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Sample records for food safety explanation

  1. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to themselves. Germs can spread from one food ...

  2. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  3. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... food. Avoid cross-contaminating food items. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. Always ...

  4. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing raw eggs. Raw or undercooked meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Cook foods to safe minimum internal ... seafood* may contain unhealthy chemicals, like mercury. Choose fish lower in mercury to make sure what your ...

  5. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the refrigerator or microwave, never at room temperature. For best results, use a food thermometer when ... cooking when chicken is cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C). So washing doesn' ...

  6. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cause of botulism . Alternative Names Food - hygiene and sanitation References U.S. Department of Health and ... Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of ...

  7. Nanosensors for food safety.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixiong; Sheng, Chenxing

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed. PMID:24730307

  8. MedlinePlus: Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture Start Here 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety ... Spanish Basics for Handling Food Safely (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) - PDF Be Food ...

  9. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who doesn’t love to get outside ... to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. If you’re eating or preparing foods outside, ...

  10. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Food Safety and Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a completely different person ...

  11. [Dioxins and food safety].

    PubMed

    Struciński, Paweł; Piskorska-Pliszczyńska, Jadwiga; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Warenik-Bany, Małgorzata; Maszewski, Sebastian; Czaja, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    Among numerous potential chemical food contaminants, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, collectively referred as dioxins, are commonly considered as bearing substantial risk for human health due to their toxicological properties, persistency and ability to bioaccumulate in food chains. The results of epidemiological studies suggest that environmental exposure to these compounds may affect multiple physiological processes in humans, mainly by the mechanism of endocrine disruption. Adverse health effects linked to the long-term exposure to dioxins include the increase of cancer risk, reproductive and developmental impairment as well as effects on immune functions. Exposure through food (mainly of animal origin) is the major source of dioxin exposure for humans, estimated to account for about 95% of the total intake for non-occupationally exposed persons. Recent studies showed that a consistent part of the European population has an intake exceeding internationally agreed "safe" doses as the Tolerable Daily or Weekly Intake (TDI, TWI). It is worthy to note that percentage of persons with estimated dioxin intake above tolerable limits is much higher among children than in adults. Since the "Belgian dioxin crisis" that occurred in 1999, the estimation of human exposure to these compounds and related consumer risk assessment has been recognized in the European Union as one of the priority activities in the field of food safety. Among activities undertaken by the European Commission during implementation of the Community Strategy for dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls the maximum and action levels have been established with random monitoring by Member States. The legislation on the requirements for sampling and methods of analysis used in the official control laboratories has been set up as well. Member States are obliged to measure background levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in defined food

  12. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

  13. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  14. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the ...

  15. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Bacteria in Refrigerated Foods Safe Refrigerator Temperature Safe Handling of Foods for Refrigerating Placement of ... or packed in snow. He realized the cold temperatures would keep game for times when food was ...

  16. Food Safety for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... come in contact with raw meat, poultry, seafood, eggs and unwashed fresh produce. Place cooked food on ... Check the temperature with a food thermometer. Cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm. Don' ...

  17. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  18. Yersiniosis and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of journal of food pathogens was designed to share some of the interested scientific studies published on yersiniosis, a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of food contaminated with Yersinia. In this issue, the focus was on yersiniosis related foodborne illnesses, beh...

  19. Food safety training for nutritionists.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, J. S.; Cox, L. J.; Gross, R.; Käferstein, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    A course on food safety for nutritionists has been developed in Indonesia through collaboration between government, industry, academia and international agencies. By teaching the basic principles of the subject it equips the participants to recommend foods that are safe as well as nutritious. PMID:10083718

  20. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from clones and their offspring out of the food chain until CVM could further evaluate the issue. back to top FDA Studies Cloning For more than five years, CVM ... evaluate the safety of food from these animals. The resulting report, called a ...

  1. Fires and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... containers like cardboard and screw-topped jars and bottles. Canned goods and cookware exposed to chemicals can ... handling for foods other than meat, poultry, or egg products, call FDA's toll-free information line at ...

  2. Older Adults and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  3. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria A Appendix A to Part 385 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Pt. 385,...

  5. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  6. Risk control and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 11th International Symposium on Toxic Microorganisms of the Joint Panel on Toxic Microorganisms, US-Japan Cooperative Program on Development and Utilization of Natural Resources (UJNR), was held March 4-9, 2012 in Tokyo, Japan. Having the theme "Risk Control and Food Safety," it was the most re...

  7. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New…

  8. New Dimensions of Food Safety and Food Quality Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolving consumer, regulatory, and market influences have resulted in significant changes in research directions in the broad areas of food safety and quality. In the food safety area, more attention is being placed on microbial food safety, and pathogenic microorganisms in particular. More rapid an...

  9. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  10. Food safety considerations for innovative nutrition solutions.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Cohn, Marjorie Nolan; Farber, Jeffrey M; Harris, Linda J; Roberts, Tanya; Salin, Victoria; Singh, Manpreet; Jaferi, Azra; Sperber, William H

    2015-07-01

    Failure to secure safe and affordable food to the growing global population leads far too often to disastrous consequences. Among specialists and other individuals, food scientists have a key responsibility to improve and use science-based tools to address risk and advise food handlers and manufacturers with best-practice recommendations. With collaboration from production agriculture, food processors, state and federal agencies, and consumers, it is critical to implement science-based strategies that address food safety and that have been evaluated for effectiveness in controlling and/or eliminating hazards. It is an open question whether future food safety concerns will shift in priority given the imperatives to supply sufficient food. This report brings together leading food safety experts to address these issues with a focus on three areas: economic, social, and policy aspects of food safety; production and postharvest technology for safe food; and innovative public communication for food safety and nutrition. PMID:25943305

  11. Common Day Care Safety Renovations: Descriptions, Explanations and Cost Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spack, Stan

    This booklet explains some of the day care safety features specified by the new Massachusetts State Building Code (January 1, 1975) which must be met before a new day care center can be licensed. The safety features described are those which most often require renovation to meet the building code standards. Best estimates of the costs involved in…

  12. Food Safety: Is Your Kitchen Clean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jastrow, Susie; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Briley, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes the safety of the U.S. food supply, discusses the causes of food-borne illness, and provides a food-safety checklist for child-care centers that covers safe food shopping, storage, preparation, serving, and clean-up. (KB)

  13. Microbial food safety - modeling and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial food safety is a key issue for the food processing industry, and enhancing food safety is everyone’s responsibility from food producers to consumers. Financial losses to the economy due to foodborne illness are in the billions of dollars, annually. Foodborne illness can be caused by patho...

  14. Food Safety and Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Kids & Teens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Food Safety & Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens Fun & Games Food Safety Word Match Food Safety ...

  15. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  16. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China. PMID:26343705

  17. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia. PMID:26598886

  18. Study Finds Consumer Food Safety Knowledge Lacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Sandria; Coppings, Richard; Speller-Henderson, Leslie; Pearson, Lou

    2005-01-01

    Proper cooling of foods is known to reduce spoilage and help prevent food-borne illnesses. Nonetheless, little is known about consumers' awareness of guidelines regarding appropriate refrigeration of food or their actual refrigeration practices. Focus groups of consumers of common ethnic backgrounds were designed to evaluate food safety knowledge…

  19. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. PMID:26686975

  20. A Dividend in Food Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When NASA faced the problem of how and what to feed an astronaut in a sealed capsule under weightless conditions while planning for manned space mission, they enlisted the aid of The Pillsbury Company. There were two principal concerns: barring crumbs of food that might contaminate the spacecraft's atmosphere or float their way into sensitive instruments; and assuring absolute freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria and toxins. Pillsbury quickly solved the first concern, but the other part of the problem was not as easy. They found that with using standard methods, there was no way to be assured there would not be any bacteria. It was concluded that the only way to succeed was to establish control over the entire process, the raw materials, the processing environment and the people involved. Pillsbury developed the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept. The HACCP is designed to prevent food safety problems rather than to catch them after they have occurred. Three other government agencies are taking preliminary steps toward extending HACCP to meat/poultry and seafood inspection operations. Today, Pillsbury plants are still operating under HACCP.

  1. Food Supply and Food Safety Issues in China

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  2. Food supply and food safety issues in China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China's connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  3. Food Safety Education Using Music Parodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.; Fraser, Angela M.; Gleason, Jeanne B.; Hovey, Susan K.; McCurdy, Sandra M.; Snider, O. Sue

    2009-01-01

    Musical parodies of contemporary songs with their lyrics altered to address current food safety issues were incorporated into a variety of food safety educational programs and the effectiveness of the music was evaluated by semiquantitative and qualitative measures. Audiences receiving the music-enriched curricula included school foodservice…

  4. Nondestructive sensing technologies for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, research at the Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory (EMFSL), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has focused on the development of novel image-based sensing technologies to address agro-food safety concerns, and transformation of these novel technologies into practica...

  5. Novel food processing innovations to improve food safety and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative food processing can be used to improve safety of specialty crops and their co-products, while improving sustainability of agricultural and food processing operations and enhancing overall nutritional quality of foods for both domestic and international consumers. The potential of various...

  6. China's food safety regulation and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Feng; Nie, Xuemei; Wang, Wenzhi; Feng, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Food safety is essential to people's health and people's livelihood. To ensure that food safety is an important current strategy of the governments, both regulation and standardization are important support for implementing this strategic initiative effectively. The status and prospects of China's food laws, regulations, and standards system are introduced. China now has established a complete law regime providing a sound foundation and good environment for keeping the health of people, maintaining the order of social economy and promoting the international trade of food. At the same time, it is undoubtedly important to strengthen standardization and improve the food safety standards system. In the administration of food safety, mass spectrometry is becoming more and more important and many analytical methods developed in China are based on its application. PMID:21643903

  7. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  8. Importance of international cooperation in food safety.

    PubMed

    Canet, C

    1993-01-01

    All countries need to ensure that national food supplies are safe, of good quality and available in adequate amounts at affordable prices to ensure good nutrition and health for all population groups. The enforcement of food standards by efficient national food control authorities in domestic markets and at the points of import and export has been increasingly recognized as a means of raising the value of exported goods by reducing the number of rejected or reconditioned consignments, and of ensuring the safety of the food and its acceptability by the final consumer. However, those national efforts have sometimes induced some non-tariff barriers to food trade and distribution. In addition, new developments in the technologies of food production, processing and marketing pose a new challenge to ensure safety of food. The strengthening of national food control infrastructures in particular in developing countries including the strengthening of staff capabilities, the need for harmonization of food at international levels, the need for collection and exchange of data on food control and food contamination issues are essential elements to ensure food safety in the world. International cooperation has an important role to play in achieving these essential elements. PMID:8504878

  9. Food Safety Informatics: A Public Health Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Cynthia A.; Larkin, Stephanie N.; Akers, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    To date, little has been written about the implementation of utilizing food safety informatics as a technological tool to protect consumers, in real-time, against foodborne illnesses. Food safety outbreaks have become a major public health problem, causing an estimated 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. Yet, government inspectors/regulators that monitor foodservice operations struggle with how to collect, organize, and analyze data; implement, monitor, and enforce safe food systems. Currently, standardized technologies have not been implemented to efficiently establish “near-in-time” or “just-in-time” electronic awareness to enhance early detection of public health threats regarding food safety. To address the potential impact of collection, organization and analyses of data in a foodservice operation, a wireless food safety informatics (FSI) tool was pilot tested at a university student foodservice center. The technological platform in this test collected data every six minutes over a 24 hour period, across two primary domains: time and temperatures within freezers, walk-in refrigerators and dry storage areas. The results of this pilot study briefly illustrated how technology can assist in food safety surveillance and monitoring by efficiently detecting food safety abnormalities related to time and temperatures so that efficient and proper response in “real time” can be addressed to prevent potential foodborne illnesses. PMID:23569605

  10. Food safety informatics: a public health imperative.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Cynthia A; Larkin, Stephanie N; Akers, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    To date, little has been written about the implementation of utilizing food safety informatics as a technological tool to protect consumers, in real-time, against foodborne illnesses. Food safety outbreaks have become a major public health problem, causing an estimated 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. Yet, government inspectors/regulators that monitor foodservice operations struggle with how to collect, organize, and analyze data; implement, monitor, and enforce safe food systems. Currently, standardized technologies have not been implemented to efficiently establish "near-in-time" or "just-in-time" electronic awareness to enhance early detection of public health threats regarding food safety. To address the potential impact of collection, organization and analyses of data in a foodservice operation, a wireless food safety informatics (FSI) tool was pilot tested at a university student foodservice center. The technological platform in this test collected data every six minutes over a 24 hour period, across two primary domains: time and temperatures within freezers, walk-in refrigerators and dry storage areas. The results of this pilot study briefly illustrated how technology can assist in food safety surveillance and monitoring by efficiently detecting food safety abnormalities related to time and temperatures so that efficient and proper response in "real time" can be addressed to prevent potential foodborne illnesses. PMID:23569605

  11. Future challenges to microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Brul, Stanley; de Jong, Aarieke; de Jonge, Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H; Ter Kuile, Benno H

    2010-05-30

    Despite significant efforts by all parties involved, there is still a considerable burden of foodborne illness, in which micro-organisms play a prominent role. Microbes can enter the food chain at different steps, are highly versatile and can adapt to the environment allowing survival, growth and production of toxic compounds. This sets them apart from chemical agents and thus their study from food toxicology. We summarize the discussions of a conference organized by the Dutch Food and Consumer Products Safety Authority and the European Food Safety Authority. The goal of the conference was to discuss new challenges to food safety that are caused by micro-organisms as well as strategies and methodologies to counter these. Management of food safety is based on generally accepted principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points and of Good Manufacturing Practices. However, a more pro-active, science-based approach is required, starting with the ability to predict where problems might arise by applying the risk analysis framework. Developments that may influence food safety in the future occur on different scales (from global to molecular) and in different time frames (from decades to less than a minute). This necessitates development of new risk assessment approaches, taking the impact of different drivers of change into account. We provide an overview of drivers that may affect food safety and their potential impact on foodborne pathogens and human disease risks. We conclude that many drivers may result in increased food safety risks, requiring active governmental policy setting and anticipation by food industries whereas other drivers may decrease food safety risks. Monitoring of contamination in the food chain, combined with surveillance of human illness and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks and sporadic cases continue to be important sources of information. New approaches in human illness surveillance include the use of molecular markers for

  12. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented. PMID:24915401

  13. Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Frewer, Lynn J; Scholderer, Joachim; De Brabander, Hubert F

    2007-03-14

    In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers' food concern rankings. The aim of this contribution is to provide a better understanding to food risk analysts of why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information. This paper presents some cases of seemingly irrational and inconsistent consumer behaviour with respect to food safety and risk information and provides explanations for these behaviours based on the nature of the risk and individual psychological processes. Potential solutions for rebuilding consumer confidence in food safety and bridging between lay and expert opinions towards food risks are reviewed. These include traceability and labelling, segmented communication approaches and public involvement in risk management decision-making. PMID:17386689

  14. Food Quality and Safety: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    Food quality and safety is the foremost issue amongst the present days' consumers. Fresh fruits and vegetables are often thought of as healthful, nutritious foods having no risk of food borne illness associated with their consumption. However recent food borne illness outbreaks in countries have been traced to fresh fruits, vegetables, juices and milk. These incidences have caused producers, processors, transporters, distributors, and importers to re-evaluate quality of their fresh fruits and vegetables produce and identify the hazardous points such as production, handling and processing systems to prevent any food borne diseases.

  15. College Students and Awareness of Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Holbert, Donald; Forsythe, William A., III

    2007-01-01

    Microbial foodborne illnesses are a public health problem in the United States. Americans are patronizing restaurants three or more times a week and college students are frequently employed in food service; therefore, this study assessed compliance with and awareness of food safety recommendations among 460 college students. Compliance was…

  16. Food Safety After a Tsunami

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... be used to check food temperature. Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  17. Food Safety for Transplant Recipients

    MedlinePlus

    ... 300 types) Associat ed Foods • Raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, and meat • Unpasteurized (raw) milk or juice • ... made with raw milk; and raw or undercooked eggs, raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, raw shellfish ...

  18. Pet Food Safety A Shared Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Robert L; Baker, Robert C; Charlton, Adrian J; Riviere, Jim E; Standaert, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result of several incidences of chemical toxicities and infectious disease transmission. This has led to increased research into the causes and controls for these hazards for both companion animals and their owners. The following summary provides an introduction to the issues, challenges, and new tools being developed to ensure that commercial pet foods are both nutritious and safe.

  19. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  20. Risk Perception of Food Safety by School Food-handlers

    PubMed Central

    Monego, Estelamaris Tronco; Campos, Maria Raquel Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory descriptive study was conducted with a qualitative approach that used focus groups. The objective of this study was to identify the risk perception of food safety by school food-handlers. The results indicated that the food production process has certain inadequacies, including the weak risk perception by the food-handlers regarding the student's health. The students, the pedagogical team, and the principal contribute to this behaviour, which can affect the quality of the final product—the served meal. The social devaluation of the food-handlers is also discussed. It is necessary to improve the food-handlers’ training sessions, with the purpose of modifying risk perception and to allow the school community to be involved in healthy and safe feeding practices. PMID:24847589

  1. Innovative modeling approaches for risk assessment in food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety involves preventing foodborne illness by describing ways to properly handle, prepare and store food. Regulation of food safety is applied to companies that produce food. Thus, the goal of food safety regulation is to reduce human pathogens to acceptable levels at the processing plant t...

  2. Safety considerations of DNA in food.

    PubMed

    Jonas, D A; Elmadfa, I; Engel, K H; Heller, K J; Kozianowski, G; König, A; Müller, D; Narbonne, J F; Wackernagel, W; Kleiner, J

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques are capable of introducing genetic changes into food organisms that are more predictable than those introduced through conventional breeding techniques. This review discusses whether the consumption of DNA in approved novel foods and novel food ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be regarded as being as safe as the consumption of DNA in existing foods. It concludes that DNA from GMOs is equivalent to DNA from existing food organisms that has always been consumed with human diets. Any risks associated with the consumption of DNA will remain, irrespective of its origin, because the body handles all DNA in the same way. The breakdown of DNA during food processing and passage through the gastrointestinal tract reduces the likelihood that intact genes capable of encoding foreign proteins will be transferred to gut microflora. The review does not specifically address food safety issues arising from the consumption of viable genetically modified microorganisms but it shows that the likelihood of transfer and functional integration of DNA from ingested food by gut microflora and/or human cells is minimal. Information reviewed does not indicate any safety concerns associated with the ingestion of DNA per se from GMOs resulting from the use of currently available recombinant DNA techniques in the food chain. PMID:11786646

  3. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes. PMID:24215699

  4. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443205

  5. Food Safety Knowledge and Beliefs of Middle School Children: Implications for Food Safety Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling…

  6. [Food safety achieved through herd management].

    PubMed

    Stärk, K D

    2000-12-01

    Most animal-derived food products originate from production chains consisting of a series of well-defined, separate production steps. Undesired events affecting food safety can principally occur at any point within the production chain. The principle of integrated food safety assurance from stable to table has therefore been established. The livestock holding has thus to be understood as a fix element of the production chain, and the producer has to accept a part of the responsibility for food safety. On a farm, food safety can be negatively affected by animal feed (microbiological or toxicological contamination), management (hygiene, stocking density, cleaning and disinfecting), veterinary treatments (use of antibiotics) and recycling of slurry. Most relevant practices can be summarised under the standard of "good farming practice". HACCP programmes as they are applied in the processing industries could in principle also be used at the farm level. Influential management steps would need to be identified and controlled. This approach is, however, still in its infancy at present. Using the current monitoring systems, microbiological and toxicological problems in food are difficult to be identified before the end of the production chain. As the cause of a problem can be found at the farm level, traceability of products through the production chain is essential. In Switzerland, traceability of animals is realised using compulsory animal identification and the animal movement database. Using this link, information on the health status of a herd could be made available to the slaughterhouse in order to classify animals into food-safety risk categories. This principle is a key element in the ongoing discussion about visual meat inspection in Europe and elsewhere. PMID:11189835

  7. Bioluminescence lights the way to food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, Lubov Y.; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2003-07-01

    The food industry is increasingly adopting food safety and quality management systems that are more proactive and preventive than those used in the past which have tended to rely on end product testing and visual inspection. The regulatory agencies in many countries are promoting one such management tool, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), as a way to achieve a safer food supply and as a basis for harmonization of trading standards. Verification that the process is safe must involve microbiological testing but the results need not be generated in real-time. Of all the rapid microbiological tests currently available, the only ones that come close to offering real-time results are bioluminescence-based methods. Recent developments in application of bioluminescence for food safety issues are presented in the paper. These include the use of genetically engineered microorganisms with bioluminescent and fluorescent phenotypes as a real time indicator of physiological state and survival of food-borne pathogens in food and food processing environments as well as novel bioluminescent-based methods for rapid detection of pathogens in food and environmental samples. Advantages and pitfalls of the methods are discussed.

  8. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  9. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants.

    PubMed

    Amchova, Petra; Kotolova, Hana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention has been recently paid to the toxicity of additives used in food. The European Parliament and the Council published the REGULATION (EC) No. 1333/2008 on food additives establishing that the toxicity of food additives evaluated before 20th January 2009 must be re-evaluated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The aim of this review is to survey current knowledge specifically on the toxicity issues of synthetic food colorants using official reports published by the EFSA and other available studies published since the respective report. Synthetic colorants described are Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow, Sunset Yellow, Azorubine, Ponceau 4R, Erythrosine, Allura Red, Patent Blue, Indigo Carmine, Brilliant Blue FCF, Green S, Brilliant Black and Brown HT. Moreover, a summary of evidence on possible detrimental effects of colorant mixes on children's behaviour is provided and future research directions are outlined. PMID:26404013

  10. Modeling and applications in microbial food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mathematical modeling is a scientific and systematic approach to study and describe the recurrent events or phenomena with successful application track for decades. When models are properly developed and validated, their applications may save costs and time. For the microbial food safety concerns, ...

  11. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2005

    2005-01-01

    When students pack up for college, they take along the basics-- TV, laptop, MP3 player, and cell phone. Many students will arrive at school with a microwave oven, tabletop grill, mini fridge, and toaster oven in tow. Most students, however, don't know there are food safety considerations when cooking with these appliances. The USDA Meat and…

  12. Predictive Microbiology and Food Safety Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mathematical modeling is the science of systematic study of recurrent events or phenomena. When models are properly developed, their applications may save costs and time. For microbial food safety research and applications, predictive microbiology models may be developed based on the fact that most ...

  13. Educating Veterinary Students in Food Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genigeorgis, Constantin A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A survey of domestic and foreign schools of veterinary medicine is analyzed, revealing a general trend toward deemphasis and/or loss of identity in teaching food safety and regulated veterinary public health subjects. It is suggested that minimal standards need to be set for curricula of U.S. schools. (Author/MLW)

  14. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  15. Information systems in food safety management.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, T A; Baranyi, J; Bowman, J; Dalgaard, P; Kirk, M; Ross, T; Schmid, S; Zwietering, M H

    2006-12-01

    Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time. Databases with information on microorganisms pertinent to the identification of foodborne pathogens, response of microbial populations to the environment and characteristics of foods and processing conditions are the cornerstone of food safety management systems. Such databases find application in: Identifying pathogens in food at the genus or species level using applied systematics in automated ways. Identifying pathogens below the species level by molecular subtyping, an approach successfully applied in epidemiological investigations of foodborne disease and the basis for national surveillance programs. Predictive modelling software, such as the Pathogen Modeling Program and Growth Predictor (that took over the main functions of Food Micromodel) the raw data of which were combined as the genesis of an international web based searchable database (ComBase). Expert systems combining databases on microbial characteristics, food composition and processing information with the resulting "pattern match" indicating problems that may arise from changes in product formulation or processing conditions. Computer software packages to aid the practical application of HACCP and risk assessment and decision trees to bring logical sequences to establishing and modifying food safety management practices. In addition there are many other uses of information systems that benefit food safety more globally, including: Rapid dissemination of information on foodborne disease outbreaks via websites or list servers carrying commentary from many sources, including the press and interest groups, on the reasons for and consequences of foodborne disease incidents. Active surveillance networks allowing rapid dissemination

  16. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety. PMID:26408141

  17. Food safety risks and consumer health.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Bruce M

    2010-11-30

    The major food safety risks are not eating a healthy diet, and failure to avoid foodborne illness. Over one billion people in the world suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition. Nutritionally enhanced transgenic crops such as Golden Rice are one potential strategy for reducing malnutrition in the world. Transgenic crops are subjected to a rigorous pre-market safety assessment. The safety of novel proteins and other products is established, and through compositional analysis and animal studies, the safety of any observed changes is evaluated. These studies provide evidence that the new product is as safe as, or safer than, comparable varieties. It must be asked, however, if this rigorous analysis is necessary, because unregulated crops produced by other breeding methods also undergo genetic changes and contain unintended effects. Golden Rice poses infinitesimally small, if any, risk to consumers whilst it has the potential to spare millions of lives each year. However, because it is a transgenic crop, it cannot be deployed without years of expensive pre-market safety review. Paradoxically, if Golden Rice had been produced by less precise conventional methods of breeding, it would already be in the hands of poor farmers. It is concluded that the hyper-precautionary regulatory process applied to transgenic crops works to the extreme disadvantage of the hungry and the poor. PMID:20621653

  18. Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram...

  19. Safety of Nanotechnology in Food Industries

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Gilaki, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of nanotechnology in various industries has been so rapid and widespread because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Nutrition and food service is one of the biggest industries to be affected by nanotechnology in all areas, changing even the nature of food itself. Whether it’s farming, food packaging, or the prevention of microbial contamination the major food industries have seen dramatic changes because of nanotechnology. Different nanomaterials such as nanopowders, nanotubes, nano-fibers, quantum dots, and metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles are globally produced in large quantities due to their broad applicability in food-related industries. Because of the unique properties of nanostructures and nanomaterials – such as a large surface area, high activity, and small size, there is some concern about the potential for harmful adverse effects of used nanomaterials on health or the environment. However, because of tremendous advances in different industries, this concern may be unnecessary. This paper presents some uses of nanomaterials in food and related industries and their possible side-effects. This review covers the various aspects of nanomaterials and their impact on human exposure, safety, and environmental concerns. PMID:25763176

  20. Systematic Approach to Food Safety Education on the Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Food safety education from farm to end user is essential in the mitigation of food safety concerns associated with fresh produce. Iowa State University developed a multi-disciplinary three-level sequential program ("Know," "Show," "Go") to provide a holistic approach to food safety education. This program provides…

  1. 76 FR 13638 - Ensuring the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety Systems and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... appropriate points along the global food supply chain. This public hearing is an opportunity for the Agency to... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ensuring the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety Systems and Import Practices of Foreign Countries; Public Hearing; Request...

  2. Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications. PMID:21520718

  3. Bacteriophage endolysins: applications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Loessner, Martin J

    2016-02-01

    Bacteriophage endolysins (peptidoglycan hydrolases) have emerged as a new class of antimicrobial agents useful for controlling bacterial infection or other unwanted contaminations in various fields, particularly in the light of the worldwide increasing frequency of drug-resistant pathogens. This review summarizes and discusses recent developments regarding the use of endolysins for food safety. Besides the use of native and engineered endolysins for controlling bacterial contamination at different points within the food production chain, this also includes the application of high-affinity endolysin-derived cell wall binding domains for rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria. Novel approaches to extend the lytic action of endolysins towards Gram-negative cells will also be highlighted. PMID:26707470

  4. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the

  5. Optical sensing technologies for rapid food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public concerns for food safety and foodborne illness have risen in recent years. There is a need to expand efforts to prevent and mitigate any food contamination that can potentially be harmful to human health. Researchers at the Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one...

  6. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Julie A; Nagy-Nero, Debe

    2009-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among food and nutrition professionals, academics, representatives of the agricultural and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technological innovation and applications, and supporting further research. New food and water safety issues evolve as the environment changes. Food and nutrition professionals should collaborate with food and agriculture industries and members of the medical community in a joint effort to address these issues. Recent food- and waterborne illnesses have occurred in new settings and/or unique foods not traditionally associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. New issues associated with food safety and security that have emerged support the need for continued education and research. Government programs have developed powerful tools such as FoodNet and PulseNet to detect food- and waterborne illness outbreaks in the United States. These government programs have provided the data to enhance public policy and educational programs such as FightBac! Mandatory and voluntary adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points in the foodservice and processing industries have contributed to a decrease in foodborne illness outbreaks from traditional foods and some microorganisms usually associated with foodborne illnesses. Food and nutrition professionals are positioned to provide food and water safety education in community, clinical settings, and foodservice operations and food industries. With an aging population and an increased number of people at risk due to medical conditions for food- and waterborne illness, food and nutrition professionals should be involved in collaborative food and water safety issues in educational, research, and policy agenda settings. As

  7. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness. PMID:27497133

  8. Constantly evolving safety assessment protocols for GM foods.

    PubMed

    Sesikeran, B; Vasanthi, Siruguri

    2008-01-01

    he introduction of GM foods has led to the evolution of a food safety assessment paradigm that establishes safety of the GM food relative to its conventional counterpart. The GM foods currently approved and marketed in several countries have undergone extensive safety testing under a structured safety assessment framework evolved by international organizations like FAO, WHO, Codex and OECD. The major elements of safety assessment include molecular characterization of inserted genes and stability of the trait, toxicity and allergenicity potential of the expressed substances, compositional analysis, potential for gene transfer to gut microflora and unintentional effects of the genetic modification. As more number and type of food crops are being brought under the genetic modification regime, the adequacy of existing safety assessment protocols for establishing safety of these foods has been questioned. Such crops comprise GM crops with higher agronomic vigour, nutritional or health benefit/ by modification of plant metabolic pathways and those expressing bioactive substances and pharmaceuticals. The safety assessment challenges of these foods are the potential of the methods to detect unintentional effects with higher sensitivity and rigor. Development of databases on food compositions, toxicants and allergens is currently seen as an important aid to development of safety protocols. With the changing global trends in genetic modification technology future challenge would be to develop GM crops with minimum amount of inserted foreign DNA so as to reduce the burden of complex safety assessments while ensuring safety and utility of the technology. PMID:18296346

  9. Alternative food safety intervention technologies: flash pasteurization of finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  10. Recent advances in applied nanoscience for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ongoing developments in nanotechnology offer potential to transform agriculture in several areas, including food safety, quality, packaging, product traceability, food processing, and bioactive delivery. These nanoscience-based applications utilize the unique properties of materials with a dimension...

  11. Food Safety Issues and the Microbiology of Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial food safety has emerged as a global concern because of its effect on health of the consumers and the economic impact on the food industry. The economic impact of food-borne illness is estimated at $20-43 billion annually. Campylobacter and Salmonella are the #1 and #2 causes of human food...

  12. Food Safety, Food Fraud, and Food Defense: A Fast Evolving Literature.

    PubMed

    Manning, Louise; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-04-01

    Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks. PMID:26934423

  13. 76 FR 30727 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Inspections and Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... reportable food that is the subject of a summary posting and that are part of a chain of establishments with... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Inspections and Compliance AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  14. Food Safety in Home Kitchens: A Synthesis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions. PMID:24002725

  15. Nondestructive imaging technologies for agro-food safety inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, have developed hyperspectral and multispectral line-scan image-based opto-electronic sensing technologies and methodologies for online agro-food quality and safety inspection. Sensing techniques including fluorescence and vi...

  16. Development and Implementation of a Food Safety Knowledge Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wheatley, Virginia; Schaffner, Donald; Bruhn, Christine; Blalock, Lydia; Maurer, Jaclyn

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the food safety knowledge of young adults. In addition, few knowledge questionnaires and no comprehensive, criterion-referenced measure that assesses the full range of food safety knowledge could be identified. Without appropriate, valid, and reliable measures and baseline data, it is difficult to develop and implement…

  17. [Food safety viewed from the registration and inspection agencies].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    When food safety is mentioned, people would think about food which is in compliance with Food Sanitation Act and standard, and edible food. Because there is difference in terms of food and additives standards between Japan and other countries, a variety of food cannot be imported from foreign countries to Japan. In addition, in 2006, with the introduction of the Positive List, which takes a close-up of pesticide remained in food and anti-biotic, we adopted an effective policy towards imported food which does not reach the national standards. On one hand, in order to ensure food safety, domestic producers, hotels, fast food stores, and restaurants all try to strengthen management on food quality and employees health. However, food poisoning happens frequently. Chemicals and natural poisoning play a part but the major part is played by micro-organism (bacteria). So it become more and more important to develop food safety policies to avoid harm from bad food. Therefore, as an authority with the responsibility of quarantine, inspection and registration, it is important to conduct food inspection and it is even more important to provide comprehensive suggestions. PMID:21720130

  18. Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Huifen; Zhu, Fang; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014-present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. PMID:27447636

  19. Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Huifen; Zhu, Fang; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014–present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. PMID:27447636

  20. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety. PMID:26483881

  1. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  2. Consumer confidence in the safety of food and newspaper coverage of food safety issues: a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Janneke; Van Trijp, Hans; Renes, Reint Jan; Frewer, Lynn J

    2010-01-01

    This study develops a longitudinal perspective on consumer confidence in the safety of food to explore if, how, and why consumer confidence changes over time. In the first study, a theory-based monitoring instrument for consumer confidence in the safety of food was developed and validated. The monitoring instrument assesses consumer confidence together with its determinants. Model and measurement invariance were validated rigorously before developments in consumer confidence in the safety of food and its determinants were investigated over time. The results from the longitudinal analysis show that across four waves of annual data collection (2003-2006), the framework was stable and that the relative importance of the determinants of confidence was, generally, constant over time. Some changes were observed regarding the mean ratings on the latent constructs. The second study explored how newspaper coverage of food safety related issues affects consumer confidence in the safety of food through subjective consumer recall of food safety incidents. The results show that the newspaper coverage on food safety issues is positively associated with consumer recall of food safety incidents, both in terms of intensity and recency of media coverage. PMID:20002892

  3. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. RAPID NONDESTRUCTIVE SPECTRAL IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ONLINE FOOD SAFETY INSPECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness presents a public health challenge in the United States. There is an urgent need for the federal government and food industries to expand efforts to prevent any food contamination that potentially could be harmful to human health. The Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of t...

  5. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  6. Applications of advanced intervention technologies to enhance microbial food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety issues may arise due to chemical and/or microbial contaminations. Foodborne pathogens typically are the major reasons in food related outbreaks that result in human sickness/death, product disposal/waste and other economic losses. The food industry is continuously seeking better interv...

  7. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  8. Self-Reported Changes in Food Safety Behaviors among Foodservice Employees: Impact of a Retail Food Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Boleman, Chris; Thompson, Britta

    2007-01-01

    A food safety education program developed for retail food establishments was evaluated to assess the extent to which participants were practicing selected behaviors linked to reducing the risk of foodborne disease both before and after the program. Scores from the state health department's Certified Food Manager (CFM) exam also were examined.…

  9. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaurants participated in this study. We split them into two groups: the intervention group with training, and the control group without food safety training. Employee knowledge of the intervention group also showed a significant improvement in their score, increasing from 49.3 before the training to 66.6 after training. But in terms of employee practices and the sanitation performance, there were no significant increases after the training. From these results, we recommended that the more job-specific and hand-on training materials for restaurant employees should be developed and more continuous implementation of the food safety training and integration of employee appraisal program with the outcome of safety training were needed. PMID:20198210

  10. The Melamine Incident: Implications for International Food and Feed Safety

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Céline Marie-Elise; Schlundt, Jørgen; Ben Embarek, Peter; Hird, Susan; Lo-Fo-Wong, Danilo; Beltran, Jose Javier Ocampo; Teoh, Keng Ngee; Tritscher, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    Background A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequently, melamine has been detected in many milk and milk-containing products, as well as other food and feed products, which were also exported to many countries worldwide. Objectives The melamine event represents one of the largest deliberate food contamination incidents. We provide a description and analysis of this event to determine the global implications on food and feed safety. Discussions A series of factors, including the intentional character of the milk contamination, the young age of the population affected, the large number of potentially contaminated products, the global distribution of these products, and the delay in reporting led this event to take on unexpected proportions. This incident illustrated the complexity of international trade of food products and food ingredients that required immediate actions at international level. Conclusion Managing food-safety events should be done internationally and early on as soon as multinational consequences are expected. Collaboration between food-safety authorities worldwide is needed to efficiently exchange information and to enable tracking and recalling of affected products to ensure food safety and to protect public health. PMID:20049196

  11. Monitoring food safety violation reports from internet forums.

    PubMed

    Kate, Kiran; Negi, Sumit; Kalagnanam, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne illness is a growing public health concern in the world. Government bodies, which regulate and monitor the state of food safety, solicit citizen feedback about food hygiene practices followed by food establishments. They use traditional channels like call center, e-mail for such feedback collection. With the growing popularity of Web 2.0 and social media, citizens often post such feedback on internet forums, message boards etc. The system proposed in this paper applies text mining techniques to identify and mine such food safety complaints posted by citizens on web data sources thereby enabling the government agencies to gather more information about the state of food safety. In this paper, we discuss the architecture of our system and the text mining methods used. We also present results which demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in a real-world deployment. PMID:25160357

  12. Foodservice employees benefit from interventions targeting barriers to food safety.

    PubMed

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Shanklin, Carol W; Roberts, Kevin R; Howells, Amber D; Barrett, Elizabeth B

    2009-09-01

    The number of foodborne illnesses traced to improper food handling in restaurants indicates a need for research to improve food safety in these establishments. Therefore, this 2-year longitudinal study investigated the effectiveness of traditional ServSafe (National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation, Chicago, IL) food-safety training and a Theory of Planned Behavior intervention program targeting employees' perceived barriers and attitudes toward important food-safety behaviors. The effectiveness of the training and intervention was measured by knowledge scores and observed behavioral compliance rates related to food-safety practices. Employees were observed for handwashing, thermometer usage, and proper handling of work surfaces at baseline, after receiving ServSafe training, and again after exposure to the intervention targeting barriers and negative attitudes about food-safety practices. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated training improved handwashing knowledge, but the intervention was necessary to improve overall behavioral compliance and handwashing compliance. Results suggest that registered dietitians; dietetic technicians, registered; and foodservice managers should implement a combination of training and intervention to improve knowledge and compliance with food-safety behaviors, rather than relying on training alone. Challenges encountered while conducting this research are discussed, and recommendations are provided for researchers interested in conducting this type of research in the future. PMID:19699837

  13. The Pacific Family and Food Safety: A Food Guide into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Mary Elaine; Aguon, Jane M.

    The Food Safety First Program in Guam and the Marianas, sponsored in part by the United States Department of Agriculture, assesses the food safety behavior of the local population, and uses the results to develop educational programs. The thriving of bacteria in the local climate places extra importance on educating the population on the necessity…

  14. Proteomics in food: Quality, safety, microbes, and allergens.

    PubMed

    Piras, Cristian; Roncada, Paola; Rodrigues, Pedro M; Bonizzi, Luigi; Soggiu, Alessio

    2016-03-01

    Food safety and quality and their associated risks pose a major concern worldwide regarding not only the relative economical losses but also the potential danger to consumer's health. Customer's confidence in the integrity of the food supply could be hampered by inappropriate food safety measures. A lack of measures and reliable assays to evaluate and maintain a good control of food characteristics may affect the food industry economy and shatter consumer confidence. It is imperative to create and to establish fast and reliable analytical methods that allow a good and rapid analysis of food products during the whole food chain. Proteomics can represent a powerful tool to address this issue, due to its proven excellent quantitative and qualitative drawbacks in protein analysis. This review illustrates the applications of proteomics in the past few years in food science focusing on food of animal origin with some brief hints on other types. Aim of this review is to highlight the importance of this science as a valuable tool to assess food quality and safety. Emphasis is also posed in food processing, allergies, and possible contaminants like bacteria, fungi, and other pathogens. PMID:26603968

  15. Consumer food safety perceptions and practices in a Turkish community.

    PubMed

    Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer Demirel; Kaptan, Meltem

    2011-11-01

    Research has shown that most reported foodborne outbreaks are caused by food prepared and consumed at home, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer food safety knowledge. In this study, 2,000 randomly selected residents from Çanakkale, Turkey, participated in face-to-face interviews to assess their food safety perceptions and practices. Questions covered the attention given to expiration dates, safety certificates, and food additives during shopping; consumption of high-risk foods; safe food handling; storage knowledge; and their source of food safety knowledge. Statistical analyses were done to clarify the differences according to three main aspects: gender, age, and educational level. Results showed that women and middle-aged respondents were significantly more careful during shopping and more interested in food safety issues than men and younger individuals. A significant relationship was found between gender and consumption of high-risk foods, with men consuming more of these foods than women. Furthermore, high-risk foods were more frequently consumed by young participants than by older participants, with more highly educated consumers shopping more consciously. Although most respondents appeared to know proper food handling and storage practices, almost all participants lacked some information on some issues. In order to remove these deficiencies, a brochure was prepared and distributed to people in various parts of the city. In addition, public seminars were organized. However, to ensure that this information results in positive attitude and behavioral changes, seminars should be repeated at specific intervals, and education procedures and processes should be controlled regularly. PMID:22054195

  16. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral imaging technologies have been developed rapidly during the past decade. This paper presents hyperspectral and multispectral imaging technologies in the area of food safety and quality evaluation, with an introduction, demonstration, and summarization of the spectral imaging techniques avai...

  17. Food Safety Should Come 1st on The 4th

    MedlinePlus

    ... for food safety at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). "This is likely because people are spending ... degrees, the USDA says. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, news release, June 27, 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

  18. Multilevel models in the explanation of the relationship between safety climate and safe behavior.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, Alistair; Tomás, José M; Oliver, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between components of organizational safety climate, including employee attitudes to organizational safety issues; perceptions of the physical working environment, and evaluations of worker engagement with safety issues; and relates these to self-reported levels of safety behavior. It attempts to explore the relationships between these variables in 1189 workers across 78 work groups in a large transportation organization. Evaluations of safety climate, the working environment and worker engagement, as well as safe behaviors, were collected using a self report questionnaire. The multilevel analysis showed that both levels of evaluation (the work group and the individual), and some cross-level interactions, were significant in explaining safe behaviors. Analyses revealed that a number of variables, at both levels, were associated with worker engagement and safe behaviors. The results suggest that, while individual evaluations of safety issues are important, there is also a role for the fostering of collective safety climates in encouraging safe behaviors and therefore reducing accidents. PMID:23866251

  19. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  20. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  1. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  2. 7 CFR 2.51 - Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.51 Section 2... Safety § 2.51 Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety. Pursuant to § 2.18, and subject to policy guidance... Secretary for Food Safety to the Deputy Under Secretary for Food Safety, to be exercised only during...

  3. 78 FR 57320 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing two public meetings to discuss two proposed rules aimed at strengthening assurances that imported food meets the same safety standards as food produced domestically. The Foreign Supplier Verification Programs (FSVP) proposal establishes requirements for importers to verify that their foreign suppliers are implementing the modern,......

  4. Food safety in family homes in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mitakakis, Teresa Z; Sinclair, Martha I; Fairley, Christopher K; Lightbody, Pamela K; Leder, Karin; Hellard, Margaret E

    2004-04-01

    Poor food handling practices in the home are a likely cause of gastroenteritis. This study examined how often reported practices in Australian homes met public health food safety recommendations. During 1998 in Melbourne, Australia, food handling and food storage questionnaires were completed by an adult member in 524 and 515 families, respectively. Each family consisted of at least two adults and two children. Respondents were surveyed regarding washing of hands, cutting boards, and fresh produce; use of kitchen cloths; egg storage; where cooked foods were cooled; the duration before refrigeration of cooked foods; where food types were positioned in the refrigerator; and the method of thawing chicken. Nearly every household reported handling food in a way that could cause food to become contaminated. Overall, 99.0% of respondents reported some form of mishandling, which encompassed 70.3% who handled food preparation surfaces poorly, 46.6% who did not wash their hands appropriately or in a timely manner, 41.7% who mishandled raw foods, and 70.1% who mishandled cooked foods. Food was inappropriately located in the refrigerator by 81.2%, and chicken was thawed using unsafe means by 76.3% of respondents. People preparing food in the home need to be reminded of the increased risk of disease that can arise from poor food handling practices. PMID:15083738

  5. Food Safety for People with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... long periods in steam tables or at room temperature and time and/or temperature abused foods. • Meats, meat products, poultry, poultry products, ... rarely. Listeria monocytogenes Can grow slowly at refrigerator temperatures Associ at ed Food s Symptoms and Potential Impact • ...

  6. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations. PMID:27357041

  7. Management of microbial food safety in the Arab countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial food safety remains a major economical and public health concern in the Arab countries. Over the several past years, many of these countries have attempted to revise and upgrade food quality control and surveillance programs. However, these systems vary in scope and effectiveness. This rev...

  8. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  9. Food Safety. Nourishing News. Volume 3, Issue 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Serving safe food is a critical responsibility for maintaining quality foodservice programs and healthy environments at schools and child care facilities. Child Nutrition Programs hopes you find this newsletter of assistance when reviewing the food safety program you have at each serving site. The articles contained in this issue are: (1) A…

  10. COLLABORATION IN ANIMAL HEALTH & FOOD SAFETY EPIDEMIOLOGY: SWINE DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Collaboration in Animal Health & Food Safety Epidemiology (CAHFSE), a partnership among APHIS, ARS, and FSIS of USDA was established to track food borne pathogens and monitor diseases from farm through plant. Sampling began in July, 2003. By December 31, 2004, 43 farms in 5 states were participa...

  11. An Open and Scalable Learning Infrastructure for Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouselis, Nikos; Thanopoulos, Charalampos; Vignare, Karen; Geith, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In the last several years, a variety of approaches and tools have been developed for giving access to open educational resources (OER) related to food safety, security, and food standards, as well to various targeted audiences (e.g., farmers, agronomists). The aim of this paper is to present a technology infrastructure currently in demonstration…

  12. Applications of omics for food safety and security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety and food security are important global issues. Research employing 'omics' technologies, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, is helping to elucidate pathogen behavior at the molecular level and to develop better detection and typing systems. Omics-based tools enable resear...

  13. Food safety at home: knowledge and practices of consumers.

    PubMed

    Langiano, Elisa; Ferrara, Maria; Lanni, Liana; Viscardi, Viviana; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; De Vito, Elisabetta

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To define food safety and risk perception of foodborne diseases in the private home setting and identify specific behaviours during food purchase, storage and preparation in a large survey study. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A large sample of individuals (n = 1,000) living in the area of Cassino, Italy, volunteered to participate in the study. All participants were randomly recruited and underwent a questionnaire-based interview at their home regarding food-safety measures. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for correlations between demographic characteristics and knowledge/behaviours of food diseases. Risks of hazardous practices in the home were calculated according to educational, physical, occupational and marital status. All analyses were performed using the EPIINFO 3.5 statistical program. RESULTS: Our data showed that there was an insufficient amount of knowledge regarding foodborne diseases and pathogens. In most families, we found that there was a lack of correct adherence to food hygiene, mainly due to errors during both food preparation and storage. There was a higher risk for food safety errors in families with children, older persons and pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the home environment represents an important site for the spread of pathogens responsible for foodborne diseases. In order to adopt good hygiene practices in the home setting, consumers need to be informed about safety procedures of domestic food handling, storage and preparation. PMID:22347771

  14. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khairuzzaman, Md.; Zaman, Sharmin; Al Mamun, Arafat; Bari, Md. Latiful

    2014-01-01

    The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer's knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes. PMID:26904635

  15. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where to Place the Food Thermometer Recommended Internal Temperatures Is egg cookery affected at high altitudes? Is ... atmospheric pressure — affects both the time and the temperature of most everything that's cooked. Where the altitude ...

  16. Food Safety for People with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2,300 types) Associated Foods Raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, and meat Unpasteurized (raw) milk or juice ... made with raw milk; and raw or undercooked eggs, raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, raw shellfish ...

  17. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not refrigerated or frozen and will stay fresh without refrigeration for about 18 months. Canned meats ... dish is empty or nearly empty, replace with fresh container of food, removing the previous container. Place ...

  18. Advancements of molecularly imprinted polymers in the food safety field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peilong; Sun, Xiaohua; Su, Xiaoou; Wang, Tie

    2016-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted technology (MIT) has been widely employed to produce stable, robust and cheap molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) materials that possess selective binding sites for recognition of target analytes in food, such as pesticides, veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, illegal drugs and so on. Because of high selectivity and specificity, MIPs have drawn great attention in the food safety field. In this review, the recent developments of MIPs in various applications for food safety, including sample preparation, chromatographic separation, sensing, immunoassay etc., have been summarized. We particularly discuss the advancements and limitations in these applications, as well as attempts carried out for their improvement. PMID:26937495

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unsatisfactory) to motor carriers operating in interstate commerce. This process conforms to 49 CFR 385.5, Safety... past 12 months. A recordable accident, consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5... to hazmat employees (critical). § 173.24(b)(1)Accepting for transportation or transporting a...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unsatisfactory) to motor carriers operating in interstate commerce. This process conforms to 49 CFR 385.5, Safety..., consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5, means an occurrence involving a commercial... to hazmat employees (critical). § 173.24(b)(1)Accepting for transportation or transporting a...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unsatisfactory) to motor carriers operating in interstate commerce. This process conforms to 49 CFR 385.5, Safety... past 12 months. A recordable accident, consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5... to hazmat employees (critical). § 173.24(b)(1)Accepting for transportation or transporting a...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Rating Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... past 12 months. A recordable accident, consistent with the definition for “accident” in 49 CFR 390.5... Regulations (HMRs). These are carriers rated Unsatisfactory or Conditional. (e) The hazardous materials safety permit requirements of part 385, subpart E apply to intrastate motor carriers. Intrastate motor...

  3. Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Maurer, Jaclyn; Wheatley, Virginia; Cottone, Ellen; Clancy, Michele

    2007-04-01

    Food mishandling in home kitchens likely causes a significant amount of foodborne disease; however, little is known about the food safety hazards lurking in home kitchens. The purposes of this study were to audit the kitchens of young adults with education beyond high school to identify food safety problems and develop recommendations for education efforts. Researchers developed a criterion-referenced home kitchen observation instrument to assess compliance of home food storage and rotation practices (e.g., temperature), sanitation and chemical storage, and general kitchen condition (e.g., infestation) with recommended practices. The instrument contained seven scales: Kitchen Cleanliness (eight items), Appliance Cleanliness (three items), Cleaning Supplies Availability (eight items), Temperatures (Food Thermometer Access & Refrigerator/Freezer Temperatures) (five items), Cold Food Storage (seven items), Dry Food Storage (eight items), and Poisons Storage (two items). Descriptive statistics were conducted to describe the study population, as a whole, and by gender. A total of 154 young adults (mean age, 20.7+/- 1.3 SD) enrolled in a northeastern university participated. Participants scored 70% or higher on Poisons Storage, Dry Food Storage, Kitchen Cleanliness, and Cleaning Supplies Availability scales but less than 60% on the Appliance Cleanliness and Cold Food Storage scales. Performance was lowest on the Temperatures scale. Females scored significantly higher than males on the Kitchen Cleanliness and Cleaning Supply Availability scales. Average refrigerator and freezer temperatures were higher than recommendations. Food safety education targeted at this young adult population needs to evolve into focused messages pertaining to the key food safety violations in this population. PMID:17477272

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor Carriers A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 365 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL...

  5. Food safety and sanitation during an extended mission.

    PubMed

    Hentges, D L

    1999-01-01

    In preparation for future Lunar/Mars habitats, a food system is being developed at NASA-JSC to provide Advanced Life Support for long-duration missions. As much as 90% of the food consumed on these missions is expected to be grown, processed, and prepared in space. Conversion of crops to edible foods will require extensive food processing within the closed environment of the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support System Test Complex (BIO-Plex). Identification of hazards and critical control points associated with water recycling, biomass management, use of multifunctional equipment, and possible concentration of toxic substances in the closed system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A food safety analysis, using a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach, was conducted to identify potential hazards and critical control points during food processing of BIO-Plex-produced lettuce and wheat. PMID:11541545

  6. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods. PMID:7703003

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applied to food safety.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ana Paula; Franca, Adriana S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an advanced Raman technique that enhances the vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed on or in the vicinity of metal particles and/or surfaces. Because of its readiness, sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation requirements, SERS is being considered as a powerful technique for food inspection. Key aspects of food-safety assurance, spectroscopy methods, and SERS are briefly discussed in an extended introduction of this review. The recent and potential advances in SERS are highlighted in sections that deal with the (a) detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms and (b) the detection of food contaminants and adulteration, concentrated specifically on antibiotics, drugs, hormones, melamine, and pesticides. This review provides an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for food-safety assessment. PMID:23297774

  8. We are what we eat: food safety and proteomics.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we lead the reader through the evolution of proteomics application to the study of quality control in production processes of foods (including food of plant origin and transgenic plants in particular, but also meat, wine and beer, and milk) and food safety (screening for foodborne pathogens). These topics are attracting a great deal of attention, especially in recent years, when the international community has become increasingly aware of the central role of food quality and safety and their influence on the health of end-consumers. Early proteomics studies in the field of food research were mainly aimed at performing exploratory analyses of food (bovine, swine, chicken, or lamb meat, but also transgenic food such as genetically modified maize, for example) and beverages (wine), with the goal of improving the quality of the end-products. Recently, developments in the field of proteomics have also allowed the study of safety issues, as the technical advantages of sensitive techniques such as mass spectrometry have guaranteed a faster and improved individuation of food contaminating pathogens with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. PMID:21992580

  9. Food reformulations for improved health: A potential risk for microbial food safety?

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin

    2007-01-01

    While much information is available concerning the health promoting benefits associated with dietary reformulations (e.g. replacing sugar with aspartame and salt (NaCl) with KCl), to reduce the incidence of obesity and heart disease, potential food safety risks arising from such reformulations have received considerably less attention. Reformulation inevitably changes the intrinsic physico-chemical properties of the food, which may in turn support the growth of food-borne pathogens and ultimately their ability to cause disease. Thus, a better understanding of the microbiological food safety issues associated with product reformulation for increased health are required. PMID:17452083

  10. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Gareth . E-mail: gareth.edwards@novelfoods.co.uk

    2005-09-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption.

  11. A Study in Iowa. Teaching Food Safety in Secondary FCS Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jason D.; Henroid, Daniel H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a significant issue in the United States and yet minimal research has been done on the inclusion of food safety in secondary school curricula. This study examined the feasibility of including food safety in Iowa FCS middle and secondary classes. Teachers reported food safety was important; only a few believed students were…

  12. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided. PMID:23489044

  13. Enterococci at the crossroads of food safety?

    PubMed

    Franz, C M; Holzapfel, W H; Stiles, M E

    1999-03-01

    Enterococci are gram-positive bacteria and fit within the general definition of lactic acid bacteria. Modern classification techniques resulted in the transfer of some members of the genus Streptococcus, notably some of the Lancefield's group D streptococci, to the new genus Enterococcus. Enterococci can be used as indicators of faecal contamination. They have been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness, and they have been ascribed a beneficial or detrimental role in foods. In processed meats, enterococci may survive heat processing and cause spoilage, though in certain cheeses the growth of enterococci contributes to ripening and development of product flavour. Some enterococci of food origin produce bacteriocins that exert anti-Listeria activity. Enterococci are used as probiotics to improve the microbial balance of the intestine, or as a treatment for gastroenteritis in humans and animals. On the other hand, enterococci have become recognised as serious nosocomial pathogens causing bacteraemia, endocarditis, urinary tract and other infections. This is in part explained by the resistance of some of these bacteria to most antibiotics that are currently in use. Resistance is acquired by gene transfer systems, such as conjugative or nonconjugative plasmids or transposons. Virulence of enterococci is not well understood but adhesins, haemolysin, hyaluronidase, aggregation substance and gelatinase are putative virulence factors. It appears that foods could be a source of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. This review addresses the issue of the health risk of foods containing enterococci. PMID:10357269

  14. INTERVENTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD SAFETY AND PRESERVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food preservations with several different technologies, including irradiation, retort, aseptic processing, microwave and hydrostatic high pressure, are discussed in this chapter. Some of the methods are considered relatively mature technologies, e.g. retort and liquid aseptic; however, most of them...

  15. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods. Most bacteria do not grow rapidly at temperatures below 40 °F or above 140 °F. The temperature range in between is known as the "Danger Zone." Bacteria multiply rapidly at these temperatures and can reach dangerous levels after 2 hours ( ...

  16. 77 FR 26287 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, JIFSAN (U01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... the support of the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN). FDA believes that... CONTACT: Elizabeth M. Calvey, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS- 560), Food and...

  17. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability. PMID:15913060

  18. A portable array biosensor for food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Joel P.; Ngundi, Miriam M.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2004-11-01

    An array biosensor developed for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples has been utilized to develop assays for toxins and pathogens in a variety of foods. The biochemical component of the multi-analyte biosensor consists of a patterned array of biological recognition elements immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide. A fluorescence assay is performed on the patterned surface, yielding an array of fluorescent spots, the locations of which are used to identify what analyte is present. Signal transduction is accomplished by means of a diode laser for fluorescence excitation, optical filters and a CCD camera for image capture. A laptop computer controls the miniaturized fluidics system and image capture. Results for four mycotoxin competition assays in buffer and food samples are presented.

  19. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available. PMID:11576435

  20. Hyperspectral imaging applied to medical diagnoses and food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Oscar; Gomez, Richard B.; Chainani, Arun; Roper, William E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility and performance of HSI systems for medical diagnosis as well as for food safety. Illness prevention and early disease detection are key elements for maintaining good health. Health care practitioners worldwide rely on innovative electronic devices to accurately identify disease. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that may provide a less invasive procedure than conventional diagnostic imaging. By analyzing reflected and fluorescent light applied to the human body, a HSI system serves as a diagnostic tool as well as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of applied therapies. The safe supply and production of food is also of paramount importance to public health illness prevention. Although this paper will focus on imaging and spectroscopy in food inspection procedures -- the detection of contaminated food sources -- to ensure food quality, HSI also shows promise in detecting pesticide levels in food production (agriculture.)

  1. Food safety objectives for Listeria monocytogenes in Spanish food sampled in cafeterias and restaurants.

    PubMed

    Doménech, E; Amorós, J A; Escriche, I

    2011-09-01

    To gain more insight into the context of food safety management by public administrations, food safety objectives must be studied. The Valencian administration quantified the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in cafeterias and restaurants in this region of Spain between 2002 and 2010. The results obtained from this survey are presented here for 2,262 samples of fish, salad, egg, cold meat, and mayonnaise dishes. Microbiological criteria defined for L. monocytogenes were used to differentiate acceptable and unacceptable samples; more than 99.9% of the samples were acceptable. These findings indicate that established food safety objectives are achievable, consumer health at the time of consumption can be safeguarded, and food safety management systems such as hazard analysis critical control point plans or good manufacturing practices implemented in food establishments are effective. Monitoring of foods and food safety is an important task that must continue to reduce the current L. monocytogenes prevalence of 0.1% in restaurant or cafeteria dishes, which could adversely affect consumer health. PMID:21902930

  2. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  3. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Conditions leading to increased susceptibility are listed. The main factors leading to foodborne disease caused by major pathogens are outlined and examples are given of outbreaks resulting from these factors. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles and prerequisite programmes and, especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products. PMID:26308030

  4. International Harmonization of Food Safety Assessment of Pesticide Residues.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Árpád

    2016-01-13

    This paper summarizes the development of principles and methods applied within the program of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius during the past 50 years for the safety assessment of pesticide residues in food and feed and establishing maximum residue limits (MRLs) to promote free international trade and assure the safety of consumers. The role of major international organizations in this process, the FAO capacity building activities, and some problematic areas that require special attention are briefly described. PMID:25660755

  5. An assessment of food hygiene and safety at farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, D; Worsfold, P M; Griffith, C J

    2004-04-01

    Farmers' markets are becoming a more significant part of the food-retailing sector. A survey of farmers' markets was conducted to assess aspects of food hygiene and safety. The views of the public using the markets were also examined. The range of farm products was wide and the methods utilised varied. The markets were usually temporary outdoor events with few facilities. Traders had received elementary food hygiene training and rated their hygiene standards highly. Less than half had risk management procedures in place, most did not perceive their produce as high-risk. They believed consumers to be mainly interested in food quality and to regard food safety issues highly. Consumers shopped at the markets because of the quality of the products sold. Their overall satisfaction with the markets was high and they raised no concerns about food safety. Given the restricted facilities at farmers' markets and the early phase of implementation of hygiene management systems by market traders, it may be precautionary to restrict the sale of farm products at farmers markets to those that are regarded as low-risk. PMID:15203456

  6. Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety. PMID:26343693

  7. Evaluation of the safety of domestic food preparation in Malaysia.

    PubMed Central

    Desmarchelier, P. M.; Apiwathnasorn, C.; Vilainerun, D.; Watson, C.; Johari, M. R.; Ahmad, Z.; Barnes, A.

    1994-01-01

    Food-handling practices were studied in 119 and 158 households, respectively, in an urban and a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. Hazard analyses, including microbiological analysis of foods, were carried out in two households in each community and in a house that prepared food for distribution in the urban area. Kitchen hygiene was generally acceptable, although rated "poor" in some instances in the rural area. Food prepared for lunch was usually sufficient for dinner also, the leftover items being stored at ambient temperature until required. In the house that prepared food for distribution, breakfast was prepared during the evening, stored at ambient temperature overnight, and reheated before sale the next morning. There was a local preference for cooking food at temperatures close to boiling point; this reduced the numbers of vegetative cells but not those of spores. In some stored foods the populations of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and mesophilic aerobic bacteria increased, the last-mentioned reaching spoilage levels. Reheating reduced the populations of proliferating bacteria in most foods to acceptable levels but would not have destroyed heat-resistant enterotoxins. Because of their importance in combating acute bacterial foodborne disease, the control of the temperature and time factors during the cooking and storage of food should receive special attention in education on health and food safety. PMID:7867133

  8. Communicating food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Field experiences.

    PubMed

    Syntesa, Heiner Lehr

    2013-04-01

    The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas. PMID:22857606

  9. Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Haslberger, Alexander G

    2006-05-01

    Evidence for substantial environmental influences on health and food safety comes from work with environmental health indicators which show that agroenvironmental practices have direct and indirect effects on human health, concluding that "the quality of the environment influences the quality and safety of foods" [Fennema, O. Environ. Health Perspect. 1990, 86, 229-232). In the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Codex principles have been established for the assessment of GM food safety and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety outlines international principles for an environmental assessment of living modified organisms. Both concepts also contain starting points for an assessment of health/food safety effects of GMOs in cases when the environment is involved in the chain of events that could lead to hazards. The environment can act as a route of unintentional entry of GMOs into the food supply, such as in the case of gene flow via pollen or seeds from GM crops, but the environment can also be involved in changes of GMO-induced agricultural practices with relevance for health/food safety. Examples for this include potential regional changes of pesticide uses and reduction in pesticide poisonings resulting from the use of Bt crops or influences on immune responses via cross-reactivity. Clearly, modern methods of biotechnology in breeding are involved in the reasons behind the rapid reduction of local varieties in agrodiversity, which constitute an identified hazard for food safety and food security. The health/food safety assessment of GM foods in cases when the environment is involved needs to be informed by data from environmental assessment. Such data might be especially important for hazard identification and exposure assessment. International organizations working in these areas will very likely be needed to initiate and enable cooperation between those institutions responsible for the different assessments, as well as for exchange and analysis of

  10. Raman chemical imaging system for food safety and quality inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging technique combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and structure of a target, and it offers great potential for food safety and quality research. In this study, a laboratory-based Raman chemical imaging platform was designed and developed. The i...

  11. Identifying Food Safety Concerns when Communication Barriers Exist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jack A.; Dawson, Mary; Madera, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students must be prepared to lead a diverse workforce. The objective of this study was to establish a teaching method that helps students identify barriers to food safety while working in a simulated environment with communication barriers. This study employed a perspective taking exercise based upon the principles of social learning…

  12. Food Safety and Regulation: Evaluation of an Online Multimedia Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintauro, Stephen J.; Krahl, Augusta G.; Buzzell, Paul R.; Chamberlain, Valerie M.

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of, and student attitudes toward, an online Food Safety and Regulation course (WEB) were compared with lecture (LECTURE) and combined lecture/online (COMBINED) courses. All students took identical pre-tests, post-tests, and attitude assessments. No significant differences were detected in pre-test scores. Post-test results for…

  13. Development of Handheld Multispectral Imaging For Food Safety Inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a handheld multispectral instrument for food safety inspection for poultry carcasses. The prototype system developed in this research consisted of a compact dual-band spectral imaging system, Light Emitting diode (LED), and portable computer. The dual-...

  14. Antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible films for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive update of experimental use of antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible film applications. It reviews the most recent advancement in edible film technology to promote food safety. A brief description of how these antimicrobial edible films are produ...

  15. Assessing the Food Safety Knowledge of University of Maine Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferk, Chelsea C.; Calder, Beth L.; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue. Young adults may work in foodservice while they are university students, and their habits may later shape the practices and well-being of their children. The objective of this study was to establish baseline data and assess the food safety knowledge of 18- to 26-year-old Univ. of Maine students.…

  16. Focus on food safety: Human pathogens on plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces the first Focus Issue of Phytopathology, a dedicated issue of the journal that highlights a topic of significant interest to our readership. This first Focus Issue addresses the topic of food safety and the biology of human pathogens on plants, a relatively new problem in pla...

  17. Hyperspectral imaging for safety inspection of food and agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Chen, Yud-Ren

    1999-01-01

    Development of effective food inspection systems is critical in successful implementation of the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) program. Hyperspectral imaging or imaging spectroscopy, which combines techniques of imaging and spectroscopy to acquire spatial and spectral information simultaneously, has great potential in food quality and safety inspection. This paper reviewed the basic principle and features of hyperspectral imaging and its hardware and software implementation. The potential areas of application for hyperspectral imaging in food quality and safety inspection were identified and its limitations were discussed. A hyperspectral imaging system developed for research in food quality and safety inspection was described. Experiments were performed to acquire hyperspectral images from four classes of poultry carcasses: normal, cadaver, septicemia, and tumor. Noticeable differences in the spectra of the relative reflectance and its second difference in the wavelengths between 430 nm and 900 nm were observed between wholesome and unwholesome carcasses. Differences among the three classes of unwholesome carcasses were also observed from their respective spectra. These results showed that hyperspectral imaging can be an effective tool for safety inspection of poultry carcasses.

  18. Raman chemical imaging technology for food safety and quality evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman chemical imaging combines Raman spectroscopy and digital imaging to visualize composition and morphology of a target. This technique offers great potential for food safety and quality research. Most commercial Raman instruments perform measurement at microscopic level, and the spatial range ca...

  19. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  20. Biodiversity of important toxigenic fungi that threaten food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic and metabolic plasticity of toxigenic fungi that threaten food safety allows these microorganisms to colonize a broad range of agriculturally important crops and to adapt to a range of environmental conditions. In addition, trans-global transportation and trade of plant products significa...

  1. Safety of foods treated with novel process intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers are familiar with traditional food safety and preservation technologies such as thermal processing (cooking), salting, and pickling to inactivate common foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Many consumers are less familiar with other technologies s...

  2. 7 CFR 2.18 - Under Secretary for Food Safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authority, exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p... pollution control standards and section 1-601 of Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Under Secretary for Food Safety. 2.18 Section...

  3. Investigating Change in Adolescent Self-Efficacy of Food Safety through Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Murphy, Lindsay; Richards, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    A successfully targeted intervention can influence food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as encourage participants to recognize their own responsibility for safe food handling. This acknowledgement of an individual's responsibility and capacity to address food safety can be understood as self-efficacy of food safety (SEFS). This…

  4. A strategy to establish Food Safety Model Repositories.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Rodríguez, C; Thoens, C; Falenski, A; Weiser, A A; Appel, B; Kaesbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2015-07-01

    Transferring the knowledge of predictive microbiology into real world food manufacturing applications is still a major challenge for the whole food safety modelling community. To facilitate this process, a strategy for creating open, community driven and web-based predictive microbial model repositories is proposed. These collaborative model resources could significantly improve the transfer of knowledge from research into commercial and governmental applications and also increase efficiency, transparency and usability of predictive models. To demonstrate the feasibility, predictive models of Salmonella in beef previously published in the scientific literature were re-implemented using an open source software tool called PMM-Lab. The models were made publicly available in a Food Safety Model Repository within the OpenML for Predictive Modelling in Food community project. Three different approaches were used to create new models in the model repositories: (1) all information relevant for model re-implementation is available in a scientific publication, (2) model parameters can be imported from tabular parameter collections and (3) models have to be generated from experimental data or primary model parameters. All three approaches were demonstrated in the paper. The sample Food Safety Model Repository is available via: http://sourceforge.net/projects/microbialmodelingexchange/files/models and the PMM-Lab software can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pmmlab/. This work also illustrates that a standardized information exchange format for predictive microbial models, as the key component of this strategy, could be established by adoption of resources from the Systems Biology domain. PMID:25863339

  5. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26690169

  6. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. PMID:26614817

  7. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26690169

  8. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  9. HPLC analysis and safety assessment of coumarin in foods.

    PubMed

    Sproll, Constanze; Ruge, Winfried; Andlauer, Claudia; Godelmann, Rolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2008-07-15

    Coumarin is a component of natural flavourings including cassia, which is widely used in foods and pastries. The toxicity of coumarin has raised some concerns and food safety authorities have set a maximum limit of 2mg/kg for foods and beverages in general, and a maximum level of 10mg/l for alcoholic beverages. An efficient method for routine analysis of coumarin is liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The optimal sample preparation for foods containing cinnamon was investigated and found to be cold extraction of 15g sample with 50mL of methanol (80%, v/v) for 30min using magnetic stirring. In the foods under investigation, appreciable amounts of coumarin were found in bakery products and breakfast cereals (mean 9mg/kg) with the highest concentrations up to 88mg/kg in certain cookies flavoured with cinnamon. Other foods such as liqueurs, vodka, mulled wine, and milk products did not have coumarin concentrations above the maximum level. The safety assessment of coumarin containing foods, in the context of governmental food controls, is complicated as a toxicological basis for the maximum limits appears to be missing. The limits were derived at a time when a genotoxic mechanism was assumed. However, this has since been disproven in more recent studies. Our exposure data on coumarin in bakery products show that there is still a need for a continued regulation of coumarin in foods. A toxicological re-evaluation of coumarin with the aim to derive scientifically founded maximum limits should be conducted with priority. PMID:26003373

  10. Identification of unique food handling practices that could represent food safety risks for minority consumers.

    PubMed

    Henley, Shauna C; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2012-11-01

    Foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter is a concern for consumers, and there is evidence that minority racial-ethnic populations experience greater rates of illness because of these pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety knowledge than on culturally specific food handling practices. The purpose of the research reported here was to explore food handling behaviors of minority racial-ethnic consumers through in-depth discussions in focus group settings. In this way, we hoped to identify potential unique, previously unidentified food handling practices among these consumers. Nine focus groups were held in Philadelphia, PA. Three focus groups were conducted with African American consumers, three with Hispanic consumers, and three with Asian consumers. In all, 56 consumers participated. Data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for unique and potentially unsafe food handling behaviors. Potentially unsafe food handling practices identified among all three groups included extended time to transport food from retail to home and washing of raw poultry. Culturally unique behaviors within groups included (i) using hot water (Asian, Hispanic) or acidic solutions (African American, Hispanic) to clean raw poultry, (ii) purchasing live poultry (Asian, Hispanic), (iii) cooking poultry overnight (African American), and (iv) preparing bite-size pieces of meat prior to cooking (Asian, Hispanic). To have focus groups include a limited number of participants and nonrandom sampling means that these themes and trends cannot be extrapolated to represent food mishandling among these populations in general. Results presented here allow modification of an existing food safety survey to identify the prevalence of these food handling practices among consumers of different demographics. PMID:23127716

  11. Effect of a manager training and certification program on food safety and hygiene in food service operations.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Hailu; Silverman, Gary S; Baroudi, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio) from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared food hygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities.Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants. PMID:20523880

  12. Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Lucia; Karbarz, Małgorzata; Siipi, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) food is discussed as an example of the controversial relation between the intrinsic uncertainty of the scientific approach and the demand of citizen-consumers to use products of science innovation that are known to be safe. On the whole, peer-reviewed studies on GM food safety do not note significant health risks, with a few exceptions, like the most renowned “Pusztai affair” and the recent “Seralini case.” These latter studies have been disregarded by the scientific community, based on incorrect experimental designs and statistic analysis. Such contradictory results show the complexity of risk evaluation, and raise concerns in the citizen-consumers against the GM food. A thoughtful consideration by scientific community and decision makers of the moral values that are present in risk evaluation and risk management should be the most trustable answer to citizen-consumers to their claim for clear and definitive answers concerning safety/un-safety of GM food. PMID:23444254

  13. Restaurant employees' perceptions of barriers to three food safety practices.

    PubMed

    Howells, Amber D; Roberts, Kevin R; Shanklin, Carol W; Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Barrett, Betsy B

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess employees' perceptions of barriers to implementing food safety practices. Focus groups were conducted with two groups of restaurant employees to identify perceived barriers to implementing three food safety practices: handwashing, using thermometers, and cleaning work surfaces. Ten focus groups were conducted with 34 employees who did not receive training (Group A). Twenty focus groups were conducted with 125 employees after they had participated in a formal ServSafe training program (Group B). The following barriers were identified in at least one focus group in both Group A and Group B for all three practices: time constraints, inconvenience, inadequate training, and inadequate resources. In Group A, additional barriers identified most often were a lack of space and other tasks competing with cleaning work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and thermometers in inconvenient locations. Additional barriers identified most often by Group B were no incentive to do it and the manager not monitoring whether employees cleaned work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and manager not monitoring the use of thermometers. Results will be used to develop and implement interventions to overcome perceived barriers that training appears not to address. Knowledge of perceived barriers among employees can assist food and nutrition professionals in facilitating employees in overcoming these barriers and ultimately improve compliance with food safety practices. PMID:18656574

  14. Implications of salt and sodium reduction on microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of sodium chloride against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in a variety of food systems. Notable examples of the utility and necessity of sodium chloride include the inhibition of growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in processed meats and cheeses. Other sodium salts contributing to the overall sodium consumption are also very important in the prevention of spoilage and/or growth of microorganisms in foods. For example, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate are widely used in conjunction with sodium chloride to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in ready-to-eat meats. These and other examples underscore the necessity of sodium salts, particularly sodium chloride, for the production of safe, wholesome foods. Key literature on the antimicrobial properties of sodium chloride in foods is reviewed here to address the impact of salt and sodium reduction or replacement on microbiological food safety and quality. PMID:20301012

  15. Functional and safety aspects of enterococci in dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Malik, R K; Chauhan, Prashant

    2008-09-01

    The genus Enterococcus like other LAB has also been featured in dairy industry for decades due to its specific biochemical traits such as lipolysis, proteolysis, and citrate breakdown, hence contributing typical taste and flavor to the dairy foods. Furthermore, the production of bacteriocins by enterococci (enterocins) is well documented. These technological applications have led to propose enterococci as adjunct starters or protective cultures in fermented foods. Moreover, enterococci are nowadays promoted as probiotics, which are claimed for the maintenance of normal intestinal microflora, stimulation of the immune system and improvement of nutritional value of foods. At the same time, enterococci present an emerging pool of opportunistic pathogens for humans as they cause disease, possess agents for antibiotic resistance, and are frequently armed with potential virulence factors. Because of this "dualistic" nature, the use of enterococci remains a debatable issue. However, based on a long history of safe association of particular enterococci with some traditional food fermentations, the use of such strains appears to bear no particular risk for human health. Abundance of knowledge as well as progress in molecular techniques has, however, enabled exact characterization and safety assessment of strains. Therefore, a balanced evaluation of both, beneficial and undesirable nature of enterococci is required. A clear understanding of their status may, therefore, allow their safe use as a starter, or a probiotic strain. The present review describes the broader insight of the benefits and risks of enterococci in dairy foods and their safety assessment. PMID:23100728

  16. Public health and food safety: a historical association.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, D J

    1986-01-01

    Since the initial passage in 1906 of the first Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act, public health, as measured by mortality trends, has greatly improved. These acts have been amended several times, and other laws dealing with safety of foods and drinks have been enacted. Food- and beverage-transmitted infectious diseases that were so devastating after the Civil War have been controlled. Nutritional deficiencies such as pellagra are almost nonexistent. Mass episodes of poisoning of food by chemical contaminants that have plagued some other countries have not occurred in the United States. Other factors such as refrigeration and improved transportation have helped, but it is probable that food safety regulatory activities have contributed to the saving of the 1.8 million Americans who would die each year if the public health advances since 1900 had not been made. Effective use of information was a key factor in the improvement in public health. Now, as then, effective information systems are needed. PMID:3097743

  17. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements. PMID:21821733

  18. Molecular analysis of the microbial food safety implications of food reformulations for improved health.

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin

    2008-08-01

    Food reformulation is commonly used as a strategy to produce foods for improved health; for example, replacing sugar with aspartame, and salt (NaCl) with KCl may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and heart disease. However, such reformulations will also change the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the food, which may in turn support the growth of foodborne pathogens and ultimately increase the incidence of foodborne disease. Thus, we need a better understanding of the microbiological food safety issues associated with product reformulation. Herein we review the most recent advances in our understanding of how microbial pathogens adapt to changes in the food composition, and how this information may ultimately be used for the design of effective pathogen control measures. PMID:18666862

  19. Trends impacting food safety in retail foodservice: implications for dietetics practice.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Jeannie; Strohbehn, Catherine H

    2008-07-01

    Food safety in retail foodservice is increasingly important to consumers. Trends that impact food safety concerns include the increasing number of meals eaten away from home, increasing consumer awareness about food safety, an aging population, changes in the foodservice workforce, changing technology in work environments, changes in food procurement, foodservice risk factors, and food defense concerns. Each of these trends has implications for dietetics practice, both in working with consumers and managing foodservice operations. PMID:18589025

  20. Network Analytical Tool for Monitoring Global Food Safety Highlights China

    PubMed Central

    Nepusz, Tamás; Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a user-friendly analytical tool based on network approaches for instant customized analysis of food alert patterns in the European dataset from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Data taken from alert logs between January 2003 – August 2008 were processed using network analysis to i) capture complexity, ii) analyze trends, and iii) predict possible effects of interventions by identifying patterns of reporting activities between countries. The detector and transgressor relationships are readily identifiable between countries which are ranked using i) Google's PageRank algorithm and ii) the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg. The program identifies Iran, China and Turkey as the transgressors with the largest number of alerts. However, when characterized by impact, counting the transgressor index and the number of countries involved, China predominates as a transgressor country. Conclusions/Significance This study reports the first development of a network analysis approach to inform countries on their transgressor and detector profiles as a user-friendly aid for the adoption of the Beijing Declaration. The ability to instantly access the country-specific components of the several thousand annual reports will enable each country to identify the major transgressors and detectors within its trading network. Moreover, the tool can be used to monitor trading countries for improved detector/transgressor ratios. PMID:19688088

  1. Food safety and older people: the Kitchen Life study.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Angela; Wills, Wendy; Meah, Angela; Short, Frances

    2014-05-01

    Foodborne illness (FBI) is a major public health problem in the UK. Recent increases in cases of listeriosis in older people have focused attention on consumer food-related practices. Previous studies highlight poor relationships between what people know, what they say they do and what they actually do in the kitchen. The aim of the Kitchen Life study was to examine what actually happens in the domestic kitchen to assess whether and how this has the potential to influence food safety in the home. Drawing on a qualitative ethnographic approach, methods included a kitchen tour, photography, observation, video observation, informal interviews and diary methods. Ten households with older people (aged 60+) were recruited across the UK. It was found that trust in the food supply, use of food-labelling (including use-by dates), sensory logics (such as the feel or smell of food) and food waste were factors with the potential to influence risk of foodborne illness. Practices shifted with changing circumstances, including increased frailty, bereavement, living alone, receiving help with care and acquiring new knowledge, meaning that the risk of and vulnerability to foodborne illness is not straightforward. PMID:24784557

  2. Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Daniel S.; Gennet, Sasha; Kilonzo, Christopher; Partyka, Melissa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Atwill, Edward R.; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, a deadly Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in bagged spinach was traced to California’s Central Coast region, where >70% of the salad vegetables sold in the United States are produced. Although no definitive cause for the outbreak could be determined, wildlife was implicated as a disease vector. Growers were subsequently pressured to minimize the intrusion of wildlife onto their farm fields by removing surrounding noncrop vegetation. How vegetation removal actually affects foodborne pathogens remains unknown, however. We combined a fine-scale land use map with three datasets comprising ∼250,000 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), generic E. coli, and Salmonella tests in produce, irrigation water, and rodents to quantify whether seminatural vegetation surrounding farmland is associated with foodborne pathogen prevalence in California’s Central Coast region. We found that EHEC in fresh produce increased by more than an order of magnitude from 2007 to 2013, despite extensive vegetation clearing at farm field margins. Furthermore, although EHEC prevalence in produce was highest on farms near areas suitable for livestock grazing, we found no evidence of increased EHEC, generic E. coli, or Salmonella near nongrazed, seminatural areas. Rather, pathogen prevalence increased the most on farms where noncrop vegetation was removed, calling into question reforms that promote vegetation removal to improve food safety. These results suggest a path forward for comanaging fresh produce farms for food safety and environmental quality, as federal food safety reforms spread across ∼4.5 M acres of US farmland. PMID:26261343

  3. Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Gennet, Sasha; Kilonzo, Christopher; Partyka, Melissa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Atwill, Edward R; Kremen, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2006, a deadly Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in bagged spinach was traced to California's Central Coast region, where >70% of the salad vegetables sold in the United States are produced. Although no definitive cause for the outbreak could be determined, wildlife was implicated as a disease vector. Growers were subsequently pressured to minimize the intrusion of wildlife onto their farm fields by removing surrounding noncrop vegetation. How vegetation removal actually affects foodborne pathogens remains unknown, however. We combined a fine-scale land use map with three datasets comprising ∼250,000 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), generic E. coli, and Salmonella tests in produce, irrigation water, and rodents to quantify whether seminatural vegetation surrounding farmland is associated with foodborne pathogen prevalence in California's Central Coast region. We found that EHEC in fresh produce increased by more than an order of magnitude from 2007 to 2013, despite extensive vegetation clearing at farm field margins. Furthermore, although EHEC prevalence in produce was highest on farms near areas suitable for livestock grazing, we found no evidence of increased EHEC, generic E. coli, or Salmonella near nongrazed, seminatural areas. Rather, pathogen prevalence increased the most on farms where noncrop vegetation was removed, calling into question reforms that promote vegetation removal to improve food safety. These results suggest a path forward for comanaging fresh produce farms for food safety and environmental quality, as federal food safety reforms spread across ∼4.5 M acres of US farmland. PMID:26261343

  4. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  5. Identification of Core Competencies for an Undergraduate Food Safety Curriculum Using a Modified Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lynette M.; Wiedmann, Martin; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia; Oliver, Haley F.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Moore, Christina M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Identification of core competencies for undergraduates in food safety is critical to assure courses and curricula are appropriate in maintaining a well-qualified food safety workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify and refine core competencies relevant to postsecondary food safety education using a modified Delphi method. Twenty-nine…

  6. 75 FR 9232 - Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future Directions; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Measuring Progress on Food Safety: Current Status and Future... Safety: Current Status and Future Directions. The purpose of the public workshop is to inform the public about current and potential measurements for assessing progress in food safety and...

  7. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  8. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  9. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  10. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  11. 5 CFR 8301.104 - Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service. 8301.104 Section 8301.104 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF....104 Additional rules for employees of the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any employee of the Food Safety and Inspection Service not otherwise required to obtain approval for outside employment...

  12. Food Safety in the National School Lunch Program. USDA Food and Nutrition Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Schools that serve meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) are required to maintain proper sanitation and health standards in conformance with all applicable State and local laws and regulations. In addition, schools are required to obtain two school food safety inspections per school year, which are…

  13. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... human consumption (the produce safety proposed rule) and for current good manufacturing practice and... 1960s, FDA established HACCP-based regulations for seafood (21 CFR part 123) in 1995 (60 FR...

  14. 78 FR 6762 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... produce safety proposed rule) and for current good manufacturing practice and hazard analysis and risk... (60 FR 65096, December 18, 1995) and for juice (21 CFR part 120) in 2001 (66 FR 6138, January 19,...

  15. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research: Cold Plasma as a Nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  16. Gaps in food safety professionals' knowledge about noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Hall, Aron J; Brophy, Jenna E; Fraser, Angela

    2014-08-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common etiologic agents of endemic and epidemic foodborne disease in the United States. Food safety professionals play an important role in protecting the public from foodborne illness. A survey of food safety professionals (n = 314) was conducted to characterize their knowledge of NoVs and to identify gaps in this knowledge. To recruit individuals, 25 professional organizations promoted the survey via their Web sites, newsletters, and/or e-mail distribution lists. The survey used true or false and open-ended questions to assess knowledge about NoVs, including attribution, transmission, and prevention and control strategies, including food handling practices. The online survey was available from mid-October 2012 to mid-January 2013. Of the 314 respondents, 66.2% correctly identified NoVs as one of the three most common causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Only 5.4% of respondents correctly identified the three most common settings for NoV infections, and 65.0% of respondents had the misperception that cruise ships are one of the three most common settings. Seventeen respondents (5.4%) answered all 20 true-or-false questions correctly, 33 respondents (10.5%) answered at least 19 of the 20 questions correctly, and 186 respondents (65.0%) answered at least 15 of the 20 questions correctly (i.e., a score of 75% or higher). The content domain in which respondents had the most incorrect answers was food handling practices. Thirty-eight percent of respondents incorrectly responded that it is safe for restaurant workers infected with NoVs to handle packaged food, food equipment, and utensils. About half of respondents did not know the recommended sanitizing solution for eliminating NoVs from a contaminated surface. The survey findings identified several important gaps in food safety professionals' knowledge of NoVs. The study results will inform the development of a Web-based educational module on NoVs to improve efforts to

  17. Unlocking Potentials of Microwaves for Food Safety and Quality.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juming

    2015-08-01

    Microwave is an effective means to deliver energy to food through polymeric package materials, offering potential for developing short-time in-package sterilization and pasteurization processes. The complex physics related to microwave propagation and microwave heating require special attention to the design of process systems and development of thermal processes in compliance with regulatory requirements for food safety. This article describes the basic microwave properties relevant to heating uniformity and system design, and provides a historical overview on the development of microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pasteurization systems in research laboratories and used in food plants. It presents recent activities on the development of 915 MHz single-mode MATS technology, the procedures leading to regulatory acceptance, and sensory results of the processed products. The article discusses needs for further efforts to bridge remaining knowledge gaps and facilitate transfer of academic research to industrial implementation. PMID:26242920

  18. Unlocking Potentials of Microwaves for Food Safety and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Juming

    2015-01-01

    Microwave is an effective means to deliver energy to food through polymeric package materials, offering potential for developing short-time in-package sterilization and pasteurization processes. The complex physics related to microwave propagation and microwave heating require special attention to the design of process systems and development of thermal processes in compliance with regulatory requirements for food safety. This article describes the basic microwave properties relevant to heating uniformity and system design, and provides a historical overview on the development of microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pasteurization systems in research laboratories and used in food plants. It presents recent activities on the development of 915 MHz single-mode MATS technology, the procedures leading to regulatory acceptance, and sensory results of the processed products. The article discusses needs for further efforts to bridge remaining knowledge gaps and facilitate transfer of academic research to industrial implementation. PMID:26242920

  19. New food safety law: effectiveness on the ground.

    PubMed

    Drew, Christa A; Clydesdale, Fergus M

    2015-01-01

    The demand for safety in the US food supply from production to consumption necessitates a scientific, risk-based strategy for the management of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards in food. The key to successful management is an increase in systematic collaboration and communication and in enforceable procedures with all domestic and international stakeholders. The enactment of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) aims to prevent or reduce large-scale food-borne illness outbreaks through stricter facility registration and records standards, mandatory prevention-based controls, increased facility inspections in the United States and internationally, mandatory recall authority, import controls, and increased consumer communication. The bill provisions are expected to cost $1.4 billion over the next four years. Effective implementation of the FSMA's 50 rules, reports, studies, and guidance documents in addition to an increased inspection burden requires further funding appropriations. Additional full-time inspectors and unprecedented foreign compliance is necessary for the full and effective implementation of the FSMA. PMID:24915413

  20. Protecting food safety: more needs to be done to keep pace with scientific advances and the changing food supply.

    PubMed

    Olson, Erik D

    2011-05-01

    Foodborne illness and the health risks from chemicals in food are a concern. However, food safety statutes largely unchanged for more than forty years are failing to keep pace with scientific advances and the changing food supply. The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, enacted in January 2011, is intended to help reduce foodborne illness by establishing new prevention measures for food regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Additional funding is needed so that the agency has enough resources to help realize the law's potential. Furthermore, key food safety issues untouched by the 2011 statute, including restrictions on antibiotic use in animal agriculture, laws governing meat and poultry safety, and requirements governing the use of chemicals in food, should be reviewed and updated as necessary-using up-to-date science-to tighten the focus on preventing disease. PMID:21555475

  1. 76 FR 37817 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... levels, across the full length of the food-production chain, in order to reduce significantly the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That...

  2. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology. PMID:18198116

  3. Food safety/food security aspects related to the environmental release of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Testa, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    The environmental presence of pharmaceuticals in top soil and in water where extensive animal farming occurs may represent an involuntary source of residues in food that might affect both food safety and food security. We modelled the presence of residues in animal matrices from the inventoried environmental concentration of selected drugs in surface waters (range: 0.1-10μgL(-1)) and agriculture soils (range: 1-100μgkg(-1) dry weight), accounting for animal production parameters (i.e., forages, water intake and milk and egg production) and drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicate that the contamination of tetracyclines in top soil may represent a major issue both for the compliance with maximum residue levels in food (100-300ngg(-1)) and for the claim of organic products. via surface water, animals may be vulnerable to the intake of anabolics and growth-promoting agents, such as 17-beta estradiol and clenbuterol, only under a worst-case scenario. Their identification, which is currently achievable at a pgg(-1) level in animal specimens, is considered proof of illegal treatment and can lead to the prosecution of farmers. The Environmental Quality Standards that have been proposed for priority substances in surface waters may also be considered protective in terms of food security/food safety; however, a broad-spectrum characterisation of drugs within the agriculture context could be envisaged to refine the uncertainties in the risk assessment and for combined intakes. PMID:24602346

  4. Specialty food safety concerns and multilingual resource needs: an online survey of public health inspectors.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai T; Jones, Andria Q; Sargeant, Jan M; Marshall, Barbara J; Dewey, Catherine E

    2010-12-01

    The province of Ontario, Canada, has a highly diverse and multicultural population. Specialty foods (i.e., foods from different cultures) are becoming increasingly available at retail food outlets and foods service establishments across the province; as a result, public health inspectors (PHIs) are increasingly required to assess the safety of foods with which they may be unfamiliar. The aim of this study was to investigate the concerns, perceptions, and self-identified needs of PHIs in Ontario with regard to specialty foods and food safety information resources in languages other than English. A cross-sectional online survey of 239 PHIs was conducted between April and June 2009. The study found that while some food safety information resources were available in languages other than English, fewer than 25% of respondents (56/239) were satisfied with the current availability of these resources. With regard to specialty foods, 60% of respondents (143/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were not confident about their current food safety knowledge, and 64% of respondents (153/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were dissatisfied with the current availability of food safety information. Therefore, the development of additional food safety information resources for specialty foods, and food safety resources in additional languages may provide enhanced support to PHIs involved in protecting and promoting a safe food supply. PMID:20704506

  5. Shifting responsibilities for food safety in Europe: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Halkier, Bente; Holm, Lotte

    2006-09-01

    Following the BSE crisis in 1996, the European food sector underwent profound regulatory and institutional change. The present introductory article introduces, and sketches the background to, seven studies of the institutional reactions and initiatives that were part of, or prompted by, this reorganisation. The studies analyse the way in which the division of responsibilities for food safety has changed both across the EU as a whole and, more specifically, in six European countries. Prepared as part of the comparative research project, Trust in Food, the studies attempt to go beyond traditional policy network analysis and work on regulation. They ask which constellations of societal actors and logics are important in the shifting responsibilities of public and private actors; and they treat this as an empirical question. It emerges that, at EU level, the main strategy for restoring consumer confidence in food was to enhance the institutional independence, transparency and consumer agency. In the countries covered by the remaining six studies, by contrast, institutional reactions in the food sector varied depending on the particular configurations of state, market and civil society. PMID:16793171

  6. Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria: Food Safety and Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fakruddin, Md.; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety. PMID:24191231

  7. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. PMID:26187831

  8. Considering new methodologies in strategies for safety assessment of foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Blaauboer, Bas J; Boobis, Alan R; Bradford, Bobbie; Cockburn, Andrew; Constable, Anne; Daneshian, Mardas; Edwards, Gareth; Garthoff, Jossie A; Jeffery, Brett; Krul, Cyrille; Schuermans, Jeroen

    2016-05-01

    Toxicology and safety assessment are changing and require new strategies for evaluating risk that are less depending on apical toxicity endpoints in animal models and relying more on knowledge of the mechanism of toxicity. This manuscript describes a number of developments that could contribute to this change and implement this in a stepwise roadmap that can be applied for the evaluation of food and food ingredients. The roadmap was evaluated in four case studies by using literature and existing data. This preliminary evaluation was shown to be useful. However, this experience should be extended by including examples where experimental work needs to be included. To further implement these new insights in toxicology and safety assessment for the area of food and food ingredients, the recommendation is that stakeholders take action in addressing gaps in our knowledge, e.g. with regard to the applicability of the roadmap for mixtures and food matrices. Further development of the threshold of toxicological concern is needed, as well as cooperation with other sectors where similar schemes are under development. Moreover, a more comprehensive evaluation of the roadmap, also including the identification of the need for in vitro experimental work is recommended. PMID:26939913

  9. Enterococci as probiotics and their implications in food safety.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Enterococci belong to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and they are of importance in foods due to their involvement in food spoilage and fermentations, as well as their utilisation as probiotics in humans and slaughter animals. However, they are also important nosocomial pathogens that cause bacteraemia, endocarditis and other infections. Some strains are resistant to many antibiotics and possess virulence factors such as adhesins, invasins, pili and haemolysin. The role of enterococci in disease has raised questions on their safety for use in foods or as probiotics. Studies on the incidence of virulence traits among enterococcal strains isolated from food showed that some can harbour virulence traits, but it is also thought that virulence is not the result of the presence of specific virulence determinants alone, but is rather a more intricate process. Specific genetic lineages of hospital-adapted strains have emerged, such as E. faecium clonal complex (CC) 17 and E. faecalis CC2, CC9, CC28 and CC40, which are high risk enterococcal clonal complexes. These are characterised by the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants and/or virulence factors, often located on pathogenicity islands or plasmids. Mobile genetic elements thus are considered to play a major role in the establishment of problematic lineages. Although enterococci occur in high numbers in certain types of fermented cheeses and sausages, they are not deliberately added as starter cultures. Some E. faecium and E. faecalis strains are used as probiotics and are ingested in high numbers, generally in the form of pharmaceutical preparations. Such probiotics are administered to treat diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea or irritable bowel syndrome, to lower cholesterol levels or to improve host immunity. In animals, enterococcal probiotics are mainly used to treat or prevent diarrhoea, for immune stimulation or to improve growth. From a food microbiological point of view, the safety of the

  10. Casting a global safety net--a framework for food safety in the age of globalization.

    PubMed

    Chyau, James

    2009-01-01

    In mid-March 2007, Ontario-based Menu Foods Inc. started recalling its "cuts and gravy" style pet food, after receiving information that pets that had eaten the product had fallen ill. Within a week, the company was inundated with complaints and expressions of concern from about 200,000 of its customers. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined in late March 2007 that the most likely culprit in the illness, and in some cases death of the pet animals, was contaminated wheat gluten, a vegetable protein imported from China. One of the FDA identified contaminants was an industrial chemical called melamine. Reports of widespread adulteration of animal feed with melamine in China raised concern of similar contamination in the human food supply. In response, on April 27, 2007, FDA announced the detention of all vegetable proteins imported from China, whether for animal or for human consumption. But, FDA's action came too late. On May 1, 2007, officials from FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) indicated that between 2.5 to 3 million people in the United States had consumed chickens that had been fed with contaminated vegetable proteins imported from China. The 2007 pet food recall incident provided an ominous early warning that, unless the international community can come up with a better food safety mechanism, more such food contamination disasters could happen in the future. PMID:19999287

  11. 75 FR 56112 - Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-Cooperative Agreement With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-- Cooperative Agreement With the National Center for Food Protection and Defense (U18) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  12. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods. PMID:18314243

  13. A proteomics perspective: from animal welfare to food safety.

    PubMed

    Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola

    2014-03-01

    A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development. PMID:24555902

  14. Investigating the potential benefits of on-site food safety training for Folklorama, a temporary food service event.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Roberto; Murray, Leigh; Chapman, Benjamin J; Powell, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    Folklorama in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is a 14-day temporary food service event that explores the many different cultural realms of food, food preparation, and entertainment. In 2010, the Russian pavilion at Folklorama was implicated in a foodborne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 that caused 37 illnesses and 18 hospitalizations. The ethnic nature and diversity of foods prepared within each pavilion presents a unique problem for food inspectors, as each culture prepares food in their own very unique way. The Manitoba Department of Health and Folklorama Board of Directors realized a need to implement a food safety information delivery program that would be more effective than a 2-h food safety course delivered via PowerPoint slides. The food operators and event coordinators of five randomly chosen pavilions selling potentially hazardous food were trained on-site, in their work environment, focusing on critical control points specific to their menu. A control group (five pavilions) did not receive on-site food safety training and were assessed concurrently. Public health inspections for all 10 pavilions were performed by Certified Public Health Inspectors employed with Manitoba Health. Critical infractions were assessed by means of standardized food protection inspection reports. The results suggest no statistically significant difference in food inspection scores between the trained and control groups. However, it was found that inspection report results increased for both the control and trained groups from the first inspection to the second, implying that public health inspections are necessary in correcting unsafe food safety practices. The results further show that in this case, the 2-h food safety course delivered via slides was sufficient to pass public health inspections. Further evaluations of alternative food safety training approaches are warranted. PMID:23043832

  15. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation. PMID:26593873

  16. Inside the black box of food safety: a qualitative study of 'non-compliance' among food businesses.

    PubMed

    Brough, Mark; Davies, Belinda; Johnstone, Eleesa

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed This paper examines the meaning of food safety among food businesses deemed non-compliant and considers the need for an insider perspective to inform a more nuanced health promotion practice. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 food business operators who had recently been deemed 'non-compliant' through Council inspection. Results Paradoxically, these 'non-compliers' revealed a strong belief in the importance of food safety as well as a desire to comply with the regulations as communicated to them by Environmental Health Officers. Conclusions The evidence base of food safety is largely informed by the science of food hazards, yet there is a very important need to consider the practical daily application of food safety practices. This requires a more socially nuanced appreciation of food businesses beyond the simple dichotomy of compliant/ non-compliant. So what? Armed with a deeper understanding of the social context surrounding food safety practice, it is anticipated that a more balanced, collaborative mode of food safety health promotion could develop, which could add to the current model of regulation. PMID:26511403

  17. [Using mass spectrometry as a tool for testing for toxic substances in foods: toward food safety].

    PubMed

    Romero González, Roberto; Fernández Moreno, José Luis; Plaza Bolaños, Patricia; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    A large number of toxic substances, such as pesticides, antibiotics and toxins from different sources (natural or man-made) and different degrees of toxicity for human health can be found in foods. This type of compounds are generally found at very low concentrations in highly complex matrices, it therefore being necessary for the most highly reliable methodologies possible to be sued. In this regard, the use of gas and liquid chromatography techniques coupled to mass spectrometry detectors has made it possible to properly detect this type of substances in foods at extremely low concentrations. Therefore, depending upon the characteristics of the contaminant, one must select the chromatography technique which affords the possibility of best separating the contaminant from the interfering substances present in the matrix, as well as from the contaminants amongst one another. This methodology provides highly valuable data enhancing our knowledge of public health through food safety. PMID:18274351

  18. Human Food Safety Implications of Variation in Food Animal Drug Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Vahl, Christopher I.; Riviere, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Violative drug residues in animal-derived foods are a global food safety concern. The use of a fixed main metabolite to parent drug (M/D) ratio determined in healthy animals to establish drug tolerances and withdrawal times in diseased animals results in frequent residue violations in food-producing animals. We created a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for representative drugs (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, flunixin, and sulfamethazine) in cattle and swine based on extensive published literature. Simulation results showed that the M/D ratio was not a fixed value, but a time-dependent range. Disease changed M/D ratios substantially and extended withdrawal times; these effects exhibited drug- and species-specificity. These results challenge the interpretation of violative residues based on the use of the M/D ratio to establish tolerances for metabolized drugs. PMID:27302389

  19. Human Food Safety Implications of Variation in Food Animal Drug Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Vahl, Christopher I; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-01-01

    Violative drug residues in animal-derived foods are a global food safety concern. The use of a fixed main metabolite to parent drug (M/D) ratio determined in healthy animals to establish drug tolerances and withdrawal times in diseased animals results in frequent residue violations in food-producing animals. We created a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for representative drugs (ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, flunixin, and sulfamethazine) in cattle and swine based on extensive published literature. Simulation results showed that the M/D ratio was not a fixed value, but a time-dependent range. Disease changed M/D ratios substantially and extended withdrawal times; these effects exhibited drug- and species-specificity. These results challenge the interpretation of violative residues based on the use of the M/D ratio to establish tolerances for metabolized drugs. PMID:27302389

  20. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. PMID:25603422

  1. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials

    PubMed Central

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment. PMID:26500642

  2. Food Safety Education for Students and Workers in School Gardens and University Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzubak, John; Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The number of school gardens and university farms is increasing in the United States. Produce grown in these venues is often sampled in the classroom or incorporated into the food chain. Food safety education for students and workers is needed to ensure that produce is safe. Two 1-hr food safety curricula were developed to inform K-12 students and…

  3. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  4. Development, Dissemination, and Preimplementation Evaluation of Food Safety Educational Materials for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Adrienne E. H.; Snider, O. Sue; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2013-01-01

    With the persistence of microbiological foodborne illness and anticipated future shortage of scientists with agricultural and food science expertise in the United States, it is imperative to educate youth on microbiological food safety and enhance their awareness of opportunities to become engaged in finding solutions to food safety challenges. To…

  5. 78 FR 37228 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the Western Center for Food Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ..., Rockville, MD 20857, and a copy to Kevin W. Robinson, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, CPK1 Rm. 3A001, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy... agricultural topics including but not limited to good agricultural practices, tree nuts, veterinary...

  6. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...

  7. 77 FR 28566 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection (Food Safety Education Campaign-Post-Wave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Collection (Food Safety Education Campaign--Post-Wave Tracking Survey) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... tracking survey associated with the Food Safety Education Campaign. The post-wave survey is conducted after.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Food Safety Education Campaign Post-Wave Tracking Survey. Type of Request:...

  8. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic

  9. Multispectral fluorescence imaging techniques for nondestructive food safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2004-03-01

    The use of spectral sensing has gained acceptance as a rapid means for nondestructive inspection of postharvest food produce. Current technologies generally use color or a single wavelength camera technology. The applicability and sensitivity of these techniques can be expanded through the use of multiple wavelengths. Reflectance in the Vis/NIR is the prevalent spectral technique. Fluorescence, compared to reflectance, is regarded as a more sensitive technique due to its dynamic responses to subtle changes in biological entities. Our laboratory has been exploring fluorescence as a potential means for detection of quality and wholesomeness of food products. Applications of fluorescence sensing require an understanding of the spectral characteristics emanating from constituents and potential contaminants. A number of factors affecting fluorescence emission characteristics are discussed. Because of relatively low fluorescence quantum yield from biological samples, a system with a powerful pulse light source such as a laser coupled with a gated detection device is used to harvest fluorescence, in the presence of ambient light. Several fluorescence sensor platforms developed in our laboratory, including hyperspectral imaging, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and steady-state fluorescence imaging systems with multispectral capabilities are presented. We demonstrate the potential uses of recently developed fluorescence imaging platforms in food safety inspection of apples contaminated with animal feces.

  10. High-pressure thermal sterilization: food safety and food quality of baby food puree.

    PubMed

    Sevenich, Robert; Kleinstueck, Elke; Crews, Colin; Anderson, Warwick; Pye, Celine; Riddellova, Katerina; Hradecky, Jaromir; Moravcova, Eliska; Reineke, Kai; Knorr, Dietrich

    2014-02-01

    The benefits that high-pressure thermal sterilization offers as an emerging technology could be used to produce a better overall food quality. Due to shorter dwell times and lower thermal load applied to the product in comparison to the thermal retorting, lower numbers and quantities of unwanted food processing contaminants (FPCs), for example, furan, acrylamide, HMF, and MCPD-esters could be formed. Two spore strains were used to test the technique; Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, over the temperature range 90 to 121 °C at 600 MPa. The treatments were carried out in baby food puree and ACES-buffer. The treatments at 90 and 105 °C showed that G. stearothermophilus is more pressure-sensitive than B. amyloliquefaciens. The formation of FPCs was monitored during the sterilization process and compared to the amounts found in retorted samples of the same food. The amounts of furan could be reduced between 81% to 96% in comparison to retorting for the tested temperature pressure combination even at sterilization conditions of F₀-value in 7 min. PMID:24547697