis was used to identify food patterns. The relationships between food patterns and overweight were investigated in logistic and multiple linear regression models. Three food patterns were retained for analysis: traditional food (red meats, main dishes-soups, high-fat dairy products, tomato products, dressings, etc.); healthy food (low-fat dairy products, whole grains, legumes-nuts-seeds, fruits, vegetables); and fast food (sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes, fried chicken, hamburgers-hot dogs-pizza, salty snacks). Higher scores on the fast food pattern were associated with overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile), and other measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, body fat mass percentage) after adjustment for age, sex, physical activity, screen time, sleep time, family income, and mother's obesity (p < 0.05). Controlling for energy intake did not change these relationships. Our results provide further evidence of a link between fast food intake and obesity in children. PMID:24476475

  2. Cigarette Smoking Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Young Adults in Association With Food Insecurity and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low socioeconomic status is associated with high rates of cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic differences in cigarette smoking tend to emerge during young adulthood. To further our understanding of socioeconomic differences in smoking among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking, with attention to multiple socioeconomic indicators that have not been examined in this population. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample consisted of young adults aged 18–30 years who were considered socioeconomically disadvantaged as measured by education and poverty. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with smoking status in this group, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine correlates of smoking frequency. Results In this sample (N = 1,511; 48% female, 66% Hispanic/Latino, 18% non-Hispanic white), 39.7% reported experiencing food insecurity in the past year. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among young adults who reported being food insecure (26.9%) than among those who reported being food secure (16.4%). Past-year food insecurity was significantly associated with current smoking, independent of sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use. Specifically, food insecurity was significantly associated with daily but not nondaily smoking. Conclusion Socioeconomically disadvantaged young adults with food insecurity may be considered a high-risk group with respect to cigarette smoking. Efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities should address diverse sources of socioeconomic influences, including experiences of food insecurity. PMID:26766849

  3. Enjoyment of tactile play is associated with lower food neophobia in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Thakker, Dipti

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that parental reports of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity are associated with lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in children. This study aimed to pilot a behavioral observation measure of tactile play in young children. The primary aim of the study was to see whether children's enjoyment of tactile play was associated with higher F/V consumption, as well as lower food neophobia. Seventy 2- to 5-year-old children (37 males and 33 females) and their parents were recruited through children's centers in the Leicester region of the United Kingdom during July to October 2012. Children's engagement in two tactile play tasks using sticky foods (mashed potatoes and vegetarian gelatin) was observed and rated by both the researcher and parent. Parents were asked to complete a series of questionnaires measuring F/V consumption, food neophobia, and sensory processing. It was found that lower child food neophobia was significantly related to enjoyment of tactile play, whereas child F/V consumption was associated with parental F/V consumption, but not enjoyment of tactile play. The findings strengthen the idea that tactile processing may be associated with the acceptance of food variety, but not the total amount of F/V consumed. Additional research is indicated to determine whether tactile play tasks can be used to lower child food neophobia. PMID:25935569

  4. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. PMID:24467926

  5. The food retail revolution in China and its association with diet and health

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yijing; Du, Shufa; Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Huijun; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    The processed food sector in low- and middle-income countries has grown rapidly. Little is understood about its effect on obesity. Using data from 14,976 participants aged two and older in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, this paper examines patterns of processed food consumption and their impacts on obesity while considering the endogeneity of those who purchase processed foods. A major assumption of our analysis of the impact of processed foods on overweight and obesity was that the consumption of processed foods is endogenous due to their accessibility and urbanicity levels. The results show that 74.5% of participants consumed processed foods, excluding edible oils and other condiments; 28.5% of participants' total daily energy intake (EI) was from processed foods. Children and teenagers in megacities had the highest proportion of EI (40.2%) from processed foods. People who lived in megacities or highly urbanized neighborhoods with higher incomes and educational achievement consumed more processed foods. When controlling for endogeneity, only the body mass index (BMI) and risk of being overweight of children ages two to eighteen are adversely associated with processed foods (+4.97 BMI units, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–8.28; odds ratio (OR) = 3.63, 95% CI: 1.45–9.13). Processed food purchases represent less than a third of current Chinese food purchases. However, processed food purchases are growing at the rate of 50% per year, and we must begin to understand the implications for the future. PMID:26217068

  6. Cache Energy Optimization Techniques For Modern Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2013-01-01

    and veterans in the field of cache power management. It will help graduate students, CAD tool developers and designers in understanding the need of energy efficiency in modern computing systems. Further, it will be useful for researchers in gaining insights into algorithms and techniques for micro-architectural and system-level energy optimization using dynamic cache reconfiguration. We sincerely believe that the ``food for thought'' presented in this book will inspire the readers to develop even better ideas for designing ``green'' processors of tomorrow.

  7. Food Price Spikes Are Associated with Increased Malnutrition among Children in Andhra Pradesh, India123

    PubMed Central

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Basu, Sanjay; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ebrahim, Shah; Campbell, Oona; Doyle, Pat; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global food prices have risen sharply since 2007. The impact of food price spikes on the risk of malnutrition in children is not well understood. Objective: We investigated the associations between food price spikes and childhood malnutrition in Andhra Pradesh, one of India’s largest states, with >85 million people. Because wasting (thinness) indicates in most cases a recent and severe process of weight loss that is often associated with acute food shortage, we tested the hypothesis that the escalating prices of rice, legumes, eggs, and other staples of Indian diets significantly increased the risk of wasting (weight-for-height z scores) in children. Methods: We studied periods before (2006) and directly after (2009) India’s food price spikes with the use of the Young Lives longitudinal cohort of 1918 children in Andhra Pradesh linked to food price data from the National Sample Survey Office. Two-stage least squares instrumental variable models assessed the relation of food price changes to food consumption and wasting prevalence (weight-for-height z scores). Results: Before the 2007 food price spike, wasting prevalence fell from 19.4% in 2002 to 18.8% in 2006. Coinciding with India’s escalating food prices, wasting increased significantly to 28.0% in 2009. These increases were concentrated among low- (χ2: 21.6, P < 0.001) and middle- (χ2: 25.9, P < 0.001) income groups, but not among high-income groups (χ2: 3.08, P = 0.079). Each 10.0 rupee ($0.170) increase in the price of rice/kg was associated with a drop in child-level rice consumption of 73.0 g/d (β: −7.30; 95% CI: −10.5, −3.90). Correspondingly, lower rice consumption was significantly associated with lower weight-for-height z scores (i.e., wasting) by 0.005 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.008), as seen with most other food categories. Conclusion: Rising food prices were associated with an increased risk of malnutrition among children in India. Policies to help ensure the affordability of food

  8. The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet?123

    PubMed Central

    Poti, Jennifer M; Duffey, Kiyah J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although fast food consumption has been linked to adverse health outcomes, the relative contribution of fast food itself compared with the rest of the diet to these associations remains unclear. Objective: Our objective was to compare the independent associations with overweight/obesity or dietary outcomes for fast food consumption compared with dietary pattern for the remainder of intake. Design: This cross-sectional analysis studied 4466 US children aged 2–18 y from NHANES 2007–2010. Cluster analysis identified 2 dietary patterns for the non–fast food remainder of intake: Western (50.3%) and Prudent. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models examined the association between fast food consumption and dietary pattern for the remainder of intake and estimated their independent associations with overweight/obesity and dietary outcomes. Results: Half of US children consumed fast food: 39.5% low-consumers (≤30% of energy from fast food) and 10.5% high-consumers (>30% of energy). Consuming a Western dietary pattern for the remainder of intake was more likely among fast food low-consumers (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.85) and high-consumers (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.60, 3.05) than among nonconsumers. The remainder of diet was independently associated with overweight/obesity (β: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 10.5), whereas fast food consumption was not, and the remainder of diet had stronger associations with poor total intake than did fast food consumption. Conclusions: Outside the fast food restaurant, fast food consumers ate Western diets, which might have stronger associations with overweight/obesity and poor dietary outcomes than fast food consumption itself. Our findings support the need for prospective studies and randomized trials to confirm these hypotheses. PMID:24153348

  9. Programmable pipelined image processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, Donald B. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A pipelined image processor selectively interconnects modules in a column of a two-dimensional array to modules of the next column of the array of modules 1,1 through M,N, where M is the number of modules in one dimension and N is the number of modules in the other direction. Each module includes two input selectors for A and B inputs, two convolvers, a binary function operator, a neighborhood comparison operator which produces an A output and an output selector which may select as a B output the output of any one of the components in the module, including the A output of the neighborhood comparison operator. Each module may be connected to as many as eight modules in the next column, preferably with the majority always in a different row that is up (or down) in the array for a generally spiral data path around the torus thus formed. The binary function operator is implemented as a look-up table addressed by the most significant 8 bits of each 12-bit argument. The table output includes a function value and the slopes for interpolation of the two arguments by multiplying the 4 least significant bits in multipliers and adding the products to the function value through adders.

  10. Automated anomaly detection processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiman, James B.; Arouh, Scott L.; Webb, Michael L.

    2002-07-01

    Robust exploitation of tracking and surveillance data will provide an early warning and cueing capability for military and civilian Law Enforcement Agency operations. This will improve dynamic tasking of limited resources and hence operational efficiency. The challenge is to rapidly identify threat activity within a huge background of noncombatant traffic. We discuss development of an Automated Anomaly Detection Processor (AADP) that exploits multi-INT, multi-sensor tracking and surveillance data to rapidly identify and characterize events and/or objects of military interest, without requiring operators to specify threat behaviors or templates. The AADP has successfully detected an anomaly in traffic patterns in Los Angeles, analyzed ship track data collected during a Fleet Battle Experiment to detect simulated mine laying behavior amongst maritime noncombatants, and is currently under development for surface vessel tracking within the Coast Guard's Vessel Traffic Service to support port security, ship inspection, and harbor traffic control missions, and to monitor medical surveillance databases for early alert of a bioterrorist attack. The AADP can also be integrated into combat simulations to enhance model fidelity of multi-sensor fusion effects in military operations.

  11. Association between Activity Space Exposure to Food Establishments and Individual Risk of Overweight

    PubMed Central

    Kestens, Yan; Lebel, Alexandre; Chaix, Basile; Clary, Christelle; Daniel, Mark; Pampalon, Robert; Theriault, Marius; p Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Environmental exposure to food sources may underpin area level differences in individual risk for overweight. Place of residence is generally used to assess neighbourhood exposure. Yet, because people are mobile, multiple exposures should be accounted for to assess the relation between food environments and overweight. Unfortunately, mobility data is often missing from health surveys. We hereby test the feasibility of linking travel survey data with food listings to derive food store exposure predictors of overweight among health survey participants. Methods Food environment exposure measures accounting for non-residential activity places (activity spaces) were computed and modelled in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, using travel surveys and food store listings. Models were then used to predict activity space food exposures for 5,578 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey. These food exposure estimates, accounting for daily mobility, were used to model self-reported overweight in a multilevel framework. Median Odd Ratios were used to assess the proportion of between-neighborhood variance explained by such food exposure predictors. Results Estimates of food environment exposure accounting for both residential and non-residential destinations were significantly and more strongly associated with overweight than residential-only measures of exposure for men. For women, residential exposures were more strongly associated with overweight than non-residential exposures. In Montreal, adjusted models showed men in the highest quartile of exposure to food stores were at lesser risk of being overweight considering exposure to restaurants (OR = 0.36 [0.21–0.62]), fast food outlets (0.48 [0.30–0.79]), or corner stores (0.52 [0.35–0.78]). Conversely, men experiencing the highest proportion of restaurants being fast-food outlets were at higher risk of being overweight (2.07 [1.25–3.42]). Women experiencing higher residential exposures were at

  12. Home food availability mediates associations between mothers' nutrition knowledge and child diet.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen J; Abbott, Gavin; Spence, Alison C; Crawford, David A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Ball, Kylie

    2013-12-01

    Evidence suggests that mothers' nutrition knowledge and home food availability (HFA) are directly and independently associated with children's food intakes. In this study we test the hypothesis that HFA mediates the association between maternal nutrition knowledge and child diet. In this cross-sectional study of Australian women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Melbourne, Australia, mothers with dependent children (aged 5-12 years) provided data on their child's diet, HFA, nutrition knowledge and a range of sociodemographic characteristics. To test our hypothesis we assessed associations between nutrition knowledge and HFA, and between HFA and child food intake (adjusting for nutrition knowledge and child age). In all instances significant associations were found. HFA was found to mediate relationships between mother's nutrition knowledge and children's intake of fruit, vegetables, salty foods and soft drink. Our analyses showed that HFA was a mediator of the associations between maternal nutrition knowledge and child's diet in this population. This supports a focus on nutrition education that expands mothers' understanding of what foods to buy, prepare and serve. Further exploration of these associations will provide a stronger evidence base upon which to inform 'best bets' for parent-focussed nutrition promotion seeking to promote children's healthy eating. PMID:23891673

  13. Measurement issues associated with quantitative molecular biology analysis of complex food matrices for the detection of food fraud.

    PubMed

    Burns, Malcolm; Wiseman, Gordon; Knight, Angus; Bramley, Peter; Foster, Lucy; Rollinson, Sophie; Damant, Andrew; Primrose, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Following a report on a significant amount of horse DNA being detected in a beef burger product on sale to the public at a UK supermarket in early 2013, the Elliott report was published in 2014 and contained a list of recommendations for helping ensure food integrity. One of the recommendations included improving laboratory testing capacity and capability to ensure a harmonised approach for testing for food authenticity. Molecular biologists have developed exquisitely sensitive methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or mass spectrometry for detecting the presence of particular nucleic acid or peptide/protein sequences. These methods have been shown to be specific and sensitive in terms of lower limits of applicability, but they are largely qualitative in nature. Historically, the conversion of these qualitative techniques into reliable quantitative methods has been beset with problems even when used on relatively simple sample matrices. When the methods are applied to complex sample matrices, as found in many foods, the problems are magnified resulting in a high measurement uncertainty associated with the result which may mean that the assay is not fit for purpose. However, recent advances in the technology and the understanding of molecular biology approaches have further given rise to the re-assessment of these methods for their quantitative potential. This review focuses on important issues for consideration when validating a molecular biology assay and the various factors that can impact on the measurement uncertainty of a result associated with molecular biology approaches used in detection of food fraud, with a particular focus on quantitative PCR-based and proteomics assays. PMID:26631264

  14. 78 FR 13072 - Seventh Annual Drug Information Association/Food and Drug Administration Statistics Forum-2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in cosponsorship with the Drug Information Association (DIA), is announcing a public conference entitled ``Seventh Annual DIA/FDA Statistics Forum--2013.'' The purpose of the conference is to discuss relevant statistical issues associated with the development and review of therapeutic drugs and biologics. This meeting is intended to be an open forum for......

  15. Maternal and infant factors associated with reasons for introducing solid foods.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Rowan, Hannah

    2016-07-01

    The current UK Department of Health advice is to introduce solid foods to infants at around 6 months of age, when the infant is showing signs of developmental readiness for solid foods. However, many mothers introduce solid foods before this time, and for a wide variety of reasons, some of which may not promote healthy outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine infant and maternal characteristics associated with different reasons for introducing solid foods. Seven hundred fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months old completed a questionnaire describing their main reason for introducing solid foods alongside demographic questions, infant weight, gender, breast/formula feeding and timing of introduction to solid foods. The majority of mothers introduced solid foods for reasons explicitly stated in the Department of Health advice as not signs of readiness for solid foods. These reasons centred on perceived infant lack of sleep, hunger or unsettled behaviour. Maternal age, education and parity, infant weight and gender and breast/formula feeding choices were all associated with reasons for introduction. A particular association was found between breastfeeding and perceiving the infant to be hungrier or needing more than milk could offer. Male infants were perceived as hungry and needing more energy than female infants. Notably, signs of readiness may be misinterpreted with some stating this reason for infants weaned prior to 16 weeks. The findings are important for those working to support and educate new parents with the introduction of solid foods in understanding the factors that might influence them. PMID:25721759

  16. Household food insecurity is associated with depressive symptoms among low-income pregnant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Latinas experience high rates of poverty, household food insecurity and prenatal depression. To date, only one USA study has examined the relationship between household food insecurity and prenatal depression, yet it focused primarily on non-Latina white and non-Latina black populations. Therefore, this study examined the independent association of household food insecurity with depressive symptoms among low-income pregnant Latinas. This cross-sectional study included 135 low income pregnant Latinas living in Hartford, Connecticut. Women were assessed at enrolment for household food security during pregnancy using an adapted and validated version of the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Prenatal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. A cut-off of ≥21 was used to indicate elevated levels of prenatal depressive symptoms (EPDS). Multivariate backwards stepwise logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for EPDS. Almost one third of participants had EPDS. Women who were food insecure were more likely to experience EPDS compared to food secure women (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.03-6.52). Being primiparous, experiencing heartburn and reporting poor/fair health during pregnancy, as well as having a history of depression were also independent risk factors for experiencing EPDS. Findings from this study suggest the importance of assessing household food insecurity when evaluating depression risk among pregnant Latinas. PMID:20735732

  17. Systolic processor for signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, G.A.; Greenawalt, E.M.; Kulkarni, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A systolic array is a natural architecture for a high-performance signal processor, in part because of the extensive use of inner-product operations in signal processing. The modularity and simple interconnection of systolic arrays promise to simplify the development of cost-effective, high-performance, special-purpose processors. ESL incorporated has built a proof of concept model of a systolic processor. It is flexible enough to permit experimentation with a variety of algorithms and applications. ESL is exploring the application of systolic processors to image- and signal-processing problems. This paper describes this experimental system and some of its applications to signal processing. ESL is also pursuing new types of systolic architectures, including the VLSI implementation of systolic cells for solving systems of linear equations. These new systolic architectures allow the real-time design of adaptive filters. 14 references.

  18. Fully automatic telemetry data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, F. B.; Keipert, F. A.; Lee, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Satellite Telemetry Automatic Reduction System /STARS 2/, a fully automatic computer-controlled telemetry data processor, maximizes data recovery, reduces turnaround time, increases flexibility, and improves operational efficiency. The system incorporates a CDC 3200 computer as its central element.

  19. Pollen-food syndromes associated with weed pollinosis: an update from the molecular point of view.

    PubMed

    Egger, M; Mutschlechner, S; Wopfner, N; Gadermaier, G; Briza, P; Ferreira, F

    2006-04-01

    Pollinosis patients often display adverse reactions upon the ingestion of plant-derived foods as a result of immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactive structures shared by pollen and food allergen sources. The symptoms of such pollen-food syndromes (PFS) or class 2 food allergies range from local oral allergy syndrome to severe systemic anaphylaxis. Two clinical syndromes, the celery-mugwort-spice syndrome and the mugwort-mustard-allergy syndrome have been described in association with weed pollinosis. However, other associations between weed pollinosis and hypersensitivity to certain kinds of food have also been observed, like the mugwort-peach, the ragweed-melon-banana, the plantain-melon, the pellitory-pistachio, the goosefoot-fruit, the Russian thistle-saffron, and the hop-celery association. The number of allergen sources involved, the allergens, and influencing factors including geography, diet, and food preparation contribute to the high clinical complexity of PFS. So far, known causative cross-reactive allergens include profilins, lipid transfer proteins, and high-molecular weight allergens and/or glycoallergens. The current usage of nonstandardized allergen extracts poses additional problems for both diagnosis and therapy of PFS patients. Further identification and characterization of involved allergens is inescapable for better understanding of PFS and vaccine development. Panels of recombinant allergens and/or hypo-allergens are promising tools to improve both PFS diagnostics and therapy. PMID:16512809

  20. VLSI processors for signal detection in SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duluk, J. F.; Linscott, I. R.; Peterson, A. M.; Burr, J.; Ekroot, B.; Twicken, J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is to locate an artificially created signal coming from a distant star. This is done in two steps: (1) spectral analysis of an incoming radio frequency band, and (2) pattern detection for narrow-band signals. Both steps are computationally expensive and require the development of specially designed computer architectures. To reduce the size and cost of the SETI signal detection machine, two custom VLSI chips are under development. The first chip, the SETI DSP Engine, is used in the spectrum analyzer and is specially designed to compute Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs). It is a high-speed arithmetic processor that has two adders, one multiplier-accumulator, and three four-port memories. The second chip is a new type of Content-Addressable Memory. It is the heart of an associative processor that is used for pattern detection. Both chips incorporate many innovative circuits and architectural features.

  1. VLSI processors for signal detection in SETI.

    PubMed

    Duluk, J F; Linscott, I R; Peterson, A M; Burr, J; Ekroot, B; Twicken, J

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is to locate an artificially created signal coming from a distant star. This is done in two steps: (1) spectral analysis of an incoming radio frequency band, and (2) pattern detection for narrow-band signals. Both steps are computationally expensive and require the development of specially designed computer architectures. To reduce the size and cost of the SETI signal detection machine, two custom VLSI chips are under development. The first chip, the SETI DSP Engine, is used in the spectrum analyzer and is specially designed to compute Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs). It is a high-speed arithmetic processor that has two adders, one multiplier-accumulator, and three four-port memories. The second chip is a new type of Content-Addressable Memory. It is the heart of an associative processor that is used for pattern detection. Both chips incorporate many innovative circuits and architectural features. PMID:11537749

  2. VLSI processors for signal detection in SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duluk, J. F.; Linscott, I. R.; Peterson, A. M.; Burr, J.; Ekroot, B.; Twicken, J.

    The objective of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is to locate an artifically created signal coming from a distant star. This is done in two steps: (1) spectral analysis of an incoming radio frequency band, and (2) pattern detection for narrow-band signals. Both steps are computationally expensive and require the development of specially designed computer architectures. To reduce the size and cost of the SETI signal detection machine, two custom VLSI chips are under development. The first chip, the SETI DSP Engine, is used in the spectrum analyzer and is specially designed to compute Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs). It is a high-speed arithmetic processor that has two adders, one multiplier-accumulator, and three four-port memories. The second chip is a new type of Content-Addressable Memory. It is the heart of an associative processor that is used for pattern detection. Both chips incoporate many innovative circuits and architectural features.

  3. A critical review of food-associated factors proposed in the etiology of feline hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Ingrid; Hesta, Myriam; Biourge, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Since the first description of feline hyperthyroidism (HT) in 1979, several studies have been undertaken to define the etiology of the disease. Epidemiologic studies, after investigating non-food- and food-associated factors, suggest a multifactorial etiology. However, in the absence of prospective cohort studies that can confirm a cause-and-effect relationship between HT and associated risk factors, no causative factor for HT has been identified to date. Feline HT resembles toxic nodular goiter in humans, with autonomously functioning upregulated iodide uptake systems. Contribution of the diet to HT development remains controversial. The purpose of this paper is to review critically the reported food-associated risk factors for HT. PMID:25366172

  4. Food Safety Training Is Associated with Improved Knowledge and Behaviours among Foodservice Establishments' Workers

    PubMed Central

    Adesokan, Hezekiah Kehinde; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Adesokan, Grace Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Though several studies have evaluated the association between food safety training and behavior, little has investigated different training components in association with food handlers' performance. Foodservice workers (N = 211) with at least two years' experience were willing to participate and were selected from major foodservice establishments in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, and completed a survey to evaluate the association between training, training area, duration, and refresher training and food safety knowledge and practices. We observed an association between training and knowledge (P = 0.000) as well as practices (P = 0.05) of food safety while different training areas contributed similarly to food handlers' knowledge (P = 0.17) and practices (P = 0.08). However, there was a significant decline in knowledge (P = 0.01) and practices (P = 0.001) with an increase in training duration. Furthermore, foodservice employees with refresher training demonstrated significantly higher knowledge (P = 0.000) and practice (P = 0.003) levels than those without, being about 45 and 14 times more likely to, respectively, improve their knowledge (OR = 45; 95% CI: 3.47–584.34) and practice (OR = 13.5; 95% CI: 2.01–90.69). Researchers should always consider varying training components before making assertions regarding effectiveness of training on foodservice workers' behaviour. PMID:26904658

  5. Association between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that the consumption of chilli-containing foods can influence iron absorption and affect serum insulin and glucose concentrations, which may help to alleviate diabetes or prediabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between chilli food habits with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric data, and chilli food habit data collected from 8433 adults (aged 18 to 99), in 2009, as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale longitudinal, household-based survey in China. Chilli food habits were assessed using chilli food eating frequencies (no eating, sometimes eating, often eating, and usually eating) and chilli food types (a little bit hot, moderately hot, and very hot). Fasting serum ferritin, insulin, and fasting plasma glucose were also measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Compared with the chilli-eating group, the no eating group had higher HOMA-IR levels for both men and women (P<.05). There were significant differences in HOMA-IR (P<.05) for both men and women and in ferritin (P<.001) for women according to different chilli food types. However, there was no significant difference in the ferritin level and HOMA-IR components for different chilli food eating frequencies in both sex groups. Chilli food habits, especially the different hotness levels of chilli food, were associated with iron status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference. PMID:24479485

  6. Foods Sold in School Vending Machines are Associated with Overall Student Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Alisha J.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between foods sold in school vending machines and students’ dietary behaviors. Methods The 2005-2006 US Health Behavior in School Aged Children (HBSC) survey was administered to 6th to 10th graders and school administrators. Students’ dietary intake was estimated with a brief food frequency measure. Administrators completed questions about foods sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students (level 1) nested within schools (level 2), with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor. Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence and school poverty. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th to 10th grades. Results Eighty-three percent of schools (152 schools, 5,930 students) had vending machines which primarily sold foods of minimal nutritional values (soft drinks, chips and sweets). In younger grades, availability of fruits/vegetables and chocolate/sweets was positively related to the corresponding food intake, with vending machine content and school poverty explaining 70.6% of between-school variation in fruit/vegetable consumption, and 71.7% in sweets consumption. In older grades, there was no significant effect of foods available in vending machines on reported consumption of those foods. Conclusions Vending machines are widely available in US public schools. In younger grades, school vending machines were related to students’ diets positively or negatively, depending on what was sold in them. Schools are in a powerful position to influence children’s diets; therefore attention to foods sold in them is necessary in order to try to improve children’s diets. PMID:21185519

  7. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  8. Household Food Security Is Associated with Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Bangladesh1,2

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kuntal K.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Alam, Dewan S.; Arifeen, Shams E.; Persson, Lars Åke; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Although household food security (HHFS) has been shown to affect diet, nutrition, and health of adults and also learning in children, no study has examined associations with infant feeding practices (IFP). We studied 1343 infants born between May 2002 and December 2003 in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study to investigate the effect of HHFS on IFP in rural Bangladesh. We measured HHFS using a previously developed 11-item scale. Cumulative and current infant feeding scales were created from monthly infant feeding data for the age groups of 1–3, 1–6, 1–9, and 1–12 mo based on comparison to infant feeding recommendations. We used lagged, dynamic, and difference longitudinal regression models adjusting for various infant and maternal variables to examine the association between HHFS and changes in IFP, and Cox proportional hazards models to examine the influence of HHFS on the duration of breast-feeding and the time of introduction of complementary foods. Better HHFS status was associated with poor IFP during 3–6 mo but was associated with better IFP during 6–9 and 9–12 mo of age. Although better HHFS was not associated with the time of introduction of complementary foods, it was associated with the type of complementary foods given to the infants. Intervention programs to support proper IFP should target mothers in food-secure households when their babies are 3–6 mo old and also mothers in food-insecure households during the 2nd half of infancy. Our results provide strong evidence that HHFS influences IFP in rural Bangladesh. PMID:18567765

  9. 40 CFR 791.45 - Processors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Processors. 791.45 Section 791.45...) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.45 Processors. (a) Generally, processors will be... processors will have a responsibility to provide reimbursement directly to those paying for the testing:...

  10. Association of the Neighborhood Retail Food Environment with Sodium and Potassium Intake Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schieb, Linda; Schwartz, Greg; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High sodium intake and low potassium intake, which can contribute to hypertension and risk of cardiovascular disease, may be related to the availability of healthful food in neighborhood stores. Despite evidence linking food environment with diet quality, this relationship has not been evaluated in the United States. The modified retail food environment index (mRFEI) provides a composite measure of the retail food environment and represents the percentage of healthful-food vendors within a 0.5 mile buffer of a census tract. Methods We analyzed data from 8,779 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2008. By using linear regression, we assessed the relationship between mRFEI and sodium intake, potassium intake, and the sodium–potassium ratio. Models were stratified by region (South and non-South) and included participant and neighborhood characteristics. Results In the non-South region, higher mRFEI scores (indicating a more healthful food environment) were not associated with sodium intake, were positively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = .005), and were negatively associated with the sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .02); these associations diminished when neighborhood characteristics were included, but remained close to statistical significance for potassium intake (P [trend] = .05) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .07). In the South, mRFEI scores were not associated with sodium intake, were negatively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = < .001), and were positively associated with sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .01). These associations also diminished after controlling for neighborhood characteristics for both potassium intake (P [trend] = .03) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .40). Conclusion We found no association between mRFEI and sodium intake. The association between mRFEI and potassium intake and the sodium–potassium ratio varied by region. National

  11. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation, social cohesion, disorder, and living location were associated with changes in household food insecurity over a period of 6 years, while adjusting for household socioeconomic status (SES) and other factors. Methods Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, following same-aged children from 4–10 y of age, were analyzed using generalized estimating equations, to determine the longitudinal association between these environmental factors and food insecurity over a period of 6 years. Results Of the 2120 children originally included in the cohort, 1746 (82%) were included in the present analysis. The prevalence of food insecurity was 9.2% when children were 4 y of age (95% CI: 7.8 – 10.6%) but no significant changes were observed over time. On average over the 6 year period, three environmental factors were positively related to food insecurity: high social deprivation (OR 1.62, 95%CI: 1.16 – 2.26), low social cohesion (OR 1.45 95%CI: 1.10 – 1.92), and high disorder (OR 1.76, 95%CI: 1.37 – 2.27), while living location and material deprivation were not related to food insecurity. These associations were independent of household SES and other social variables. Conclusion These results highlight the potential role of the local social environment in preventing and ameliorating food insecurity at the household level. Stakeholders providing food security interventions at the community level should consider interactions with local social characteristics and perhaps

  12. Are food-related perceptions associated with meal portion size decisions? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Spence, Michelle; Stancu, Violeta; Dean, Moira; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Gibney, Eileen R; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a comprehensive model of meal portion size determinants consisting of sociodemographic, psychological and food-related variables, whilst controlling for hunger and thirst. Using cross-sectional nationally representative data collected in 2075 participants from the Island of Ireland (IoI) and Denmark (DK), eight separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between food-related variables and meal portion size (i.e. pizza, vegetable soup, chicken salad and a pork meal) within each country. Stepwise regressions were run with physiological control measures (hunger and thirst) entered in the first step, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, body mass index (BMI)) in the second step; psychological variables (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating, general health interest (GHI)) in the third step and food-related variables (expected fillingness, liking, expected healthfulness, food familiarity) in the fourth step. Sociodemographic variables accounted for 2-19% of the variance in meal portion sizes; psychological variables explained an additional 3-8%; and food-related variables explained an additional 2-12%. When all four variable groups were included in the regression models, liking and sometimes expected healthfulness was positively associated with meal portion size. The strongest association was for liking, which was statistically significant in both countries for all meal types. Whilst expected healthfulness was not associated with pizza portion size in either country, it was positively associated with meals that have a healthier image (vegetable soup; chicken salad and in IoI, the pork meal). In conclusion, after considering sociodemographic and psychological variables, and the food-related variables of liking and expected healthfulness, there may be little merit in manipulating the satiating power, at least of these type of meals, to maintain or promote weight

  13. Is there an association between food portion size and BMI among British adolescents?

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-09-14

    The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods and BMI was investigated. A representative sample of 636 British adolescents (11-18 years) was used from the 2008-2011 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. FPS were estimated for the most energy-dense foods (those containing above 10·5 kJ/g (2·5 kcal/g)). Regression models with BMI as the outcome variable were adjusted for age, sex and misreporting energy intake (EI). A positive association was observed between total EI and BMI. For each 418 kJ (100 kcal) increase in EI, BMI increased by 0·19 kg/m2 (95 % CI 0·10, 0·28; P< 0·001) for the whole sample. This association remained significant after stratifying the sample by misreporting. The portion sizes of a limited number of high-energy-dense foods (high-fibre breakfast cereals, cream and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated)) were found to be positively associated with a higher BMI among all adolescents after adjusting for misreporting. When eliminating the effect of under-reporting, larger portion sizes of a number of high-energy-dense foods (biscuits, cheese, cream and cakes) were found to be positively associated with BMI among normal reporters. The portion sizes of only high-fibre breakfast cereals and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated) were found to be positively associated with BMI among under-reporters. These findings emphasise the importance of considering under-reporting when analysing adolescents' dietary intake data. Also, there is a need to address adolescents' awareness of portion sizes of energy-dense foods to improve their food choice and future health outcomes. PMID:24998364

  14. Fault detection and bypass in a sequence information signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John C. (Inventor); Chow, Edward T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises a plurality of scan registers, each such register respectively associated with a processor element; an on-chip comparator, encoder and fault bypass register. Each scan register generates a unitary signal the logic state of which depends on the correctness of the input from the previous processor in the systolic array. These unitary signals are input to a common comparator which generates an output indicating whether or not an error has occurred. These unitary signals are also input to an encoder which identifies the location of any fault detected so that an appropriate multiplexer can be switched to bypass the faulty processor element. Input scan data can be readily programmed to fully exercise all of the processor elements so that no fault can remain undetected.

  15. [Hypothetical link between endometriosis and xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food].

    PubMed

    Aris, A; Paris, K

    2010-12-01

    Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent inflammatory disease affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women. Often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain and infertility, endometriosis rigorously interferes with women's quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear, a growing body of evidence points to the implication of environmental toxicants. Over the last decade, an increase in the incidence of endometriosis has been reported and coincides with the introduction of genetically modified foods in our diet. Even though assessments of genetically modified food risk have not indicated any hazard on human health, xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as pesticides residues and xenoproteins, could be harmful in the long-term. The "low-dose hypothesis", accumulation and biotransformation of pesticides-associated genetically modified food and the multiplied toxicity of pesticides-formulation adjuvants support this hypothesis. This review summarizes toxic effects (in vitro and on animal models) of some xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as glyphosate and Cry1Ab protein, and extrapolates on their potential role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Their roles as immune toxicants, pro-oxidants, endocrine disruptors and epigenetic modulators are discussed. PMID:21111655

  16. Associations of reward sensitivity with food consumption, activity pattern, and BMI in children.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Annelies; Sioen, Isabelle; Verbeken, Sandra; Braet, Caroline; Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, the associations of reward sensitivity with weight related behaviors and body mass index were investigated in a general population sample of 443 Flemish children (50.3% boys) aged 5.5-12 years. Cross-sectional data on palatable food consumption frequency, screen time, physical activity, parental education level and measured length and weight were collected. The Drive subscale of the 'Behavioral Inhibition Scale/Behavioral Activation Scale' was used as a short method to measure reward sensitivity. A significant positive association of reward sensitivity with the fast food and sweet drink consumption frequency was found. Furthermore, a significant positive association of reward sensitivity with the z-score of body mass index was demonstrated, which explained additional variance to the variance explained by palatable food consumption frequency, screen time, physical activity and parental education level. Hence, the assessment of reward sensitivity may have an added value to the assessment of weight-related behavior indicators when evaluating the determinants of overweight in a child. In sum, children high in reward sensitivity might be more attracted to fast food and sweet drinks, and hence, might be more vulnerable to develop unfavorable food habits and overweight. These findings suggest that considering inter-individual differences in reward sensitivity is of importance in future childhood obesity prevention campaigns. PMID:26898320

  17. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

  18. Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  19. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  20. Timing of Solid Food Introduction is Associated with Urinary F2-Isoprostane Concentrations in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Brittni N.; Seifert, Jennifer; Kroehl, Miranda; Lamb, Molly M.; Milne, Ginger L.; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Timing of solid food introduction in infancy has been associated with several chronic diseases. To explore potential mechanisms, we investigated the relationship between timing of solid food introduction and F2-isoprostanes – a marker of oxidative stress. METHODS Urinary F2-isoprostanes were assessed in 336 healthy children association between F2-isoprostane concentrations and infant diet exposures using linear mixed models adjusted for age, age2, HLA-DR3/4, DQB1*0302 genotype, first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes, maternal age, maternal education, sex, and exposure to in utero cigarette smoke. RESULTS Later solid food introduction was associated with lower F2-isoprostane concentrations in childhood (on average, 0.10 ng/mg per month of age at introduction) (estimate: −0.10, 95% CI: −0.18, −0.02, P-value=0.02). Moreover, childhood F2-isoprostane concentrations were, on average, 0.24 ng/mg lower in individuals breastfed at solid food introduction (estimate: −0.24, 95% CI: −0.47, −0.01, P-value=0.04) compared with those who were not. Associations remained significant after limiting analyses to F2-isoprostanes after age 2 years. CONCLUSION Our results suggest a long-term protective effect of later solid food introduction and breastfeeding at solid food introduction against increased F2-isoprostane concentrations throughout childhood. PMID:26083762

  1. Can rats learn to associate a flavour with the delayed delivery of food?

    PubMed

    Simbayi, L C; Boakes, R A; Burton, M J

    1986-03-01

    Associations between a specific flavour and access to food were studied using a discrimination procedure devised by Holman (1975). This involved giving rats one flavour (e.g. cinnamon) of saccharin solution on some days, and following this by delivery of food, and a second flavour (e.g. wintergreen) on other days which was never followed by food. Experiment 1 used glucose delivered after a 30-min delay and a slight increase in preference for the paired flavour was detected. Using a 20-min delay Experiment 2 varied the kind of food used; some evidence for discrimination learning was again found in the glucose group, but there was no evidence that rats could associate a flavour with starch solution or solid chow over this delay. To check that the general procedure was a sensitive one, in Experiment 3 one flavour was added to glucose i.e. without delay, and this produced large shifts in a subsequent preference test. Overall the results threw doubt on claims that rats as readily form flavour-calorie associations over delays as they do flavour-toxicosis associations. PMID:3963797

  2. Lay People's Views of School Food Policy Options: Associations with Confidence, Personal Values and Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsley, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A random population survey administered by mail to examine lay people's views of children's food policies and their associations with demographics, personal values and confidence in authorities was conducted among adults in Victoria, Australia. Three hundred and seventy-seven people responded (response rate 57.6%). The questionnaire contained 35…

  3. Associations between Parental Concern for Adolescent Weight and the Home Food Environment and Dietary Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine associations between parental concern about adolescent weight and adolescent perceptions of their dietary intake, home food availability, family mealtime environment, and parents' feeding practices. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Adolescents, aged 12-15 years from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, and their…

  4. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. PMID:23831005

  5. Accessibility Over Availability: Associations Between the School Food Environment and Student Fruit and Green Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: No national studies have examined associations between (1) school food availability and accessibility and (2) secondary student fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. This article uses 5 years of nationally representative data from secondary school students to examine associations between the school food environment and student fruit and green vegetable consumption. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, cross-sectional, nationally representative data from US middle and high school students were collected annually on self-reported fruit and green vegetable consumption. Each year, data from administrators at each relevant school were collected on food item availability (any venue) and accessibility (total number of school sources). Data were obtained from 10,254 eighth-grade students in 317 schools and 18,898 tenth- and 12th-grade students in 518 schools. Associations were estimated by multi-level models controlling for student- and school-level characteristics. Results: Availability showed minimal association with student consumption. Candy/regular-fat snack accessibility was associated negatively with middle school fruit consumption. Salad bar availability and accessibility were positively associated with middle school green vegetable consumption; FV accessibility was associated positively with high school fruit and green vegetable consumption. Significant associations were consistent across student racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Conclusions: Forthcoming USDA nutrition standards for school foods and beverages sold outside of reimbursable meal programs should result in the removal of school candy/regular-fat snacks. In deciding which items to make available under the new standards, schools should consider increasing the number of FV sources—including salad bars—thereby potentially increasing student FV consumption. PMID:24872011

  6. Regulatory focus and food choice motives. Prevention orientation associated with mood, convenience, and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-07-01

    The authors tested the robustness of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) with a U.S. sample and examined the relationship between individual differences in regulatory focus and everyday food choice motives. Although a popular measure in cross-culture research, the FCQ has seen limited use with U.S. samples, and its psychometric properties have not been tested in this population. American participants (n = 408) completed the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire and a measure of food choice motives. The data did not support the nine-factor FCQ structure. An ad hoc revised measure of food choice motives showed complete measurement invariance (loadings, intercepts, and residuals) across regulatory focus. Regarding everyday food choices, participants with a prevention focus placed greater importance on mood, convenience, and familiarity than participants with a promotion focus. There were no significant differences regarding the importance of health, environmental protection, impression management, natural content, price, and sensory appeal. Several food choice motives were positively correlated. Compared with the promotion-focused participants, the prevention-focused participants more strongly associated the importance of sensory appeal with the importance of natural content and the importance of price. PMID:24583413

  7. Drosophila Food-Associated Pheromones: Effect of Experience, Genotype and Antibiotics on Larval Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thibert, Julien; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Cortot, Jérôme; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Animals ubiquitously use chemical signals to communicate many aspects of their social life. These chemical signals often consist of environmental cues mixed with species-specific signals—pheromones—emitted by conspecifics. During their life, insects can use pheromones to aggregate, disperse, choose a mate, or find the most suitable food source on which to lay eggs. Before pupariation, larvae of several Drosophila species migrate to food sources depending on their composition and the presence of pheromones. Some pheromones derive from microbiota gut activity and these food-associated cues can enhance larval attraction or repulsion. To explore the mechanisms underlying the preference (attraction/repulsion) to these cues and clarify their effect, we manipulated factors potentially involved in larval response. In particular, we found that the (i) early exposure to conspecifics, (ii) genotype, and (iii) antibiotic treatment changed D. melanogaster larval behavior. Generally, larvae—tested either individually or in groups—strongly avoided food processed by other larvae. Compared to previous reports on larval attractive pheromones, our data suggest that such attractive effects are largely masked by food-associated compounds eliciting larval aversion. The antagonistic effect of attractive vs. aversive compounds could modulate larval choice of a pupariation site and impact the dispersion of individuals in nature. PMID:26987117

  8. Factors associated with longitudinal food record compliance in a paediatric cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jimin; Lynch, Kristian F; Uusitalo, Ulla M; Foterek, Kristina; Hummel, Sandra; Silvis, Katherine; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Riikonen, Anne; Rewers, Marian; She, Jin-Xiong; Ziegler, Anette G; Simell, Olli G; Toppari, Jorma; Hagopian, William A; Lernmark, Åke; Akolkar, Beena; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M; Johnson, Suzanne B

    2015-01-01

    Objective Non-compliance with food record submission can induce bias in nutritional epidemiological analysis and make it difficult to draw inference from study findings. We examined the impact of demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors on such non-compliance during the first 3 years of participation in a multidisciplinary prospective paediatric study. Design The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study collects a 3 d food record quarterly during the first year of life and semi-annually thereafter. High compliance with food record completion was defined as the participating families submitting one or more days of food record at every scheduled clinic visit. Setting Three centres in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Finland, Germany and Sweden). Subjects Families who finished the first 3 years of TEDDY participation (n 8096). Results High compliance was associated with having a single child, older maternal age, higher maternal education and father responding to study questionnaires. Families showing poor compliance were more likely to be living far from the study centres, from ethnic minority groups, living in a crowded household and not attending clinic visits regularly. Postpartum depression, maternal smoking behaviour and mother working outside the home were also independently associated with poor compliance. Conclusions These findings identified specific groups for targeted strategies to encourage completion of food records, thereby reducing potential bias in multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:26088478

  9. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered. PMID:27135573

  10. Contribution of Psychosocial Factors to the Association between Socioeconomic Position and Takeaway Food Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kyoko; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether psychosocial factors mediate (explain) the association between socioeconomic position and takeaway food consumption. Design A cross-sectional postal survey conducted in 2009. Setting Participants reported their usual consumption of 22 takeaway food items, and these were grouped into a “healthy” and “less healthy” index based on each items' nutritional properties. Principal Components Analysis was used to derive three psychosocial scales that measured beliefs about the relationship between diet and health (α = 0.73), and perceptions about the value (α = 0.79) and pleasure (α = 0.61) of takeaway food. A nutrition knowledge index was also used. Socioeconomic position was measured by highest attained education level. Subjects Randomly selected adults (n = 1,500) aged between 25–64 years in Brisbane, Australia (response rate  =  63.7%, N = 903). Results Compared with those with a bachelor degree or higher, participants with a diploma level of education were more likely to consume “healthy” takeaway food (p = 0.023) whereas the least educated (high school only) were more likely to consume “less healthy” choices (p = 0.002). The least educated were less likely to believe in a relationship between diet and health (p<0.001), and more likely to have lower nutritional knowledge compared with their highly educated counterparts (p<0.001). Education differences in beliefs about the relationship between diet and health partly and significantly mediated the association between education and “healthy” takeaway food consumption. Diet- and health-related beliefs and nutritional knowledge partly and significantly mediated the education differences in “less healthy” takeaway food consumption. Conclusions Interventions that target beliefs about the relationship between diet and health, and nutritional knowledge may reduce socioeconomic differences in takeaway food consumption, particularly for

  11. Realtime processor of SAR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schotter, R.

    Attention is given to potential applications of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) real time processor which was developed for Space Shuttle-based earth sensing, and which may prove useful in military surveillance, ocean wave studies, ship movements in territorial waters, land conservation, geology, and mineralogical prospecting. The SAR processor's signal processing task is characterized by complex algorithms and large quantities of raw data/time unit. A 'pipeline' configuration has been judged optimal for this type of processing, and it will consist of digital hardware modules for Fourier transform, digital filtering, two-dimensional image memory, and complex multiplication.

  12. The Fastbus Intersegment Processor (FIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Charpentier, P.; Goujon, G.; Gros, M.; Mur, M.; Paul, B.

    1987-02-01

    The Fastbus Intersegment Processor (FIP) is a Fastbus processor based on a MOTOROLA MC68020 microprocessor system. It will be used in several detectors of the Delphi LEP experiment at CERN. Its architecture is oriented towards cellular multi-layered acquisition systems, where it provides data collection, processing and buffering at a particular level, as well as control and synchronisation from one level to the next. The Fastbus architecture, Fastbus interfaces, and the application foreseen for the Delphi TPC are covered in detail in the paper.

  13. MBASIC batch processor architectural overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    The MBASIC (TM) batch processor, a language translator designed to operate in the MBASIC (TM) environment is described. Features include: (1) a CONVERT TO BATCH command, usable from the ready mode; and (2) translation of the users program in stages through several levels of intermediate language and optimization. The processor is to be designed and implemented in both machine-independent and machine-dependent sections. The architecture is planned so that optimization processes are transparent to the rest of the system and need not be included in the first design implementation cycle.

  14. Association between food insecurity and anemia among women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Bishwajit; Tang, Shangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity and hidden hunger (micronutrient deficiency) affect about two billion people globally. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been shown to be associated with one or multiple micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies among women and children. Chronic food insecurity leads to various deficiency disorders, among which anemia stands out as the most prevalent one. As a high malnutrition prevalent country, Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of anemia among all Asian countries. In this study, we wanted to investigate for any association exists between HFI and anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Methodology: Information about demographics, socioeconomic and anemia status on 5,666 married women ageing between 13 and 40 years were collected from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011). Food security was measured by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Capillary hemoglobin concentration (Hb) measured by HemoCue® was used as the biomarker of anemia. Data were analysed using cross-tabulation, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression methods. Results: Anemia prevalence was 41.7%. Logistic regression showed statistically significant association with anemia and type of residency (p = 0.459; OR = 0.953, 95%CI = 0.840–1.082), wealth status (Poorest: p < 0.001; OR = 1.369, 95%CI = 1.176–1.594; and average: p = 0.030; 95%CI = 1.017–1.398), educational attainment (p < 0.001; OR = 1.276, 95%CI = 1.132–1.439) and household food insecurity (p < 0.001; 95%CI = 1.348–1.830). Women who reported food insecurity were about 1.6 times more likely to suffer from anemia compared to their food secure counterparts. Conclusion: HFI is a significant predictor of anemia among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. Programs targeting HFI could prove beneficial for anemia reduction strategies. Gender aspects of food and nutrition insecurity should be taken into

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing world hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Struble, Marie Boyle; Aomari, Laurie Lindsay

    2003-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that access to adequate amounts of safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food at all times is a fundamental human right. Hunger continues to be a worldwide problem of staggering proportions. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat hunger and malnutrition, produce food security, promote self-sufficiency, and are environmentally and economically sustainable. The Association is aware that hunger exists in a world of plenty and that poverty, gender inequity, ethnocentrism, racism, and the lack of political will are key constraints to solving the problems of global hunger and malnutrition. Recognizing that simplistic approaches are inadequate, the ADA identifies sustainable development as the long-term strategy to ending world hunger and achieving food security. Sustainable development requires political, economic, and social changes that include empowering the disenfranchised, widening access to assets and other resources, narrowing the gap between rich and poor, and adjusting consumption patterns so as to foster good stewardship of nature. Additionally, because the health status of future generations is related to the well-being of their mothers, achieving food security will also require increased access for women to education, adequate health care and sanitation, and economic opportunities. This position paper reviews the complex issues of global food insecurity and discusses long-term solutions for achieving world food security. Achieving the end of world hunger has been and is now within our grasp. There is sufficient food to feed everyone, and solutions can be realized now that will benefit all of humanity. As noted in the paper, most people who examine the costs of ending versus not ending world hunger are bewildered by the question of why humanity did not solve the problem a long time ago. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat

  16. Analog pulse processor

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  17. Multiple processor accelerator for logic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, G.M.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a computer system coupled to a plurality of users for implementing an event driven algorithm of each of the users. It comprises: a master processor coupled to the users for providing overall control of the computer system and executing the event driven algorithm of each of the users, the master processor further including a master memory; a unidirectional ring bus coupled to the master processor; a plurality of processor modules; an interprocessor bus coupled to the plurality of processors within the module for transferring the simulation data among the processors; and an interface means.

  18. Multiple processor accelerator for logic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, G.M.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a computer system coupled to a plurality of users for implementing an event driven algorithm of each of the users. It comprises: a master processor coupled to the users for providing overall control of the computer system and for executing the event driven algorithm of each of the users, wherein the master processor further includes a master memory; a unidirectional ring bus coupled to the master processor; a plurality of processor modules coupled to the unidirectional ring bus, wherein the unidirectional ring bus transfers data among the processor modules and the master processor.

  19. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. PMID:25127937

  20. Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

  1. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pallister, Tess; Jennings, Amy; Mohney, Robert P.; Yarand, Darioush; Mangino, Massimo; Cassidy, Aedin; MacGregor, Alexander; Spector, Tim D.; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 adult female twins from the TwinsUK cohort. For each metabolite, linear regression analysis was undertaken in the discovery group (excluding MZ twin pairs discordant [≥1 SD apart] for food group intake) with each food group as a predictor adjusting for age, batch effects, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (1.17x10-6 = 0.05/[71 food groups x 601 detected metabolites]). Significant results were then replicated (non-targeted: P<0.05; targeted: same direction) in the MZ discordant twin group and results from both analyses meta-analyzed. We identified and replicated 180 significant associations with 39 food groups (P<1.17x10-6), overall consisting of 106 different metabolites (74 known and 32 unknown), including 73 novel associations. In particular we identified trans-4-hydroxyproline as a potential marker of red meat intake (0.075[0.009]; P = 1.08x10-17), ergothioneine as a marker of mushroom consumption (0.181[0.019]; P = 5.93x10-22), and three potential markers of fruit consumption (top association: apple and pears): including metabolites derived from gut bacterial transformation of phenolic compounds, 3-phenylpropionate (0.024[0.004]; P = 1.24x10-8) and indolepropionate (0.026[0.004]; P = 2.39x10-9), and threitol (0.033[0.003]; P = 1.69x10-21). With the largest nutritional metabolomics dataset to date, we have identified 73 novel candidate biomarkers of food intake for potential use in nutritional epidemiological studies. We compiled our findings into the Diet

  2. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins.

    PubMed

    Pallister, Tess; Jennings, Amy; Mohney, Robert P; Yarand, Darioush; Mangino, Massimo; Cassidy, Aedin; MacGregor, Alexander; Spector, Tim D; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 adult female twins from the TwinsUK cohort. For each metabolite, linear regression analysis was undertaken in the discovery group (excluding MZ twin pairs discordant [≥1 SD apart] for food group intake) with each food group as a predictor adjusting for age, batch effects, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (1.17x10-6 = 0.05/[71 food groups x 601 detected metabolites]). Significant results were then replicated (non-targeted: P<0.05; targeted: same direction) in the MZ discordant twin group and results from both analyses meta-analyzed. We identified and replicated 180 significant associations with 39 food groups (P<1.17x10-6), overall consisting of 106 different metabolites (74 known and 32 unknown), including 73 novel associations. In particular we identified trans-4-hydroxyproline as a potential marker of red meat intake (0.075[0.009]; P = 1.08x10-17), ergothioneine as a marker of mushroom consumption (0.181[0.019]; P = 5.93x10-22), and three potential markers of fruit consumption (top association: apple and pears): including metabolites derived from gut bacterial transformation of phenolic compounds, 3-phenylpropionate (0.024[0.004]; P = 1.24x10-8) and indolepropionate (0.026[0.004]; P = 2.39x10-9), and threitol (0.033[0.003]; P = 1.69x10-21). With the largest nutritional metabolomics dataset to date, we have identified 73 novel candidate biomarkers of food intake for potential use in nutritional epidemiological studies. We compiled our findings into the Diet

  3. Energy Management Manual for dairy processors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Small Manufacturer and Food Processing Energy Management Program was an information development project focused on energy management for dairy processors. The goal was to improve the quality and relevance of energy conservation practices as they relate to production of dairy products in a manufacturing and processing plant. The information development involved two thrusts carried out concurrently: (1) Development and publication of an energy management manual to increase understanding of plant management, operation, and process personnel concerning energy conservation and management in dairy processing, and (2) Development of a series of computer programs to aid in the analysis of present plant performance and project alternate production processes and plant operation schemes. Use of the programs results in process schematics, an energy balance and a basis for cost estimates.

  4. DNA-based, culture-independent strategies for evaluating microbial communities in food-associated ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Giraffa, G; Neviani, E

    2001-07-20

    Culture-independent molecular techniques are now available to study microbial ecosystems. They are opening interesting perspectives to problems related to composition and population dynamics of microbial communities in various environmental niches (e.g., soil, water) and foods. In fermented food products, estimates of true microbial diversity is often difficult chiefly on account of the inability to cultivate most of the viable bacteria. The increasing knowledge of gene sequences and the concomitant development of new culture-independent molecular techniques are providing new and effective tools to compare the diversity of microbial communities and to monitor population dynamics in minimally disturbed samples. In this review, recent advances in these techniques are reported. Possible applications to food-associated microbial ecosystems are emphasised. PMID:11482566

  5. Quantitative assessment of human and pet exposure to Salmonella associated with dry pet foods.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Narrod, Clare; Ford, Randall M; Baker, Robert C; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-01-01

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with dry pet foods and treats highlight the importance of these foods as previously overlooked exposure vehicles for both pets and humans. In the last decade efforts have been made to raise the safety of this class of products, for instance by upgrading production equipment, cleaning protocols, and finished product testing. However, no comprehensive or quantitative risk profile is available for pet foods, thus limiting the ability to establish safety standards and assess the effectiveness of current and proposed Salmonella control measures. This study sought to develop an ingredients-to-consumer quantitative microbial exposure assessment model to: 1) estimate pet and human exposure to Salmonella via dry pet food, and 2) assess the impact of industry and household-level mitigation strategies on exposure. Data on prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in pet food ingredients, production process parameters, bacterial ecology, and contact transfer in the household were obtained through literature review, industry data, and targeted research. A probabilistic Monte Carlo modeling framework was developed to simulate the production process and basic household exposure routes. Under the range of assumptions adopted in this model, human exposure due to handling pet food is null to minimal if contamination occurs exclusively before extrusion. Exposure increases considerably if recontamination occurs post-extrusion during coating with fat, although mean ingested doses remain modest even at high fat contamination levels, due to the low percent of fat in the finished product. Exposure is highly variable, with the distribution of doses ingested by adult pet owners spanning 3Log CFU per exposure event. Child exposure due to ingestion of 1g of pet food leads to significantly higher doses than adult doses associated with handling the food. Recontamination after extrusion and coating, e.g., via dust or equipment surfaces, may also lead to

  6. Opto-electronic morphological processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Cheng, Li J. (Inventor); Psaltis, Demetri (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The opto-electronic morphological processor of the present invention is capable of receiving optical inputs and emitting optical outputs. The use of optics allows implementation of parallel input/output, thereby overcoming a major bottleneck in prior art image processing systems. The processor consists of three components, namely, detectors, morphological operators and modulators. The detectors and operators are fabricated on a silicon VLSI chip and implement the optical input and morphological operations. A layer of ferro-electric liquid crystals is integrated with a silicon chip to provide the optical modulation. The implementation of the image processing operators in electronics leads to a wide range of applications and the use of optical connections allows cascadability of these parallel opto-electronic image processing components and high speed operation. Such an opto-electronic morphological processor may be used as the pre-processing stage in an image recognition system. In one example disclosed herein, the optical input/optical output morphological processor of the invention is interfaced with a binary phase-only correlator to produce an image recognition system.

  7. A Course on Reconfigurable Processors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoufan, Abdulhadi; Huss, Sorin A.

    2010-01-01

    Reconfigurable computing is an established field in computer science. Teaching this field to computer science students demands special attention due to limited student experience in electronics and digital system design. This article presents a compact course on reconfigurable processors, which was offered at the Technische Universitat Darmstadt,…

  8. Processor Emulator with Benchmark Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, G. Scott; Pearce, Roger; Gokhale, Maya

    2015-11-13

    A processor emulator and a suite of benchmark applications have been developed to assist in characterizing the performance of data-centric workloads on current and future computer architectures. Some of the applications have been collected from other open source projects. For more details on the emulator and an example of its usage, see reference [1].

  9. Children, Word Processors and Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Marcus

    1999-01-01

    Students aged 11-12, placed in groups of four, used word processors to write about a dramatized event using persuasive, newspaper, recount, or report styles. Students' talk as they engaged in the task was analyzed to illuminate the linguistic and cognitive processes involved in group construction of text. (Author/SV)

  10. Race, homelessness, and other environmental factors associated with the food-purchasing behavior of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01) but not fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Homelessness reduced the odds of purchasing most food groups, regardless of nutrient density (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Food shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01). These findings may help registered dietitians strategize with low-income, urban women how to make best use of food resources within their local food system. PMID:20800128

  11. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Metallinos-Katsaras

    2014-01-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P < .05), maternal control of child’s eating routines (P < .03), and food resource management skills (P < .01), and with higher scores on child control of snacking (P < .03) and negative mealtime practices (P < .05). Multiple regression results revealed that greater maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P < .05). Logistic regression analyses indicated that higher scores on food resource management skills reduced the odds of child overweight (odds ratios = .72 – .95, P < .01). Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. PMID:24768937

  12. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Parslow, David; Javaid, Mahmood; Adams, Rachel C.; Chambers, Christopher D.; Kos, Katarina; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight. PMID:26122756

  13. State-Level School Competitive Food and Beverage Laws Are Associated with Children's Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. Methods: We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School…

  14. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    PubMed

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules. PMID:26463017

  15. Breakfast and fast food consumption are associated with selected biomarkers in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marlatt, Kara L.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Dengel, Donald R.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skipping breakfast and consuming fast food are related to the risk of obesity and are common adolescent behaviors. The relationship between these behaviors and biomarkers related to diabetes and CVD is understudied in this population. Methods: Data are from a study of the etiologic factors related to obesity risk in adolescents. Breakfast and fast food consumption were assessed using a self-report survey. Anthropometrics, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between dietary behaviors and selected biomarkers, controlling for calories consumed, body mass index (BMI), and demographic covariates. Results: 367 adolescents (11 to 18-years; mean 14.7 ± 1.8 years) were assessed at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities from 2006–2008. Breakfast consumption was significantly associated with lower BMI, body fat, insulin, HOMA-IR, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) cluster score, while fast food consumption was associated with higher BMI, body fat, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and MetS cluster score. Some gender differences were observed. Conclusion: Breakfast and fast food consumption appear to be related to important metabolic syndrome biomarkers for chronic disease in a sample of healthy adolescents. The importance of this finding needs to be validated by examining the stability of this pattern over time and to assess the pattern in other populations. PMID:26844187

  16. Contaminated weaning food: a major risk factor for diarrhoea and associated malnutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Motarjemi, Y.; Käferstein, F.; Moy, G.; Quevedo, F.

    1993-01-01

    Infections and the malnutrition associated with them are responsible for a significant proportion of the 13 million deaths among infants and children under 5 years of age worldwide each year. After respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases are the commonest illnesses and have the greatest negative impact upon the growth of infants and young children. The causes of diarrhoeal diseases have traditionally been ascribed to water supply and sanitation. In attempts to prevent such diseases, efforts by governments and nongovernmental organizations have been focused on and sometimes limited to improving water supply and sanitation as well as promoting and protecting breast-feeding. Based on studies reported in the literature, this review article demonstrates that weaning foods prepared under unhygienic conditions are frequently heavily contaminated with pathogens and thus are a major factor in the cause of diarrhoeal diseases and associated malnutrition. In the light of the evidence presented, it appears that current efforts are not sufficient to prevent diarrhoeal diseases: education of mothers in food safety principles, particularly weaning food, must also receive high priority. Educational programmes based on the hazard-analysis-critical-control-point approach, taking into consideration also sociocultural factors, should be integrated into all national infant feeding or food and nutrition programmes. PMID:8440042

  17. Stunting Is Associated with Food Diversity while Wasting with Food Insecurity among Underfive Children in East and West Gojjam Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Motbainor, Achenef; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera

    2015-01-01

    Background Food insecurity has detrimental effects in protecting child undernutrition.This study sought to determine the level of child undernutrition and its association with food insecurity. Methods A community based comparative cross-sectional study design involving multistage sampling technique was implemented from 24th of May to 20th of July 2013. Using two population proportion formula, a total of 4110 randomly selected households were included in the study. Availability of the productive safety net programme was used for grouping the study areas. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the association between food insecurity and child malnutrition. Clustering effects of localities were controlled during analysis. Results Stunting (37.5%), underweight (22.0%) and wasting (17.1%) were observed in East Gojjam zone, while 38.3% stunting, 22.5% underweight, and 18.6% wasting for the West Gojjam zone. Food insecurity was significantly associated with wasting (β = - 0.108, P < 0.05).Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day significantly associated with stunting (β = 0.039, P < 0.01) and underweight (β = 0.035, P < 0.05) respectively. Residential area was the significant predictor of all indices. Conclusion The magnitude of child undernutrition was found to be very high in the study areas. Food insecurity was the significant determinant of wasting. Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day were the significant determinants of stunting and underweight respectively. Child nutrition intervention strategies should take into account food security, dietary diversity, and carefully specified with regard to residential locations. Addressing food insecurity is of paramount importance. PMID:26285047

  18. Exploring the distribution of food stores in British Columbia: associations with neighbourhood socio-demographic factors and urban form.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer L; Carpiano, Richard M; Fleming, Stuart; Lauster, Nathanael

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have identified disparities in access to food retailers among urban neighbourhoods with varied socio-demographic characteristics; but few studies have examined whether key zoning and siting mechanisms described in the urban planning literature explain differences in food store access. This study assessed associations between socio-demographic and urban planning variables with the availability of large supermarkets and stores selling fresh food within one kilometre buffers from residential addresses and the proximity to the closest food stores across 630 census tracts in British Columbia, Canada. Multivariate regression results indicated that neighbourhoods with higher median household income had significantly decreased access to food stores. Inclusion of urban planning factors in multivariate models, particularly housing and transportation considerations, explained much of the relation between area income and food store access, and were significant predictors of food store availability and proximity. Public health research and practice addressing food availability would benefit by incorporating theoretical perspectives from urban planning theory. PMID:21565544

  19. 7 CFR 1208.18 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.18 Processor. Processor means a person engaged in the preparation of raspberries for...

  20. 7 CFR 1208.18 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.18 Processor. Processor means a person engaged in the preparation of raspberries for...

  1. Food Costs...From Farm to Retail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Denis

    This report focuses on food costs for 1985. Some of the information included in the report includes an analysis of food cost trends, percentages of the food dollar that goes to the farmer, and how much of the food dollar goes to food processors and marketers. Some of the highlights of the study are the following: (1) food prices rose slowly in…

  2. Erythrophore cell response to food-associated pathogenic bacteria: implications for detection.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Janine R; Dukovcic, Stephanie R; Dierksen, Karen P; Carlyle, Calvin A; Caldwell, Bruce A; Trempy, Janine E

    2008-09-01

    Cell-based biosensors have been proposed for use as function-based detectors of toxic agents. We report the use of Betta splendens chromatophore cells, specifically erythrophore cells, for detection of food-associated pathogenic bacteria. Evaluation of erythrophore cell response, using Bacillus spp., has revealed that this response can distinguish pathogenic Bacillus cereus from a non-pathogenic B. cereus ΔplcR deletion mutant and a non-pathogenic Bacillus subtilis. Erythrophore cells were exposed to Salmonella enteritidis, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum. Each bacterial pathogen elicited a response from erythrophore cells that was distinguished from the corresponding bacterial growth medium, and this observed response was unique for each bacterial pathogen. These findings suggest that erythrophore cell response has potential for use as a biosensor in the detection and toxicity assessment for food-associated pathogenic bacteria. PMID:21261862

  3. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  4. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interaction<0.001], but not insulin resistance [3rd tertile: β=-0.07 (95% CI: -0.24, 0.09); 1st tertile: β=0.09 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.26); p-interaction=0.40]. We observed no modification of fast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. PMID:26319447

  5. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these. PMID:26393573

  6. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these. PMID:26393573

  7. Food neophobia in German adolescents: Determinants and association with dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Sarah; Foterek, Kristina; Schmidt, Inga; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Food neophobia (FN) is described as the rejection to eat unknown foods. Because only little is known about the role of FN in adolescence the aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of FN and associations with dietary habits of DONALD study participants. FN was measured with Pliner's and Hobden's Food Neophobia Scale (FN Score (FNS): range 10-70) in 166 10-18-year-old adolescents. Participants' age, sex, body weight status and duration of breast-feeding as well as parents' FN and educational status were considered as determinants. Energy intake, distribution of macronutrients and two variety scores were calculated from 3-day weighed dietary records. Multivariable general linear models were performed for data analyses. Boys and girls did not differ in their FNS (median (Min-Max): boys 31 (10-58), girls 32 (14-59)). Increasing age (p = 0.010) and duration of total breast-feeding (p = 0.006) were associated with decreasing FNS in girls only. FN was further positively associated with parental FN in the total sample (p = 0.004). FN was negatively associated with protein intake in the total sample (p = 0.017). The overall low level of FN in the DONALD study can be ascribed to the low level of FN in adolescence in general. Congruently with other studies, age and breast-feeding duration were identified as determinants of girls' FN and parental FN was identified as determinant of FN in the total sample. Further, our results indicate that FN leads to reduced protein intakes. Dietary variety was not strongly affected, possibly because of a broad variety of food supply in Germany. PMID:26928790

  8. 7 CFR 927.14 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processor. 927.14 Section 927.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.14 Processor. Processor means any person who as owner,...

  9. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  10. Food insecurity is associated with attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding among women in urban Kenya.

    PubMed

    Webb-Girard, Aimee; Cherobon, Anne; Mbugua, Samwel; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth; Amin, Allison; Sellen, Daniel W

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to document whether food insecurity was associated with beliefs and attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among urban Kenyan women. We conducted structured interviews with 75 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected and 75 HIV-status unknown, low-income women who were either pregnant or with a child ≤24 months and residing in Nakuru, Kenya to generate categorical and open-ended responses on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards EBF and food insecurity. We facilitated six focus group discussions (FGD) with HIV-affected and HIV-status unknown mothers (n = 50 women) to assess barriers and facilitators to EBF. Of 148 women with complete interview data, 77% were moderately or severely food insecure (FIS). Women in FIS households had significantly greater odds of believing that breast milk would be insufficient for 6 months [odds ratio (OR), 2.6; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.0, 6.8], that women who EBF for 6 months would experience health or social problems (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.0, 7.3), that women need adequate food to support EBF for 6 months (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0, 6.7) and that they themselves would be unable to follow a counsellor's advice to EBF for 6 months (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3, 8.3). Qualitative analysis of interview and FGD transcripts indicated that the maternal experience of hunger contributes to perceived milk insufficiency, anxiety about infant hunger and a perception that access to adequate food is necessary for successful breastfeeding. The lived experience of food insecurity among a sample of low-income, commonly FIS, urban Kenyan women reduces their capacity to implement at least one key recommended infant feeding practices, that of EBF for 6 months. PMID:20874844

  11. Leptin Is Associated With Exaggerated Brain Reward and Emotion Responses to Food Images in Adolescent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jastreboff, Ania M.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Seo, Dongju; Kubat, Jessica; Van Name, Michelle A.; Giannini, Cosimo; Savoye, Mary; Constable, R. Todd; Sherwin, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the U.S., an astonishing 12.5 million children and adolescents are now obese, predisposing 17% of our nation’s youth to metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adolescent obesity has tripled over the last three decades in the setting of food advertising directed at children. Obese adults exhibit increased brain responses to food images in motivation-reward pathways. These neural alterations may be attributed to obesity-related metabolic changes, which promote food craving and high-calorie food (HCF) consumption. It is not known whether these metabolic changes affect neural responses in the adolescent brain during a crucial period for establishing healthy eating behaviors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-five obese (BMI 34.4 kg/m2, age 15.7 years) and fifteen lean (BMI 20.96 kg/m2, age 15.5 years) adolescents underwent functional MRI during exposure to HCF, low-calorie food (LCF), and nonfood (NF) visual stimuli 2 h after isocaloric meal consumption. RESULTS Brain responses to HCF relative to NF cues increased in obese versus lean adolescents in striatal-limbic regions (i.e., putamen/caudate, insula, amygdala) (P < 0.05, family-wise error [FWE]), involved in motivation-reward and emotion processing. Higher endogenous leptin levels correlated with increased neural activation to HCF images in all subjects (P < 0.05, FWE). CONCLUSIONS This significant association between higher circulating leptin and hyperresponsiveness of brain motivation-reward regions to HCF images suggests that dysfunctional leptin signaling may contribute to the risk of overconsumption of these foods, thus further predisposing adolescents to the development of obesity and T2D. PMID:25139883

  12. Reactivity and its association with body mass index across days on food checklists.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Midthune, Douglas; Dodd, Kevin W; Potischman, Nancy; Subar, Amy F; Thompson, Frances E

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing relationships between diet, body weight, and health is complicated by reporting errors in dietary intake data that are associated with body weight. The objectives of this study were to assess changes in reporting across days (reactivity) on food checklists and associations between reactivity and body mass index (BMI) using data from two cross-sectional studies: 1) the Recontacting Participants in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition study (n = 297), which was conducted in 2003-2004 and included a 7-day checklist and a 4-day food record (FR), and 2) the America's Menu Daily Food Report Study (n=530), which was conducted in 1996 and included a 30-day checklist. Zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to assess effects of reporting day on frequency of consumption for the checklists and number of items reported for the FR. Interactions between day and BMI were tested using contrast statements. Frequency of reported consumption declined across days among males and females for total items and many of the eight food groups on the 7-day checklist; among females, the effect of reporting day differed by BMI category for the meat, fish, and poultry group. Smaller declines across days were observed for some of the 22 food groups on the 30-day checklist; no interactions with BMI were apparent. No reporting day effects were observed in the FR data. The results suggest inconsistent reactivity across days, possibly reflecting changes in reporting or consumption behavior. However, the effects are generally small and independent of body weight, suggesting that checklists are potentially useful for the study of body weight and diet. PMID:22308230

  13. Sonic temperature sensor for food processing

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Porter, A.M.; Tow, D.M.

    1997-09-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. This, a joint project with the National Food Processors Association, utilizes the property of materials that when the temperature of a material changes, there is a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach taken for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound inside particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process. This work has shown that the speed of sound can be accurately determined to an accuracy of {+-}0.4%, corresponding to a temperature uncertainty of {+-}2{degree}C using tomographic reconstruction methods.

  14. Sonic Temperature Sensor for Food Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D. W.; Porter, A. M.; Tow, D. M.

    1997-09-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process.

  15. Food insecurity in children but not in their mothers is associated with altered activities, school absenteeism, and stunting.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Herrera, Héctor A; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-10-01

    Household food insecurity has substantial detrimental effects on children, but little is known about the mechanisms through which these effects occur. This study investigated some possible mechanisms by examining associations of food insecurity reported by children and mothers with daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonprobabilistic sample of 131 mother-child pairs from a poor peri-urban area in Miranda State, Venezuela. We assessed food insecurity in children by using an instrument developed through a naturalistic approach that had 10 items for food insecurity and 9 items for management strategies. To obtain mothers' reports of food insecurity, a previously validated 12-item instrument was used. Children's daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting were measured. Chi-square tests for contingency tables and logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to test associations of food insecurity with outcomes. There was no association between mothers' reports of food-insecurity and any child outcome. Children's reports of food insecurity were associated with higher odds of doing passive home chores (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.32), cooking at home (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1,38), taking care of siblings (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31), and doing labor (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.42) and lower odds of playing video games (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98) (all P < 0.03). Children's reports of management strategies were associated with 5 of 7 work activities measured. Labor in food-insecure children was the main activity that explained school absenteeism. Food insecurity reported by children can be assessed by pediatricians, school personnel, and other practitioners by using a simple instrument to identify food-insecure children and to respond to mitigate their food insecurity and its consequences. PMID:25143373

  16. Water Processor Assembly Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert; Parker, Dave; OConnor, Ed

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable quality water from humidity condensate, carbon dioxide reduction water, water obtained from fuel cells, reclaimed urine distillate, shower, handwash and oral hygiene waste waters. This paper describes the WPA integration into the ISS Node 3. It details the substantial development history supporting the design and describes the WPA System characteristics and its physical layout.

  17. The Role of Food Peptides in Lipid Metabolism during Dyslipidemia and Associated Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human clinical studies have demonstrated the ability of dietary food proteins to modulate endogenous lipid levels during abnormal lipid metabolism (dyslipidemia). Considering the susceptibility of proteins to gastric proteolytic activities, the hypolipidemic functions of proteins are possibly due, in part, to their peptide fragments. Food-derived peptides may directly modulate abnormal lipid metabolism in cell cultures and animal models of dyslipidemia. The peptides are thought to act by perturbing intestinal absorption of dietary cholesterol and enterohepatic bile acid circulation, and by inhibiting lipogenic enzymatic activities and gene expression in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Recent evidence indicates that the hypolipidemic activities of some peptides are due to activation of hepatic lipogenic transcription factors. However, detailed molecular mechanisms and structural requirements of peptides for these activities are yet to be elucidated. As hypolipidemic peptides can be released during enzymatic food processing, future studies can explore the prospects of combating metabolic syndrome and associated complications using peptide-rich functional food and nutraceutical products. PMID:25918936

  18. Citrus Tachibana Leaf Extract Mitigates Symptoms of Food Allergy by Inhibiting Th2-Associated Responses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Yu; Shin, Hee Soon; Choi, Dae Woon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-06-01

    Although the incidence of food allergy continues to rise, there have been no effective therapeutic strategies. Citrus fruits contain a number of bioactive flavonoids with immune-regulatory functions. The objective of this study was to determine whether Citrus tachibana (fruit body with peel, leaves, and branch) can protect against the development of food allergy and the mechanism behind it, and to identify the active compound(s) responsible. We found that C. tachibana leaf extract (CLE) mitigated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy symptoms including increased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis. This mitigation was likely due to CLE-mediated decreases in cytokine release from T-helper 2 cells (Th2 cells) in mesenteric lymph nodes. Moreover, higher levels of CLE attenuated systemic Th2 cell-mediated responses in mouse splenocytes sensitized with OVA+Alum. This was evidenced by CLE-mediated reductions in Th2 cytokine release, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but not the Th1 cytokines IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ, which was attributable to decreased gene expression levels. We also identified kaempferol as the most potent compound for reducing Th2-associated responses in splenocytes. The findings of this study suggest that CLE suppresses Th2-cell-mediated immune responses, contributing to alleviation of food allergy symptoms, and that kaempferol is a flavonoid with potential antiallergenic activity that targets Th2 cell-induced responses. PMID:27121925

  19. Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Enrico L; Albert, Eva M; Fortuna, Miguel A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-08-01

    A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to perturbation. However, few studies have found unequivocal evidence of compartments, and none has quantified the suite of mechanisms generating such a structure. Here, we combine computational tools from the physics of complex networks with phylogenetic statistical methods to show that a large marine food web is organized in compartments, and that body size, phylogeny, and spatial structure are jointly associated with such a compartmentalized structure. Sharks account for the majority of predatory interactions within their compartments. Phylogenetically closely related shark species tend to occupy different compartments and have divergent trophic levels, suggesting that competition may play an important role structuring some of these compartments. Current overfishing of sharks has the potential to change the structural properties, which might eventually affect the stability of the food web. PMID:19490028

  20. Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Paul E.

    1995-06-01

    The 1970s saw the start of a trend towards integrated digital avionics. In the 1980s, the Air Force's Pave Pillar initiative defined centralized digital processing as the cost- effective approach to tactical avionics. The avionics systems of the two advanced aircraft presently under development, a fixed-wing tactical fighter and an armed scout/reconnaissance helicopter, were based on this architecture. Both platforms relied upon custom, single-purpose hardware and software to generate images for their advanced multifunctional flat panel cockpit displays. The technology to generate real-time synthetic images with common data and signal processors was not available during the development of the platforms. Harris IR&D investigations have focused on an approach that Harris GASD has named the Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP). This programmable device can generate sophisticated images or perform sensor image manipulation and processing. The Common Avionics Display Processor is a general purpose image synthesizer. It consists of software and hardware components configured at run time by a downloaded program. The CADP offers two advantages over custom, special purpose devices. First, it solves a class of problems, not a single one. It can generate many types of images, from alphanumeric to sensor simulation. Only one module type is required for any of these functions. Second, as program schedules become shorter, traditional hardware design time becomes the delivery limiting task. Because both the software and hardware components are programmable at run time, the CADP can adapt to changing requirements without redesign.

  1. Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nezami, Manijeh; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabaté, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12-18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents. PMID:27420094

  2. Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nezami, Manijeh; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Sabaté, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12–18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents. PMID:27420094

  3. Communications systems and methods for subsea processors

    DOEpatents

    Gutierrez, Jose; Pereira, Luis

    2016-04-26

    A subsea processor may be located near the seabed of a drilling site and used to coordinate operations of underwater drilling components. The subsea processor may be enclosed in a single interchangeable unit that fits a receptor on an underwater drilling component, such as a blow-out preventer (BOP). The subsea processor may issue commands to control the BOP and receive measurements from sensors located throughout the BOP. A shared communications bus may interconnect the subsea processor and underwater components and the subsea processor and a surface or onshore network. The shared communications bus may be operated according to a time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme.

  4. Small, high-speed dataflow processor

    SciTech Connect

    Leler, W.

    1983-01-01

    Dataflow processors show much promise for high-speed computation at reasonable cost, but they are not without problems. The author discusses a processor design which combines ideas from dynamic dataflow architecture with those from reduced instruction set computers and proven large computers with parallel internal structures. The resulting processor includes a number of innovations, including operand destinations, killer tokens, I/O streams and closed-loop computation, which result in a small, relatively inexpensive processor capable of high-speed computation. The expected application areas of the processor include interactive computer graphics, signal processing, and artificial intelligence. 6 references.

  5. Multicenter study of street foods in 13 towns on four continents by the food and environmental hygiene study group of the international network of pasteur and associated institutes.

    PubMed

    Garin, B; Aïdara, A; Spiegel, A; Arrive, P; Bastaraud, A; Cartel, J L; Aissa, R Ben; Duval, P; Gay, M; Gherardi, C; Gouali, M; Karou, T G; Kruy, S L; Soares, J L; Mouffok, F; Ravaonindrina, N; Rasolofonirina, N; Pham, M T; Wouafo, M; Catteau, M; Mathiot, C; Mauclere, P; Rocourt, J

    2002-01-01

    An international multicenter study of ready-to-eat foods, sandwiches, and ice creams or sorbets sold in the streets and their vendors was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of these foods and to identify characteristics of the vendors possibly associated with pathogens. Thirteen towns in Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania were involved in the study. A single protocol was used in all 13 centers: representative sampling was by random selection of vendors and a sample of foods bought from each of these vendors at a time and date selected at random. Microbiological analyses were carried out using standardized Association Française de Normalisation methods, and the use of a standardized questionnaire to collect data concerning the characteristics of the vendors. Fifteen surveys were carried out, with 3,003 food samples from 1,268 vendors. The proportion of unsatisfactory food samples was between 12.7 and 82.9% for ice creams and sorbets and between 11.3 and 92% for sandwiches. For ice creams and sorbets, the sale of a large number of units (>80 per day) increased the risk of unsatisfactory food by a factor of 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 5.1), lack of training in food hygiene by 6.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 50). and by a factor of 2.8 (95% CI: 1.4 to 5.4) for mobile vendors. These risk factors were not identified for sandwiches, this difference may be due to the presence of a cooking step in their preparation. These results show that the poor microbiological quality of these street foods constitutes a potential hazard to public health, that the extent of this hazard varies between the cities studied, and that vendors' health education in food safety is a crucial factor in the prevention of foodborne infections. PMID:11808786

  6. Association between untreated dental caries and household food insecurity in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Santin, Gabriela Cristina; Pintarelli, Tatiana Pegoretti; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association between untreated dental caries (UDC) and household food insecurity (HFI) among schoolchildren in different income strata. A population-based study was carried out with a sample of 584 12-y-old schoolchildren. Oral examinations were performed and HFI was determined using a validated scale. Other independent variables were analyzed for being of interest to the stratification of the results (per capita household income) or for acting as potential confounding variables. The prevalence of UDC and HFI was 45% and 39%, respectively. The multivariate models demonstrated that the UDC was significantly more prevalent among children in food-insecure households with per capita income of up to US$ 70.71 than among those in the same income stratum that were free of HFI [PR = 1.52 (95%CI = 1.01-2.29)]. HFI was associated with a greater frequency of UDC among low-income schoolchildren, but had no significant impact on this variable among children from other income strata. Thus, ensuring access to quality food may be a good strategy for minimizing inequities in oral health and reducing dental caries experience among schoolchildren from low-income families. PMID:26910164

  7. Low control over palatable food intake in rats is associated with habitual behavior and relapse vulnerability: individual differences.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Johannes W; Meijboom, Karin E; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide obesity epidemic poses an enormous and growing threat to public health. However, the neurobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity are incompletely understood. It has been proposed that addiction-like processes may underlie certain forms of obesity, in particular those associated with binge eating disorder. To investigate the role of addiction-like processes in obesity, we adapted a model of cocaine addiction-like behavior in rats responding for highly palatable food. Here, we tested whether rats responding for highly palatable chocolate Ensure would come to show three criteria of addiction-like behavior, i.e., high motivation, continued seeking despite signaled non-availability and persistence of seeking despite aversive consequences. We also investigated whether exposure to a binge model (a diet consisting of alternating periods of limited food access and access to highly palatable food), promotes the appearance of food addiction-like behavior. Our data show substantial individual differences in control over palatable food seeking and taking, but no distinct subgroup of animals showing addiction-like behavior could be identified. Instead, we observed a wide range extending from low to very high control over palatable food intake. Exposure to the binge model did not affect control over palatable food seeking and taking, however. Animals that showed low control over palatable food intake (i.e., scored high on the three criteria for addiction-like behavior) were less sensitive to devaluation of the food reward and more prone to food-induced reinstatement of extinguished responding, indicating that control over palatable food intake is associated with habitual food intake and vulnerability to relapse. In conclusion, we present an animal model to assess control over food seeking and taking. Since diminished control over food intake is a major factor in the development of obesity, understanding its behavioral and neural underpinnings may facilitate

  8. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  9. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  10. Integrating issues of sustainably produced foods into nutrition practice: a survey of Minnesota Dietetic Association members.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ramona; Smith, Chery

    2003-05-01

    A survey was mailed to a representative, randomly selected sample of Minnesota Dietetic Association members (n=300) to evaluate attitudes and intentions regarding the integration of issues pertaining to sustainably produced foods into professional practice. The United States Department of Agriculture describes sustainable agriculture as including goals of farm profitability, environmental stewardship, and improved rural quality of life. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, independent t tests, one-way ANOVA, correlations, and multiple regression analyses (P< or =.05). Forty-three percent had heard of sustainable agriculture, 13% had integrated issues of sustainably produced foods into their practice, and 20% stated that it was likely that they would incorporate these issues within the next six months. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, and rated importance of knowing about agricultural practices independently predicted intention. Dietitians surveyed were interested in learning more, but most were not integrating these issues into practice because of perceived barriers, including a lack of knowledge about this topic. PMID:12728221

  11. Household food insecurity is associated with self-reported pregravid weight status, gestational weight gain and pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gundersen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Background Household food insecurity is positively associated with weight among women. The association between household food insecurity and pregnancy related weight gain and complications is not well understood. Objective To identify if an independent association exists between household food insecurity and pregnancy related complications. Design Data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition prospective cohort study were used to assess household food insecurity retrospectively using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18-item Core Food Security Module (CFSM) among 810 pregnant women with incomes ≤ 400% of the income/poverty ratio, recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 and followed through pregnancy. Main outcome measures Self-reported pregravid body mass index, gestational weight gain, second trimester anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Statistical analyses performed: Multivariate linear, multinomial logistic and logistic regression analyses. Results Among 810 pregnant women, 76% were from fully food secure, 14% were from marginally food secure, and 10% were from food insecure households. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household was significantly associated with severe pregravid obesity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.44, 6.14], higher gestational weight gain [adjusted β coefficient 1.87, 95% CI 0.13, 3.62] and with a higher adequacy of weight gain ratio [adjusted β 0.27, CI 0.07, 0.50]. Marginal food security was significantly associated with gestational diabetes mellitus [AOR 2.76, 95% CI 1.00, 7.66]. Conclusions This study highlights the possibility that living in a food insecure household during pregnancy may increase risk of greater weight gain and pregnancy complications. PMID:20430130

  12. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes. PMID:27545977

  13. Roles of epiphytes associated with macroalgae in benthic food web of a eutrophic coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xinqing; Huang, Lingfeng; Lin, Rongcheng; Du, Jianguo

    2015-11-01

    Macroalgae perform a significant function in the trophic dynamics in many coastal lagoons, and conventionally, they are the key trophic base that fuels the overall aquatic food web. However, few studies have considered the trophic contribution of epiphytes that attach to macroalgae in the diet of benthic primary consumers or their contribution to the trophic base of the aquatic food web. In this study, macrobenthic invertebrate biomass was combined with multiple-isotope-mixing models to distinguish the trophic importance of macroalgae and their associated epiphytic assemblages in the benthic food web during Ulva lactuca bloom in the Yundang Lagoon, a eutrophic coastal lagoon in Xiamen, China. Amphipods primarily dominated the zoobenthos, with the biomass varied from 40.9 g/m2 in January to 283.9 g/m2 in March. They mainly fed on U. lactuca and its associated epiphytes, which jointly contributed more than 60% to amphipod diets, but species-specific feeding habits were exhibited among amphipods. Using the zoobenthos biomass as a weighting factor, the contribution of U. lactuca and its epiphytes to total benthic communities during U. lactuca bloom exceeded 65%.The epiphytes were clearly utilized more than U. lactuca, with a median contribution ranging from 48.5% in January to 66.6% in March. Our findings demonstrate the trophic importance of the epiphytes in macroalgae-based coastal habitats, as found in many seagrass beds. Therefore, we propose that further food web studies of macroalgae-based ecosystems should pay greater attention to the role of epiphytes.

  14. Associations of Neighborhood Characteristics With the Location and Type of Food Stores

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Latetia V.; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated associations between local food environment and neighborhood racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Methods. Poisson regression was used to examine the association of food stores and liquor stores with racial/ethnic composition and income in selected census tracts in North Carolina, Maryland, and New York. Results. Predominantly minority and racially mixed neighborhoods had more than twice as many grocery stores as predominantly White neighborhoods (for predominantly Black tracts, adjusted stores per population ratio [SR]=2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.2, 3.2; and for mixed tracts, SR=2.2; 95% CI=1.9, 2.7) and half as many supermarkets (for predominantly Black tracts, SR=0.5; 95% CI=0.3, 0.7; and for mixed tracts, SR=0.7; 95% CI=0.5, 1.0, respectively). Low-income neighborhoods had 4 times as many grocery stores as the wealthiest neighborhoods (SR=4.3; 95% CI=3.6, 5.2) and half as many supermarkets (SR=0.5; 95% CI=0.3, 0.8). In general, poorer areas and non-White areas also tended to have fewer fruit and vegetable markets, bakeries, specialty stores, and natural food stores. Liquor stores were more common in poorer than in richer areas (SR=1.3; 95% CI=1.0, 1.6). Conclusions. Local food environments vary substantially by neighborhood racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition and may contribute to disparities in health. PMID:16380567

  15. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I.; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  16. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  17. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors. PMID:26005202

  18. Associative learning of odor with food- or blood-meal by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Rains, Glen C.; Allan, Sandy A.; Sanford, Michelle R.; Lewis, W. Joe

    2006-11-01

    The ability of many insects to learn has been documented. However, a limited number of studies examining associative learning in medically important arthropods has been published. Investigations into the associative learning capabilities of Culex quinquefasciatus Say were conducted by adapting methods commonly used in experiments involving Hymenoptera. Male and female mosquitoes were able to learn a conditioned stimulus that consisted of an odor not normally encountered in nature (synthetic strawberry or vanilla extracts) in association with an unconditioned stimulus consisting of either a sugar (males and females) or blood (females) meal. Such information could lead to a better understanding of the ability of mosquitoes to locate and select host and food resources in nature.

  19. A food pattern predicting prospective weight change is associated with risk of fatal but not with nonfatal cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Drogan, Dagmar; Hoffmann, Kurt; Schulz, Mandy; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2007-08-01

    Recently, a food pattern predictive for prospective weight change was identified within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. Given the possible impact of weight change on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, we examined the association between the above mentioned food pattern and risk of CVD. The analyzed food pattern was defined by a high consumption of whole-grain bread, fruits, fruit juices, grain flakes and/or cereals, and raw vegetables, and a low consumption of processed meat, butter, high-fat cheese, margarine, and meat other than poultry. The associations between quartiles of the food pattern score and CVD morbidity and mortality were examined in 26,238 subjects of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort using a Cox's Proportional Hazards model for competing risks. During 6.4 y of follow-up, 379 incident cases of CVD were identified, of which 68 were fatal events. The food pattern was not associated with risk of nonfatal CVD. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratios for fatal CVD across increasing quartiles of the score were 1.00, 0.85, 0.31, and 0.47, respectively (P for trend = 0.016). The association of the food pattern with CVD risk differed between fatal and nonfatal events (P for difference = 0.05). These findings from a large German cohort indicate that a food pattern predicting prospective weight change may be associated with the risk of fatal CVD. PMID:17634271

  20. Parallel processor engine model program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Parallel Processor Engine Model Program is a generalized engineering tool intended to aid in the design of parallel processing real-time simulations of turbofan engines. It is written in the FORTRAN programming language and executes as a subset of the SOAPP simulation system. Input/output and execution control are provided by SOAPP; however, the analysis, emulation and simulation functions are completely self-contained. A framework in which a wide variety of parallel processing architectures could be evaluated and tools with which the parallel implementation of a real-time simulation technique could be assessed are provided.

  1. Configurable Multi-Purpose Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Forney, Chirstopher; Morrison, Robert; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Advancements in technology have allowed the miniaturization of systems used in aerospace vehicles. This technology is driven by the need for next-generation systems that provide reliable, responsive, and cost-effective range operations while providing increased capabilities such as simultaneous mission support, increased launch trajectories, improved launch, and landing opportunities, etc. Leveraging the newest technologies, the command and telemetry processor (CTP) concept provides for a compact, flexible, and integrated solution for flight command and telemetry systems and range systems. The CTP is a relatively small circuit board that serves as a processing platform for high dynamic, high vibration environments. The CTP can be reconfigured and reprogrammed, allowing it to be adapted for many different applications. The design is centered around a configurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device that contains numerous logic cells that can be used to implement traditional integrated circuits. The FPGA contains two PowerPC processors running the Vx-Works real-time operating system and are used to execute software programs specific to each application. The CTP was designed and developed specifically to provide telemetry functions; namely, the command processing, telemetry processing, and GPS metric tracking of a flight vehicle. However, it can be used as a general-purpose processor board to perform numerous functions implemented in either hardware or software using the FPGA s processors and/or logic cells. Functionally, the CTP was designed for range safety applications where it would ultimately become part of a vehicle s flight termination system. Consequently, the major functions of the CTP are to perform the forward link command processing, GPS metric tracking, return link telemetry data processing, error detection and correction, data encryption/ decryption, and initiate flight termination action commands. Also, the CTP had to be designed to survive and

  2. Optical stereo video signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, G. D.

    1985-12-01

    An otpical video signal processor is described which produces a two-dimensional cross-correlation in real time of images received by a stereo camera system. The optical image of each camera is projected on respective liquid crystal light valves. The images on the liquid crystal valves modulate light produced by an extended light source. This modulated light output becomes the two-dimensional cross-correlation when focused onto a video detector and is a function of the range of a target with respect to the stereo camera. Alternate embodiments utilize the two-dimensional cross-correlation to determine target movement and target identification.

  3. New Elements To Consider When Modeling the Hazards Associated with Botulinum Neurotoxin in Food

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Ivan; Malakar, Pradeep K.; Walshaw, John; Peck, Michael W.; Barker, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are the most potent biological substances known to mankind. BoNTs are the agents responsible for botulism, a rare condition affecting the neuromuscular junction and causing a spectrum of diseases ranging from mild cranial nerve palsies to acute respiratory failure and death. BoNTs are a potential biowarfare threat and a public health hazard, since outbreaks of foodborne botulism are caused by the ingestion of preformed BoNTs in food. Currently, mathematical models relating to the hazards associated with C. botulinum, which are largely empirical, make major contributions to botulinum risk assessment. Evaluated using statistical techniques, these models simulate the response of the bacterium to environmental conditions. Though empirical models have been successfully incorporated into risk assessments to support food safety decision making, this process includes significant uncertainties so that relevant decision making is frequently conservative and inflexible. Progression involves encoding into the models cellular processes at a molecular level, especially the details of the genetic and molecular machinery. This addition drives the connection between biological mechanisms and botulism risk assessment and hazard management strategies. This review brings together elements currently described in the literature that will be useful in building quantitative models of C. botulinum neurotoxin production. Subsequently, it outlines how the established form of modeling could be extended to include these new elements. Ultimately, this can offer further contributions to risk assessments to support food safety decision making. PMID:26350137

  4. New Elements To Consider When Modeling the Hazards Associated with Botulinum Neurotoxin in Food.

    PubMed

    Ihekwaba, Adaoha E C; Mura, Ivan; Malakar, Pradeep K; Walshaw, John; Peck, Michael W; Barker, G C

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are the most potent biological substances known to mankind. BoNTs are the agents responsible for botulism, a rare condition affecting the neuromuscular junction and causing a spectrum of diseases ranging from mild cranial nerve palsies to acute respiratory failure and death. BoNTs are a potential biowarfare threat and a public health hazard, since outbreaks of foodborne botulism are caused by the ingestion of preformed BoNTs in food. Currently, mathematical models relating to the hazards associated with C. botulinum, which are largely empirical, make major contributions to botulinum risk assessment. Evaluated using statistical techniques, these models simulate the response of the bacterium to environmental conditions. Though empirical models have been successfully incorporated into risk assessments to support food safety decision making, this process includes significant uncertainties so that relevant decision making is frequently conservative and inflexible. Progression involves encoding into the models cellular processes at a molecular level, especially the details of the genetic and molecular machinery. This addition drives the connection between biological mechanisms and botulism risk assessment and hazard management strategies. This review brings together elements currently described in the literature that will be useful in building quantitative models of C. botulinum neurotoxin production. Subsequently, it outlines how the established form of modeling could be extended to include these new elements. Ultimately, this can offer further contributions to risk assessments to support food safety decision making. PMID:26350137

  5. Potent antagonistic activity of Egyptian Lactobacillus plantarum against multiresistant and virulent food-associated pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Al-Madboly, Lamiaa A.; Abdullah, Abeer K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have shown a growing interest to replace the administration of antibiotics with the application of probiotics. The aim of our investigation was to screen for promising strains with broad antimicrobial activity and also more resistant to the challenges met in the gastrointestinal tract. In our study, only 32 out of 50 (64%) probiotic isolates showed antagonistic activity against certain major extensively and pandrug-resistant Gram-positive and -negative food-borne pathogens. Fifteen L. plantarum isolates had a broad antibacterial spectrum. Among these isolates, only five presented potent antibacterial activity relative to previous studies. The recorded inhibition zone diameter ranged from 25 to 44 mm. Pronounced cell-free supernatant activities (6400–25,600 AU/ml) were commonly detected at the end of the logarithmic phase at 37°C. A marked increase in the range of activity (12,800–51,200 AU/ml) was recorded after the addition of 0.9% Na Cl to the media. Moreover, subjecting these isolates to different stressors, including high temperature, low pH, and different concentrations of bile and Na Cl, revealed different responses, and only two out of the five L. plantarum isolates showed marked resistance to all of the stress factors. Accordingly, this study highlights the intense and broad antagonistic activity induced by L. plantarum against various food associated pathogens, and their ability to resist different stressors suggests that they can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26029169

  6. The Association between Socioeconomic Characteristics and Consumption of Food Items among Brazilian Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Vinholes, Daniele B.; Melo, Ione M. F.; Machado, Carlos Alberto; de Castro Chaves, Hilton; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the work place using standardized forms. Results. 4818 workers were interviewed, aged 35.4 ± 10.7 years, 76.5% were men. The workers had an average of 8.7 ± 4.1 years of schooling and 25.4 ± 4.1 kg/m2 of BMI. Men and individuals with less than high school education were less likely to consume dairy products, fruits, and vegetables daily, even after control for confounding factors. Men consumed rice and beans daily more often than women. In comparison to workers aged 50–76 years, those under 30 years old consumed less fruits and green leafy vegetables daily. Conclusion. The food items consumed by Brazilian workers show that there are insufficient consumption according to the guidelines of healthy foods, particularly of dairy products, vegetables, and fruits. PMID:22701097

  7. Assessment of Obesity, Overweight and Its Association with the Fast Food Consumption in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Geetanjali; Nair, Sandhya Pillai; Patel, Bhavita; Rawal, Yash; Shah, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat accumulates, which leads to various adverse effects on health, particularly cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which reduce life expectancy and/or increase health problems. Fast food consumption is one of the factors which have been reported as a cause of obesity. Body mass index (BMI) is used to assess obesity and overweight, which can be calculated by using the formula, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres. Aim: This study focused on the relationship of body mass index with fast food consumption, associated soft drink consumption and physical activity. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, SBKS MI and RC, and Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. This study was approved by the ethical review board .One hundred and forty seven medical students from 1st year MBBS course were included in this study. Self-structured questionnaire was used, which contained several data like information on age, height, weight, education level. The formula used for calculating BMI was, weight in kg, divided by square of height in metres (Kg/m2). Results: In our study, out of 147 students, a total of 138 students (more than 90%) used to have fast food. Among these, a total of 47 students (34.05%) were pre-obese and obese. Out of 147 students, 87 students (59.18%) were in normal weight range, while 13 (8.84%) students were underweight. Statistical Analysis: Data was compiled in an Excel worksheet and it was analyzed for percentages and proportions. Chi-square and Pearson’s correlation test were also applied wherever they were applicable and Alpha error was set at a 5% level. Conclusion: In our study, a significant relationship was found between BMI and fast food consumption, less physical activity, and intake of soft drinks. PMID:24995170

  8. Is the food environment surrounding schools associated with the diet quality of adolescents in Otago, New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Clark, Emma M; Quigg, Robin; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Richards, Rose; Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality. PMID:25218636

  9. Association between food and nutrition insecurity with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; de Novaes, Juliana Farias; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To address the association between food and nutrition insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Data source: Articles were selected from the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases with no publication date limit, involving children and adolescents, using the descriptors: food and nutrition security, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, stress and dyslipidemia. The terms were used in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The search was carried out systematically and independently by two reviewers. Data synthesis: Exposure to food insecurity during childhood and adolescence ranged from 3.3% to 82% in the selected publications. Exposure to food insecurity was associated with stress, anxiety, greater chance of hospitalization, nutritional deficiencies, excess weight and inadequate diets with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables and increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and fats. Conclusions: Food and nutrition insecurity was associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the assessed publications. Childhood and adolescence constitute a period of life that is vulnerable to food insecurity consequences, making it extremely important to ensure the regular and permanent access to food. Because this is a complex association, some difficulties are found, such as the synergy between risk factors, the assessment of heterogeneous groups and extrapolation of data to other populations, in addition to the influence of environmental factors. PMID:26564327

  10. Color sensor and neural processor on one chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiesler, Emile; Campbell, Shannon R.; Kempem, Lother; Duong, Tuan A.

    1998-10-01

    Low-cost, compact, and robust color sensor that can operate in real-time under various environmental conditions can benefit many applications, including quality control, chemical sensing, food production, medical diagnostics, energy conservation, monitoring of hazardous waste, and recycling. Unfortunately, existing color sensor are either bulky and expensive or do not provide the required speed and accuracy. In this publication we describe the design of an accurate real-time color classification sensor, together with preprocessing and a subsequent neural network processor integrated on a single complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. This one-chip sensor and information processor will be low in cost, robust, and mass-producible using standard commercial CMOS processes. The performance of the chip and the feasibility of its manufacturing is proven through computer simulations based on CMOS hardware parameters. Comparisons with competing methodologies show a significantly higher performance for our device.

  11. Association between Food Insecurity and Procurement Methods among People Living with HIV in a High Resource Setting

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J.; Shurgold, Susan; Ding, Erin; Messina, Jennifer; Jones, Jennifer E.; Chittock, Brian; Monteith, Ken; Globerman, Jason; Rourke, Sean B.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV in high-resource settings suffer severe levels of food insecurity; however, limited evidence exists regarding dietary intake and sub-components that characterize food insecurity (i.e. food quantity, quality, safety or procurement) in this population. We examined the prevalence and characteristics of food insecurity among people living with HIV across British Columbia, Canada. Design This cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a national community-based research initiative. Methods Food security was measured using the Health Canada Household Food Security Scale Module. Logistic regression was used to determine key independent predictors of food insecurity, controlling for potential confounders. Results Of 262 participants, 192 (73%) reported food insecurity. Sub-components associated with food insecurity in bivariate analysis included: < RDI consumption of protein (p = 0.046); being sick from spoiled/unsafe food in the past six months (p = 0.010); and procurement of food using non-traditional methods (p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with food insecurity included: procurement of food using non-traditional methods [AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 4.79–25.68, p = <0.001]; younger age [AOR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.96, p = <0.001]; unstable housing [AOR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.15–17.36, p = 0.031]; household gross annual income [AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.74–11.60, p = 0.002]; and symptoms of depression [AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.25–5.96, p = 0.012]. Conclusions Food insecurity among people living with HIV in British Columbia is characterized by poor dietary quality and food procurement methods. Notably, participants who reported procuring in non-traditional manners were over 10 times more likely to be food insecure. These findings suggest a need for tailored food security and social support interventions in this setting. PMID:27487041

  12. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  13. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  14. FTO polymorphisms moderate the association of food reinforcement with energy intake.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Jennifer L; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-10

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251kbp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9-7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. PMID:24768648

  15. FTO Polymorphisms Moderate the Association of Food Reinforcement with Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Jennifer L.; Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles S.; Allison, David B.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2015-01-01

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251K bp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9 - 7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. Rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. PMID:24768648

  16. Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.

  17. Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Klingerman, Candice M; Williams, Wilbur P; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396

  18. Time Trends in Fast Food Consumption and Its Association with Obesity among Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Youfa

    2016-01-01

    Objective Study the trends in Western fast food consumption (FFC) among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status (overweight, obesity and body mass index (BMI) z-score). Setting Longitudinal data from families were collected in the 2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (covering nine provinces throughout China). Subjects The analysis included 2656 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years (1542 and 1114 children in the 2004 and 2009 survey, respectively). Results FFC (reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months) has increased between 2004 and 2009, from 18.5% to 23.9% in those aged 6–18, and increased more rapidly among those aged 13–17, from 17.9% to 26.3%. The increase was significant in almost all groups by age, sex, family income, and residence. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses did not detect a significant association between FFC and obesity/overweight or BMI z-score (e.g., for BMI z-score, boys: β = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.71, 0.75; girls: β = -0.14, 95% CI: -1.03, 0.75). Conclusions FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during 2004–2009. The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity. PMID:26974536

  19. A food store-based environmental intervention is associated with reduced BMI and improved psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors on the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Elizabeth M; He, Siran; Pardilla, Marla

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher among American Indians (AIs) and is associated with increased rates of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. We implemented a 14-mo intervention trial (Navajo Healthy Stores) on the Navajo Nation that sought to increase availability of healthier foods in local food stores and to promote these foods at the point of purchase and through community media. We divided the Navajo Nation into 10 store regions, half of which were randomized to intervention and half to comparison. We evaluated the program by using a pre-post sample of systematically sampled adult Navajo consumers (baseline, n = 276; postintervention, n = 145). Intervention impact was examined by analyzing pre-post differences by intervention group and by intervention exposure level. When intervention and comparison groups were compared, only body mass index (BMI) showed a trend toward impact of the intervention (P = 0.06). However, greater exposure to the intervention was associated with significantly reduced BMI (P ≤ 0.05) and improved healthy food intentions (P ≤ 0.01), healthy cooking methods (P ≤ 0.05), and healthy food getting (P ≤ 0.01). With increasing exposure, the odds of improving overweight or obese status was 5.02 (95% CI: 1.48, 16.99; P ≤ 0.01) times the odds of maintaining or worsening overweight or obese status. In summary, a food store intervention was associated with reduced overweight/obesity and improved obesity-related psychosocial and behavioral factors among those persons most exposed to the intervention on an AI reservation. PMID:23864511

  20. Fast Food Consumption Pattern and Its Association with Overweight Among High School Boys in Mangalore City of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y.P., Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M.; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Context Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. Aim This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. Settings and Design This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Materials and Methods Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Results Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (p<0.001). Parental consumption of fast foods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Conclusion Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This

  1. Model-based knowledge-based optical processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David; Liebowitz, Suzanne A.

    1987-05-01

    An efficient 3-D object-centered knowledge base is described. The ability to on-line generate a 2-D image projection or range image for any object/viewer orientation from this knowledge base is addressed. Applications of this knowledge base in associative processors and symbolic correlators are then discussed. Initial test results are presented for a multiple degree of freedom object recognition problem. These include new techniques to achieve object orientation information and two new associative memory matrix formulations.

  2. [Differences in food consumption associated with ethnic group and acculturation in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Huaiquiñir, Valeska; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2009-12-01

    In order to identify differences in the food consumption and expenditure habits of Mapuches according to their ethnic group as consumers as well as their degree of acculturation, a personal survey was conducted on 400 people stratified by ethnic group in four districts of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. The empirical results showed that habits regarding the consumption of food groups included in the Family Budget Survey did not present any significant differences depending on the consumer's ethnic group, although the monthly expenditure on food is lower in Mapuche households. The ethnic origin and degree of acculturation in Mapuches are only significantly associated with the consumption of mate (herbal infusion) and food in restaurants. Mapuches maintain both food practices belonging to their traditional culture as well as foods incorporated more recently, such as mate. The degree of acculturation is significantly associated with the consumption of these foods; bi-cultural Mapuches present a higher probability of consuming a greater range of traditional foods than accultured Mapuches. PMID:20677456

  3. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. SUBJECTS/METHODS We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (cooking only or with other activities such as shopping, table-setting, clean up, and dishwashing), non-food-related activities (table-setting and/or clean up), and no (helping) activities. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to examine involvement in at-home meal preparation associations. RESULTS The sample consisted of 1,207 fifth-grade children. Vegetable intake was lower in the no (helping) activities group than the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.2, 5.1, girls: 2.0, 8.9). Fewer children in the non-food-related activities group reported they were able to make a portion of their meals compared with the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.6, 3.5; girls: 1.5, 3.2). CONCLUSIONS Children in the food-related activities group showed more favorable food intake and cooking skills than children in the no (helping) activities or non-food-related activities group. PMID:27247734

  4. Consumption of takeaway and fast food in a deprived inner London Borough: are they associated with childhood obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Rachel; Risby, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Objective A major concern is the ubiquitous presence of fast food and takeaway outlets within easy walking distance of schools, particularly in the light of the increasing burden of childhood obesity. Here, the associations between the schoolchildren's weights, their consumption of fast food and takeaway outlets were examined in a deprived inner London Borough. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants 193 schoolchildren (aged between 11 and 14 years old) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) percentiles specific for age and gender were obtained. Frequency of food and drinks purchased from fast food outlets and takeaway outlets over a weekly period and preferred types of drinks and food products usually consumed were measured. Results More than 50% of the children in our survey purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets twice or more a week, with about 10% consuming fast food or drinks from these outlets daily. About 70% of these children from Black ethnic groups and 54% of Asians purchased fast food more than twice a week. BMI has a significantly inverse relationship to fast food consumption. However, when age and gender are accounted, the BMI age–gender percentile is no longer significantly related to fast food consumption. Conclusions This study revealed a very high frequency of fast food consumption among the schoolchildren. Taste, quick access and peer influence were major contributing factors. These schoolchildren are exposed to an obesogenic environment, and it is not surprising that in this situation, many of these children are already overweight and will likely become obese as adults. PMID:22721691

  5. Plasmodium falciparum enolase complements yeast enolase functions and associates with the parasite food vacuole.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujaan; Shevade, Saudamini; LaCount, Douglas J; Jarori, Gotam K

    2011-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum enolase (Pfeno) localizes to the cytosol, nucleus, cell membrane and cytoskeletal elements, suggesting multiple non-glycolytic functions for this protein. Our recent observation of association of enolase with the food vacuole (FV) in immuno-gold electron microscopic images of P. falciparum raised the possibility for yet another moonlighting function for this protein. Here we provide additional support for this localization by demonstrating the presence of Pfeno in purified FVs by immunoblotting. To examine the potential functional role of FV-associated Pfeno, we assessed the ability of Pfeno to complement a mutant Saccharomyces cervisiae strain deficient in enolase activity. In this strain (Tetr-Eno2), the enolase 1 gene is deleted and expression of the enolase 2 gene is under the control of a tetracycline repressible promoter. Enolase deficiency in this strain was previously shown to cause growth retardation, vacuolar fragmentation and altered expression of certain vacuolar proteins. Expression of Pfeno in the enolase-deficient yeast strain restored all three phenotypic effects. However, transformation of Tetr-eno2 with an enzymatically active, monomeric mutant form of Pfeno (Δ(5)Pfeno) fully restored cell growth, but only partially rescued the fragmented vacuolar phenotype, suggesting that the dimeric structure of Pfeno is required for the optimal vacuolar functions. Bioinformatic searches revealed the presence of Plasmodium orthologs of several yeast vacuolar proteins that are predicted to form complexes with Pfeno. Together, these observations raise the possibility that association of Pfeno with food vacuole in Plasmodium may have physiological function(s). PMID:21600245

  6. Unified optical symbolic substitution processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.

    1990-07-01

    Symbolic substitution operations can be realized optically on a correlator. This is a very attractive and efficient architecture for symbolic substitution. It allows parallel multichannel realization with a fixed set of filters (on film or easily realized on low space bandwidth product spatial light modulators) using space and frequency-multiplexing or sequential filters. All basic logic, numeric and morphological image processing functions can be achieved by symbolic substitution. Moreover, all operations are possible on one multifunctional optical processor. Morphological operations are felt to be essential for ATR and pattern recognition preprocessing in clutter. They greatly improve the role for optics by allowing the same optical architecture to be used for low, medium and high level vision.

  7. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Integrating CCHP with NW Food Processing Plant #1: Modeling Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Wagner, Anne W.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Thornton, John

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has launched a project funded by the Bonneville Power Association (BPA) to identify strategies for increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing energy costs of Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) plants through deployment of novel combinations and designs of variable-output combined heat and power (CHP) distributed generation (DG), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) DG and energy storage systems. Detailed evaluations and recommendations of CHP and CCHP DG systems will be performed for several Northwest (NW) food processing sites. The objective is to reduce the overall energy use intensity of NW food processors by 25% by 2020 and by 50% by 2030, as well as reducing emissions and understanding potential congestion reduction impacts on the transmission system in the Pacific Northwest.

  8. Food Prices Are Associated with Dietary Quality, Fast Food Consumption, and Body Mass Index among U.S. Children and Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

    2011-01-01

    Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994–1998) for 6759 children (2–9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10–18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals’ CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2–9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (β ± SE: −0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (β ± SE: −3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m2). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10–18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2–9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2–9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables. PMID:21178080

  9. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Food Safety Controls by the Mexican Meat Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Simán, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José

    Food marketing at international and domestic markets has focused on processing systems that improve food safety. The objective of this research is to determine the factors influencing the implementation of the HACCP system in the Mexican meat industry, and to identify the main marketing destination of their products. Only 18.5% of enterprises reports fully operational HACCP in their plants. The main destination of their production in the domestic market is supermarkets, suppliers and distributors and specific niches of the domestic market. Exports are to USA, Japan, Korea and Central America and some niches of the domestic market with requirements of higher quality. The four principal factors that motivate enterprises to adopt HACCP are associated with improvement of plant efficiency and profitability, adoption of good practices, improvement of product quality and waste reduction. It is concluded that Mexican enterprises adopt HACCP to successfully remain and face competition by foreign enterprises in the domestic market and to a lesser extent to compete in the international market.

  10. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  11. Ultrafast Fourier-transform parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, W.L.

    1980-04-01

    A new, flexible, parallel-processing architecture is developed for a high-speed, high-precision Fourier transform processor. The processor is intended for use in 2-D signal processing including spatial filtering, matched filtering and image reconstruction from projections.

  12. Advanced Multiple Processor Configuration Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, S. J.

    This summary of a study on multiple processor configurations includes the objectives, background, approach, and results of research undertaken to provide the Air Force with a generalized model of computer processor combinations for use in the evaluation of proposed flight training simulator computational designs. An analysis of a real-time flight…

  13. 7 CFR 1215.14 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.14 Processor. Processor means a person engaged in the preparation of unpopped popcorn for the market who...

  14. 7 CFR 1215.14 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.14 Processor. Processor means a person engaged in the preparation of unpopped popcorn for the market who...

  15. LARP - An adaptive LDV signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Glenn D.; Murphy, R. Jay; Meyers, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Recent attempts at realization of a frequency domain signal processor exhibit practical drawbacks such as manual gain, filter and sampling adjustments, and simplistic adaptations of frequency domain techniques. This paper introduces an adaptive LDV signal processor, one which requires no operator intervention under any circumstances by adapting dynamically to burst characteristics, while surpassing all previous techniques in range and accuracy.

  16. 7 CFR 926.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.13 Processor. Processor means any person who receives or acquires fresh or frozen cranberries or cranberries in... uses such cranberries or concentrate, with or without other ingredients, in the production of a...

  17. 7 CFR 926.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.13 Processor. Processor means any person who receives or acquires fresh or frozen cranberries or cranberries in... uses such cranberries or concentrate, with or without other ingredients, in the production of a...

  18. 7 CFR 926.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.13 Processor. Processor means any person who receives or acquires fresh or frozen cranberries or cranberries in... uses such cranberries or concentrate, with or without other ingredients, in the production of a...

  19. 7 CFR 926.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.13 Processor. Processor means any person who receives or acquires fresh or frozen cranberries or cranberries in... uses such cranberries or concentrate, with or without other ingredients, in the production of a...

  20. 7 CFR 1215.14 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.14 Processor. Processor means a person engaged in the preparation of unpopped popcorn for the market who...

  1. 7 CFR 1215.14 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.14 Processor. Processor means a person engaged in the preparation of unpopped popcorn for the market who...

  2. 7 CFR 1215.14 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.14 Processor. Processor means a person engaged in the preparation of unpopped popcorn for the market who...

  3. Adapting implicit methods to parallel processors

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, L.; McMillin, B.; Okunbor, D.; Riggins, D.

    1994-12-31

    When numerically solving many types of partial differential equations, it is advantageous to use implicit methods because of their better stability and more flexible parameter choice, (e.g. larger time steps). However, since implicit methods usually require simultaneous knowledge of the entire computational domain, these methods axe difficult to implement directly on distributed memory parallel processors. This leads to infrequent use of implicit methods on parallel/distributed systems. The usual implementation of implicit methods is inefficient due to the nature of parallel systems where it is common to take the computational domain and distribute the grid points over the processors so as to maintain a relatively even workload per processor. This creates a problem at the locations in the domain where adjacent points are not on the same processor. In order for the values at these points to be calculated, messages have to be exchanged between the corresponding processors. Without special adaptation, this will result in idle processors during part of the computation, and as the number of idle processors increases, the lower the effective speed improvement by using a parallel processor.

  4. The association of family food security and depression in mothers having primary school children in Ray-Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As a major public health problem, food insecurity has adverse social and psychological effects, in addition to the impact on public health. This study aimed to determine the association of household food security and depression in mothers with primary school children in Ray County. Methods This descriptive, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 430 mothers with primary school children in the spring 2010. During a two-stage cluster sampling, an 18-items food security questionnaire (USDA) and the Beck depression inventory were completed via interviewing mothers. Chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, simple regression and stepwise multiple regression were used to describe and analyze data, and to identify related factors using SPSS-16 software. Results The prevalence of food insecurity and depression in mothers were 50.2% and 51.4% respectively. Also 34.6% of mothers in the "food secure" group were depressed and 77.8% in "food insecure with hunger" group were depressed and this difference was statistically significant. Twelve out of the 20 examined variables (age, family size, number of children, economic status, home ownership, employment households, educational level of the mother and also the head of household, height, energy intake, and carbohydrate and protein intakes) were significantly associated with food security and depression. Food insecurity and depression in mothers with primary school children in Ray County showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001). Conclusion The prevalence of household food insecurity and depression in the studied population were high. Since there is a significant relationship between food insecurity and depression, more attention must be paid to this group. PMID:24940566

  5. 78 FR 18273 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and...: Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will advise primary seafood processors who purchase reef fish how to minimize the...

  6. A parallel pipelined dataflow trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Miller, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Sa, J. ); Hsiung, Y.B. ); Carey, T.; Jeppesen, R. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper describes a parallel pipelined data flow trigger processor which is used in Fermilab E789. E789 is an experiment to study low-multiplicity decays of particles containing b or c quarks. The processor consists of an upstream vertex processor and a downstream track processor. The algorithms which reconstruct the postulated particle paths and calculate particle origin are implemented via interconnected function-specific hardware modules. The algorithm is directly dependent upon the organization of the modules, the specific arrangement of the inter-module cabling, on-board memory data. The processor provides an indication of the presence of at least one interesting particle pair in the current event by asserting Read on its Read/Skip output. The Read assertion is then used as a trigger to capture all of the event's data for subsequent extensive off-line analysis.

  7. Computer Generated Inputs for NMIS Processor Verification

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Mullens; J. E. Breeding; J. A. McEvers; R. W. Wysor; L. G. Chiang; J. R. Lenarduzzi; J. T. Mihalczo; J. K. Mattingly

    2001-06-29

    Proper operation of the Nuclear Identification Materials System (NMIS) processor can be verified using computer-generated inputs [BIST (Built-In-Self-Test)] at the digital inputs. Preselected sequences of input pulses to all channels with known correlation functions are compared to the output of the processor. These types of verifications have been utilized in NMIS type correlation processors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since 1984. The use of this test confirmed a malfunction in a NMIS processor at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) in 1998. The NMIS processor boards were returned to the U.S. for repair and subsequently used in NMIS passive and active measurements with Pu at VNIIEF in 1999.

  8. Online track processor for the CDF upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    E. J. Thomson et al.

    2002-07-17

    A trigger track processor, called the eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT), has been designed for the CDF upgrade. This processor identifies high transverse momentum (> 1.5 GeV/c) charged particles in the new central outer tracking chamber for CDF II. The XFT design is highly parallel to handle the input rate of 183 Gbits/s and output rate of 44 Gbits/s. The processor is pipelined and reports the result for a new event every 132 ns. The processor uses three stages: hit classification, segment finding, and segment linking. The pattern recognition algorithms for the three stages are implemented in programmable logic devices (PLDs) which allow in-situ modification of the algorithm at any time. The PLDs reside on three different types of modules. The complete system has been installed and commissioned at CDF II. An overview of the track processor and performance in CDF Run II are presented.

  9. SCAN secure processor and its biometric capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannavara, Raghudeep; Mertoguno, Sukarno; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the design of the SCAN secure processor and its extended instruction set to enable secure biometric authentication. The SCAN secure processor is a modified SparcV8 processor architecture with a new instruction set to handle voice, iris, and fingerprint-based biometric authentication. The algorithms for processing biometric data are based on the local global graph methodology. The biometric modules are synthesized in reconfigurable logic and the results of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) synthesis are presented. We propose to implement the above-mentioned modules in an off-chip FPGA co-processor. Further, the SCAN-secure processor will offer a SCAN-based encryption and decryption of 32 bit instructions and data.

  10. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:  1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds. PMID:22988491

  11. Intake of specific nonfermented soy foods may be inversely associated with risk of distal gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Sun-Seog; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yongbing; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Honglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Epplein, Meira

    2013-11-01

    Because the association between soy consumption and gastric cancer is inconsistent, we evaluated the putative preventive effect of soy food on gastric cancer risk in the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies, comprising a total of 128,687 participants. Intake of nonfermented soy foods was estimated using 2 validated food-frequency questionnaires. HRs were calculated with 95% CIs for intake amounts of total nonfermented soy food intake, soy protein, and isoflavones as well as individual soy food groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 493 distal gastric cancer cases were identified by 2010. Although all risk estimates for summary measures of soy food intake above the lowest quartile (quartile 1) were suggestive of a protective effect, no statistically significant associations with risk of distal gastric cancer were found. Among the separate soy food groups, significant reductions in risk of distal gastric cancer by increasing intake of tofu were found in men in quartile 2 (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.86), quartile 3 (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.88), and quartile 4 (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.99), resulting in a significant trend (P-trend = 0.02). Dry bean intake was also inversely associated with decreased risk of gastric cancer, but in postmenopausal women only [quartile 2 (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96); quartile 3 (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.27); and quartile 4 (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.91)], resulting in a significant trend (P-trend = 0.03). Overall, our study found no statistically significant association between nonfermented soy food intake and distal gastric cancer risk, though the data supported the hypothesis that tofu may protect against distal gastric cancer in men and dry bean consumption may decrease the risk of gastric cancer in postmenopausal women. PMID:23986366

  12. Exploring Health Implications of Disparities Associated with Food Insecurity Among Low-Income Populations.

    PubMed

    Canales, Mary K; Coffey, Nancy; Moore, Emily

    2015-09-01

    A focus group process, conducted by a community-academic partnership, qualitatively assessed food insecurity perspectives of parents and community staff assisting families with food assistance. Food insecurity was reported to affect all aspects of their life, increasing stress and reducing coping abilities. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality encourages research with priority populations, including low-income populations. This research supports the body of knowledge correlating relationships between poverty, food insecurity, and chronic health conditions. Perspectives of food-insecure people are often missing from policy and advocacy interventions. Nurses can use lessons learned and recommendations from this research to address food-insecurity-related health disparities. PMID:26333604

  13. Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjánsdóttir, Ása G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Background In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. Objective A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. Design The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Results Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet

  14. Correlation Between Serum Vitamin D Level and the Severity of Atopic Dermatitis Associated With Food Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Ah; Hong, Soyoung; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Soo Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A growing body of literature has linked vitamin D deficiency with allergic diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we investigated the association between serum vitamin D status and the clinical manifestation of AD. We also developed an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Methods This study included 157 patients (79 males and 78 females) with AD, aged 4 months to 56 years. We evaluated disease severity using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were determined by LC coupled with MS/MS. Total IgE and specific IgE levels were assayed using the immunoCAP system. ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results We found mild, moderate, and severe AD in 30 (11.1%), 87 (55.4%), and 40 (25.5%) patients, respectively. There was no significant correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D3 and AD severity. However, among the 36 patients with food sensitization, the mean±SD serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were significantly higher (P<0.05) in patients with mild disease (21.2±5.18 ng/mL) compared with the levels in patients with moderate (17.9±4.02 ng/mL) or severe AD (13.3±5.11 ng/mL) disease. Conclusions These results suggest that vitamin D deficiency is related to the severity of AD associated with food sensitization. Thus, these data suggest a role for vitamin D in a select group of AD patients. PMID:23814673

  15. Early associations with food in anorexia nervosa patients and obese people assessed in the affective priming paradigm.

    PubMed

    Roefs, A; Stapert, D; Isabella, L A S; Wolters, G; Wojciechowski, F; Jansen, A

    2005-02-01

    Two experiments are reported that used the affective priming paradigm (Fazio, R. H., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Powell, M. C., & Kardess, F. R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 229-238) to uncover associations with food at a relatively automatic level. Experiment 1 tested the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN; n=22) patients would show less sensitivity to the palatability of foods than unrestrained lean controls (n=27). Results indeed suggested that AN patients did not display a liking of palatable foods over unpalatable foods, whereas unrestrained controls did. Experiment 2 tested the hypothesis that obese people (n=27) would show more sensitivity to the palatability of (high-fat) palatable foods than unrestrained lean controls (n=27) would. However, results suggested that the priming effect was based on health concerns, in that participants showed a preference for low-fat palatable foods over high-fat palatable foods. Average speed of responding and context are discussed as variables influencing the affective priming effect. Taken together, results suggest that food evaluations at a relatively automatic level are controlled by an interaction between participant characteristics, stimuli characteristics, and the specific context. PMID:15598602

  16. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws are associated with children’s weight status

    PubMed Central

    Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as ‘competitive foods’) are associated with children’s weight status. METHODS We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) database of state codified law(s) relevant to school nutrition. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2005 based on strength and comprehensiveness. Parent-reported height and weight along with demographic, behavioral, family, and household characteristics were obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses estimated the association between states’ competitive food laws and children’s overweight and obesity status (BMI-for-age ≥ 85th percentile). Children (n=16271) between the ages of 11–14 years with a BMI for age ≥ 5th percentile who attended public school were included. RESULTS Children living in states with weak competitive food laws for middle schools had over a 20% higher odds of being overweight or obese than children living in states with either no or strong school competitive food laws. CONCLUSION State-level school competitive food and beverage laws merit attention with efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. Attention to the specificity and requirements of these laws should also be considered. PMID:25117896

  17. Associations among food insecurity, acculturation, demographic factors, and fruit and vegetable intake at home in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jayna M; Evans, Alexandra E; Saunders, Ruth P; Watkins, Ken W; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to examine associations between food insecurity, acculturation, demographic factors, and children's fruit and vegetable intake among a sample of Hispanic children ages 5 to 12 years. A convenience sample of 184 parents of low socioeconomic status completed one-time, self-administered questionnaires assessing demographic information, acculturation, and food insecurity in the spring of 2006. In addition, children's fruit and vegetable intake at home was measured using a validated seven-item index. Parents were recruited through local elementary schools in San Antonio, TX. Pearson and Spearman correlations were used to examine the associations between the variables. t tests were used to explore the differences in means of children's fruit and vegetable intake at home for acculturation and food insecurity levels. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Significant correlations were found between demographic variables, acculturation, food insecurity, and children's fruit and vegetable intake at home. The overall mean fruit and vegetable intake at home was 1.04+/-0.63 (mean+/-standard deviation) servings per day. Higher rates of acculturation and higher rates of food insecurity were associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake at home. The findings reported in this study suggest a need for culturally tailored interventions targeting Hispanic children because fruit and vegetable intake at home among Hispanic children was low, regardless of the level of acculturation or food insecurity. PMID:19328265

  18. Food Labels Use Is Associated with Higher Adherence to Mediterranean Diet: Results from the Moli-Sani Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonanni, Americo E.; Bonaccio, Marialaura; di Castelnuovo, Augusto; de Lucia, Francesca; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with lower risk of ischemic cerebro- and cardio-vascular disease, neurological degenerative disease, and breast and colonrectal cancers. Nevertheless, adherence to this pattern has decreased. Food labels are a potentially valid means to encourage towards healthier dietary behavior. This study, conducted on a subsample of 883 subjects enrolled in the Moli-sani Project, evaluated whether food labels reading (LR) is associated with MD adherence. Participants completed a questionnaire on nutrition knowledge, information, and attitudes, with a specific question on food labels reading. Biometric measurements, socio-economic status, education, physical activity, and smoking habits were collected. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary habits, and subsequently evaluated by both the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and Italian Mediterranean index (IMI), a priori dietary patterns. Food consumption patterns were generated by Principal Components Analysis (PCA), an a posteriori approach. Multivariable odds ratios were calculated to quantify the association of LR categories with dietary habits. LR was significantly associated with greater adherence to both MDS (p = 0.0004) and IMI (p = 0.0019) in a multivariable model. LR participants had 74% (MDS) or 68% (IMI) higher probability to be in the highest level of adherence to Mediterranean diet-like patterns. Moreover, they showed greater adherence to Mediterranean-like food consumption patterns (0.1 vs. −0.2, p < 0.0001) and lower adherence to two Western-like patterns (0.01 vs. 0.2, p = 0.009 and 0.1 vs. 0.2, p = 0.02). These findings support an association between food label use and consuming a Mediterranean-type diet. PMID:24192994

  19. Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53-94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either "sometimes" or "often or always". Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.30), and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84-0.91). Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]). Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p = 0.06), with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02-1.11), with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17), and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99-1.05). This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food. PMID:23936098

  20. Association of food consumption with total volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in a Northern German population.

    PubMed

    Rüttgers, Daniela; Fischer, Karina; Koch, Manja; Lieb, Wolfgang; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-12-14

    Excess accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases; further, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and the ratio of both (VAT:SAAT ratio) have been discussed as potentially detrimental. Information about the association between diet and adipose tissue is scarce. This study aimed to identify food group intake associated with VAT and SAAT and the VAT:SAAT ratio in a Northern German population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 344 men and 241 women who underwent an MRI to quantify total volumes of VAT and SAAT. Intake of fourteen food groups was assessed with a self-administered 112-item FFQ. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity, intake of other food groups and mutual adjustment for VAT and SAAT were calculated to analyse the associations between standardised food group intake and VAT and SAAT, or the VAT:SAAT ratio. Intakes of potatoes (P=0·043) and cakes (P=0·003) were positively and inversely, respectively, associated with both VAT and SAAT. By contrast, intake of cereals was negatively associated with VAT (P=0·045) only, whereas intakes of eggs (P=0·006) and non-alcoholic beverages (P=0·042) were positively associated with SAAT only. The association between eggs and non-alcoholic beverages with SAAT remained significant after further consideration of VAT. Intake of non-alcoholic beverages was also inversely associated with the VAT:SAAT ratio (P=0·001). Our analysis adds to the evidence that intake of foods is independently associated with VAT or SAAT volumes. PMID:26439793

  1. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12–59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child’s defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother’s and child’s hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child’s bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Results Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged < 2 years (adjusted OR 4.55, 95% CI = 1.08-19.1). Conclusions Overall poor mother’s food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea. PMID:24138899

  2. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (P<0.05) or for good student behavior (P<0.05). School-level respondents in the West and the Midwest were less likely to report that food was not used as a reward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools. PMID:22640775

  3. The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

  4. Food Insecurity among Community College Students: Prevalence and Association with Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Maya E.; Snelling, Anastasia; Linck, Henry

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of food insecurity among community college students (N = 301) and the relationship between food insecurity and student grade point average (GPA). It employed a cross-sectional intercept survey, utilizing the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Survey Module, student self-reported…

  5. Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melissa; Hopkins, Laura; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Cristello, Angelica; Mccloskey, Morgan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Hurley, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores food preparation behaviors, including types of food prepared, methods of preparation, and frequency of preparation of low-income urban African American youth ages 9-15 in Baltimore City (n = 289) and analyzes a potential association to diet quality as measured through Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) scores. Overall, the youth prepared their own food 6.7 ± 0.33 times per week without significant differences between age groups or genders as measured through pairwise comparison of means. Cereal, noodles, and sandwiches were amongst the foods prepared most frequently. Linear regression analysis found youth food preparation frequency was not significantly associated with total HEI (p = 0.59), sodium (p = 0.58), empty calories (p = 0.96), or dairy scores (p = 0.12). Younger age was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.012) and higher dairy scores (p = 0.01) and female gender was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.03), higher sodium scores (p = 0.03), and lower dairy scores (p = 0.008). PMID:25706350

  6. Commercial complementary food consumption is prospectively associated with added sugar intake in childhood.

    PubMed

    Foterek, Kristina; Buyken, Anette E; Bolzenius, Katja; Hilbig, Annett; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Given that commercial complementary food (CF) can contain high levels of added sugar, a high consumption may predispose to a preference for sweet taste later in life. This study examined cross-sectional associations between commercial CF consumption and added sugar intake in infancy as well as its prospective relation to added sugar intake in pre-school and primary-school age children. In all, 288 children of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study with 3-d weighed dietary records at 0·5 and 0·75 (infancy), 3 and 4 (pre-school age) and 6 and 7 years of age (primary-school age) were included in this analysis. Individual commercial CF consumption as percentage of total commercial CF (%cCF) was averaged at 0·5 and 0·75 years. Individual total added sugar intake (g/d, energy percentage/d) was averaged for all three age groups. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to analyse associations between %cCF and added sugar intake. In infancy, a higher %cCF was associated with odds for high added sugar intake from CF and for high total added sugar intake (>75th percentile, P<0·033). Prospectively, a higher %cCF was related to higher added sugar intake in both pre-school (P<0·041) and primary-school age children (P<0·039), although these associations were attenuated in models adjusting for added sugar intake in infancy. A higher %cCF in infancy may predispose to higher added sugar intake in later childhood by virtue of its added sugar content. Therefore, offering home-made CF or carefully chosen commercial CF without added sugar might be one strategy to reduce sugar intake in infancy and later on. PMID:27079145

  7. JPL realtime weather processor system developed for FAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip C.

    1989-01-01

    Modifications made to the Central Weather Processor (CWP) project are discussed. In 1987, the development plan was revised and the CWP was split into the following parts: a meteorological weather processor and a realtime weather processor (RWP). The JPL is in charge of RWP development. Consideration is given to the major product categories (NEXRAD products, alphanumeric weather products, binary encoded products, graphic products), and the system architecture (the individual radar processor, the radar mosaic processor, and the communication and control processor).

  8. Algorithm for processor allocation in a dataflow multiprocessing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, L.Y.; Irani, K.B.

    1983-01-01

    The authors deal with the problem of associating the operations of a program with the processors in a distributed dataflow environment. The objective is to develop an algorithm which partitions a given dataflow program and maps the blocks of the partition onto the processing elements of a general dataflow multiprocessing system. System performance is measured by the total processing time of the program. 5 references.

  9. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.

    2012-07-01

    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d{sub max.}, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2}, 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4-40.6 Degree-Sign C (85-105 Degree-Sign F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used.

  10. Enabling Future Robotic Missions with Multicore Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Wesley A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wilmot, Jonathan; Some, Raphael; Gostelow, Kim P.; Reeves, Glenn; Doyle, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent commercial developments in multicore processors (e.g. Tilera, Clearspeed, HyperX) have provided an option for high performance embedded computing that rivals the performance attainable with FPGA-based reconfigurable computing architectures. Furthermore, these processors offer more straightforward and streamlined application development by allowing the use of conventional programming languages and software tools in lieu of hardware design languages such as VHDL and Verilog. With these advantages, multicore processors can significantly enhance the capabilities of future robotic space missions. This paper will discuss these benefits, along with onboard processing applications where multicore processing can offer advantages over existing or competing approaches. This paper will also discuss the key artchitecural features of current commercial multicore processors. In comparison to the current art, the features and advancements necessary for spaceflight multicore processors will be identified. These include power reduction, radiation hardening, inherent fault tolerance, and support for common spacecraft bus interfaces. Lastly, this paper will explore how multicore processors might evolve with advances in electronics technology and how avionics architectures might evolve once multicore processors are inserted into NASA robotic spacecraft.

  11. Sonic temperature sensor for food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process. This work has shown that the speed of sound accurately can be determined using tomographic reconstruction methods to an accuracy of {+-} 0.4%, which corresponds to a temperature uncertainty of {+-}2{degrees}C.

  12. Sample processor for chemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus is provided which can process numerous samples that must be chemically analyzed by the application of fluids such as liquid reagents, solvents and purge gases, as well as the application of dumps for receiving the applied fluid after they pass across the sample, in a manner that permits numerous samples to be processed in a relatively short time and with minimal manpower. The processor includes a rotor which can hold numerous cartridges containing inert or adsorbent material for holding samples, and a pair of stators on opposite sides of the rotor. The stators form stations spaced along the path of the cartridges which lie in the rotor, and each station can include an aperture in one stator through which a fluid can be applied to a cartridge resting at that station, and an aperture in the other stator which can receive the fluid which has passed through the cartridge. The stators are sealed to the ends of the cartridges lying on the rotor, to thereby isolate the stations from one another.

  13. Development of Innovative Design Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.S.; Park, C.O.

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear design analysis requires time-consuming and erroneous model-input preparation, code run, output analysis and quality assurance process. To reduce human effort and improve design quality and productivity, Innovative Design Processor (IDP) is being developed. Two basic principles of IDP are the document-oriented design and the web-based design. The document-oriented design is that, if the designer writes a design document called active document and feeds it to a special program, the final document with complete analysis, table and plots is made automatically. The active documents can be written with ordinary HTML editors or created automatically on the web, which is another framework of IDP. Using the proper mix-up of server side and client side programming under the LAMP (Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP) environment, the design process on the web is modeled as a design wizard style so that even a novice designer makes the design document easily. This automation using the IDP is now being implemented for all the reload design of Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) type PWRs. The introduction of this process will allow large reduction in all reload design efforts of KSNP and provide a platform for design and R and D tasks of KNFC. (authors)

  14. CCD correlated quadruple sampling processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaalema, S. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A correlated quadruple sampling processor for improved signal-to-noise ratio in the output of a charge-coupled device (CCD) is comprised of: switching means for momentarily clamping a CCD signal line at a first reference level A before a CCD data pulse and then obtaining a first data sample B with respect to the reference A during a CCD data pulse, and storing the positive sample B-A; switching means for momentarily clamping the CCD signal line a second time at the level C during the presence of the CCD data pulse and then obtaining a second data sample D with respect to the reference level C after the CCD data pulse, and storing the negative sample D-C; and means for obtaining the difference between the stored samples +(B-A) and -(D-C), thus increasing the net signal amplitude by a factor of about 2 while the noise would be increased by only a factor of square root of 2 since there will be no correlation in the noise between the double samples +(B-A) and -(D-C) effectively added.

  15. Onboard spectral imager data processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Franklin, Abraham J.; Sears, Robert D.; Robison, Mark W.; Rafert, J. Bruce; Fronterhouse, Donald C.; Grotbeck, Ronald L.

    1999-10-01

    Previous papers have described the concept behind the MightySat II.1 program, the satellite's Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer's optical design, the design for the spectral imaging payload, and its initial qualification testing. This paper discusses the on board data processing designed to reduce the amount of downloaded data by an order of magnitude and provide a demonstration of a smart spaceborne spectral imaging sensor. Two custom components, a spectral imager interface 6U VME card that moves data at over 30 MByte/sec, and four TI C-40 processors mounted to a second 6U VME and daughter card, are used to adapt the sensor to the spacecraft and provide the necessary high speed processing. A system architecture that offers both on board real time image processing and high-speed post data collection analysis of the spectral data has been developed. In addition to the on board processing of the raw data into a usable spectral data volume, one feature extraction technique has been incorporated. This algorithm operates on the basic interferometric data. The algorithm is integrated within the data compression process to search for uploadable feature descriptions.

  16. Molecular and serotyping characterization of shiga toxogenic Escherichia coli associated with food collected from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zogibi, Onizan G; Mohamed, Moussa I; Hessain, Ashgan M; El-Jakee, Jakeen K; Kabli, Saleh A

    2015-07-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are considered as one of the major food-borne disease agents in humans worldwide. STEC strains, also called verotoxin-producing E. coli strains. The objectives of the present study were serotyping and molecular characterization of shiga toxigenic E. coli associated with raw meat and milk samples collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 540 milk samples were collected from 5 dairy farms and 150 raw meat samples were collected from different abattoirs located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. E. coli were recovered from 86 milk samples (15.93%), serotyping of E. coli isolates revealed, 26 (4.81%) strains O157: H7, 23 (4.26%) strains O111, 20 (3.70%) strains O113: H21, 10 (1.85%) strains O22: H8 and 7 (1.3%) strains O172: H21. Meanwhile, 17 (11.33%) strains of E. coli were recovered from raw meat samples, serotyping of E. coli isolates revealed, 6 (4%) strains O157: H7, 5 (3.33%) strains O111 and 4 (2.67%) strains O174: H2 and only two (1.33%) strains were identified as O22: H8. Shiga toxin2 was detected in 58 (67.44%) serotypes of E. coli recovered from milk samples and 16 (94.12%) serotypes of E. coli recovered from meat samples, while intimin gene was detected in 38 (44.186%) serotypes of E. coli recovered from milk samples and in 10 (58.82%) serotypes of E. coli recovered from meat samples. The results of this study revealed the efficiency of combination between serotyping and molecular typing of E. coli isolates recovered from food of animal origin for rapid detection and characterization of STEC. PMID:26150750

  17. Genetic Relatedness among Hepatitis A Virus Strains Associated with Food-Borne Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Gilberto; Xia, Guoliang; Forbi, Joseph C.; Purdy, Michael A.; Rossi, Lívia Maria Gonçalves; Spradling, Philip R.; Khudyakov, Yury E.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic characterization of hepatitis A virus (HAV) strains is commonly accomplished by sequencing subgenomic regions, such as the VP1/P2B junction. HAV genome is not extensively variable, thus presenting opportunity for sharing sequences of subgenomic regions among genetically unrelated isolates. The degree of misrepresentation of phylogenetic relationships by subgenomic regions is especially important for tracking transmissions. Here, we analyzed whole-genome (WG) sequences of 101 HAV strains identified from 4 major multi-state, food-borne outbreaks of hepatitis A in the Unites States and from 14 non-outbreak-related HAV strains that shared identical VP1/P2B sequences with the outbreak strains. Although HAV strains with an identical VP1/P2B sequence were specific to each outbreak, WG were different, with genetic diversity reaching 0.31% (mean 0.09%). Evaluation of different subgenomic regions did not identify any other section of the HAV genome that could accurately represent phylogenetic relationships observed using WG sequences. The identification of 2–3 dominant HAV strains in 3 out of 4 outbreaks indicates contamination of the implicated food items with a heterogeneous HAV population. However, analysis of intra-host HAV variants from eight patients involved in one outbreak showed that only a single sequence variant established infection in each patient. Four non-outbreak strains were found closely related to strains from 2 outbreaks, whereas ten were genetically different from the outbreak strains. Thus, accurate tracking of HAV strains can be accomplished using HAV WG sequences, while short subgenomic regions are useful for identification of transmissions only among cases with known epidemiological association. PMID:24223112

  18. Transient massive trimethylaminuria associated with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miller, Natalie B; Beigelman, Avraham; Utterson, Elizabeth; Shinawi, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by excessive excretion into body fluids and breath of unoxidized trimethylamine (TMA) derived from the enterobacterial metabolism of dietary precursors. The condition is caused by deficiency of flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) which leads to impairment of hepatic TMA oxidation to the odorless trimethylamine N-oxide. Secondary TMAU is due to substrate overload in individuals with genetically determined reduced enzyme activity. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is characterized by recurrent episodes of emesis, diarrhea, dehydration, and lethargy after ingestion of offending foods. Its pathophysiology involves local non-IgE-mediated inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to increased intestinal permeability. We report on an 8-month-old male who presented with typical episodes of FPIES associated with intense fish-like body odor. Further investigation in our patient revealed massive urinary TMA excretion during acute FPIES presentation and complete normalization between these episodes. The patient was found to be heterozygous for a novel, paternally inherited nonsense p.Tyr331X mutation and for two maternally inherited common polymorphisms, E158K and E308G, in the FMO3 gene. We propose that our patient was able to cope with the daily burden of TMA, but when challenged with substrate overload, he failed to oxidize TMA due to limited reserve enzyme capacity. We discuss the pathophysiology of TMAU and FPIES and suggest potential mechanisms for the clinical and biochemical findings. Our report illustrates the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors in TMAU and sheds light on the pathophysiology of FPIES. PMID:23821320

  19. The Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Consumption Frequencies of Vitamin D Food Sources in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Areum; Kim, Jihye; Kwon, Oran; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the status of vitamin D in Korean adolescents and to determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and consumption frequencies of vitamin D food sources by season (June to November and December to May). The subjects were 1,579 adolescents aged 12-18 years participating in the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Consumption frequencies of vitamin D food sources were estimated by using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Thirteen food items were selected as vitamin D food sources including beef, egg, mackerel, tuna, yellow corvine, pollack, anchovy, mushroom, milk, yoghurt, ice cream, all fish and dairy products from the FFQ based on previous research. The data was analyzed using proc survey procedures. The deficiency (5.25-12 ng/mL), inadequacy (12-20 ng/mL) and sufficiency (> 20 ng/mL) proportions of serum 25(OH)D from June to November and December to May were 9.9%, 51.4%, 38.7%, and 39.4%, 51.4%, 9.2%, respectively. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively related to the consumption frequencies of mackerel, anchovy, all fish and milk. These results suggest high proportion (> 61%) of Korean adolescents were vitamin D deficiency or inadequacy, and serum 25(OH)D was associated with the consumption of vitamin D food sources including fish and milk. PMID:23908977

  20. The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentration and consumption frequencies of vitamin d food sources in korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Areum; Kim, Jihye; Kwon, Oran; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Junghyun; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the status of vitamin D in Korean adolescents and to determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and consumption frequencies of vitamin D food sources by season (June to November and December to May). The subjects were 1,579 adolescents aged 12-18 years participating in the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Consumption frequencies of vitamin D food sources were estimated by using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Thirteen food items were selected as vitamin D food sources including beef, egg, mackerel, tuna, yellow corvine, pollack, anchovy, mushroom, milk, yoghurt, ice cream, all fish and dairy products from the FFQ based on previous research. The data was analyzed using proc survey procedures. The deficiency (5.25-12 ng/mL), inadequacy (12-20 ng/mL) and sufficiency (> 20 ng/mL) proportions of serum 25(OH)D from June to November and December to May were 9.9%, 51.4%, 38.7%, and 39.4%, 51.4%, 9.2%, respectively. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively related to the consumption frequencies of mackerel, anchovy, all fish and milk. These results suggest high proportion (> 61%) of Korean adolescents were vitamin D deficiency or inadequacy, and serum 25(OH)D was associated with the consumption of vitamin D food sources including fish and milk. PMID:23908977

  1. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  2. Grandmothers, fathers, and depressive symptoms are associated with food insecurity among low-income first-time African-American mothers in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Laraia, Barbara A; Borja, Judith B; Bentley, Margaret E

    2009-06-01

    African Americans experience household food insecurity, ie, the limited availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, or ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways, at three times the rate of non-Hispanic whites. Thirty percent of all African-American children live in food-insecure households. The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics associated with household food insecurity among a high-risk postpartum population. Two-hundred six low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads were recruited through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics. The six-item US Department of Agriculture food security scale was used to classify households as food secure, marginally food secure, or food insecure. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected maternal/household characteristics and household food-security status. Fifty-three percent of households were food secure, 34% were marginally food secure, and 13% were food insecure. Maternal education less than college (relative risk ratio [RRR]=0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.98) was inversely associated with marginal food security. Depressive symptoms (RRR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.16) and having the baby's father in the household (RRR=3.46; 95% CI: 1.22 to 9.82) were associated with household food insecurity, while having a grandmother in the household (RRR=0.15; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.80) was inversely associated with experiencing household food insecurity. Findings from this study suggest that young, low-income, African-American families with only one child are particularly susceptible to experiencing household food insecurity. Intergenerational support and transfer of knowledge can be a key protective attribute among low-income African-American households. PMID:19465186

  3. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact. PMID:27110253

  4. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, M. Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact. PMID:27110253

  5. Does food vendor density mediate the association between neighborhood deprivation and BMI? A G-computation mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y. Tara; Laraia, Barbara A.; Mujahid, Mahasin S.; Tamayo, Aracely; Blanchard, Samuel D.; Warton, E. Margaret; Kelly, N. Maggi; Moffet, Howard H.; Schillinger, Dean; Adler, Nancy; Karter, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In previous research, neighborhood deprivation was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) among adults with diabetes. We assessed whether the association between neighborhood deprivation and BMI is attributable, in part, to geographic variation in the availability of healthful and unhealthful food vendors. Methods Subjects were 16,634 participants of the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE), a multiethnic cohort of adults living with diabetes. Neighborhood deprivation and healthful (supermarket and produce) and unhealthful (fast food outlets and convenience stores) food vendor kernel density were calculated at each participant's residential block centroid. We estimated the total effect, controlled direct effect, natural direct effect, and natural indirect effect of neighborhood deprivation on BMI. Mediation effects were estimated using G-computation, a maximum likelihood substitution estimator of the G-formula that allows for complex data relationships such as multiple mediators and sequential causal pathways. Results We estimated that if neighborhood deprivation were reduced from the most deprived to the least deprived quartile, average BMI would change by −0.73 units (95% CI −1.05, −0.32); however, we did not detect evidence of mediation by food vendor density. In contrast to previous findings, a simulated reduction in neighborhood deprivation from the most deprived to the least deprived quartile was associated with dramatic declines in both healthful and unhealthful food vendor density. PMID:25741628

  6. TRADITIONAL FOODS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH CULTURAL FACTORS IN A DIVERSE ALASKA NATIVE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Redwood, Diana G; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Schumacher, Mary C; Johnson, Jennifer S; Lanier, Anne P; Helzer, Laurie J; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Slattery, Martha L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of traditional food and physical activity use and associations with cultural factors among 3,830 Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study in 3 regions of Alaska. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Methods Participants (2,323 women and 1,507 men) completed a computer-assisted self-administered questionnaire that included information on diet, physical activity, life-style and cultural factors. Results Over 92% of participants reported eating at least 1 traditional food in the past year. The top 3 traditional foods reported were fish, moose and agutaq (a mixture of berries and fat). The percentage of people who consumed traditional foods varied by region and age but not by sex (p<0.01). Almost 70% of participants engaged in at least one traditional harvesting physical activity. Picking berries or greens, cutting/smoking fish or meat and fishing were the most common activities. Participation in traditional physical activity was highest in south-west Alaska and was higher among men than women, but did not differ by age (p<0.01). Both traditional food and physical activity were associated with greater tribal self-identification, speaking a Native language at home, using traditional remedies and participating in or attending traditional events (p<0.05). Conclusions The EARTH Study found relationships between traditional food use, physical activities, cultural activities and behaviours. Consumption of a variety of traditional foods and participation in traditional physical activities remain an important part of the contemporary Alaska Native life-style. Efforts to promote and sustain these foods and activities in AN/AI populations may lead to improved health outcomes. PMID:19024803

  7. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong

  8. Indoor second-hand smoking could mediate the associations of foods and adult happiness: Scottish Health Survey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-02-01

    There has been literature on the relationship of food and happiness, but the role of second-hand smoking is less understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine if second-hand smoking might mediate the associations of food consumption and subjective happiness in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the Scottish Health Survey, 2012. Information on demographics, frequency of consuming certain foods and subjective happiness was obtained by household interview. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of the included Scottish adults aged 16-99 (n = 4815), 15.4 % (n = 677) reported that they were unhappy. It was observed that eating lots of potatoes, some meat, some oily fish and some pastries were inversely associated with unhappiness. People who consumed vegetables and fruits on the day before the health interview were also found to be less unhappy, compared to their counterparts. However, the protective effect from fruits disappeared after additionally adjusting for indoor second-hand smoking while the protective effects from other foods mentioned above have also been lessened. In addition, cumulatively people who consumed more "happy foods" (mentioned above) were more likely to report subjective happiness, compared to those who did not consume any of those. For future research, longitudinally monitoring on the associations among food, household environment and psychological well-being and both the short-term and long-term effects would be suggested. For policy implications, Removal of indoor second-hand smoking to retain the protective effects from happy foods on well-being should be encouraged. PMID:26490886

  9. Avoid That Bus!: Multi-core processors drive adoption of new processor interconnect standards

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, Rob

    2007-09-01

    emember the adage “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”? Current computers work, they access memory correctly, my software runs … so why are manufacturers trying to sell me all these new memory types, faster buses, and different chip interconnect protocols? What’s broke? The problem is that multi-core processors are highlighting limitations in the current Front Side Bus (FSB) memory architectures. They really are broken in a performance sense – even though they function correctly. Multi-core processors need fast processor-to-processor communications as well as higher-bandwidth, lower-latency processor-to-memory communications. These needs are driving the adoption of new processor interconnect standards such as Intel’s Common System Interface (CSI) and AMD’s HyperTransport. In the future, it makes sense to avoid that bus.

  10. Grundy - Parallel processor architecture makes programming easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, R. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hardware, software, and firmware of the parallel processor, Grundy, are examined. The Grundy processor uses a simple processor that has a totally orthogonal three-address instruction set. The system contains a relative and indirect processing mode to support the high-level language, and uses pseudoprocessors and read-only memory. The system supports high-level language in which arbitrary degrees of algorithmic parallelism is expressed. The functions of the compiler and invocation frame are described. Grundy uses an operating system that can be accessed by an arbitrary number of processes simultaneously, and the access time grows only as the logarithm of the number of active processes. Applications for the parallel processor are discussed.

  11. Transitive closure on the imagine stream processor

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, Gorden; Oliker, Leonid

    2003-11-11

    The increasing gap between processor and memory speeds is a well-known problem in modern computer architecture. The Imagine system is designed to address the processor-memory gap through streaming technology. Stream processors are best-suited for computationally intensive applications characterized by high data parallelism and producer-consumer locality with minimal data dependencies. This work examines an efficient streaming implementation of the computationally intensive Transitive Closure (TC) algorithm on the Imagine platform. We develop a tiled TC algorithm specifically for the Imagine environment, which efficiently reuses streams to minimize expensive off-chip data transfers. The implementation requires complex stream programming since the memory hierarchy and cluster organization of the underlying architecture are exposed to the Imagine programmer. Results demonstrate that limited performance of TC is achieved primarily due to the complicated data-dependencies of the blocked algorithm. This work is an ongoing effort to identify classes of scientific problems well-suited for streaming processors.

  12. Word Processors and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, D. S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Word processors can assist teachers and students by focusing on writing as a process, rather than a product. Word processing breaks writing up into manageable chunks that permit writing skills to develop in an integraged manner. (10 references) (CJH)

  13. Concept for a distributed processor computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, P. N.; Burnett, G. J.; Koczela, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    Future generation computer utilizes cell of single metal oxide semiconductor wafer containing general purpose processor section and small memory of approximately 512 words of 16 bits each. Cells are organized into groups and groups interconnected to form computer.

  14. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757) approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed a decrease of the mean healthy (−1.12, se 0.12) and unhealthy (−0.48, se 0.16) diet scores. There were significant positive relationships between the distances travelled to grocers and healthy diet scores though effects were very small (0.003, 95%CI 0.001 – 0.006). Significant negative relationships between proximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates. Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools

  15. Ultra-Reliable Digital Avionics (URDA) processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branstetter, Reagan; Ruszczyk, William; Miville, Frank

    1994-10-01

    Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI) developed the URDA processor design under contract with the U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratory and the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electro-Sensors Directorate. TI's approach couples advanced packaging solutions with advanced integrated circuit (IC) technology to provide a high-performance (200 MIPS/800 MFLOPS) modular avionics processor module for a wide range of avionics applications. TI's processor design integrates two Ada-programmable, URDA basic processor modules (BPM's) with a JIAWG-compatible PiBus and TMBus on a single F-22 common integrated processor-compatible form-factor SEM-E avionics card. A separate, high-speed (25-MWord/second 32-bit word) input/output bus is provided for sensor data. Each BPM provides a peak throughput of 100 MIPS scalar concurrent with 400-MFLOPS vector processing in a removable multichip module (MCM) mounted to a liquid-flowthrough (LFT) core and interfacing to a processor interface module printed wiring board (PWB). Commercial RISC technology coupled with TI's advanced bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and silicon-on-silicon packaging technologies are used to achieve the high performance in a miniaturized package. A Mips R4000-family reduced instruction set computer (RISC) processor and a TI 100-MHz BiCMOS vector coprocessor (VCP) ASIC provide, respectively, the 100 MIPS of a scalar processor throughput and 400 MFLOPS of vector processing throughput for each BPM. The TI Aladdim ASIC chipset was developed on the TI Aladdin Program under contract with the U.S. Army Communications and Electronics Command and was sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency with technical direction from the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electro-Sensors Directorate.

  16. Optical systolic array processor using residue arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J.; Casasent, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of residue arithmetic to increase the accuracy and reduce the dynamic range requirements of optical matrix-vector processors is evaluated. It is determined that matrix-vector operations and iterative algorithms can be performed totally in residue notation. A new parallel residue quantizer circuit is developed which significantly improves the performance of the systolic array feedback processor. Results are presented of a computer simulation of this system used to solve a set of three simultaneous equations.

  17. The antagonism of ghrelin alters the appetitive response to learned cues associated with food.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Megan J; Moran, Timothy H; Holland, Peter C; Johnson, Alexander W

    2016-04-15

    The rapid increase in obesity may be partly mediated by an increase in the exposure to cues for food. Food-paired cues play a role in food procurement and intake under conditions of satiety. The mechanism by which this occurs requires characterization, but may involve ghrelin. This orexigenic peptide alters the response to food-paired conditioned stimuli, and neural responses to food images in reward nuclei. Therefore, we tested whether a ghrelin receptor antagonist alters the influence of food-paired cues on the performance of instrumental responses that earn food and the consumption of food itself using tests of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) and cue potentiated feeding (CPF), respectively. Food-deprived rats received Pavlovian conditioning where an auditory cue was paired with delivery of sucrose solution followed by instrumental conditioning to lever press for sucrose. Following training, rats were given ad libitum access to chow. On test day, rats were injected with the ghrelin receptor antagonist GHRP-6 [D-Lys3] and then tested for PIT or CPF. Disrupting ghrelin signaling enhanced expression of PIT. In addition, GHRP-6 [D-Lys3] impaired the initiation of feeding behavior in CPF without influencing overall intake of sucrose. Finally, in PIT tested rats, enhanced FOS immunoreactivity was revealed following the antagonist in regions thought to underlie PIT; however, the antagonist had no effect on FOS immunoreactivity in CPF tested rats. PMID:26802728

  18. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  19. Food and Beverage Promotions in Minnesota Secondary Schools: Secular Changes, Correlates, and Associations with Adolescents' Dietary Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S.; Coombes, Brandon; Caspi, Caitlin; Kubik, Martha Y.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe promotions for unhealthy and healthy foods and beverages within Minnesota secondary schools from 2008 to 2012, and to examine associations with school-level coordination of environmental improvements and students' dietary behaviors. Methods: The Minnesota School Health Profiles and…

  20. Associations between Participation in the National School Lunch Program, Food Insecurity, and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    This study examined the association between food insecurity, participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and child well-being. Participants were children age 6-12 years in families in which at least one child participated in the NSLP. Data came from the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Food…

  1. Association between home and school food environments and dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Vepsäläinen, H; Mikkilä, V; Erkkola, M; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the roles of home and school environments on dietary patterns among children from 12 countries differing widely in geographic region and levels of human and economic development. Methods: The sample included a total of 6685 (54% girls) 9–11-year-old children. Parents/guardians reported the availability of certain foods in the home, and trained researchers performed school audits recording the availability of foods for sale at schools. Foods were then divided into wholesome (nutrient-dense) and empty-calorie (nutrient-poor) foods and scored according to their availability. Children reported if their school provided school lunch and how many times during the last week they had eaten meals prepared away from home and school. Via principal components analysis, data-driven dietary pattern scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Multilevel models were used to study the associations between home and school food environments (wholesome and empty-calorie foods) and dietary patterns (healthy and unhealthy diet pattern scores). Results: For low unhealthy diet pattern scores, low availability of empty-calorie foods at home was found to be more important than high availability of wholesome foods. More meals eaten outside home and school were associated with the higher unhealthy diet pattern scores. The availability of wholesome foods at home was positively associated with the healthy diet pattern scores. Food availability at school was not associated with the dietary patterns. Conclusions: In this sample, the home food environment was more significant than the school food environment in predicting the dietary patterns. The availability of empty-calorie foods was associated with the unhealthy dietary pattern even when the availability of wholesome foods at home was high. Meals prepared away from home contributed to the unhealthy dietary pattern. Therefore, parents should be encouraged to limit the availability of empty

  2. Analog parallel processor hardware for high speed pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Tawel, R.; Langenbacher, H.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI-based analog processor for fully parallel, associative, high-speed pattern matching is reported. The processor consists of two main components: an analog memory matrix for storage of a library of patterns, and a winner-take-all (WTA) circuit for selection of the stored pattern that best matches an input pattern. An inner product is generated between the input vector and each of the stored memories. The resulting values are applied to a WTA network for determination of the closest match. Patterns with up to 22 percent overlap are successfully classified with a WTA settling time of less than 10 microsec. Applications such as star pattern recognition and mineral classification with bounded overlap patterns have been successfully demonstrated. This architecture has a potential for an overall pattern matching speed in excess of 10 exp 9 bits per second for a large memory.

  3. Network of evolutionary processors with splicing rules and permitting context.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ashish; Krithivasan, Kamala

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we consider networks of evolutionary processors with splicing rules and permitting context (NEPPS) as language generating and computational devices. Such a network consists of several processors placed on the nodes of a virtual graph and are able to perform splicing (which is a biologically motivated operation) on the words present in that node, according to the splicing rules present there. Before applying the splicing operation on words, we check for the presence of certain symbols (permitting context) in the strings on which the rule is applied. Each node is associated with an input and output filter. When the filters are based on random context conditions, one gets the computational power of Turing machines with networks of size two. We also show how these networks can be used to solve NP-complete problems in linear time. PMID:17045388

  4. Food-grade titanium dioxide exposure exacerbates tumor formation in colitis associated cancer model.

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Ortega, Ismael M; Garduño-Balderas, Luis G; Delgado-Buenrostro, Norma L; Freyre-Fonseca, Verónica; Flores-Flores, José O; González-Robles, Arturo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Terrazas, Luis I; van Loveren, Henk; Chirino, Yolanda I

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth worldwide cause of death and even if some dietary habits are consider risk factors, the contribution of food additives including foodgrade titanium dioxide (TiO2), designated as E171, has been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that oral E171 intake could have impact on the enhancement of colorectal tumor formation and we aimed to investigate if E171 administration could enhance tumor formation in a colitis associated cancer (CAC) model. BALB/c male mice were grouped as follows: a) control, b) E171, c) CAC and d) CAC + E171 group (n = 6). E171 used in this study formed agglomerates of 300 nm in water. E171 intragastric administration (5 mg/kg body weight/5 days/10 weeks) was unable to induce tumor formation but dysplastic alterations were observed in the distal colon but enhanced the tumor formation in distal colon (CAC + E171 group) measured by tumor progression markers. Some E171 particles were internalized in colonic cells of the E171 and CAC + E171 groups and both groups showed a decrease in goblet cells in the distal colon. However the CAC + E171 group showed a higher decrease of these cells that act as protection barrier in colon. These results suggest that E171 could worsen pre-existent intestinal diseases. PMID:27117919

  5. Childhood lead poisoning in 2 families associated with spices used in food preparation.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Alan D; Woolf, Nicholas T

    2005-08-01

    Although most cases of childhood lead poisoning are caused by contaminated paint and dust in older homes, a variety of unusual sources of lead exposure are occasionally found. We report here 2 families whose children were poisoned by lead-contaminated spices that were purchased in foreign countries, brought to the United States, and then used in the preparation of the family's food. Six children (2-17 years old) in a family from the Republic of Georgia were poisoned by swanuri marili (lead content: 100 and 2040 mg/kg in separately sampled products) and kharchos suneli (zafron) lead content: 23,100 mg/kg) purchased from a street vendor in Tbilisi, Georgia. The second family had purchased a mixture of spices called kozhambu (lead content: 310 mg/kg) while traveling in India. Both the parents and their 2-year-old child subsequently suffered lead poisoning. The young children in both families required short-term chelation to bring their blood lead levels down to a safer range. Clinicians should be vigilant for all sources of lead contamination, including spices, when whole families are found to have elevated blood lead levels despite a confirmed lead-safe home environment. Families traveling abroad should be aware of the potential health risks associated with the purchase and use of spices that have not been tested for purity. PMID:16061585

  6. Factors Associated with Inpatient Hospital (Re)admissions in Medicare Beneficiaries in Need of Food Assistance.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Elisabeth Lilian Pia; Lee, Jung Sun; Young, Henry N

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about pathways underlying inpatient hospital (re)admissions in older adults unable to meet basic needs. This study examined the factors associated with (re)admissions in a sample of low-income older Medicare beneficiaries in need of food assistance in Georgia in 2008 (N = 892, mean age 75.4 ± 8.8 years, 30.3% Black, 68.5% female). About 35.3% of the sample experienced 1 + hospital (re)admissions. (Re)admissions were significantly more likely in individuals who requested Older Americans Act Nutrition Program Home Delivered Meals services (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.4, 3.8), had more outpatient emergency room visits (1 visit: OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4, 3.1; 2+ visits: OR 3.6; 95% CI 2.4, 5.4), and experienced greater multimorbidity (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4, 3.1). Support for home and community-based services may be critical in reducing potentially avoidable inpatient hospital (re)admissions. PMID:26106990

  7. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  8. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast-food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (N=196, 25–51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (Model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in Model 2 but most were not significant in Model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (AHEI) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast-food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  9. Factors Associated with Problem Drinking among Women Employed in Food and Recreational Facilities in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mongi, Aika S.; Baisley, Kathy; Ao, Trong Thanh-Hoang; Chilongani, Joseph; Aguirre-Andreasen, Aura; Francis, Suzanna C.; Shao, John; Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania. Methods We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18–44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs. Results Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10–2.23; AUDIT: aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34–3.00) and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26–2.56; AUDIT: aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04–2.18), in the past 3 months. Conclusion These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high

  10. Optimal processor assignment for pipeline computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Simha, Rahul; Choudhury, Alok N.; Narahari, Bhagirath

    1991-01-01

    The availability of large scale multitasked parallel architectures introduces the following processor assignment problem for pipelined computations. Given a set of tasks and their precedence constraints, along with their experimentally determined individual responses times for different processor sizes, find an assignment of processor to tasks. Two objectives are of interest: minimal response given a throughput requirement, and maximal throughput given a response time requirement. These assignment problems differ considerably from the classical mapping problem in which several tasks share a processor; instead, it is assumed that a large number of processors are to be assigned to a relatively small number of tasks. Efficient assignment algorithms were developed for different classes of task structures. For a p processor system and a series parallel precedence graph with n constituent tasks, an O(np2) algorithm is provided that finds the optimal assignment for the response time optimization problem; it was found that the assignment optimizing the constrained throughput in O(np2log p) time. Special cases of linear, independent, and tree graphs are also considered.

  11. Adjunct processors in embedded medical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepanier, Marc; Goddard, Iain

    2002-05-01

    Adjunct processors have traditionally been used for certain tasks in medical imaging systems. Often based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), these processors formed X-ray image-processing pipelines or constituted the backprojectors in computed tomography (CT) systems. We examine appropriate functions to perform with adjunct processing and draw some conclusions about system design trade-offs. These trade-offs have traditionally focused on the required performance and flexibility of individual system components, with increasing emphasis on time-to-market impact. Typically, front-end processing close to the sensor has the most intensive processing requirements. However, the performance capabilities of each level are dynamic and the system architect must keep abreast of the current capabilities of all options to remain competitive. Designers are searching for the most efficient implementation of their particular system requirements. We cite algorithm characteristics that point to effective solutions by adjunct processors. We have developed a field- programmable gate array (FPGA) adjunct-processor solution for a Cone-Beam Reconstruction (CBR) algorithm that offers significant performance improvements over a general-purpose processor implementation. The same hardware could efficiently perform other image processing functions such as two-dimensional (2D) convolution. The potential performance, price, operating power, and flexibility advantages of an FPGA adjunct processor over an ASIC, DSP or general-purpose processing solutions are compelling.

  12. Dynamically scalable dual-core pipelined processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nishant; Aggrawal, Ekta; Rajawat, Arvind

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes design and architecture of a dynamically scalable dual-core pipelined processor. Methodology of the design is the core fusion of two processors where two independent cores can dynamically morph into a larger processing unit, or they can be used as distinct processing elements to achieve high sequential performance and high parallel performance. Processor provides two execution modes. Mode1 is multiprogramming mode for execution of streams of instruction of lower data width, i.e., each core can perform 16-bit operations individually. Performance is improved in this mode due to the parallel execution of instructions in both the cores at the cost of area. In mode2, both the processing cores are coupled and behave like single, high data width processing unit, i.e., can perform 32-bit operation. Additional core-to-core communication is needed to realise this mode. The mode can switch dynamically; therefore, this processor can provide multifunction with single design. Design and verification of processor has been done successfully using Verilog on Xilinx 14.1 platform. The processor is verified in both simulation and synthesis with the help of test programs. This design aimed to be implemented on Xilinx Spartan 3E XC3S500E FPGA.

  13. Food-intake patterns assessed by using front-of-pack labeling program criteria associated with better diet quality and lower cardiometabolic risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Front-of-pack labeling systems may provide additional guidance to that already available to facilitate the identification of foods that improve diet quality. We examined the association between choosing foods that meet criteria of an established front-of-pack labeling system with food-group and nutr...

  14. Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Mitchell, Dominique; Taft, Brett

    1992-01-01

    A project in the Advanced Design Program at the University of Arizona is described. The project is named the Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) and is a Universities Space Research Association (USRA) sponsored design project. The development of ASPOD and the students' abilities in designing and building a prototype spacecraft are the ultimate goals of this project. This year's focus entailed the development of a secondary robotic arm and end-effector to work in tandem with an existent arm in the removal of orbital debris. The new arm features the introduction of composite materials and a linear drive system, thus producing a light-weight and more accurate prototype. The main characteristic of the end-effector design is that it incorporates all of the motors and gearing internally, thus not subjecting them to the harsh space environment. Furthermore, the arm and the end-effector are automated by a control system with positional feedback. This system is composed of magnetic and optical encoders connected to a 486 PC via two servo-motor controller cards. Programming a series of basic routines and sub-routines allowed the ASPOD prototype to become more autonomous. The new system is expected to perform specified tasks with a positional accuracy of 0.5 cm.

  15. On the taste of "Bouba" and "Kiki": An exploration of word-food associations in neurologically normal participants.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Boschin, Erica; Spence, Charles

    2011-03-01

    We investigated whether there are reliable crossmodal associations between foods/flavours and words in neurologically normal individuals. Participants were given a range of foods to taste, and had to rate each one along a number of dimensions. These included scales anchored with the words "takete/maluma" and "bouba/kiki". The results highlight the existence of robust crossmodal associations between complex foods/flavours and words in normal (i.e., nonsynesthetic) individuals. For example, crisps (potato chips) and cranberry sauce are rated as being more "takete" than brie cheese, while mint chocolate is rated as more "kiki" than regular chocolate. On the basis of these results, we suggest that our brains can extract supramodal/conceptual properties from foods/flavours (just as has been demonstrated previously using auditory and visual stimuli) and meaningfully match them crossmodally. The possibility that this process is based on the global Gestalt of a food rather than on any specific sensory qualities is also discussed. PMID:24168422

  16. Evaluating natural antimicrobials for food application, in natural antimicrobials for food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microflora of foods is of practical significance to producers, processors and consumers. Food manufacturers and distributors are responding to consumers’ demand for food products that are safe, fresher and convenient for use. In some cases foods may be improperly processed and/or contaminated wi...

  17. Choose your menu wisely: cuisine-associated food-poisoning risks in restaurants in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Gormley, F J; Rawal, N; Little, C L

    2012-06-01

    The food service sector continues to be the most common setting for reported foodborne disease outbreaks in England and Wales. Using restaurant-associated foodborne outbreaks reported in England and Wales from 1992 to 2009, cuisine-specific risk factors were examined. Of 677 restaurant outbreaks, there were 11 795 people affected, 491 hospitalizations, and seven deaths; and Chinese, Indian, British and Italian cuisines were the most commonly implicated (26%, 16%, 13% and 10%, respectively). Salmonella spp. accounted for most outbreaks of all cuisine types, and particularly Chinese (76%, 133/175) and Italian (55%, 38/69). Poultry meat was the most frequently implicated food vehicle in outbreaks associated with Indian (30%), Chinese (21%), and British (18%) cuisines while for Italian cuisine, desserts and cakes were more frequently implicated (33%). Rice dishes were also a common outbreak food vehicle in those restaurants serving Chinese (22%) and Indian (16%) cuisine. Cross-contamination was the biggest contributory factor associated with Chinese (46%), British (33%) and Indian (30%) cuisines whereas inadequate cooking (38%) and use of raw shell eggs in lightly cooked or uncooked food (35%) were more often associated with Italian cuisine. Over the surveillance period, the proportion of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 outbreaks in restaurants serving Chinese cuisine significantly decreased (P<0.0001) and this was mirrored by an increase in S. Enteritidis non-PT4 outbreaks (P<0.0001). Despite this change in proportion, contributory factors such as cross-contamination have continued to cause outbreaks throughout the 18 years. The results show that by stratifying the risks associated with restaurants by cuisine type, specific evidence of food control failures can be used to target foodborne illness reduction strategies. PMID:21854669

  18. Noncontingent Reinforcement as Treatment for Food Refusal and Associated Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A.; Normand, Matthew; Atwell, Julie

    2005-01-01

    We examined the use of noncontingent reinforcement to decrease self-injury and increase bite acceptance in a child who exhibited food refusal. First, a brief functional analysis suggested that self-injury was maintained by escape from food presentation. Next, we evaluated an intervention that involved noncontingent access to a video during feeding…

  19. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Acculturation and Social Networks in Puerto Rican Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Himmelgreen, David A.; Peng, Yu-Kuei; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. Methods: A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger…

  20. Young children's food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent's diet.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2014-09-01

    Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age. PMID:24859112

  1. A false positive food chain error associated with a generic predator gut content ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional prey-specific gut content ELISA and PCR assays are useful for identifying predators of insect pests in nature. However, these assays are prone to yielding certain types of food chain errors. For instance, it is possible that prey remains can pass through the food chain as the result of ...

  2. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  3. IDSP- INTERACTIVE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mish, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Digital Signal Processor, IDSP, consists of a set of time series analysis "operators" based on the various algorithms commonly used for digital signal analysis work. The processing of a digital time series to extract information is usually achieved by the application of a number of fairly standard operations. However, it is often desirable to "experiment" with various operations and combinations of operations to explore their effect on the results. IDSP is designed to provide an interactive and easy-to-use system for this type of digital time series analysis. The IDSP operators can be applied in any sensible order (even recursively), and can be applied to single time series or to simultaneous time series. IDSP is being used extensively to process data obtained from scientific instruments onboard spacecraft. It is also an excellent teaching tool for demonstrating the application of time series operators to artificially-generated signals. IDSP currently includes over 43 standard operators. Processing operators provide for Fourier transformation operations, design and application of digital filters, and Eigenvalue analysis. Additional support operators provide for data editing, display of information, graphical output, and batch operation. User-developed operators can be easily interfaced with the system to provide for expansion and experimentation. Each operator application generates one or more output files from an input file. The processing of a file can involve many operators in a complex application. IDSP maintains historical information as an integral part of each file so that the user can display the operator history of the file at any time during an interactive analysis. IDSP is written in VAX FORTRAN 77 for interactive or batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX-11/780 operating under VMS. The IDSP system generates graphics output for a variety of graphics systems. The program requires the use of Versaplot and Template plotting

  4. Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational week 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. We used linear binomial regression with frequent versus rare use of organic food as outcome variable and characteristics of the respondent as independent variables. The outcome variable was derived from self-reported frequency of organic food use in six main food groups (milk/dairy, bread/cereal, eggs, vegetables, fruit and meat). Results Organic eggs and vegetables were the food items which were most frequently reported to be used "often" or "mostly". The proportion of women reporting frequent intake of organic food was 9.1% (n = 5754). This group included more women in the lower (<25 years) and higher (>40 years) age-groups, with normal or low body mass index, who were vegetarians, exercised regularly (3+times weekly), consumed alcohol and smoked cigarettes during pregnancy (p < 0.001 for all, except alcohol: p=0.044). Further, participants with frequent organic consumption included more women in the lower (≤12 years) or higher (17 years +) category of educational attainment, women who were students or had a partner being a student, who belonged to the lowest household income group (both respondent and her partner earned <300 000 NOK), who entered the study 2005-2007, and who lived in an urban area (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions The socio-economic characteristics of pregnant Norwegian women with frequent organic consumption did not unambiguously follow those typically associated with better health, such as higher levels of education and income. Rather, lower household income, and both lowest and

  5. The associations between emotional eating and consumption of energy-dense snack foods are modified by sex and depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, emotional eating (EmE) has incited substantial research interest as an important psychologic determinant of food intake and overweight. However, little is known about factors that might modulate its relations with dietary habits. The objective of this study was to examine the association between EmE and consumption of energy-dense snack food and assess the 2-way interaction of EmE with sex and depressive symptoms. A total of 7378 men and 22,862 women from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (France, 2009-2013) who completed ≥6 self-reported 24-h food records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. EmE was evaluated via the revised 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The associations between EmE and energy-dense food consumption were assessed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Higher EmE was associated with higher consumption of energy-dense snacks and, in particular, with consumption of sweet-and-fatty foods across most categories studied. However, these associations were stronger in women with depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.43, 2.20; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.26) compared with those without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.69; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.61). In contrast, the significant positive associations observed in men without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.52; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.48) were not found in men with depressive symptoms. In conclusion, in women, EmE was positively associated with consumption of energy-dense snack food, particularly in those with depressive symptoms. For men, the relation between EmE and energy-dense snack foods was

  6. Rectangular Array Of Digital Processors For Planning Paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.; Nixon, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype 24 x 25 rectangular array of asynchronous parallel digital processors rapidly finds best path across two-dimensional field, which could be patch of terrain traversed by robotic or military vehicle. Implemented as single-chip very-large-scale integrated circuit. Excepting processors on edges, each processor communicates with four nearest neighbors along paths representing travel to north, south, east, and west. Each processor contains delay generator in form of 8-bit ripple counter, preset to 1 of 256 possible values. Operation begins with choice of processor representing starting point. Transmits signals to nearest neighbor processors, which retransmits to other neighboring processors, and process repeats until signals propagated across entire field.

  7. Associations between Food Environment around Schools and Professionally Measured Weight Status for Middle and High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuyang; Abbott, Joshua K.; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Tulloch, David L.; Lloyd, Kristen; Yedidia, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obesity rates among school-age children remain high. Access to energy-dense foods at home, in schools, in stores, and restaurants around homes and schools is of concern. Research on the relationship between food environment around schools and students' weight status is inconclusive. This study examines the association between weight status of middle and high school students and proximity to a comprehensive set of food outlets around schools. Methods: Deidentified nurse-measured heights and weights data were obtained for 12,954 middle and high school students attending 33 public schools in four low-income communities in New Jersey. Geocoded locations of supermarkets, convenience stores, small grocery stores, and limited-service restaurants were obtained from commercial sources. Random-effect regression models with robust standard errors were developed to adjust for unequal variances across schools and clustering of students within schools. Results: Proximity to small grocery stores that offered some healthy options (e.g., five fruits, five vegetables, and low-fat/skim milk) and supermarkets was associated with healthier student weight status. Having a small grocery store within 0.25 mile of school and an additional such store within that radius was associated with a lower BMI z-score (p<0.05). An additional supermarket within 0.25 mile of schools was associated with a lower probability of being overweight/obese (p<0.05). Conclusions: Improving access to healthy food outlets, such as small stores, that offer healthy food options and supermarkets around middle and high schools is a potential strategy for improving weight outcomes among students. PMID:25343730

  8. Possible association between celiac disease and bacterial transglutaminase in food processing: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of celiac disease is increasing worldwide, and human tissue transglutaminase has long been considered the autoantigen of celiac disease. Concomitantly, the food industry has introduced ingredients such as microbial transglutaminase, which acts as a food glue, thereby revolutionizing food qualities. Several observations have led to the hypothesis that microbial transglutaminase is a new environmental enhancer of celiac disease. First, microbial transglutaminase deamidates/transamidates glutens such as the endogenous human tissue transglutaminase. It is capable of crosslinking proteins and other macromolecules, thereby changing their antigenicity and resulting in an increased antigenic load presented to the immune system. Second, it increases the stability of protein against proteinases, thus diminishing foreign protein elimination. Infections and the crosslinked nutritional constituent gluten and microbial transglutaminase increase the permeability of the intestine, where microbial transglutaminases are necessary for bacterial survival. The resulting intestinal leakage allows more immunogenic foreign molecules to induce celiac disease. The increased use of microbial transglutaminase in food processing may promote celiac pathogenesis ex vivo, where deamidation/transamidation starts, possibly explaining the surge in incidence of celiac disease. If future research substantiates this hypothesis, the findings will affect food product labeling, food additive policies of the food industry, and consumer health education. PMID:26084478

  9. Possible association between celiac disease and bacterial transglutaminase in food processing: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of celiac disease is increasing worldwide, and human tissue transglutaminase has long been considered the autoantigen of celiac disease. Concomitantly, the food industry has introduced ingredients such as microbial transglutaminase, which acts as a food glue, thereby revolutionizing food qualities. Several observations have led to the hypothesis that microbial transglutaminase is a new environmental enhancer of celiac disease. First, microbial transglutaminase deamidates/transamidates glutens such as the endogenous human tissue transglutaminase. It is capable of crosslinking proteins and other macromolecules, thereby changing their antigenicity and resulting in an increased antigenic load presented to the immune system. Second, it increases the stability of protein against proteinases, thus diminishing foreign protein elimination. Infections and the crosslinked nutritional constituent gluten and microbial transglutaminase increase the permeability of the intestine, where microbial transglutaminases are necessary for bacterial survival. The resulting intestinal leakage allows more immunogenic foreign molecules to induce celiac disease. The increased use of microbial transglutaminase in food processing may promote celiac pathogenesis ex vivo, where deamidation/transamidation starts, possibly explaining the surge in incidence of celiac disease. If future research substantiates this hypothesis, the findings will affect food product labeling, food additive policies of the food industry, and consumer health education. PMID:26084478

  10. High Throughput Bent-Pipe Processor Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabacco, P.; Vernucci, A.; Russo, L.; Cangini, P.; Botticchio, T.; Angeletti, P.

    2008-08-01

    The work associated to this article is a study initiative sponsored by ESA/ESTEC that responds to the crucial need of developing new Satellite payload aimed at making rapid progresses in handling large amounts of data at a competitive price with respect to terrestrial one in the telecommunication field. Considering the quite limited band allowed to space communications at Ka band, reusing the same band in a large number of beams is mandatory: therefore beam-forming is the right technological answer. Technological progresses - mainly in the digital domain - also help greatly in increasing the satellite capacity. Next Satellite payload target are set in throughput range of 50Gbps. Despite the fact that the implementation of a wideband transparent processor for a high capacity communication payload is a very challenging task, Space Engineering team in the frame of this ESA study proposed an intermediate step of development for a scalable unit able to demonstrate both the capacity and flexibility objectives for different type of Wideband Beamforming antennas designs. To this aim the article describes the features of Wideband HW (analog and digital) platform purposely developed by Space Engineering in the frame of this ESA/ESTEC contract ("WDBFN" contract) with some preliminary system test results. The same platform and part of the associated SW will be used in the development and demonstration of the real payload digital front end Mux and Demux algorithms as well as the Beam Forming and on Board channel switching in frequency domain. At the time of this article writing, despite new FPGA and new ADC and DAC converters have become available as choices for wideband system implementation, the two HW platforms developed by Space Engineering, namely WDBFN ADC and DAC Boards, represent still the most performing units in terms of analog bandwidth, processing capability (in terms of FPGA module density), SERDES (SERiliazer DESerializers) external links density, integration form

  11. Cross-sectional associations of food consumption with plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Ågren, Jyrki; de Mello, Vanessa; Lindi, Virpi; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-05-01

    Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 6–8 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 60–80 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children. PMID:24659110

  12. Detection of rotavirus in food associated with a gastroenteritis outbreak in a mother and child sanatorium.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Constanze; Strohe, Gerald; Contzen, Matthias

    2009-10-31

    In the course of a rotavirus outbreak in a mother and child sanatorium 74 food samples from the sanatorium kitchen were taken and tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus particles were isolated from 25 g food samples by a simple method including ultrafiltration, originally designed for the detection of norovirus in various food matrices. Rotavirus was successfully detected in a sample of potato stew by conventional RT-seminested-PCR. Sequence comparison of the amplification products obtained from the potato stew and a stool sample from an infected child verified that the two viruses were identical. PMID:19717201

  13. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Associated with Food Poisoning in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaomei; Wang, Bing; Tao, Xiaoxia; Hu, Qinghua; Cui, Zhigang; Lin, Yiman; You, Yuanhai; Shi, Xiaolu; Grundmann, Hajo

    2012-01-01

    To characterize isolates of Staphylococcus aureus that were associated with staphylococcal food poisoning between 2006 and 2009 in Shenzhen, Southern China, a total of 52 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 11 outbreaks were analyzed by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR analysis was used to analyze the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes sea to sei, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also performed. ST6 was the most dominant sequence type (ST), constituting 63.5% (34/52) of all of the isolates in 7 outbreaks. The next most common ST was ST943, which constituted 23.1% (12/52) of the isolates that were collected from 3 outbreaks. t701, t091, and t2360 were the most predominant spa types, constituting 67.3% (35/52) of the isolates that were collected from 11 outbreaks. Three PFGE types, (types A, B, and C) were the most frequently observed types, constituting 84.6% (44/52) of all of the isolates. The enterotoxin gene that we detected most frequently was sea (45/52; 86.5%). Four SE gene profiles were observed, including sea (n = 45), sec-seh (n = 3), seb (n = 2), and seg-sei (n = 2). With respect to antibiotic resistance, penicillin resistance was the most common (96.2%; 50/52), followed by resistance to tetracycline (28.8%; 15/52). Approximately 30.8% (16/52) of the isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, and 7.7% (4/52) of the isolates were resistant to three or more drugs. The two predominant S. aureus lineages, (i) PFGE types A and B with ST6 and (ii) PFGE type C with ST943, were identified in the outbreaks. PMID:22798367

  14. Physiological effects of tourism and associated food provisioning in an endangered iguana

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Charles R.; Hines, Kirsten N.; Zachariah, Trevor T.; Perez-Heydrich, Caro; Iverson, John B.; Buckner, Sandra D.; Halach, Shelley C.; Lattin, Christine R.; Romero, L. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Deliberately feeding wildlife is an increasingly popular tourism-related activity despite a limited understanding of long-term impacts on the species being fed. As a result, tourist behaviours that may have adverse impacts on imperiled species have often been encouraged without the necessary evaluation or oversight. Here, we report the responses of Northern Bahamian Rock Iguanas (Cyclura cychlura) to human-visitation pressure and associated food provisioning. We compared a variety of blood chemistry parameters of iguanas subjected to supplemental feeding at popular tourist destinations with iguanas occurring on islands where supplemental feeding does not take place. We demonstrate that male and female iguanas inhabiting tourist-visited islands where supplemental feeding occurs do not differ in body condition or baseline stress and stress response (determined by corticosterone levels) compared with iguanas from non-visited islands. Both males and females from tourist-visited sites experienced a greater incidence of endoparasitic infection and atypical loose faeces. Indicators of dietary nutrition, including glucose, potassium, and uric acid values, also differed for both sexes from tourist-visited and unvisited islands. Male iguanas from visited islands differed significantly from those on non-visited islands in calcium, cholesterol, cobalt, copper, magnesium, packed cell volume, selenium, and triglyceride concentrations, whereas female iguanas from visited islands differed significantly in ionized calcium. Although the interpretation of these differences is challenging, chronic biochemical stressors could compromise individual health over time or decrease survivorship during periods of environmental stress. We suggest protocols that can be adopted throughout the region to ensure that supplemental feeding has fewer impacts on these long-lived iguanas. PMID:27293616

  15. Physiological effects of tourism and associated food provisioning in an endangered iguana.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Charles R; Hines, Kirsten N; Zachariah, Trevor T; Perez-Heydrich, Caro; Iverson, John B; Buckner, Sandra D; Halach, Shelley C; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael

    2013-01-01

    Deliberately feeding wildlife is an increasingly popular tourism-related activity despite a limited understanding of long-term impacts on the species being fed. As a result, tourist behaviours that may have adverse impacts on imperiled species have often been encouraged without the necessary evaluation or oversight. Here, we report the responses of Northern Bahamian Rock Iguanas (Cyclura cychlura) to human-visitation pressure and associated food provisioning. We compared a variety of blood chemistry parameters of iguanas subjected to supplemental feeding at popular tourist destinations with iguanas occurring on islands where supplemental feeding does not take place. We demonstrate that male and female iguanas inhabiting tourist-visited islands where supplemental feeding occurs do not differ in body condition or baseline stress and stress response (determined by corticosterone levels) compared with iguanas from non-visited islands. Both males and females from tourist-visited sites experienced a greater incidence of endoparasitic infection and atypical loose faeces. Indicators of dietary nutrition, including glucose, potassium, and uric acid values, also differed for both sexes from tourist-visited and unvisited islands. Male iguanas from visited islands differed significantly from those on non-visited islands in calcium, cholesterol, cobalt, copper, magnesium, packed cell volume, selenium, and triglyceride concentrations, whereas female iguanas from visited islands differed significantly in ionized calcium. Although the interpretation of these differences is challenging, chronic biochemical stressors could compromise individual health over time or decrease survivorship during periods of environmental stress. We suggest protocols that can be adopted throughout the region to ensure that supplemental feeding has fewer impacts on these long-lived iguanas. PMID:27293616

  16. Autonomous Telemetry Collection for Single-Processor Small Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speer, Dave

    2003-01-01

    For the Space Technology 5 mission, which is being developed under NASA's New Millennium Program, a single spacecraft processor will be required to do on-board real-time computations and operations associated with attitude control, up-link and down-link communications, science data processing, solid-state recorder management, power switching and battery charge management, experiment data collection, health and status data collection, etc. Much of the health and status information is in analog form, and each of the analog signals must be routed to the input of an analog-to-digital converter, converted to digital form, and then stored in memory. If the micro-operations of the analog data collection process are implemented in software, the processor may use up a lot of time either waiting for the analog signal to settle, waiting for the analog-to-digital conversion to complete, or servicing a large number of high frequency interrupts. In order to off-load a very busy processor, the collection and digitization of all analog spacecraft health and status data will be done autonomously by a field-programmable gate array that can configure the analog signal chain, control the analog-to-digital converter, and store the converted data in memory.

  17. Adaptive Multigrid Solution of Stokes' Equation on CELL Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgersma, M. R.; Yuen, D. A.; Pratt, S. G.

    2006-12-01

    We are developing an adaptive multigrid solver for treating nonlinear elliptic partial-differential equations, needed for mantle convection problems. Since multigrid is being used for the complete solution, not just as a preconditioner, spatial difference operators are kept nearly diagonally dominant by increasing density of the coarsest grid in regions where coefficients have rapid spatial variation. At each time step, the unstructured coarse grid is refined in regions where coefficients associated with the differential operators or boundary conditions have rapid spatial variation, and coarsened in regions where there is more gradual spatial variation. For three-dimensional problems, the boundary is two-dimensional, and regions where coefficients change rapidly are often near two-dimensional surfaces, so the coarsest grid is only fine near two-dimensional subsets of the three-dimensional space. Coarse grid density drops off exponentially with distance from boundary surfaces and rapid-coefficient-change surfaces. This unstructured coarse grid results in the number of coarse grid voxels growing proportional to surface area, rather than proportional to volume. This results in significant computational savings for the coarse-grid solution. This coarse-grid solution is then refined for the fine-grid solution, and multigrid methods have memory usage and runtime proportional to the number of fine-grid voxels. This adaptive multigrid algorithm is being implemented on the CELL processor, where each chip has eight floating point processors and each processor operates on four floating point numbers each clock cycle. Both the adaptive grid algorithm and the multigrid solver have very efficient parallel implementations, in order to take advantage of the CELL processor architecture.

  18. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Hélène Desmonts, Marie; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  19. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Desmonts, Marie Hélène; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-05-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  20. THE THREE INTERACTING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS, FOOD CONTAMINATION, AND CHILDREN'S BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dietary contribution to an aggregate exposure assessment is potentially an important pathway of exposure especially for young children. Enviornmental contamination appearing in the child's diet can result from contamination in the food as purchased or due to preparing, servin...

  1. Associations between Participation in the National School Lunch Program, Food Insecurity, and Child Well-Being. Discussion Paper No. 1249-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between food insecurity, participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and children's well-being. We address problems of selection by restricting our sample to children in families in which at least one child participates in the NSLP. Results suggest that food insecurity is associated with…

  2. Is Food Insecurity Associated with HIV Risk? Cross-Sectional Evidence from Sexually Active Women in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Hung, Kristin J.; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding how food insecurity among women gives rise to differential patterning in HIV risks is critical for policy and programming in resource-limited settings. This is particularly the case in Brazil, which has undergone successive changes in the gender and socio-geographic composition of its complex epidemic over the past three decades. We used data from a national survey of Brazilian women to estimate the relationship between food insecurity and HIV risk. Methods and Findings We used data on 12,684 sexually active women from a national survey conducted in Brazil in 2006–2007. Self-reported outcomes were (a) consistent condom use, defined as using a condom at each occasion of sexual intercourse in the previous 12 mo; (b) recent condom use, less stringently defined as using a condom with the most recent sexual partner; and (c) itchy vaginal discharge in the previous 30 d, possibly indicating presence of a sexually transmitted infection. The primary explanatory variable of interest was food insecurity, measured using the culturally adapted and validated Escala Brasiliera de Segurança Alimentar. In multivariable logistic regression models, severe food insecurity with hunger was associated with a reduced odds of consistent condom use in the past 12 mo (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.92) and condom use at last sexual intercourse (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57–0.98). Self-reported itchy vaginal discharge was associated with all categories of food insecurity (with AORs ranging from 1.46 to 1.94). In absolute terms, the effect sizes were large in magnitude across all outcomes. Underweight and/or lack of control in sexual relations did not appear to mediate the observed associations. Conclusions Severe food insecurity with hunger was associated with reduced odds of condom use and increased odds of itchy vaginal discharge, which is potentially indicative of sexually transmitted infection, among sexually active women in Brazil

  3. Use of Animal Models to Investigate Major Allergens Associated with Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Van Gramberg, Jenna L.; de Veer, Michael J.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Bischof, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is an emerging epidemic that affects all age groups, with the highest prevalence rates being reported amongst Western countries such as the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Australia. The development of animal models to test various food allergies has been beneficial in allowing more rapid and extensive investigations into the mechanisms involved in the allergic pathway, such as predicting possible triggers as well as the testing of novel treatments for food allergy. Traditionally, small animal models have been used to characterise immunological pathways, providing the foundation for the development of numerous allergy models. Larger animals also merit consideration as models for food allergy as they are thought to more closely reflect the human allergic state due to their physiology and outbred nature. This paper will discuss the use of animal models for the investigation of the major food allergens; cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut/other tree nuts, highlight the distinguishing features of each of these models, and provide an overview of how the results from these trials have improved our understanding of these specific allergens and food allergy in general. PMID:23690797

  4. Food Anxiety Is Associated with Poor Health Status Among Recently Hospital-Discharged Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Vaudin, Anna; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2015-01-01

    Older adults returning home from the hospital may encounter health issues that cause anxiety about their ability to obtain enough food. Home-delivered meal (HDM) programs support nutritional needs and improve food security of those who cannot provide for themselves. A study conducted in six states examined feelings of anxiety about getting enough food in older adults (aged 60 years and older), comparing three time points: prior to hospitalization, at hospitalization (n = 566) and after receiving HDMs for two months posthospitalization (n = 377). Food anxiety during hospitalization was significantly higher among Hispanic ethnicity, current and former smokers, diabetics, and those who eat alone or have difficulty shopping. Food anxiety was significantly lower from baseline to two months follow-up (P < 0.0001), and participants showed improvements in certain coping strategies they used to get their meals. Indicators of food anxiety can help the health care system and community nutrition programs target those at highest risk of negative health outcomes. PMID:26106991

  5. Transitions Into Food Insecurity Associated With Behavioral Problems And Worse Overall Health Among Children.

    PubMed

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Denney, Justin T

    2015-11-01

    Children living in food-insecure households face myriad challenges to their well-being. The Great Recession of December 2007-June 2009 increased food insecurity to the highest levels ever measured in the United States. Using nationally representative data from the period 2010-12 for 6,300 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, with household incomes below 300 percent of the federal poverty level and a dynamic measure of food insecurity transitions, we assessed the impact of transitions into and out of household food insecurity on the academic achievement, behavioral problems, and health status of young children. We found negligible impacts of food insecurity transitions on academic achievement in first grade. However, we found consistent negative impacts of the transitions on teachers' reports of children's externalizing behaviors, self-control, and interpersonal skills and on parents' reports of children's overall health status. Taken together, our findings underline the importance of food security for children's healthy development. PMID:26526254

  6. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  7. Association of flavonoid-rich foods and statins in the management of hypercholesterolemia: a dangerous or helpful combination?

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura; Serafini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Statins and dietary modifications are the cornerstone of hypercholesterolemia management. Although it is well known that possible adverse effect of statins can occur due to drug-drug interactions, food-drug interactions are a commonly overlooked aspect. In particular, flavonoids could interfere with statins' bioavailability through different mechanisms, such as competition with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, esterases, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases and transporters (P-glycoprotein, multi-drug resistance-associated proteins, organic anion transporting polypeptides, breast cancer-resistance protein and monocarboxylate transporters). Transporters are characterized by low substrate specificity and flavonoid- rich foods could interfere with the bioavailability of all statins at this level. On the other hand, in addition to being substrates of drug metabolism/ transport systems, flavonoids are also able to modulate gene expression of enzymes and transporters. Therefore, long-term transcriptional induction may increase the clearance of statins, despite flavonoids act as competitive inhibitors after bolus consumption. In humans, major interactions were observed between grapefruit juice and statins that are substrates of P-glycoprotein/CYP3A, but other fruit juices also affect the bioavailability of statins that are not metabolised by CYP. Even if flavonoids could play a role in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia, the question whether there's a helpful or dangerous association between flavonoid-rich foods and statins, due to the interactions between flavonoid-rich foods and statins and the potential associated adverse effects of statins, remain unanswered. Therefore, the anamnesis of patients must include detailed information about their eating habits and the present review suggests monitoring and reporting any possible case of interaction between a prescribed statin and food. PMID:26467069

  8. Control structures for high speed processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, G. K.; Mankin, R.; Owsley, P. A.; Kim, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A special processor was designed to function as a Reed Solomon decoder with throughput data rate in the Mhz range. This data rate is significantly greater than is possible with conventional digital architectures. To achieve this rate, the processor design includes sequential, pipelined, distributed, and parallel processing. The processor was designed using a high level language register transfer language. The RTL can be used to describe how the different processes are implemented by the hardware. One problem of special interest was the development of dependent processes which are analogous to software subroutines. For greater flexibility, the RTL control structure was implemented in ROM. The special purpose hardware required approximately 1000 SSI and MSI components. The data rate throughput is 2.5 megabits/second. This data rate is achieved through the use of pipelined and distributed processing. This data rate can be compared with 800 kilobits/second in a recently proposed very large scale integration design of a Reed Solomon encoder.

  9. Grundy: Parallel Processor Architecture Makes Programming Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Robert J.

    1985-12-01

    Grundy, an architecture for parallel processing, facilitates the use of high-level languages. In Grundy, several thousand simple processors are dispersed throughout the address space and the concept of machine state is replaced by an invokation frame, a data structure of local variables, program counter, and pointers to superprocesses (parents), subprocesses (children), and concurrent processes (siblings). Each instruction execution consists of five phases. An instruction is fetched, the instruction is decoded, the sources are fetched, the operation is performed, and the destination is written. This breakdown of operations is easily pipelinable. The instruction format of Grundy is completely orthogonal, so Grundy machine code consists of a set of register transfer control bits. The process state pointers are used to collect unused resources such as processors and memory. Joseph Mahon[1] found that as the degree of physical parallelism increases, throughput, including overhead, increases even if extra overhead is needed to split logical processes. As stack pointer, accumulators, and index registers facilitate using high-level languages on conventional computers, pointers to parents, children, and siblings simplify the use of a run-time operating system. The ability to ignore the physical structure of a large number of simple processors supports the use of structured programming. A very simple processor cell allows the replication of approximately 16 32-bit processors on a single Very Large Scale Integration chip. (2M lambda[2]) A bootstrapper and Input/Output channels can be hardwired (using ROM cells and pseudo-processor cells) into a 100 chip computer that is expected to have over 500 procesors, 500K memory, and a network supporting up to 64 concurrent messages between 1000 nodes. These sizes are merely typical and not limits.

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Alison H; Gerald, Bonnie L

    2007-06-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste generated, and support the ecological sustainability of the food system-the process of food production, transformation, distribution, access, and consumption. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, play various roles in the food system and work in settings where efforts to conserve can have significant effects. Natural resources that provide the foundation for the food system include biodiversity, soil, land, energy, water, and air. A food system that degrades or depletes its resource base is not sustainable. Making wise food purchases and food management decisions entails understanding the external costs of food production and foodservice and how these external costs affect food system sustainability. This position paper provides information, specific action-oriented strategies, and resources to guide registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, in food decision making and professional practice. Food and nutrition professionals also can participate in policy making at the local, state, and national levels, and can support policies that encourage the development of local sustainable food systems. Our actions today have global consequences. Conserving and protecting resources will contribute to the sustainability of the global food system now and in the future. PMID:17571455

  11. Software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics processor.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic and RF parts. We demonstrate the model versatility by applying it to several relevant application examples. PMID:26072824

  12. SPROC: A multiple-processor DSP IC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R.

    1991-01-01

    A large, single-chip, multiple-processor, digital signal processing (DSP) integrated circuit (IC) fabricated in HP-Cmos34 is presented. The innovative architecture is best suited for analog and real-time systems characterized by both parallel signal data flows and concurrent logic processing. The IC is supported by a powerful development system that transforms graphical signal flow graphs into production-ready systems in minutes. Automatic compiler partitioning of tasks among four on-chip processors gives the IC the signal processing power of several conventional DSP chips.

  13. The monarch parallel processor hardware design

    SciTech Connect

    Rettberg, R.D.; Crowther, W.R.; Carvey, P.P.; Tomlinson, R.S. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors report on their development of the Monarch parallel processor. Today, the Monarch's design is largely done and well into implementation. The high-speed interconnection network has been tested with two-micron switch chips, logging more than 30,000 device hours of operation at 125 mega bits per second passing over 10{sup 16} bits. The processor's logic design is almost complete and simulated. The memory controller and concentrator remain to be designed. The authors have analyzed the software in detail with the use of hand-coded examples, a simulator, and a rudimentary compiler. The authors are currently seeking support to finish the implementation.

  14. Time Manager Software for a Flight Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoerne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to highlight useful information and suggest conclusions. Accurate timestamps and a timeline of vehicle events are needed to analyze flight data. By moving the timekeeping to the flight processor, there is no longer a need for a redundant time source. If each flight processor is initially synchronized to GPS, they can freewheel and maintain a fairly accurate time throughout the flight with no additional GPS time messages received. How ever, additional GPS time messages will ensure an even greater accuracy. When a timestamp is required, a gettime function is called that immediately reads the time-base register.

  15. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures associated with cigarette smoking: implications for risk assessment of food and flavoring workers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Abelmann, Anders; Spicer, Lauren J; Adams, Rebecca E; Finley, Brent L

    2014-05-01

    Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione inhalation have been suggested as causes of severe respiratory disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans, in food/flavoring manufacturing workers. Both compounds are present in many food items, tobacco, and other consumer products, but estimates of exposures associated with the use of these goods are scant. A study was conducted to characterize exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with cigarette smoking. The yields (μg/cigarette) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke were evaluated for six tobacco products under three smoking regimens (ISO, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, and Health Canada Intense) using a standard smoking machine. Mean diacetyl concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 250 to 361 ppm for all tobacco products and smoking regimens, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 1.1 to 1.9 ppm-years. Mean 2,3-pentanedione concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 32.2 to 50.1 ppm, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 0.14 to 0.26 ppm-years. We found that diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures from cigarette smoking far exceed occupational exposures for most food/flavoring workers who smoke. This suggests that previous claims of a significant exposure-response relationship between diacetyl inhalation and respiratory disease in food/flavoring workers were confounded, because none of the investigations considered or quantified the non-occupational diacetyl exposure from cigarette smoke, yet all of the cohorts evaluated had considerable smoking histories. Further, because smoking has not been shown to be a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans, our findings are inconsistent with claims that diacetyl and/or 2,3-pentanedione exposure are risk factors for this disease. PMID:24635357

  16. Maternal anemia associated with walkable distance to healthy food sources in Bronx, New York.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, Danielle M; Johnson, Glen D; Chazotte, Cynthia; Karkowsky, Chavi Eve

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between walkable access to healthy food sources and risk of anemia in pregnancy was evaluated for a cohort of 4678 women who initiated prenatal care in the year 2010 at an academic medical center in Bronx, New York. After geocoding patient residences, street network distances were obtained for the closest healthy food sources, which were identified from multiple databases. For lower-income patients, as indicated by Medicaid or lack of health insurance, those who lived less than 0.25miles from a healthy food source were less likely to be anemic when compared to those who lived farther (adjusted OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.48, 0.88). Patients with commercial insurance showed no effect. These results help to understand how a nutritionally-mediated condition such as anemia during pregnancy can be affected by one's built environment, while also highlighting the importance of conditioning on socioeconomic status for these types of studies. PMID:25779906

  17. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Zaczeniuk, Magdalena; Majak, Paweł; Pawłowska-Iwanicka, Kamila; Kopka, Monika; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013) in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI), asthma and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%), 96 (34.3%), 39 (13.9%), respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87). In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62); sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75). We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions Sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis. PMID:27279819

  18. School-based nutrition programs are associated with reduced child food insecurity over time among Mexican-origin mother-child dyads in Texas Border Colonias.

    PubMed

    Nalty, Courtney C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2013-05-01

    In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers' and children's (aged 6-11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs. Forty-eight Mexican-origin mother-child dyads completed standardized, Spanish-language food-security instruments during 2 in-home visits between July 2010 and March 2011. Multilevel longitudinal logistic regression measured change in food security while accounting for correlation in repeated measurements by using a nested structure. Cohen's κ statistic assessed dyadic discordance in child food insecurity. School-based nutrition programs reduced the odds of child food insecurity by 74% [OR = 0.26 (P < 0.01)], showcasing the programs' impact on the condition. Single head of household was associated with increased odds of child food insecurity [OR = 4.63 (P = 0.03)]. Fair dyadic agreement of child food insecurity was observed [κ = 0.21 (P = 0.02)]. Obtaining accurate prevalence rates and understanding differences of intrahousehold food insecurity necessitate measurement at multiple occasions throughout the year while considering children's perceptions and experiences of food insecurity in addition to parental reports. PMID:23486977

  19. Associations between food groups, dietary patterns, and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study123

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David R; Lewis, Cora E; Steffen, Lyn M; Sternfeld, Barbara; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Richman, Joshua S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the association between overall diet and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Objective: We aimed to investigate associations of food groups, a diet-quality score, and dietary patterns with CRF in black and white adults. Design: We included 2632 participants aged 38–50 y who attended the year 20 exam of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Fitness Study (CFS) conducted in 2005–2006. Diet was assessed by using a validated diet history. A dietary score and 2 types of patterns were included as follows: the a priori diet-quality score and meat and fruit-vegetable dietary patterns derived from principal components analysis. CRF was assessed by using a graded exercise treadmill test. Linear regression models regressed the treadmill duration on food groups and dietary scores and patterns overall and in race-sex subgroups. Results: Grains (whole and refined), processed meats, and beverages (coffee, meal-replacement drinks, beer, and wine) were positively associated with the treadmill duration overall; whole fruit (not juices), organ meats, fried meats and fish, and soy and nondairy products were negatively associated. The a priori diet-quality score was positively associated with the duration overall and in all race-sex subgroups (P <0.05) except black men. The meat pattern was negatively associated with the duration in white men and white women only. The fruit-vegetable pattern was positively associated with duration in white women only. Conclusions: Overall, the a priori diet-quality score was positively associated with CRF in this cohort of black and white adults, whereas the meat dietary pattern was negatively associated only in whites. The CARDIA study and CFS were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005130 and NCT00106457, respectively. PMID:24088719

  20. Enterococcus faecalis from Food, Clinical Specimens, and Oral Sites: Prevalence of Virulence Factors in Association with Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Annette C.; Jonas, Daniel; Huber, Ingrid; Karygianni, Lamprini; Wölber, Johan; Hellwig, Elmar; Arweiler, Nicole; Vach, Kirstin; Wittmer, Annette; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci have gained significance as the cause of nosocomial infections; they occur as food contaminants and have also been linked to dental diseases. E. faecalis has a great potential to spread virulence as well as antibiotic resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer. The integration of food-borne enterococci into the oral biofilm in-vivo has been observed. Therefore, we investigated the virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance of 97 E. faecalis isolates from the oral cavity, food, and clinical specimens. In addition, phenotypic expression of gelatinase and cytolysin were tested, in-vitro biofilm formation was quantified and isolates were compared for strain relatedness via pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Each isolate was found to possess two or more virulence genes, most frequently gelE, efaA, and asa1. Notably, plaque/saliva isolates possessed the highest abundance of virulence genes, the highest levels of phenotypic gelatinase and hemolysin activity and concurrently a high ability to form biofilm. The presence of asa1 was associated with biofilm formation. The biofilm formation capacity of clinical and plaque/saliva isolates was considerably higher than that of food isolates and they also showed similar antibiotic resistance patterns. These results indicate that the oral cavity can constitute a reservoir for virulent E. faecalis strains possessing antibiotic resistance traits and at the same time distinct biofilm formation capabilities facilitating exchange of genetic material. PMID:26793174

  1. Food and beverage promotions in Minnesota secondary schools: secular changes, correlates, and associations with adolescents’ dietary behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S.; Coombes, Brandon; Caspi, Caitlin; Kubik, Martha Y.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to describe promotions for unhealthy and healthy foods and beverages within Minnesota secondary schools from 2008 to 2012, and to examine associations with school-level coordination of environmental improvements and students’ dietary behaviors. METHODS The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to conduct analyses accounting for school-level demographics. RESULTS There was no significant improvement over time in the proportion of schools that banned advertising for unhealthy products in school buildings, on school grounds, on buses, or in publications. Whereas more than two-thirds of schools had implemented strategies focused on the promotion of fruits/vegetables by 2012, only 37% labeled healthful foods with appealing names and just 17% used price incentives to encourage healthy choices. The number of stakeholders representing different roles on school health councils was positively correlated with implementation of healthy food and beverage promotion strategies. Little evidence was found to support an influence of in-school advertising bans or promotions on students’ diets. CONCLUSIONS Policy changes are needed to protect students from food and beverage advertising and additional opportunities exist to reduce disparities in the selection of healthy options at school. PMID:25388594

  2. Effects of light reduction on food webs and associated ecosystem services of Yaquina Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reduced water clarity can affect estuarine primary production but little is known of its subsequent effects to consumer guilds or ecosystem services. We investigated those effects using inverse analysis of modeled food webs of the lower (polyhaline) and upper (mesohaline) reache...

  3. Associations among food insecurity and parental influences of children’s dietary intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the overall relationships among food insecurity, parent mediators, and parent behaviors towards children’s dietary behavior in a predominantly Hispanic population. This cross-sectional study was a secondary analysis of baseline data from women with families wh...

  4. 78 FR 20325 - 2013 Parenteral Drug Association/Food and Drug Administration Joint Regulatory Conference...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Global Regulatory Environment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public... Life Cycle in a Global Regulatory Environment.'' The conference will cover current issues affecting the... facilitate the development and continuous improvement of safe and effective medical products. The...

  5. Best On-Farm Food Safety Practices: Risks Associated with Rat Lungworm and Human Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent cases of eosinophilic meningitis in Hawai’i have drawn attention to a food-borne parasitic infection that occurs in Hawai‘i, the Pacific Islands, southern and eastern Asia, and elsewhere. In late 2008, the Hawai‘i Department of Health reported that four people on the island of Hawai‘i had bee...

  6. Demographic differences and food patterns associated with metabolic syndrome in young adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Intake was collected on 1,012 young adults (20-38 years) (61% female; 26% black) using a food-frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles were quantifi...

  7. A stored program channel processor for CAMAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercaw, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    A PDP-15 interface was developed for the CAMAC instrumentation standard which implements the features of both the addressable I/0 bus and the single cycle data channel. The data channel section forms an independent I/0 processor which executes programs stored in core. Programs consist of CAMAC commands plus special control characters and commands.

  8. Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Levi T. Thompson

    2008-08-08

    Fuel cells are being developed to power cleaner, more fuel efficient automobiles. The fuel cell technology favored by many automobile manufacturers is PEM fuel cells operating with H2 from liquid fuels like gasoline and diesel. A key challenge to the commercialization of PEM fuel cell based powertrains is the lack of sufficiently small and inexpensive fuel processors. Improving the performance and cost of the fuel processor will require the development of better performing catalysts, new reactor designs and better integration of the various fuel processing components. These components and systems could also find use in natural gas fuel processing for stationary, distributed generation applications. Prototype fuel processors were produced, and evaluated against the Department of Energy technical targets. Significant advances were made by integrating low-cost microreactor systems, high activity catalysts, π-complexation adsorbents, and high efficiency microcombustor/microvaporizers developed at the University of Michigan. The microreactor system allowed (1) more efficient thermal coupling of the fuel processor operations thereby minimizing heat exchanger requirements, (2) improved catalyst performance due to optimal reactor temperature profiles and increased heat and mass transport rates, and (3) better cold-start and transient responses.

  9. Acousto-Optical/Electronic Processor For SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicknell, T. J.; Farr, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Lightweight, compact, low-power apparatus processes synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) returns in real time, providing imagery aboard moving aircraft or spacecraft platform. Processor includes optical and electronic subsystems that, together, resolve range and azimuth coordinates of radar targets by combination of spatial and temporal integrations.

  10. 7 CFR 989.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processor. 989.13 Section 989.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  11. 7 CFR 989.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processor. 989.13 Section 989.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  12. 7 CFR 989.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processor. 989.13 Section 989.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  13. 7 CFR 989.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processor. 989.13 Section 989.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  14. 7 CFR 989.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processor. 989.13 Section 989.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  15. Modelling an experimental methane fuel processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shi-Tin; Chen, Yih-Hang; Yu, Cheng-Ching; Liu, Yen-Chun; Lee, Chiou-Hwang

    Steady-state models are developed to describe an experimental methane fuel processor that is intended to provide hydrogen for a fuel cell system for power generation (2-3 kW). First-principle reactor models are constructed to describe a series of reactions, i.e., steam and autothermal reforming (SR/ATR), high- and low-temperature water-gas shift (HTS/LTS) reactions and preferential oxidation (PROX) reactions, at different sectors of the reactor system for methane reforming as well as gas cleaning. The pre-exponential factors of the rate constants are adjusted to fit the experimental data and the resultant reactor model provides a reasonably good description of steady-state behaviour. Next, sensitivity analyses are performed to locate the optimum operating point of the fuel processor. The objective function of the optimization is fuel processor efficiency. The dominating optimization variables include: the ratios of water and oxygen to the hydrocarbon feed to the autothermal reforming reactor and the inlet temperature of the reactor. The results indicate that further improvement in fuel processor efficiency can be made with a reliable process model.

  16. Architectures for a CORDIC SVD processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallaro, Joseph R.; Luk, Franklin T.

    1986-03-01

    Architectures for systolic array processor elements for calculating the singular value decomposition (SVD) are proposed. These special purpose VLSI structures incorporate the coordinate rotation (coRDic) algorithms to diagonalize 2X 2 submatrices of a large array. The area-time complexity of the proposed architectures is analyzed along with topics related to a prototype implementation.

  17. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  18. 7 CFR 926.13 - Processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processor. 926.13 Section 926.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING...

  19. A concept for magazine Bimat processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C. E.

    1969-01-01

    Concept utilizes existing film magazines to process photographic film as the film is exposed. A standard magazine can be converted to a Bimat processor by adding three stainless steel rollers. All chemicals required for processing and fixing the negative are contained in the Bimat film.

  20. Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.

    1990-01-01

    Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.

  1. Aladdin signal processor and architecture modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branstetter, Reagan; Harper, Angela; Denton, Larry

    1993-10-01

    Texas Instruments (TI) is developing the Aladdin computer under contract with the U. S. Army Communications and Electronics Command (CECOM). The program is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the U. S. Army Night Vision and Electro-Optics Directorate (NVEOD). Processors currently available for today's advanced weapons systems are limited in their real-time processing capabilities and are generally specific to a selected mission. The lack of availability of a high performance, general purpose, programmable processor in a small volume applicable to a variety of weapons systems applications creates a high non-recurring development cost for each new program. Automatic target acquisition systems are specifically in need of processors that meet the required real- time processing throughput of a variety of algorithms within very restrictive volume constraints. The objective of the Aladdin program is to develop a very high performance miniature processor that fits within a 75 cubic inch cylindrical volume, and is easily programmable to provide the ability to detect, recognize, identify, and locate the optimal aimpoint of a target or targets.

  2. Improved Remapping Processor For Digital Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Timothy E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed digital image processor improved version of Programmable Remapper, which performs geometric and radiometric transformations on digital images. Features include overlapping and variably sized preimages. Overcomes some of limitations of image-warping circuit boards implementing only those geometric tranformations expressible in terms of polynomials of limited order. Also overcomes limitations of existing Programmable Remapper and made to perform transformations at video rate.

  3. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  4. High carbohydrate intake from starchy foods is positively associated with metabolic disorders: a Cohort Study from a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rennan; Du, Shanshan; Chen, Yang; Zheng, Sining; Zhang, Wei; Na, Guanqiong; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    Starchy foods are the main sources of carbohydrates; however, there is limited information on their metabolic impact. Therefore, we assessed the association between carbohydrates from starchy foods (Carb-S) intakes and the metabolic disorders of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hyperlipidemia. In this study, 4,154 participants from Northern China were followed up for 4.2 years. Carb-S included rice, refined wheat, tubers, and their products. Multivariable regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for MetS and hyperlipidemia from Carb-S, total carbohydrates, and carbohydrates from other food sources (Carb-O). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine a Carb-S cut-off value. High total carbohydrate intake was associated with increased risks of MetS (RR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.00–5.03) and hyperlipidemia (RR: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.25–7.45), compared with the first quartile. High Carb-S intake (fourth quartile) was significantly associated with MetS (RR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01–2.69) and hyperlipidemia (RR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05–3.35). No associations with Carb-O were observed. Visceral adiposity, triglyceride levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly contributed to the metabolic disorders. The Carb-S cut-off value was 220 g. Both high total carbohydrate and Carb-S intakes were associated with hyperlipidemia and MetS; Carb-S appears to contribute more to these disorders. PMID:26581652

  5. High carbohydrate intake from starchy foods is positively associated with metabolic disorders: a Cohort Study from a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rennan; Du, Shanshan; Chen, Yang; Zheng, Sining; Zhang, Wei; Na, Guanqiong; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    Starchy foods are the main sources of carbohydrates; however, there is limited information on their metabolic impact. Therefore, we assessed the association between carbohydrates from starchy foods (Carb-S) intakes and the metabolic disorders of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hyperlipidemia. In this study, 4,154 participants from Northern China were followed up for 4.2 years. Carb-S included rice, refined wheat, tubers, and their products. Multivariable regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for MetS and hyperlipidemia from Carb-S, total carbohydrates, and carbohydrates from other food sources (Carb-O). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine a Carb-S cut-off value. High total carbohydrate intake was associated with increased risks of MetS (RR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.00-5.03) and hyperlipidemia (RR: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.25-7.45), compared with the first quartile. High Carb-S intake (fourth quartile) was significantly associated with MetS (RR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01-2.69) and hyperlipidemia (RR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05-3.35). No associations with Carb-O were observed. Visceral adiposity, triglyceride levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly contributed to the metabolic disorders. The Carb-S cut-off value was 220 g. Both high total carbohydrate and Carb-S intakes were associated with hyperlipidemia and MetS; Carb-S appears to contribute more to these disorders. PMID:26581652

  6. Association between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System and the risk of metabolic abnormalities in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Ju; Han, Sung Nim; Song, Sujin; Paik, Hee Young; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-12-01

    Consumption of a diet consistent with dietary guidelines is believed to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of general health. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS), which was based on the 2010 revised KDRIs, and the risk of metabolic abnormalities. Five hundred and ninety-six Korean adults between 30 and 59 years of age were recruited by advertisement to the Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital (BJGH), and those not taking regular medications and without diagnoses of fulminant disease were included. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, diagnostic parameters for metabolic syndrome (MetS), and 3-day dietary intakes from individuals in the study. The number of servings consumed from each food group was compared to the KFGS recommended servings for each of the 6 food groups. Poor adherence to the recommendations for servings of milk and dairy products (OR: 2.038, 1.128-3.682) was associated with a higher risk of MetS, and poor adherence to the guidelines for fruit consumption (OR: 1.849, 1.027-3.329) was associated with a higher risk for the existence an elevated waist circumference. Conversely, the consumption of meat, fish, eggs, and beans above the recommended number of servings was associated with a lower risk of having an elevated waist circumference (OR: 0.523, 0.288-0.950), and the consumption of vegetables above the recommended number of servings was associated with a reduced risk of having elevated fasting glucose (OR: 0.533, 0.298-0.954). These results suggest that adherence to the KFGS guidelines helps to prevent the development of MetS, but this association needs to be confirmed by prospective studies. PMID:22259682

  7. Prospective association between cancer risk and an individual dietary index based on the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System.

    PubMed

    Donnenfeld, Mathilde; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Latino-Martel, Paule; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-11-28

    The Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSA-NPS) constitutes the basis for the Five-Colour Nutrition Label suggested in France to be put on the front-of-pack of food products. At the individual level, a dietary index (FSA-NPS DI) has been derived and validated and corresponds to a weighted mean of all FSA-NPS scores of foods usually consumed by the individual, reflecting the nutritional quality of his/her diet. Our aim was to investigate the association between the FSA-NPS DI and cancer risk in a large cohort. This prospective study included 6435 participants to the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort (1994-2007) who completed at least six 24 h dietary records during the first 2 years of follow-up. FSA-NPS DI was computed for each subject (higher values representing lower nutritional quality of the diet). After a median follow-up of 12·6 years, 453 incident cancers were diagnosed. Associations were characterised by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. The FSA-NPS DI was directly associated with overall cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR)for a 1-point increment=1·08 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·15), P trend=0·02; HRQ5 v. Q1=1·34 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·81), P trend=0·03). This association tended to be more specifically observed in subjects with moderate energy intake (≤median, HRfor a 1-point increment=1·10 (95 % CI 1·01-1·20), P trend=0·03). No association was observed in subjects with higher energy intake (P trend=0·3). Results were not statistically significant for breast and prostate cancer risks. For the first time, this study investigated the prospective association between the FSA-NPS individual score and cancer risk. The results suggest that unhealthy food choices may be associated with a 34 % increase in overall cancer risk, supporting the public health relevance of developing front-of-pack nutrition labels based on this score. PMID:26393396

  8. Multi-processor including data flow accelerator module

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, George S.; Pierce, Paul E.

    1990-01-01

    An accelerator module for a data flow computer includes an intelligent memory. The module is added to a multiprocessor arrangement and uses a shared tagged memory architecture in the data flow computer. The intelligent memory module assigns locations for holding data values in correspondence with arcs leading to a node in a data dependency graph. Each primitive computation is associated with a corresponding memory cell, including a number of slots for operands needed to execute a primitive computation, a primitive identifying pointer, and linking slots for distributing the result of the cell computation to other cells requiring that result as an operand. Circuitry is provided for utilizing tag bits to determine automatically when all operands required by a processor are available and for scheduling the primitive for execution in a queue. Each memory cell of the module may be associated with any of the primitives, and the particular primitive to be executed by the processor associated with the cell is identified by providing an index, such as the cell number for the primitive, to the primitive lookup table of starting addresses. The module thus serves to perform functions previously performed by a number of sections of data flow architectures and coexists with conventional shared memory therein. A multiprocessing system including the module operates in a hybrid mode, wherein the same processing modules are used to perform some processing in a sequential mode, under immediate control of an operating system, while performing other processing in a data flow mode.

  9. Geospace simulations using modern accelerator processor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germaschewski, K.; Raeder, J.; Larson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    OpenGGCM (Open Geospace General Circulation Model) is a well-established numerical code simulating the Earth's space environment. The most computing intensive part is the MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) solver that models the plasma surrounding Earth and its interaction with Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind flowing in from the sun. Like other global magnetosphere codes, OpenGGCM's realism is currently limited by computational constraints on grid resolution. OpenGGCM has been ported to make use of the added computational powerof modern accelerator based processor architectures, in particular the Cell processor. The Cell architecture is a novel inhomogeneous multicore architecture capable of achieving up to 230 GFLops on a single chip. The University of New Hampshire recently acquired a PowerXCell 8i based computing cluster, and here we will report initial performance results of OpenGGCM. Realizing the high theoretical performance of the Cell processor is a programming challenge, though. We implemented the MHD solver using a multi-level parallelization approach: On the coarsest level, the problem is distributed to processors based upon the usual domain decomposition approach. Then, on each processor, the problem is divided into 3D columns, each of which is handled by the memory limited SPEs (synergistic processing elements) slice by slice. Finally, SIMD instructions are used to fully exploit the SIMD FPUs in each SPE. Memory management needs to be handled explicitly by the code, using DMA to move data from main memory to the per-SPE local store and vice versa. We use a modern technique, automatic code generation, which shields the application programmer from having to deal with all of the implementation details just described, keeping the code much more easily maintainable. Our preliminary results indicate excellent performance, a speed-up of a factor of 30 compared to the unoptimized version.

  10. Association of levels of antibodies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease with extracellular proteins of food and probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hevia, Arancha; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Jacquot, Claudine; Urdaci, María C; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa and is related to an abnormal immune response to commensal bacteria. Our aim of the present work has been to explore the levels of antibodies (IgG and IgA) raised against extracellular proteins produced by LAB and its association with IBD. We analyzed, by Western-blot and ELISA, the presence of serum antibodies (IgA and IgG) developed against extracellular protein fractions produced by different food bacteria from the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. We used a sera collection consisting of healthy individuals (HC, n = 50), Crohn's disease patients (CD, n = 37), and ulcerative colitis patients (UC, n = 15). Levels of IgA antibodies developed against a cell-wall hydrolase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus GG (CWH) were significantly higher in the IBD group (P < 0.002; n = 52). The specificity of our measurements was confirmed by measuring IgA antibodies developed against the CWH peptide 365-VNTSNQTAAVSAS-377. IBD patients appeared to have different immune response to food bacteria. This paper sets the basis for developing systems for early detection of IBD, based on the association of high levels of antibodies developed against extracellular proteins from food and probiotic bacteria. PMID:24991549

  11. Association of Levels of Antibodies from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Extracellular Proteins of Food and Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hevia, Arancha; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Jacquot, Claudine; Urdaci, María C.; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa and is related to an abnormal immune response to commensal bacteria. Our aim of the present work has been to explore the levels of antibodies (IgG and IgA) raised against extracellular proteins produced by LAB and its association with IBD. We analyzed, by Western-blot and ELISA, the presence of serum antibodies (IgA and IgG) developed against extracellular protein fractions produced by different food bacteria from the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. We used a sera collection consisting of healthy individuals (HC, n = 50), Crohn's disease patients (CD, n = 37), and ulcerative colitis patients (UC, n = 15). Levels of IgA antibodies developed against a cell-wall hydrolase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus GG (CWH) were significantly higher in the IBD group (P < 0.002; n = 52). The specificity of our measurements was confirmed by measuring IgA antibodies developed against the CWH peptide 365-VNTSNQTAAVSAS-377. IBD patients appeared to have different immune response to food bacteria. This paper sets the basis for developing systems for early detection of IBD, based on the association of high levels of antibodies developed against extracellular proteins from food and probiotic bacteria. PMID:24991549

  12. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-14

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:26620191

  13. Older Adult Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-Reported Storage Practices of Ready-to-Eat Food Products and Risks Associated with Listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2016-02-01

    Consumer implementation of recommended food safety practices, specifically relating to time and temperature control of ready-to-eat (RTE) food products associated with listeriosis are crucial. This is particularly the case for at-risk consumers such as older adults, given the increased listeriosis incidence reported internationally among adults aged ≥60 years. However, data detailing older adults' cognitive risk factors associated with listeriosis are lacking. Combining data about knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes can achieve a cumulative multilayered in-depth understanding of consumer food safety behavior and cognition. This study aims to ascertain older adults' cognition and behavior in relation to domestic food handling and storage practices that may increase the risks associated with L. monocytogenes. Older adults (≥60 years) (n = 100) participated in an interview and questionnaire to determine knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes toward recommended practices. Although the majority (79%) had positive attitudes toward refrigeration, 84% were unaware of recommended temperatures (5°C) and 65% self-reported "never" checking their refrigerator temperature. Although most (72%) knew that "use-by" dates indicate food safety and 62% reported "always" taking note, neutral attitudes were held, with 67% believing it was safe to eat food beyond use-by dates and 57% reporting doing so. Attitudes toward consuming foods within the recommended 2 days of opening were neutral, with 55% aware of recommendations and , 84% reporting that they consume RTE foods beyond recommendations. Although knowledgeable of some key practices, older adults self-reported potentially unsafe practices when storing RTE foods at home, which may increase risks associated with L. monocytogenes. This study has determined that older adults' food safety cognition may affect their behaviors; understanding consumer food safety cognition is essential for developing targeted

  14. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving. PMID:25913686

  15. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. PMID:23910778

  16. 7 CFR 1435.310 - Sharing processors' allocations with producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Every sugar beet and sugarcane processor must provide CCC a certification that: (1) The processor... following provisions: (1) Pays growers for sugar from their delivered sugarcane in the following...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.310 - Sharing processors' allocations with producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Every sugar beet and sugarcane processor must provide CCC a certification that: (1) The processor... following provisions: (1) Pays growers for sugar from their delivered sugarcane in the following...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.310 - Sharing processors' allocations with producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Every sugar beet and sugarcane processor must provide CCC a certification that: (1) The processor... following provisions: (1) Pays growers for sugar from their delivered sugarcane in the following...

  19. Dietary patterns using the Food Guide Pyramid groups are associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors: the multiethnic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Yamamoto, Jennifer F; Sharma, Sangita; Hankin, Jean H; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2005-04-01

    Dietary patterns have been used to identify typical combinations of foods that may be associated with disease risks. We defined dietary patterns among 195,298 participants of the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles in 1993-1996. Intakes of Food Guide Pyramid groups were calculated from a quantitative FFQ for subjects of 5 ethnic groups (African Americans, Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites). Three distinct dietary patterns, "Fat and Meat," "Vegetables," and "Fruit and Milk," were identified by exploratory factor analysis with a varimax rotation and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Similar factor loadings were found for each of 10 ethnic-gender groups in stratified analyses. The odds ratios (OR) for being above the median scores for each factor were calculated. Age, gender, and ethnicity had relatively strong associations with dietary patterns whereas education showed only weak associations. BMI > or = 30 was strongly positively associated with the Fat and Meat pattern (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 2.08-2.20, vs. BMI < 25). Current smokers showed a positive association with the Fat and Meat pattern (OR = 1.67, CI: 1.62-1.72, vs. nonsmokers) and inverse associations with the Vegetables (OR = 0.66, CI: 0.64-0.68) and Fruit and Milk patterns (OR = 0.53, CI: 0.52-0.55). Physical activity was positively associated with the Vegetables and Fruit and Milk patterns but not with the Fat and Meat pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that dietary patterns are influenced by interrelated sociocultural, demographic, and other lifestyle factors and may be useful in investigations of diet-disease relations. PMID:15795445

  20. Factors associated with food intake in passengers on long-haul flights.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Jim; Kao, Shaoyuan; Edwards, Benjamin; Atkinson, Greg; Reilly, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    To understand better how disruption to daily routines and circadian factors affect food intake, some aspects of 361 passengers' eating habits during long-haul flights across eight time zones were investigated. Two meals were provided during each flight. Passengers stated whether or not they had eaten part or all of each meal and the reasons for this decision. They were also asked to give their responses to it (appetite beforehand, enjoyment during the meal, and satiety afterwards), and the type of meal they would prefer to have eaten, given an unrestricted choice. There were few occasions (<6%) when a meal was refused altogether, and no single reason was dominant. Subjective responses to food intake were more positive when larger meals were eaten and "appetite" rather than "no choice" was given as the reason for eating. Subjective responses were also more positive in those who thought the size of the meal offered was neither too small nor too large. When the two meals were considered separately, the first meal was well received by the passengers, and their enjoyment of it was not significantly different from "normal." The second meal (offered soon before landing in the new time zone) was less well received, and many passengers would have preferred a smaller meal. The findings contribute to an understanding of the factors determining the decision to eat a meal and the subjective responses to the food that is eaten. They also have implications for airlines wishing to provide food that is acceptable to passengers and for those providing meals for night workers. PMID:17050213

  1. Till Death Do Us Part: Stable Sponge-Bacteria Associations under Thermal and Food Shortage Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Lucía; Erwin, Patrick M.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic mass mortality events of Mediterranean sponges following periods of anomalously high temperatures or longer than usual stratification of the seawater column (i.e. low food availability) suggest that these animals are sensitive to environmental stresses. The Mediterranean sponges Ircinia fasciculata and I. oros harbor distinct, species-specific bacterial communities that are highly stable over time and space but little is known about how anomalous environmental conditions affect the structure of the resident bacterial communities. Here, we monitored the bacterial communities in I. fasciculata (largely affected by mass mortalities) and I. oros (overall unaffected) maintained in aquaria during 3 weeks under 4 treatments that mimicked realistic stress pressures: control conditions (13°C, unfiltered seawater), low food availability (13°C, 0.1 µm-filtered seawater), elevated temperatures (25°C, unfiltered seawater), and a combination of the 2 stressors (25°C, 0.1 µm-filtered seawater). Bacterial community structure was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As I. fasciculata harbors cyanobacteria, we also measured chlorophyll a (chl a) levels in this species. Multivariate analysis revealed no significant differences in bacterial T-RFLP profiles among treatments for either host sponge species, indicating no effect of high temperatures and food shortage on symbiont community structure. In I. fasciculata, chl a content did not significantly differ among treatments although TEM micrographs revealed some cyanobacteria cells undergoing degradation when exposed to both elevated temperature and food shortage conditions. Arguably, longer-term treatments (months) could have eventually affected bacterial community structure. However, we evidenced no appreciable decay of the symbiotic community in response to medium-term (3 weeks) environmental anomalies

  2. Whole-Genome Sequencing Allows for Improved Identification of Persistent Listeria monocytogenes in Food-Associated Environments

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Haley F.; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C.

    2015-01-01

    While the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food associated environments, there are no whole-genome sequence (WGS) based methods to differentiate persistent from sporadic strains. Whole-genome sequencing of 188 isolates from a longitudinal study of L. monocytogenes in retail delis was used to (i) apply single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based phylogenetics for subtyping of L. monocytogenes, (ii) use SNP counts to differentiate persistent from repeatedly reintroduced strains, and (iii) identify genetic determinants of L. monocytogenes persistence. WGS analysis revealed three prophage regions that explained differences between three pairs of phylogenetically similar populations with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types that differed by ≤3 bands. WGS-SNP-based phylogenetics found that putatively persistent L. monocytogenes represent SNP patterns (i) unique to a single retail deli, supporting persistence within the deli (11 clades), (ii) unique to a single state, supporting clonal spread within a state (7 clades), or (iii) spanning multiple states (5 clades). Isolates that formed one of 11 deli-specific clades differed by a median of 10 SNPs or fewer. Isolates from 12 putative persistence events had significantly fewer SNPs (median, 2 to 22 SNPs) than between isolates of the same subtype from other delis (median up to 77 SNPs), supporting persistence of the strain. In 13 events, nearly indistinguishable isolates (0 to 1 SNP) were found across multiple delis. No individual genes were enriched among persistent isolates compared to sporadic isolates. Our data show that WGS analysis improves food-borne pathogen subtyping and identification of persistent bacterial pathogens in food associated environments. PMID:26116683

  3. Food insecurity and perceived stress but not HIV infection are independently associated with lower energy intakes among lactating Ghanaian women.

    PubMed

    Addo, Adolphina A; Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna A; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Harding, Kimberly B

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive women living in low-income communities may have difficulty meeting the increased energy requirements that are associated with both lactation and HIV infection. Data on household food security and maternal socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stress, anthropometry, reported illness, dietary intakes and preferences, and exposure to nutrition education were collected from 70 lactating women [16 seropositive (HP), 27 seronegative (HN), and 27 who refused to be tested and had unknown HIV status (HU)]. Diet was assessed with three 24-h recalls (one market day, one weekend day, and one non-market weekday). Data were collected at 8.4 (SD = 4.7) months postpartum. Most women (74.3%) reported being in good health at the time of study. Three-day mean energy intakes did not differ by HIV status [HP: 12,000 kJ (SD = 3600), HN: 12,600 kJ (SD = 5100), and HU: 12,300 kJ (SD = 4800); P = 0.94]. Protein, fat, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and zinc intakes also did not differ by group (P > 0.10). There was a higher proportion of women with high stress levels in food insecure households compared with food secure households (55.6% vs. 26.5%; P = 0.01). Energy intake was independently negatively associated with food insecurity [high: 11,300 kJ (SD = 3500) vs. low: 13,400 kJ (SD = 5400), respectively; P = 0.050] and stress [high: 10,800 kJ (SD = 2800) vs. low: 13,400 kJ (SD = 5300), P = 0.021]. These results suggest the need to integrate multi-dimensional interventions that address economic and mental health constraints which may limit some women's ability to meet their dietary needs. PMID:21143587

  4. Whole-Genome Sequencing Allows for Improved Identification of Persistent Listeria monocytogenes in Food-Associated Environments.

    PubMed

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Oliver, Haley F; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-09-01

    While the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food associated environments, there are no whole-genome sequence (WGS) based methods to differentiate persistent from sporadic strains. Whole-genome sequencing of 188 isolates from a longitudinal study of L. monocytogenes in retail delis was used to (i) apply single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based phylogenetics for subtyping of L. monocytogenes, (ii) use SNP counts to differentiate persistent from repeatedly reintroduced strains, and (iii) identify genetic determinants of L. monocytogenes persistence. WGS analysis revealed three prophage regions that explained differences between three pairs of phylogenetically similar populations with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types that differed by ≤3 bands. WGS-SNP-based phylogenetics found that putatively persistent L. monocytogenes represent SNP patterns (i) unique to a single retail deli, supporting persistence within the deli (11 clades), (ii) unique to a single state, supporting clonal spread within a state (7 clades), or (iii) spanning multiple states (5 clades). Isolates that formed one of 11 deli-specific clades differed by a median of 10 SNPs or fewer. Isolates from 12 putative persistence events had significantly fewer SNPs (median, 2 to 22 SNPs) than between isolates of the same subtype from other delis (median up to 77 SNPs), supporting persistence of the strain. In 13 events, nearly indistinguishable isolates (0 to 1 SNP) were found across multiple delis. No individual genes were enriched among persistent isolates compared to sporadic isolates. Our data show that WGS analysis improves food-borne pathogen subtyping and identification of persistent bacterial pathogens in food associated environments. PMID:26116683

  5. Fermented Foods: Are They Tasty Medicines for Helicobacter pylori Associated Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Mydhily R. B.; Chouhan, Deepak; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    More than a million people die every year due to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Helicobacter pylori infection in stomach is the most important reason for these diseases. Interestingly, only 10–20% of the H. pylori infected individuals suffer from these gastric diseases and rest of the infected individuals remain asymptomatic. The genotypes of H. pylori, host genetic background, lifestyle including smoking and diet may determine clinical outcomes. People from different geographical regions have different food habits, which also include several unique fermented products of plant and animal origins. When consumed raw, the fermented foods bring in fresh inocula of microbes to gastrointestinal tract and several strains of these microbes, like Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces are known probiotics. In vitro and in vivo experiments as well as clinical trials suggest that several probiotics have anti-H. pylori effects. Here we discuss the possibility of using natural probiotics present in traditional fermented food and beverages to obtain protection against H. pylori induced gastric diseases. PMID:27504109

  6. An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with food sold at a salvage store in Texas.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Pavani; Crowe, Colleen; Reller, Megan; Gaul, Linda; Hayslett, James; Barth, Suzanne; Eliasberg, Stacey; Ferreira, J; Holt, Kristin; Bengston, Steve; Hendricks, Kate; Sobel, Jeremy

    2003-12-01

    Foodborne botulism is caused by potent neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum. We investigated a large outbreak of foodborne botulism among church supper attendees in Texas. We conducted a cohort study of attendees and investigated the salvage store that sold the implicated foods. We identified 15 cases of botulism (40%) among 38 church supper attendees. Nine patients (60%) had botulinum toxin type A detected in stool specimens. The diagnosis was delayed in 3 cases. Fifteen (63%) of 24 attendees who ate a chili dish developed botulism (relative risk, undefined; P<.001). The chili dish was prepared with "brand X" or "brand Y" frozen chili, "brand Z" canned chili, and hot dogs. An unopened container of brand X chili yielded type A toxin. Brand X chili was purchased at a salvage store where perishable foods were inadequately refrigerated. Our investigation highlights the need to improve clinicians' awareness of botulism. More rigorous and more unannounced inspections may be necessary to detect food mishandling at salvage stores. PMID:14614672

  7. Fermented Foods: Are They Tasty Medicines for Helicobacter pylori Associated Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed

    Nair, Mydhily R B; Chouhan, Deepak; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    More than a million people die every year due to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Helicobacter pylori infection in stomach is the most important reason for these diseases. Interestingly, only 10-20% of the H. pylori infected individuals suffer from these gastric diseases and rest of the infected individuals remain asymptomatic. The genotypes of H. pylori, host genetic background, lifestyle including smoking and diet may determine clinical outcomes. People from different geographical regions have different food habits, which also include several unique fermented products of plant and animal origins. When consumed raw, the fermented foods bring in fresh inocula of microbes to gastrointestinal tract and several strains of these microbes, like Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces are known probiotics. In vitro and in vivo experiments as well as clinical trials suggest that several probiotics have anti-H. pylori effects. Here we discuss the possibility of using natural probiotics present in traditional fermented food and beverages to obtain protection against H. pylori induced gastric diseases. PMID:27504109

  8. Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food texture is important to the successful marketing and profitability of food products. Non-destructive sensing would allow food producers and processors to inspect, sort, grade, or track individual product items, so that they can deliver consistent, superior food products to the marketplace. Over...

  9. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25406801

  10. Exploiting the explosion of information associated with whole genome sequencing to tackle Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in global food production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rates of foodborne disease caused by gastrointestinal pathogens continue to be a concern in both the developed and developing worlds. The growing world population, the increasing complexity of agri-food networks and the wide range of foods now associated with STEC are potential drivers for incre...

  11. High-Throughput Biosensors for Multiplexed Food-Borne Pathogen Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Andrew G.; Tu, Shu-I.

    2011-07-01

    Incidental contamination of foods by pathogenic bacteria and/or their toxins is a serious threat to public health and the global economy. The presence of food-borne pathogens and toxins must be rapidly determined at various stages of food production, processing, and distribution. Producers, processors, regulators, retailers, and public health professionals need simple and cost-effective methods to detect different species or serotypes of bacteria and associated toxins in large numbers of food samples. This review addresses the desire to replace traditional microbiological plate culture with more timely and less cumbersome rapid, biosensor-based methods. Emphasis focuses on high-throughput, multiplexed techniques that allow for simultaneous testing of numerous samples, in rapid succession, for multiple food-borne analytes (primarily pathogenic bacteria and/or toxins).

  12. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. PMID:24953790

  13. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  14. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  15. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  16. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  17. The digital signal processor for the ALCOR millimeter wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R. A.

    1980-11-01

    This report describes the use of an array processor for real time radar signal processing. Pulse compression, range marking, and monopulse error computation are some of the functions that will be performed in the array processor for the millimeter wave ALCOR radar augmentation. Real time software design, processor architecture, and system interfaces are discussed in the report.

  18. Middle School Pupil Writing and the Word Processor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Pupils in middle schools should have ample opportunities to write with the use of word processors. Legible writing in longhand will always be necessary in selected situations but, nevertheless, much drudgery is taken care of when using a word processor. Word processors tend to be very user friendly in that few mechanical skills are needed by the…

  19. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  20. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans. PMID:26184294