Sample records for food sensory characteristics

  1. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

  2. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. PMID:24497160

  3. Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

  4. Analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars were evaluated to determine what fruit quality characteristics consumers consider important and to evaluate if sensory quality characteristics were correlated to any analytical quality characteristics. Cultivars evaluat...

  5. Effect of salmon type and presence/absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products.

    PubMed

    DeSantos, F A; Ramamoorthi, L; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

    2010-08-01

    Salmon-based infant food (puree) and toddler food (puree plus chunks) were manufactured from pink salmon, with and without bone, and from Sockeye salmon, with and without bone, to contain 45% salmon, 55% water, and 5% starch. Products were retort processed at 118 to 121 degrees C for 55 min in a steam-jacketed still retort. A trained descriptive panel (n = 7) evaluated infant and toddler foods separately. Instrumental color, pH, and water activity were also determined. Infant and toddler foods were also evaluated by a consumer panel (n = 104) of parents for product acceptability. During the manufacturing process (cooking, homogenization, retort processing), salmon infant food from pink salmon lost much of its characteristic pink color while that from sockeye salmon retained a greater amount. Bitterness was more evident in samples with bones. In the toddler food formulation containing chunks, the odor and flavor characteristics were influenced primarily by the type of salmon. The presence of bone affected visual pink color and lightness, and salmon odor only. Consumers scored products made with sockeye salmon as more acceptable despite the fact that they had more off-flavor than products from pink salmon. The appearance and thickness of the pureed infant food was more acceptable than the toddler food with chunks despite the chunky toddler product having more acceptable salmon flavor. This indicates that the color and appearance of the prototypes were the main drivers for liking. Of the total number of parents surveyed, 73% would feed this salmon product to their children. PMID:20722949

  6. Characteristics of food using Queso Fresco cheese as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing and aging affect food characteristics, such as rheology, functional properties, microstructure, and sensory traits. These effects are discussed using Queso Fresco, a popular Hispanic cheese variety, as an example. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data indicated that lipolysis occurr...

  7. S:Sensory&Food Mechanisms for Sensing Fat in Food in the Mouth

    E-print Network

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    in a food in the mouth on the pleasantness of food. A broad perspective on brain processing involvedS:Sensory&Food Quality Mechanisms for Sensing Fat in Food in the Mouth Presented at the Symposium Pleasure and Beyond" held at the Institute of Food Technologists 2011 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, La., U

  8. Sensory detection of food rapidly modulates arcuate feeding circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Kuo, Tzu-Wei; Knight, Zachary A

    2015-02-26

    Hunger is controlled by specialized neural circuits that translate homeostatic needs into motivated behaviors. These circuits are under chronic control by circulating signals of nutritional state, but their rapid dynamics on the timescale of behavior remain unknown. Here, we report optical recording of the natural activity of two key cell types that control food intake, AgRP and POMC neurons, in awake behaving mice. We find unexpectedly that the sensory detection of food is sufficient to rapidly reverse the activation state of these neurons induced by energy deficit. This rapid regulation is cell-type specific, modulated by food palatability and nutritional state, and occurs before any food is consumed. These data reveal that AgRP and POMC neurons receive real-time information about the availability of food in the external world, suggesting a primary role for these neurons in controlling appetitive behaviors such as foraging that promote the discovery of food. PMID:25703096

  9. Using Sensory Properties of Food to Trigger Swallowing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Loret, C.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of food consistency on swallowing function has been widely studied, and it is well recognized that by delaying the flow of the food bolus, thickened liquids can help in the management of swallowing dysfunction. However, fewer studies have been carried out on the impact of food sensory properties and related liking on swallowing function. This paper reviews the role of taste, olfaction, and trigeminal perceptions on swallowing function and highlights the need for a deeper investigation of this aspect of patient diet modification. PMID:24915399

  10. Effects of sodium lactate and sodium propionate on the sensory, microbial, and chemical characteristics of fresh aerobically stored ground beef

    E-print Network

    Eckert, Laura Anne

    1995-01-01

    EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH AEROBICALLY STORED GROUND BEEF A Thesis by LAURA ANNE ECKERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1995 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH...

  11. A study of the composition, yield, texture, and sensory characteristics of Mexican and Latin American white cheese varieties

    E-print Network

    Moore, Patricia Logan

    1984-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE COMPOSITION, YIELD, TEXTURE, AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF MEXICAN AND LATIN AMERICAN NHITE CHEESE VARIETIES A Thesis PATRICIA LOGAN MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University. in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology A STUDY OF THE COMPOSITION, YIELD, TEXTURE, AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF MEXICAN AND LATIN AMERICAN HHITE CHEESE VARIETIES A Thesis by PATRICIA...

  12. Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage.

    PubMed

    Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen

    2013-07-01

    How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers' enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) 10 trained assessors evaluated the intensity of 30 coffee attributes after roasting at the 9th and 18th month of storage, respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed reduction in the sensory qualities of coffee beverages after 9 months storage of roasted coffee beans. The positive associated odor and flavor attributes decreased in their intensity, whereas the negative associated odor and flavor attributes increased significantly (P < 0.05). After 18 months of storage, the rancid odor and flavor which indicate oxidation processes were even considerably perceivable. Consequently, we can assume that changes in sensory quality characteristics of roasted and vacuum-packed coffee beans during storage are possible. PMID:24804030

  13. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp. PMID:25190862

  14. THE ROLE OF SENSORY EVALUATION IN FOOD QUALITY CONTROL, FOOD RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF COFFEE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Hoang Dzung; Luu Dzuan; Ha Duyen Tu

    In Vietnam, the applying of sensory evaluation is only limited in some important coffee or tea manufacturers to grade these products according to an international or national norm (ex. TCVN- 321579). This kind of sensory practice based on operations of some experts. However, quality of food product is a complex issue and not one to be solely defined by the

  15. Sight or Scent: Lemur Sensory Reliance in Detecting Food Quality Varies with Feeding Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D.; Drea, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology. PMID:22870229

  16. Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S

    2014-04-01

    Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage. PMID:23744118

  17. Sensory-specific satiety with simple foods in humans: no influence of BMI?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Brondel; M Romer; V Van Wymelbeke; P Walla; T Jiang; L Deecke; D Rigaud

    2007-01-01

    Objective:Olfacto-gustatory sensory-specific satiety plays an important role in the termination of food ingestion. A defect in this mechanism, by increasing food intake, could be a factor in development of overweight. The present study was conducted to explore whether sensory-specific satiety in the overweight may be different from that in normal-weight subjects.Subjects:144 subjects (half men, half women; age range: 17–62 years;

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, I.-hsin; Hsieh, Po-Chow

    2006-05-01

    Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0-14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1×10 3-1.7×10 5 CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD 90) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D 10 doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, ?-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life.

  19. Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

  20. Effect of crossbreeding and rearing system on sensory characteristics of Iberian ham

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana I Carrapiso; Francisco Bonilla; Carmen Garc??a

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of crossbreeding (Iberian and Iberian×Duroc 50% pigs) and rearing system (outdoors and indoors) on the sensory characteristics of Iberian ham [using descriptive analysis], and to investigate the relationships among sensory data and subcutaneous fat composition. Crossbreeding had a slight effect on sensory and fatty acid profile (only the bitter taste

  1. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4?mg/100?mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7?mg vitamin C equivalents/100?mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products. PMID:23733811

  2. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg?1, respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg?1) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 23 factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1–9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name “mutton” in some markets would adversely affect prospects. PMID:25493184

  3. Hospital catering systems and their impact on the sensorial profile of foods provided to older patients in the UK.

    PubMed

    Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Methven, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    Impaired sensorial perception is very common in older people and low sensorial quality of foods is associated with decreased appetite and dietary intake. Hospital undernutrition in older patients could be linked to sensorial quality of hospital food if the quality were low or inappropriate for older people. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the sensorial quality of different foods that occur as a result of the food journey (i.e. freezing, regeneration, etc.) in the most common hospital catering systems in the UK. A trained sensory panel assessed sensorial descriptors of certain foods with and without the hospital food journey as it occurs in the in-house and cook/freeze systems. The results showed effects of the food journey on a small number of sensorial descriptors related to flavour, appearance and mouthfeel. The majority of these effects were due to temperature changes, which caused accumulation of condensation. A daily variation in sensorial descriptors was also detected and in some cases it was greater than the effect of the food journey. This study has shown that changes occur in the sensory quality of meals due to hospital food journeys, however these changes were small and are not expected to substantially contribute to acceptability or have a major role in hospital malnutrition. PMID:21477630

  4. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: The characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter P. Hammes

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and\\/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method

  5. Objective and quantitative definitions of modified food textures based on sensory and rheological methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wendin, Karin; Ekman, Susanne; Bülow, Margareta; Ekberg, Olle; Johansson, Daniel; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Stading, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Patients who suffer from chewing and swallowing disorders, i.e. dysphagia, may have difficulties ingesting normal food and liquids. In these patients a texture modified diet may enable that the patient maintain adequate nutrition. However, there is no generally accepted definition of ‘texture’ that includes measurements describing different food textures. Objective Objectively define and quantify categories of texture-modified food by conducting rheological measurements and sensory analyses. A further objective was to facilitate the communication and recommendations of appropriate food textures for patients with dysphagia. Design About 15 food samples varying in texture qualities were characterized by descriptive sensory and rheological measurements. Results Soups were perceived as homogenous; thickened soups were perceived as being easier to swallow, more melting and creamy compared with soups without thickener. Viscosity differed between the two types of soups. Texture descriptors for pâtés were characterized by high chewing resistance, firmness, and having larger particles compared with timbales and jellied products. Jellied products were perceived as wobbly, creamy, and easier to swallow. Concerning the rheological measurements, all solid products were more elastic than viscous (G?>G?), belonging to different G? intervals: jellied products (low G?) and timbales together with pâtés (higher G?). Conclusion By combining sensory and rheological measurements, a system of objective, quantitative, and well-defined food textures was developed that characterizes the different texture categories. PMID:20592965

  6. Variety enhances food intake in humans: role of sensory-specific satiety.

    PubMed

    Brondel, L; Romer, M; Van Wymelbeke, V; Pineau, N; Jiang, T; Hanus, C; Rigaud, D

    2009-04-20

    Twenty-one subjects were studied to evaluate the effect of renewal of sensory stimulations of previously eaten foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. The subjects ate French fries then brownie cakes ad libitum in three situations: "monotonous" - fries then brownies were consumed alone; "simultaneous" - condiments (ketchup and mayonnaise for the fries, vanilla cream and whipped cream for the brownies) were added during intakes; "successive" - after intake of fries alone, ketchup then mayonnaise were available with fries and, after intake of brownies alone, vanilla cream then whipped cream were offered with brownies. The quantities eaten in the "simultaneous" and "successive" situations were higher (p<0.001) than those in the "monotonous" one (1485+/-582 and 1682+/-777 kcal vs 1195+/-552 kcal, respectively). In the "successive" situation, hedonic ratings for fries diminished during intake but increased after the introduction of ketchup, leading to additional intake of fries. Similarly, hedonic ratings for brownies diminished during intake and increased after the introduction of vanilla cream leading to additional brownie intake (mayonnaise and whipped cream had no significant effect). Food variety, obtained by adding condiments can increase food intake in the short term. The mechanism by which food consumption is increased after the addition of condiments is introduced is at least partly related to the attenuation of sensory-satiety for a given food. PMID:19419673

  7. Effect of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) oil as fumigant on stored sorghum: physical characteristics, sensory quality and germination.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Srivastava, S; Srivastava, R P

    1995-08-01

    The Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) oil (JMO) was effective as fumigant against Sitophilus oryzae in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The observations on the effect of JMO treatment at a dose of 166.6 microliters/l of space to grains stored for 3 months in desiccators at 28 +/- 5 degrees C showed non significant (P approximately 0.05) effect on grain hardness, grain density and per cent water absorption. The cooking quality evaluated in terms of cooking time required for boiling of grains was also not significantly affected. The JMO treated samples of boiled sorghum scored significantly lower values for sensory quality characteristics viz. taste, aroma and overall acceptability compared to untreated samples. No effect of JMO on seed germination was observed. As sensory quality is lowered by use of JMO, the technique can only be recommended for seed sorghum preservation, not food. PMID:7584160

  8. The effect of sensory-nutrient congruency on food intake after repeated exposure: do texture and/or energy density matter?

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, P S

    2014-09-01

    Sensory properties guide the amount that people eat. In particular, food texture plays an important role in a food's 'expected satiation', which in turn affects the food-related decision making process. One hypothesis is that incongruent pairing of a textural cue with a post-ingestive outcome compromises this process, leading to poor energy compensation. Several studies examined the effect of both energy density and sensory characteristics (i.e. increased creaminess and thickness) on expectations, subjective appetite and food intake. To add to this literature, a re-analysis of data assessed whether the effect of sensory-nutrient pairings on energy intake compensation persisted after repeated exposure to a food. In this cross-over design, 27 participants consumed two preloads with 'congruent' (low-energy/liquid; high-energy/semi-solid) and two preloads with 'incongruent' (low-energy/semi-solid; high-energy/liquid) texture-nutrient combinations for nine subsequent meals, during which ad libitum intake was measured. Intake at first exposure did not differ between the low-energy (280±150kcal) and high-energy preloads (292±183kcal) in the incongruent conditions. By contrast, it was greater after the low-energy (332±203kcal) than after the high-energy (236±132kcal) preload in the congruent conditions (energy?incongruent/congruent, p=0.04). Post-exposure, this pattern changed: intake depended on the energy density of the preloads in all conditions, and was greater after low-energy preloads (day?energy?incongruent/congruent-interaction for breakfast: p=0.02). Thus, manipulating the sensory properties of a food influenced energy compensation and meal size, but only at initial exposure. Repeated exposure 'corrected' the initial lack of compensation observed in conditions with incongruent sensory-nutrient pairings. PMID:24699132

  9. History and characteristics of Okinawan longevity food.

    PubMed

    Sho, H

    2001-01-01

    Okinawan food culture in the Ryukyu island is one of the world's most interesting culture because its consumers have the longest life expectancies and low disability rates. It is a product of cultural synthesis, with a core of Chinese food culture, inputs through food trade with South-East Asia and the Pacific and strong Japanese influences in eating style and presentation. The Satsamu sweet potato provides the largest part of the energy intake (and contributes to self-sufficiency), there is a wide array of plant foods including seaweed (especially konbu) and soy, and of herbaceous plants, accompanied by fish and pork, and by green tea and kohencha tea. Infusing multiple foodstuff and drinking the broth is characteristic. Raw sugar is eaten. The concept that 'food is medicine' and a high regard accorded medical practice are also intrinsic of Okinawan culture. Again, food-centered and ancestral festivities keeep the health dimensions well-developed. Pork, konbu and tofu (soy bean-curd) are indispensable ingredients in festival menus, and the combination of tofu and seaweed are used everyday. Okinawan food culture is intimately linked with an enduring belief of the system and highly developed social structure and network. PMID:11710358

  10. Brain Research, 368(1986)79-86 79 Sensory-Specific Satiety: Food-Specific Reduction in Responsiveness of Ventral

    E-print Network

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    Brain Research, 368(1986)79-86 79 Elsevier BRE 11522 Sensory-Specific Satiety: Food signify food6. While experiments in which the effect of hunger on the responsiveness of this population of basal fore- brain neurons to food were being performed, it was observed that if a neuron had ceased

  11. Repeated cycles of restricted food intake and binge feeding disrupt sensory-specific satiety in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soyon; Phillips, Anthony G

    2012-06-01

    The relationship between food restriction and subsequent dysregulation of food intake is complex, variable and long-lasting. The present study investigated in rats whether repeated cycles of food restriction and binge feeding opportunities may alter regulation of food intake by employing a test for sensory-specific satiety. Rats that experienced repeated food restriction-binge cycles maintained heavier body weights compared to rats that remained on continuous food restriction. In contrast to the control subjects, rats that alternated between food restriction and binge feeding failed to display sensory-specific satiety. During the first meal, there was a gradual decrease in the amount of food intake over a 40 min period. When presented with a second meal of the same food, these rats responded to the familiar food in a manner similar as to a novel food (i.e., comparable quantities of both types of food were consumed). Food restriction-binge feeding cycles may be considered as a form of stress, which in turn is associated with cross-sensitization to numerous behavioral responses. Therefore, we propose that stress-induced disruption of sensory-specific satiety reflects a sensitized response to food, in which the interaction between sensory and satiety factors are no longer the key regulators of food choice and meal cessation. Furthermore, a role for sensory-specific satiety in terminating food intake appeared to decline with the progression of the cycles, thereby contributing to a steady increase in body weight of rats that experienced restriction with bouts of binge feeding opportunities. PMID:22366270

  12. Sensory Correlates of Difficult Temperament Characteristics in Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…

  13. Local Food Systems in Florida: Consumer Characteristics and Economic Impacts

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Local Food Systems in Florida: Consumer Characteristics and Economic Impacts By Alan W. Hodges, Ph, Food and Resource Economics Department PO Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32611 awhodges@ufl.edu; tel. 352 ....................................................................................................................................................................15 Food Purchasing Patterns

  14. SENSORY PROFILE OF PINEAPPLE JUICE PROCESSED BY HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aline M. de Barros; Rosires Deliza; Lúcia H. E. S. Laboissière; Amauri Rosenthal; Helena M. A. Bolini

    Heat leads to quality changes in sensory and nutritional characteristics of foods. High hydrostatic pressure is being investigated, as a processing that may destroy undesired microorganisms, while preserving sensory and nutritional characteristics. One of the most promising segments in Brazil is fruit juice, and evaluating its sensory profile is a valuable tool to improve the juice quality. The objective of

  15. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosso, Randy

    The Food Stamp Program (FSP) provides millions of Americans with the means to purchase food for a nutritious diet. This report presents characteristics of food stamp households nationwide in fiscal year 2001. Information on household characteristics comes from FSP household data collected by the federal Food and Nutrition Service for quality…

  16. Influence of intra-oral sensory impairment by anaesthesia on food comminution and mixing in dentate subjects.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, E; Fueki, K; Wakabayashi, N

    2015-06-01

    Sensory input from sensory receptors regarding food morsels can affect jaw motor behaviours during mastication. The aim was to clarify the effects of intra-oral sensory input on the food-comminuting and food-mixing capacities of dentate subjects. Eleven dentate subjects without sensory dysfunction in their oro-facial region participated in this study. Local anaesthesia was achieved on the periodontal structures and on the oral mucosa of the subjects' preferred chewing side by injecting a lidocaine solution with adrenalin. At baseline (control) and after anaesthesia, data on the subjects' food-comminuting and food-mixing capacities were gathered. The food-comminuting capacity was quantified by measuring the degree of pulverisation of peanuts (objective hardness; 45·3 [Newton, N]) after a prescribed 20 chewing strokes. The food-mixing capacity was measured as the degree of immixture of a two-coloured paraffin wax cube after 10 chewing strokes. Wax cubes of three different hardness levels were used (soft, medium and hard: 20·3, 32·6 and 75·5 [N], respectively) and were chewed in random order. After anaesthesia, the subjects' food-comminuting capacity significantly decreased (P < 0·001), as did the food-mixing capacity for each hardness level of the wax cubes (P < 0·01). A significant correlation was observed between the objective hardness values and the anaesthesia effects for the food-mixing capacity (P < 0·05), indicating that after anaesthesia, deterioration of the mixing capacity increased as the hardness increased. In conclusion, intra-oral sensory input can affect both food-comminuting and food-mixing capacities. PMID:25644782

  17. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and food sensory properties: potential and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Chiara; Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Bicchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern omics disciplines dealing with food flavor focus the analytical efforts on the elucidation of sensory-active compounds, including all possible stimuli of multimodal perception (aroma, taste, texture, etc.) by means of a comprehensive, integrated treatment of sample constituents, such as physicochemical properties, concentration in the matrix, and sensory properties (odor/taste quality, perception threshold). Such analyses require detailed profiling of known bioactive components as well as advanced fingerprinting techniques to catalog sample constituents comprehensively, quantitatively, and comparably across samples. Multidimensional analytical platforms support comprehensive investigations required for flavor analysis by combining information on analytes' identities, physicochemical behaviors (volatility, polarity, partition coefficient, and solubility), concentration, and odor quality. Unlike other omics, flavor metabolomics and sensomics include the final output of the biological phenomenon (i.e., sensory perceptions) as an additional analytical dimension, which is specifically and exclusively triggered by the chemicals analyzed. However, advanced omics platforms, which are multidimensional by definition, pose challenging issues not only in terms of coupling with detection systems and sample preparation, but also in terms of data elaboration and processing. The large number of variables collected during each analytical run provides a high level of information, but requires appropriate strategies to exploit fully this potential. This review focuses on advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and analytical platforms combining two-dimensional gas chromatography with olfactometry, chemometrics, and quantitative assays for food sensory analysis to assess the quality of a given product. We review instrumental advances and couplings, automation in sample preparation, data elaboration, and a selection of applications. PMID:25354891

  18. Pineapple fruit: morphological characteristics, chemical composition and sensory analysis of red Spanish and Smooth Cayenne cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana P. Bartolomé; Pilar Rupérez; Carmen Fúster

    1995-01-01

    Some physical (weight, size, shape, texture and colour), physico-chemical (pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids), chemical (soluble sugars and organic acids) and biochemical (total dietary fibre, peroxidase activity and soluble protein) characteristics and sensorial attributes (appearance, flavour, odour, colour, firmness and acceptability) of pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) fruit were studied, in order to assess nutritional properties and consumer acceptability of

  19. Effects of dietary fats on meat quality and sensory characteristics of heavy pig loins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Corino; S. Magni; E. Pagliarini; R. Rossi; G. Pastorelli; L. M. Chiesa

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the influence of dietary fat supplementation to heavy pigs on the meat quality and sensory characteristics of loins. The animals were fed diets containing tallow (TA), corn oil (CO) or rapeseed oil (RO) from 25 kg up to 160 kg live weight (LW). The fats were added at 3% as fed from 25 to 110 kg LW,

  20. Prediction of sensory characteristics of lamb meat samples by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Andrés; I. Murray; E. A. Navajas; A. V. Fisher; N. R. Lambe; L. Bünger

    2007-01-01

    This study was implemented to evaluate the potential of visible and near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to predict sensory characteristics related to the eating quality of lamb meat samples. A total of 232 muscle samples from Texel and Scottish Blackface lambs was analyzed by chemical procedures and scored by assessors in a taste panel (TP). Then, these parameters were predicted

  1. Sensory characteristics of five sweet potato cultivars and their changes during storage under tropical conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quirien E. A van Oirschot; Debbie Rees; Julia Aked

    2003-01-01

    Five sweet potato cultivars (Kemb10, SPK004, KSP20, Yan Shu 1 and Zapallo) were analysed for their sensory characteristics and changes herein during storage under tropical conditions. Nine descriptors for sweet potato were derived after brainstorming and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). These were: floury, smooth, soft, chestnutty, sweet, fibrous, grainy, moist and discoloration. Significant differences were observed among the cultivars profiles.

  2. Effect of acid decontamination on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of beef strip loin steaks

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Zisca

    1987-01-01

    , subprimal and retail cuts requires additional handling and storage and may lead to further microbial contamination and growth. The use of good manufacturing practices during slaughtering, dressing and fabrication procedures can limit the extent...EFFECT OF ACID DECONTAMINATION ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF STRIP LOIN STEAKS A Thesis by Z IS CA DIXON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement...

  3. Sensory characteristics and iron dialyzability of gluten-free bread fortified with iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Kiskini; Konstantina Argiri; Michael Kalogeropoulos; Michael Komaitis; Athanasios Kostaropoulos; Ioanna Mandala; Maria Kapsokefalou

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were (a) to produce gluten-free bread, fortified with iron (GFB-Fe), using selected iron compounds (ferric pyrophosphate, ferric pyrophosphate with emulsifiers, NaFeEDTA, electrolytic iron, ferrous gluconate, ferrous lactate and ferrous sulphate) (b) to test sensory characteristics of the GFB-Fe (feel-mouth texture, crumb colour, aroma and taste) (c) to compare iron dialyzability of various iron compounds

  4. SWIMMING PATTERN AS AN INDICATOR OF THE ROLES OF COPEPOD SENSORY SYSTEMS IN THE RECOGNITION OF FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The roles of copepod sensory systems in the recognition of food were investigated using the 'Bugwatcher', a video-computer system designed to track and describe quantitatively the swimming patterns of aquatic organisms. Copepods acclimated, or non-acclimated to a chemosensory sti...

  5. Consumer characteristics influencing fast food consumption in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cuma Akbay; Gulgun Yildiz Tiryaki; Aykut Gul

    2007-01-01

    The Turkish fast food industry has grown rapidly since the 1980s. There are now more than 700 fast food restaurants in Turkey. Using the data from a consumer survey, this study investigates the relationship between consumers’ fast food consumption frequency and their socio-economic\\/demographic characteristics and attitudes. Using Chi-square test of independence, the study compares consumers’ fast food consumption frequencies of

  6. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2014-09-01

    The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. In relation to a standard bread formulation without fish flour, the addition of fish flour to bread formulations resulted in products with not only higher contents of protein, essential fatty acids, and minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, but also lower contents of carbohydrates. The breads with fish flour received sensory acceptance better than or as good as that of a bread formulation without fish flour. Hence, the addition of fish processing residue to breads is a way to provide essential nutrients to the population through a well-accepted, accessible, and low-cost product. PMID:25190890

  7. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. PMID:23962381

  8. Retail Wastelands: Characteristics and Influential Factors of Food Deserts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Dutko; Michele Ver Ploeg; Tracey L. Farrigan

    2012-01-01

    Applying a census tract-level definition of food deserts, areas with limited access to affordable and healthy food, ERS has identified over 6,500 food desert tracts in the U.S. based on data from the 2000 Census of the Population. In this report, we examine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of these tracts to see how they differ from other tracts. We

  9. Nutritional and Functional Characteristics of Whey Proteins in Food Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. de Wit

    1998-01-01

    Whey proteins are well known for their high nutri- tional value and versatile functional properties in food products. Estimates of the worldwide production of whey indicate that about 700,000 tonnes of true whey proteins are available as valuable food ingre- dients. Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins are related to the structure and biologi- cal functions of these proteins.

  10. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term (2-week), within-season temporal stability in retail food availability, prices, and quality. Design In-person observations of retail food stores at 2 time points, 2 weeks apart. Setting Southwest Chicago, IL. Sample 157 food stores. Main Outcome Measures Availability and prices of foods selected from the following food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, meats and beans, and dairy, as well as fresh produce quality. Analysis Temporal stability was tested for availability using a McNemar test and for price and quality using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results We found that measures of food availability and prices as well as fresh produce quality at stores were generally stable at the 2 time points. Conclusions and Implications This study suggests that a single observation may be sufficient to accurately characterize within-season food availability, food prices, and fresh produce quality. PMID:20129186

  11. Effect of sire breed on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jandasek, J; Milerski, M; Lichovnikova, M

    2014-01-01

    Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of lamb meat were evaluated in crossbred ram lambs from Merino ewes and Oxford Down, Texel, Charollais, Suffolk and Merinolandschaf sires. The lambs were slaughtered at average age 119.2 days, live weight 34.6 kg and carcass weight 16.3 kg. Samples of M. longissimus lumborum et thoracis were used for measurements of pH values, electrical conductivity (EC), drip loss, contents of dry matter (DM), protein, intramuscular fat (IMF), ash, and hydroxyproline and for sensory analysis. The breed of sire significantly affected pH24 and 48 h postmortem, EC 24 h postmortem, protein content and juiciness (P<0.05). Significant negative correlations between pH48 and DM (-0.255) and pH48 and IMF (-0.258) were found (P<0.05). A significant positive correlation between EC48 and drip loss (0.366) was observed (P<0.05). Progeny of Charollais sires had meat of better quality than the others; the highest content of protein and IMF, the lowest drip loss and the best juiciness and texture. PMID:23896141

  12. Exposure to foods' non-taste sensory properties. A nursery intervention to increase children's willingness to try fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Dazeley, Paul; Houston-Price, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Activities that engage young children with the sensory properties of foods are popular with nursery schools, despite the lack of evidence for their efficacy in increasing children's consumption of healthy foods. This study provides the first empirical exploration of the effectiveness of a non-taste sensory activity program in a nursery school setting. Ninety-two children aged between 12 and 36 months were allocated either to an intervention group, who took part in looking, listening, feeling and smelling activities with unusual fruits and vegetables every day for 4 weeks, or to a non-intervention control group. In a subsequent mealtime taste test, children touched and tasted more of the vegetables to which they had been familiarized in their playtime activities than of a matched set of non-exposed foods. The results demonstrate that hands-on activities with unfamiliar fruits and vegetables can enhance children's willingness to taste these foods, and confirm the potential for such activities to support healthy eating initiatives. PMID:25218879

  13. A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.

    PubMed

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA). PMID:23973565

  14. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    PubMed

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P?>?0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P?>?0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P?sensory characteristic (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) scores of SP100 were lower than those of SP50 and the control. The use of surimi powder in fish sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. PMID:25745219

  15. Who wants food? Individual characteristics in raven yells

    PubMed Central

    Boeckle, Markus; Szipl, Georgine; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Discriminating between different individuals is considered as prerequisite for any forms of social knowledge. In birds, discriminating between conspecifics based on individual characteristics has been tested mainly in the auditory domain with territorial calls and songs for neighbour and kin discrimination but little is known about discriminating between signallers in food calls. Ravens utilize a large set of calls and show individually distinctive call repertoires. Moreover, they show advanced social tactics during foraging, suggesting that they are capable of dealing with conspecifics on an individual basis. When confronted with food that is difficult to access, ravens produce particular calls (‘haa’, yells); these calls attract other ravens and, thus, have been hypothesized to serve as ‘functionally referential signals’. We here examined whether ravens are able to differentiate between individuals on the basis of these food calls. We first analysed individual differences in call parameters, using 424 food calls recorded from 18 individually marked wild ravens in the Austrian Alps. We then tested 18 captive ravens for recognition of individual differences in food calls with playbacks, using a habituation-dishabituation design. We found evidence that food calls show individual call characteristics in fundamental frequency and intensity-related measurements providing ravens with the opportunity to respond according to these individually distinct features. Furthermore, ravens discriminated between unfamiliar ravens in the habituation-dishabituation experiment, indicating that they may discern individual differences. Our results suggest that raven food calls are individually distinct and that the birds may be capable of differentiating between food-calling individuals. PMID:23162139

  16. Who wants food? Individual characteristics in raven yells.

    PubMed

    Boeckle, Markus; Szipl, Georgine; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Discriminating between different individuals is considered as prerequisite for any forms of social knowledge. In birds, discriminating between conspecifics based on individual characteristics has been tested mainly in the auditory domain with territorial calls and songs for neighbour and kin discrimination but little is known about discriminating between signallers in food calls. Ravens utilize a large set of calls and show individually distinctive call repertoires. Moreover, they show advanced social tactics during foraging, suggesting that they are capable of dealing with conspecifics on an individual basis. When confronted with food that is difficult to access, ravens produce particular calls ('haa', yells); these calls attract other ravens and, thus, have been hypothesized to serve as 'functionally referential signals'. We here examined whether ravens are able to differentiate between individuals on the basis of these food calls. We first analysed individual differences in call parameters, using 424 food calls recorded from 18 individually marked wild ravens in the Austrian Alps. We then tested 18 captive ravens for recognition of individual differences in food calls with playbacks, using a habituation-dishabituation design. We found evidence that food calls show individual call characteristics in fundamental frequency and intensity-related measurements providing ravens with the opportunity to respond according to these individually distinct features. Furthermore, ravens discriminated between unfamiliar ravens in the habituation-dishabituation experiment, indicating that they may discern individual differences. Our results suggest that raven food calls are individually distinct and that the birds may be capable of differentiating between food-calling individuals. PMID:23162139

  17. Food characteristics, long-term habituation and energy intake. Laboratory and field studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food variety is related to increased energy intake, and one approach to reduce food intake is to reduce food variety. However characteristics of foods that constitute variety are not known. The effects of varying food characteristics to reduce food variety on laboratory and usual dinner intake was ...

  18. Sanitation characteristics of some food processing industries.

    PubMed

    El-Tawila, M M; Ashour, M; Awad, O; Al Morshedy, H; Hassan, M

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sanitary conditions surrounding the food throughout the production stages in some food plants. Observation of the sanitary measures of the studied plants revealed that only 3 out of the 7 plants (42.9%) have acceptable sanitation that complies with the sanitary requirements specified by WHO. Personal hygiene and storage conditions were the most critical problems found in the studied plants. Laboratory examination of nasal and throat swabs and stool samples of workers was carried out to uncover the chronic carriers. Among the food handlers examined 46.3% were positive for intestinal parasites. Bacteriological examination of stool specimens revealed that 4.3% of carriers of Salmonella paratyphi and none were carriers of Vibreo species. Nasal swabs were also positive for Staph. aureus in 29.8% of all the examined swabs. Analysis of the main products of the studied plants revealed generally that the bacterial load of the products of plants having acceptable sanitary conditions was lower than that of the products of the other plants. The frozen vegetable products had a total aerobic mesophilic plate count ranging from 8.1 x 10(4) cfu/g in okra and 3.7 x 10(5) cfu/g in mixed vegetables. The total aerobic plate count of the ice cream (1 x 10(3) cfu/g) complies with specified Egyptian standards. However, the coliform count (9 x 10(1) MPN) was higher than the recommended limit. Lead and cadmium levels were also investigated in all products. The maximum detected level of lead was that of cream wafer (0.94 ppm) followed by banana wafer (0.82 ppm). The two detected levels were higher than Egyptian standards. The lead level in ice cream (0.19 ppm) was also higher than the specified standards. The relatively high levels of lead in cream wafer and ice cream may be attributed to more than one factor; the added color and the old machinery used in some production steps are the most accursed factors. On the other hand, the observed level of cadmium ranged between 0.046 ppm in raw mil and 0.3 ppm in soft cheese. PMID:17219928

  19. CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS E SENSORIAIS DE CLONES DE BA TATA-DOCE Physical and sensorial characteristics of sweetpotato clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Dias Cardoso; Anselmo Eloy; Silveira Viana; Sylvana Naomi Matsumoto; Hermes Bomfim Neto; Camila Rodrigues Khouri; Thiago Lima Melo

    The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the physical and sensorial characteristics of sweetpotato clones in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Sixteen clones were analyzed, originating from Janaúba, MG, Viçosa, MG; Bom Jardim de Minas, MG; Gurupi, TO; Santo Antônio da Platina, PR; Holambra II, SP; Vitória da Conquista, BA; and Condeúba, BA. One utilized randomized blocks with

  20. Relationships of consumer characteristics and food deprivation to food purchasing behavior.

    PubMed

    Mela, D J; Aaron, J I; Gatenby, S J

    1996-11-01

    A large part of domestic food intake may be determined by retail food purchase behavior, and it is commonly believed that this may be significantly influenced by the shopper's state of food deprivation. In the present study, 198 subjects recruited just prior to shopping at a large supermarket completed questionnaires eliciting information on demographic and situational variables, along with measures of time since last eating (TSLE), hunger, and dietary restraint. Upon leaving the store, subjects provided investigators with itemized receipts, having first identified all "unintended" purchases. There were no consistent main effects of TSLE, self-reported hunger, dietary restraint scores, or relative body weight on the number or cost of total, intended, and unintended food and nonfood purchases. However, there were significant interactions of weight status and measures of food deprivation upon measures of food purchasing. Although normal-weight subjects tended to increase their food purchases with food deprivation, the number and cost of food items fell markedly with extended food deprivation among overweight subjects. These effects were largely specific to food (i.e., generally not observed for nonfood purchases), but showed no consistent associations with unintended purchases or with particular foods or food groups. Higher dietary restraint and relative body weight were associated with lower reported hunger ratings, but not differences in mean TSLE, or other subject characteristics. These results run directly counter to common beliefs and recommendations for weight control and dieting, but support earlier work indicating that the food purchasing behaviors of normal-weight and overweight individuals are differently affected by food deprivation. PMID:8916190

  1. Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention: The role of positive sensory experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus G. Grunert; Tino Bech-Larsen; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Øydis Ueland; Annika Åström

    2004-01-01

    European consumers are skeptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if positive sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence

  2. Reproducibility and Performance Characteristics of Colonic Compliance, Tone and Sensory Tests in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Odunsi, Suwebatu T.; Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E.; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Busciglio, Irene; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background The performance characteristics of colonic sensation and motility measurements are unclear. Aim To compare left colon compliance, tone and sensation in males and females and to evaluate inter- and intra-individual coefficients of variation (COV) in these measurements. Methods Data were acquired using standard barostat methods, by one technologist, in 72 human volunteers (38 males, 18–65 y). We measured compliance, fasting tone and sensation during baseline and post-placebo; postprandial (PP) tone was measured only post-placebo. Compliance and thresholds for first sensation, gas and pain were measured using ascending method of limits; sensory ratings (0–100 mm VAS) using random phasic distensions at 8 to 36 mmHg above baseline operating pressure. Change in PP tone was measured by barostat balloon volume for the first 30 min after a 1000kcal meal. Inter-COV was calculated as 100 (SD/mean), and intra-COV as (100*SD delta/overall mean). Results There were no statistically significant associations with gender for most sensory or motor parameters at baseline. A modest association of fasting colonic tone and gender was observed. COV are lower (20–35%) for compliance, fasting tone, pain threshold, and sensation ratings than for PP tone and threshold for first or gas sensation (>45%). COV data are similar in males and females; sensation COVs appear smaller in females relative to males. Conclusions Testing of compliance, tone and pain and gas sensation in left colon performs adequately to assess these functions in humans. Lower COV for sensation tests among females is relevant to plan studies of drugs intended for functional GI disorders. PMID:19291400

  3. Early experience with sensory properties of food and caloric consequences: Implications for food intake and body weight regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Marie Doerflinger

    2005-01-01

    The homeostatic regulation of food intake is one of the most pressing challenges to an organism. Certain foods may, unpredictably, provide either an overabundance or a deficit of energy and nutrients. The present series of experiments examines the influence of associations between taste stimuli and nutritive or nonnutritive consequences on food intake and body weight regulation following both short- and

  4. Assessing sensory quality of rice to meet industry needs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food industries need consistent supplies of rice that are well-defined in terms of functional, nutritional, and sensory characteristics associated with intrinsic product quality to allow them to be directed to the most appropriate, highest value markets. Defining the sensory quality of rice is prob...

  5. Comparison of pork quality and sensory characteristics for antibiotic free yorkshire crossbreds raised in hoop houses.

    PubMed

    Whitley, N; Hanson, D; Morrow, W; See, M T; Oh, S-H

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare pork characteristics and to determine consumer acceptability of pork chops from antibiotic free Yorkshire crossbreds sired by Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY), Tamworth (TY) or Yorkshire (YY) boars and reared in hoop houses. The experiments were conducted at the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCA&TSU) Farm in Greensboro, NC and the Cherry Research Station Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) Alternative Swine Unit in Goldsboro, NC (source of antibiotic free Yorkshire sows used at both places). Twenty-four sows were artificially inseminated at each location in each of three trials. Litters were weaned at 4 wks old, and reared within deep-bedded outdoor hoop houses. To compare pork characteristics, 104 randomly selected animals were harvested at a USDA-inspected abattoir at approximately 200 d of age. Variables measured included pH, color score, L*, a*, b*, marbling score, drip loss, hot carcass weight, backfat thickness (BF), loin muscle area (LMA), and slice shear force. Sensory panel tests were also conducted at two time periods. The data was analyzed with GLM in SAS 9.01 including location, trial, and sire breed as fixed effects. Backfat thickness, LMA, color score and a* were different among breeding groups (p<0.05). The LBY pigs had thicker backfat and smaller LMA than the other breed types. The TY and YY had less backfat than all other breed groups. Color score was lower for YY than BY and LBY but intermediate for TY. The a* was lower for TY than other breeds except LBY which was intermediate. For one sensory panel test, YY pork was more preferred overall as well as for juiciness and texture compared to BY and LBY (p<0.05), but no impact of breed type was noted for the other test, with values similar for BY, LBY, TY and YY pork. This information may help small farmers make decisions about breed types to use for outdoor production. PMID:25049527

  6. Effect of the partial substitution of soy proteins by highly methyl-esterified pectin on chemical and sensory characteristics of sausages.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C M; Marques, M F; Hatano, M K; Castro, I A

    2010-10-01

    Pectin can be used as a natural emulsifier in food formulations. In this study, textured soybean protein (TSP), used as an emulsifier in commercial sausages, was partially replaced by a mixture containing pectin and isolated soybean proteins, which were either extruded (EXT) or not extruded (MIX), and the chemical and sensory characteristics of samples were evaluated after 60 days of storage at 4 °C. Responses such as oxidation measured by PV and TBARS, hardness, color, pH and sensory characteristics were compared with those of a commercial sausage (CON). The mixture containing highly methyl-esterified pectin, textured soybean proteins and isolated soybean proteins, as emulsifier agent, reduced the hardness (EXT: 21.69±0.98 and MIX: 20.17 ±2.76 N) and the pH (EXT: 5.46±0.03 and MIX: 5.29±0.01) of the samples and increased the concentration of peroxides (EXT: 0.10±0.01 and MIX: 0.15 ±0.01 meq/kg) when compared with samples formulated only with TSP (28.57 ± 2.54 N, pH of 6.92±0.04 and PV = 0.07 ± 0.01 meq/ kg). These effects were likely caused by the anionic character of the emulsifier. However, no sensory difference was observed between the sausages containing highly methyl-esterified pectin, textured soybean proteins and isolated soybean proteins submitted to the extrusion process (EXT) and the control sausages, suggesting that the formulation proposed in this study can be a potential alternative for the further development of sausages that have functional properties or are free of artificial additives. PMID:21339158

  7. Integrating sensory evaluation in adaptive conjoint analysis to elaborate the conflicting influence of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on food choice.

    PubMed

    Hoppert, Karin; Mai, Robert; Zahn, Susann; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rohm, Harald

    2012-12-01

    Sensory properties and packaging information are factors which considerably contribute to food choice. We present a new methodology in which sensory preference testing was integrated in adaptive conjoint analysis. By simultaneous variation of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on identical levels, this procedure allows assessing the importance of attribute/level combinations on product selection. In a set-up with nine pair-wise comparisons and four subsequent calibration assessments, 101 young consumers evaluated vanilla yoghurt which was varied in fat content (four levels), sugar content (two levels) and flavour intensity (two levels); the same attribute/level combinations were also presented as extrinsic information. The results indicate that the evaluation of a particular attribute may largely diverge in intrinsic and in extrinsic processing. We noticed from our utility values that, for example, the acceptance of yoghurt increases with an increasing level of the actual fat content, whereas acceptance diminishes when a high fat content is labelled on the product. This article further implicates that neglecting these diverging relationships may lead to an over- or underestimation of the importance of an attribute for food choice. PMID:23000276

  8. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p?

  9. Seeing with sound? exploring different characteristics of a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Macpherson, Tom; Ward, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices convert live visual images into auditory signals, for example with a web camera (to record the images), a computer (to perform the conversion) and headphones (to listen to the sounds). In a series of three experiments, the performance of one such device ('The vOICe') was assessed under various conditions on blindfolded sighted participants. The main task that we used involved identifying and locating objects placed on a table by holding a webcam (like a flashlight) or wearing it on the head (like a miner's light). Identifying objects on a table was easier with a hand-held device, but locating the objects was easier with a head-mounted device. Brightness converted into loudness was less effective than the reverse contrast (dark being loud), suggesting that performance under these conditions (natural indoor lighting, novice users) is related more to the properties of the auditory signal (ie the amount of noise in it) than the cross-modal association between loudness and brightness. Individual differences in musical memory (detecting pitch changes in two sequences of notes) was related to the time taken to identify or recognise objects, but individual differences in self-reported vividness of visual imagery did not reliably predict performance across the experiments. In general, the results suggest that the auditory characteristics of the device may be more important for initial learning than visual associations. PMID:22208131

  10. Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry.

    PubMed

    del Río, Elena; Panizo-Morán, Mónica; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2007-04-20

    Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council provides a legal basis permitting the use of antimicrobial treatments to remove surface contamination from poultry. This paper reports the results of research into the effects on natural microflora, pH, and sensorial characteristics achieved by dipping chicken legs (15 min, 18+/-1 degrees C) into solutions (wt/vol) of 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP), 1200 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 2% citric acid (CA), 220 ppm peroxyacids (Inspexx 100; PA), and water. Samples were collected immediately after evisceration, subjected to the treatments listed or left untreated (control) and tested after 0, 1, 3 and 5 days of storage (3 degrees C+/-1 degrees C). For most microbial groups similar counts were observed on water-dipped and on untreated legs. All the chemical compounds were effective in reducing microbial populations throughout storage, with TSP, ASC and CA showing the strongest antimicrobial activity. The average reductions (mean+/-standard deviation) relative to untreated samples caused by chemical treatments when considering simultaneously all storage days ranged (log(10) cfu/g skin) from 0.53+/-0.83 (PA) to 1.98+/-0.62 (TSP) for mesophilic aerobic counts, from 0.11+/-0.89 (PA) to 1.27+/-1.02 (CA) (psychrotrophs), from 1.34+/-1.40 (PA) to 2.15+/-1.20 (CA) (Enterobacteriaceae), from 1.18+/-1.24 (PA) to 1.98+/-1.16 (CA) (coliforms), from 0.66+/-0.99 (PA) to 1.86+/-1.80 (TSP) (Micrococcaceae), from 0.54+/-0.74 (TSP) to 2.17+/-1.37 (CA) (enterococci), from 0.72+/-0.66 (TSP) to 2.08+/-1.60 (CA) (Brochothrix thermosphacta), from 0.78+/-1.02 (PA) to 1.99+/-0.96 (TSP) (pseudomonads), from 0.21+/-0.61 (PA) to 1.23+/-0.60 (TSP) (lactic acid bacteria), and from 1.14+/-0.89 (PA) to 1.45+/-0.61 (ASC) (moulds and yeasts). The microbial reductions throughout storage increased, decreased, or did not vary, in accordance with microbial group and chemical involved. Similar pH values were observed for untreated samples and for those dipped in PA and water on all sampling days. ASC-treated samples showed a lower pH than controls to day 1. TSP-treated legs exhibited the highest pH values and CA-treated ones the lowest, throughout storage. Hedonic evaluation (nine-point structured scale, untrained panellists) showed similar colour, smell and overall acceptability scores for dipped and untreated samples on day 0 and day 1. From day 3 sensorial attributes scored lower for untreated, PA- and water-dipped legs, as compared to legs treated with TSP, ASC and CA. Only for these three groups of samples were average scores higher than 6 (shelf-life limit value) observed by the end of storage. Results from the present study suggest that the treatments tested improve the microbial quality of chicken without adverse sensorial effects. PMID:17320231

  11. Differentiation of French virgin olive oil RDOs by sensory characteristics, fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and chemometrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Ollivier; Jacques Artaud; Christian Pinatel; Jean-Pierre Durbec; Michel Guérère

    2006-01-01

    The sensory and chemical characteristics (fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions) of the five registered designations of origin (RDOs) of French virgin olive oils (‘Aix-en-Provence’, ‘Haute-Provence’, ‘Nyons’, ‘Nice’ and ‘Vallée des Baux de Provence’) (n=539) were determined over a six year harvest period. The evaluation of fruity, bitter and pungent oils was insufficient for describing the RDOs, so it was necessary

  12. The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice-based expanded snacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Bo Ding; Paul Ainsworth; Gregory Tucker; Hayley Marson

    2005-01-01

    The effect of extrusion conditions, including feed rate (20–32%), feed moisture content (14–22%), screw speed (180–320 rpm), and barrel temperature (100–140 °C) on the physicochemical properties (density, expansion, water absorption index––WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) and sensory characteristics (hardness and crispness) of an expanded rice snack was investigated. Increasing feed rate results in extrudates with a higher expansion, lower

  13. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Walter P

    2012-04-01

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with regard to toxigenicity and pathogenicity determinants as well as presence of transferable antibiotic resistance. Nitrate and nitrite are still considered basically undesired in food. The main objections are based on their potential to form nitrosamines with carcinogenic potential. In view of new results from intensive research of NO, potential risks are opposed by positive effects on human health. PMID:22202868

  14. Local Food Systems in North-Central Florida: Consumer Characteristics and Economic Impacts

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Local Food Systems in North-Central Florida: Consumer Characteristics and Economic Impacts By Alan University of Florida, Food and Resource Economics Department awhodges@ufl.edu; tel. 352-294-7674 February 6 ....................................................................................................................................................................13 Food Purchasing Patterns

  15. Cognitive, sensory, and psychosocial characteristics in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brinckman, Danielle D; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Blumhorst, Catherine; Biesecker, Leslie G; Sapp, Julie C; Johnston, Jennifer J; Wiggs, Edythe A

    2013-12-01

    Forty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ages 2-61 years were given a neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive, sensory, and behavioral functioning. These tests included the Wechsler scales of intelligence, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency Test, D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS Sorting Test, Wide Range Achievement Test: Math and Reading Subtests, Purdue Pegboard, The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale, and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Parent Rating Scale. On the age appropriate Wechsler scale, the mean Verbal Comprehension was 81 (n = 36), Working Memory was 81 (n = 36), Perceptual Reasoning was 78 (n = 24) and Full Scale IQ was 75 (n = 26). Memory for a word list (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) was in the average range with a mean of 89 (n = 19). Fine motor speed was slow on the Purdue with mean scores 3-4 standard deviations below norms. All subjects were microsmic on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Of these 42 patients, only 6 were able to complete all auditory and visual tests; 52% were unable to complete the visual tests due to impaired vision. A wide range of behavioral issues were endorsed on questionnaires given to parents. Most had social skill deficits but no pattern of either externalizing or internalizing problems. We identify a characteristic neuro-behavioral profile in our cohort comprised of reduced IQ, impaired fine-motor function, and decreased olfaction. PMID:24194441

  16. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD. PMID:24928779

  17. Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Sipos, László

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, ?-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of ?-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel. PMID:25319201

  18. Diversification of a food-mimicking male ornament via sensory drive.

    PubMed

    Kolm, Niclas; Amcoff, Mirjam; Mann, Richard P; Arnqvist, Göran

    2012-08-01

    The evolutionary divergence of sexual signals is often important during the formation of new animal species, but our understanding of the origin of signal diversity is limited [1, 2]. Sensory drive, the optimization of communication signal efficiency through matching to the local environment, has been highlighted as a potential promoter of diversification and speciation [3]. The swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei) is a tropical fish in which males display a flag-like ornament that elicits female foraging behavior during courtship. We show that the shape of the male ornament covaries with female diet across natural populations. More specifically, natural populations in which the female diet is more dominated by ants exhibit male ornaments more similar to the shape of an ant. Feeding experiments confirm that females habituated to a diet of ants prefer to bite at male ornaments from populations with a diet more dominated by ants. Our results show that the male ornament functions as a "fishing lure" that is diversifying in shape to match local variation in female search images employed during foraging. This direct link between variation in female feeding ecology and the evolutionary diversification of male sexual ornaments suggests that sensory drive may be a common engine of signal divergence. PMID:22795697

  19. Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference for Cooked Chicken Breasts from Organic, Corn-fed, Free-range and Conventionally Reared Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    The sensory characteristics of cooked chicken breasts from organic (n=4), corn-fed (n=1), free range (n=5) and conventionally (n=5) reared animals from conventional origins were determined. Twelve trained assessors described the sensory characteristics of all samples using twenty-one attributes. One-way analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.05) differences between samples for all appearance, one odour, one flavour, and all texture attributes. Principal

  20. Effect of flour particle size on microstructural, rheological and physico-sensory characteristics of bread and south Indian parotta.

    PubMed

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Soumya, C; Indrani, D; Rao, G Venkateswara

    2014-12-01

    Wheat flour fractioned by sieving into four different particle size fractions namely finer fractions (<75 and 75-118 ?m), coarser fractions (118-150 and >150 ?m) were analyzed for their chemical, rheological, bread & parotta making characteristics. The finer fractions had lower ash, higher dry gluten, damaged starch and sodium dodecysulphate (SDS)-sedimentation value than the coarser fractions. The flour from finer fractions gave bread with best sensory and textural attributes. The parottas from finer fractions showed significantly higher sensory scores for colour, texture, layers, mouthfeel and overall quality score than the coarser fractions. In the micrograph of finer flour fractions, higher number of loosened single starch granules than the aggregates of starch and protein matrix were seen as compared to coarser fractions. These studies indicate that the flour from the finer fractions produce higher quality bread, parotta owing to the presence of higher damaged starch content, quantity and quality of protein in these fractions than coarser fractions. PMID:25477689

  1. The effect of fructooligosaccharides on the sensory characteristics of cooked sausages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Cáceres; M. L. Garc??a; J. Toro; M. D. Selgas

    2004-01-01

    The effect of a short chain fructooligosaccharide on the sensory properties of conventional and reduced-fat cooked meat sausages has been studied in products in which a fat reduction of close to 40% was obtained. The fibre assayed was used in sufficient amounts to constitute between 2% and 12% of the final product. The energy value reduction of the final products

  2. Sensory processing in the brain related to the control of food intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmund T. Rolls

    Complementary neurophysiological recordings in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and functional neuroimaging in human subjects show that the primary taste cortex in the rostral insula and adjoining frontal operculum provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature and texture (including viscosity and fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One

  3. Aroma characteristic and volatile profiling of carrot varieties and quantitative role of terpenoid compounds for carrot sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomohiko; Okazaki, Keiki; Shinano, Takuro

    2013-11-01

    The aroma characteristics and volatile profiles of 14 carrot varieties were investigated by sensory evaluations and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry volatile analyses. The sensory map obtained by principal components analysis showed that the sensory attributes comprised 3 categories: sour/green, overall carrot/harsh/ink-like, and fruity/fresh/sweet. The Kuroda type is characterized by lower intensities of overall carrot/harsh/ink-like and fruity/fresh/sweet notes. Furthermore, volatile profiling indicated that this type did not have significantly higher amounts of volatiles. Partial least squares regression analysis determined the quantitative contributions to ink-like, harsh, and fruity carrot aromas; monoterpenes had significant positive correlations with these attributes, while bisabolene isomers had negative correlations. The aroma attribute intensity and contents of volatiles and nutritional compounds are relatively low in the Kuroda type than in other carrot types. This type may be useful for reducing carrot harshness during the development of new carrots with good eating qualities. PMID:24245899

  4. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ?PD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier seeds, while grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of < -1.5 MPa versus vines with MD > -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a continuous relationship between physiological water status (stress) and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point that may be related to early season PD in controlling grape development as well as composition. Soils analyses revealed the preferred fruit was on vines in areas where soils were shallower rather than any definitive characteristic related to particle size distribution or nutrient availability, suggesting that in this vineyard soil available water is the major controlling factor.

  5. Effect of Inclusion of Salmon Roe on Characteristics of Salmon Baby Food Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree +chunks, puree +pink row, puree +pink row +chunks, puree +red row, puree +red roe +chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristi...

  6. Microbial growth, communities and sensory characteristics of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged lamb shoulders.

    PubMed

    Kiermeier, Andreas; Tamplin, Mark; May, Damian; Holds, Geoff; Williams, Michelle; Dann, Alison

    2013-12-01

    Packaging fresh lamb in a vacuum (VAC) versus a 100% CO2 modified atmosphere (MAP) may influence product shelf-life and the bacterial communities. While VAC is a common packing method and 100% CO2 MAP is used in some countries, there is little information about how these different techniques affect the growth of spoilage bacteria and sensory attributes of lamb. The aim of this study was to assess changes in microbiological and organoleptic properties, and determine differences in microbial communities by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing, in bone-in (BI) and bone-out (BO) MAP- and VAC-packed lamb shoulders stored at -0.3 °C over 12 wk. VAC and MAP lamb shoulders were acceptable in sensory test scores over 12 wk of storage at -0.3 °C, despite total viable count (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) levels increasing to 8 log10 CFU/cm(2) for VAC lamb and 4-6 log10 CFU/cm(2) for MAP lamb. Similar to the sensory results, there were no significant differences in microbial communities between BI and BO product. However, types of bacteria were different between VAC and MAP packaging. Specifically, while VAC shoulder became dominated by Carnobacterium spp. in the middle of the storage period, the MAP shoulder microbial population remained similar from the start until later storage times. PMID:24010611

  7. Impact of chemical changes on the sensory characteristics of coffee beans during storage.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Mery Yovana; de Jesus Garcia Salva, Terezinha; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2014-03-15

    Sensory changes during the storage of coffee beans occur mainly due to lipid oxidation and are responsible for the loss of commercial value. This work aimed to verify how sensory changes of natural coffee and pulped natural coffee are related to the oxidative processes during 15 months of storage. During this period, changes in the content of free fatty acids (1.4-3.8 mg/g oil), TBARS values (8.8-10.2 nmol MDA/g), and carbonyl groups (2.6-3.5 nmol/mg of protein) occurred. The intensity of "rested coffee flavour" in the coffee brew increased (2.1-6.7) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid concentration decreased (5.2-4.6g/100g). Losses were also observed in seed viability, colour of the beans and cellular structure. All the results of the chemical analyses are coherent with the oxidative process that occurred in the grains during storage. Therefore, oxidation would be also responsible for the loss of cellular structure, seed viability and sensory changes. PMID:24206719

  8. The Influence of SocioEconomic Characteristics on Food Advertisement Usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramu Govindasamy; John Italia

    1999-01-01

    Only 22 percent of surveyed consumers reported making frequent use of food advertisements when purchasing food products. However, certain demographic segments appear to place a greater emphasis on food advertisements than others. This study empirically evaluates which socio-economic characteristics encourage consumers to be more likely to take food advertisements into account when purchasing grocery products. The results indicate that those

  9. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, El?bieta; Biega?ska-Marecik, Ró?a; Kido?, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  10. National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.

    PubMed

    Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2013-02-01

    The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values, whereas steaks from the round had the greatest (P < 0.05) values. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared with top sirloin steaks. Retail top blade steaks and food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P < 0.05) consumer sensory panel ratings compared with the other steaks evaluated. Prime food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P < 0.05) for overall like, like tenderness, tenderness level, like juiciness, and juiciness level, whereas ungraded rib eye steaks received the lowest ratings (P < 0.05) for like tenderness and tenderness level. The WBS values for food service steaks were greater (P < 0.05) for the Select and ungraded groups compared with the Prime, Top Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred. PMID:23230117

  11. Structural characteristics around the ?-ionone ring of the retinal chromophore in Salinibacter sensory rhodopsin I.

    PubMed

    Irieda, Hiroki; Reissig, Louisa; Kawanabe, Akira; Homma, Michio; Kandori, Hideki; Sudo, Yuki

    2011-06-01

    Organisms sense and respond to environmental stimuli through membrane-embedded receptors and transducers. Sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) and sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) are the photoreceptors for the positive and negative phototaxis in microorganisms, respectively. They form signaling complexes in the membrane with their cognate transducer proteins, HtrI and HtrII, and these SRI-HtrI and SRII-HtrII complexes transmit a light signal through their cytoplasmic sensory signaling system, inducing opposite effects (i.e., the inactivation or activation of the kinase CheA). Here we found, by using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, that a conserved residue, Asp102 in Salinibacter SRI (SrSRI), which is located close to the ?-ionone ring of the retinal chromophore, is deprotonated upon formation of the active M-intermediate. Furthermore, the D102E mutant of SrSRI affects the structure and/or structural changes of Cys130. This mutant shows a large spectral shift and is comparably unstable, especially in the absence of Cl(-). These phenomena have not been observed in the wild-type, or the N105Q and N105D mutants of Natronomonas pharaonis SRII (NpSRII), indicating differences in the structure and structural changes between SrSRI and NpSRII around the ?-ionone ring. These differences could also be supported by the measurements of the reactivity with the water-soluble reagent azide. On the basis of these results, we discuss the structure and structural changes around the retinal chromophore in SrSRI. PMID:21545132

  12. Effect of inclusion of salmon roe on characteristics of salmon baby food products.

    PubMed

    DeSantos, F A; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

    2010-05-01

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree + chunks, puree + pink row, puree + pink row + chunks, puree + red row, puree + red roe + chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristics were determined. Samples containing roe were lighter and less red (by approximately 3 to 4 a* units) than formulations without roe regardless of the type of roe added. Visual pink color followed the same trend. Formulations with roe, both pink and sockeye, were almost twice as fibrous as formulations without roe. Salmon flavor was stronger in samples containing roe from sockeye salmon. In the 2nd study, retort processed samples were stored at room temperature for 6 mo. Sweaty odor decreased over storage time. Visual cream-brown color correlated with L*, a*, b*, and chroma values (r =-0.80, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively). TBARS values of all samples were < 0.35 mg MDA/kg and declined after month 0 indicating that these products were oxidatively stable. Overall, adding roe to these products lightened them and increased fibrous texture. Samples containing sockeye salmon roe had stronger salmon flavor. Once retort processed, these products were quite stable in terms of color, odor, and TBARS. Potential nutrient contributions of this type of product to the infant diet warrant additional research. PMID:20546426

  13. A- and C-type rat nodose sensory neurons: model interpretations of dynamic discharge characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schild, J H; Clark, J W; Hay, M; Mendelowitz, D; Andresen, M C; Kunze, D L

    1994-06-01

    1. Neurons of the nodose ganglia provide the sole connection between many types of visceral sensory inputs and the central nervous system. Electrophysiological studies of isolated nodose neurons provide a practical means of measuring individual cell membrane currents and assessing their putative contributions to the overall response properties of the neuron and its terminations. Here, we present a comprehensive mathematical model of an isolated nodose sensory neuron that is based upon numerical fits to quantitative voltage- and current-clamp data recorded in our laboratory. Model development was accomplished using an iterative process of electrophysiological recordings, nonlinear parameter estimation, and computer simulation. This work is part of an integrative effort aimed at identifying and characterizing the fundamental ionic mechanisms participating in the afferent neuronal limb of the baroreceptor reflex. 2. The neuronal model consists of two parts: a Hodgkin-Huxley-type membrane model coupled to a lumped fluid compartment model that describes Ca2+ ion concentration dynamics within the intracellular and external perineuronal media. Calcium buffering via a calmodulin-type buffer is provided within the intracellular compartment. 3. The complete model accurately reproduces whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of the major ion channel currents observed in enzymatically dispersed nodose sensory neurons. Specifically, two Na+ currents exhibiting fast (INaf) and slow tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive (INas) kinetics; low- and high-threshold Ca2+ currents exhibiting transient (ICa,t) and long-lasting (ICa,n) dynamics, respectively; and outward K+ currents consisting of a delayed-rectifier current (IK), a transient outward current (I(t)) and a Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (IK,Ca). 4. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings of somatic action-potential dynamics were performed on enzymatically dispersed nodose neurons using the perforated patch-clamp technique. Stimulus protocols consisted of both short (< or = 2.0 ms) and long (> or = 200 ms) duration current pulses over a wide range of membrane holding potentials. These studies clearly revealed two populations of nodose neurons, often termed A- and C-type cells, which exhibit markedly different action-potential signatures and stimulus response properties. 5. Using a single set of equations, the model accurately reproduces the electrical behavior of both A- and C-type nodose neurons in response to a wide variety of stimulus conditions and membrane holding potentials. The structure of the model, as well as the majority of its parameters are the same for both A- and C-type implementations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7523613

  14. Characteristics of Low-Income Households With Very Low Food Security: An Analysis of the USDA GPRA Food Security Indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Nord

    2007-01-01

    This Economic Information Bulletin describes characteristics of low-income households that had very low food security in 2005. The U.S. Department of Agriculture monitors the food security of low-income households to assess how effectively the Government’s domestic nutrition assistance programs meet the needs of their target populations. USDA seeks to reduce the prevalence of very low food security among low-income households

  15. Regional sensory and chemical characteristics of Malbec wines from Mendoza and California.

    PubMed

    King, Ellena S; Stoumen, Martha; Buscema, Fernando; Hjelmeland, Anna K; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde; Boulton, Roger B

    2014-01-15

    Malbec grapes are widely grown and studied in Argentina, whereas the smaller production in California is less well known. This study sought to define and compare Malbec wine compositions from various regions in Mendoza, Argentina and California, USA. The Malbec wines were clearly separated, based on their chemical and sensory profiles, by wine region and country. Descriptors of Malbec wines were aromas of cooked vegetal, earthy, soy and volatile acidity, as well as acidic taste and astringent mouthfeel, regardless of the region of origin. Malbec wines from Mendoza generally had more ripe fruit, sweetness, and higher alcohol levels, while the Californian Malbec wines had more artificial fruit and citrus aromas, and bitter taste. Compositional differences between the two countries were related more to altitude than precipitation and growing degree days. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an extensive regionality study has been attempted for Malbec wines. PMID:24054238

  16. I'll Have What She's Having: The Impact of Model Characteristics on Children's Food Choices

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Russell, Joshua W.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    The current research investigates children's use of social categories in their food selection. Across three studies, we presented preschoolers with sets of photographs that contrasted food-eating models with different characteristics, including model gender, race (Black, White), age (child or adult), and/or expression (acceptance or rejection of the food). Children were asked to pick between the photographs to choose which food they would like for snack. Results demonstrated that preschoolers prefer foods being eaten by models with positive over negative expressions, foods being eaten by child over adult models, and foods being eaten by child models of the same gender as themselves over models of the other gender. This work connects with previous research on children's understanding of social categories and also has important practical implications for how characteristics of a food-eating model can affect children's willingness to try new foods. PMID:22251295

  17. Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown Hydroponically at Ambient and

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    Hydroponically at Ambient and Elevated CO2 Leslie Thompson Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University growth chambers to evaluate the effect of elevated CO2 (1200 ppm) versus ambient CO2 (400 ppm) on biomass and % edible biomass than plants grown at ambient CO2. Of the cultivars evaluated from the 63-dap-harvest, all

  18. Acquired hedonic and sensory characteristics of odours: Influence of sweet liker and propylthiouracil taster status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin R. Yeomans; John Prescott; Natalie J. Gould

    2009-01-01

    Repeated pairings of novel food-related odours with sweet tastes can result in enduring changes in sweetness of the odour alone, but have less consistent effects on odour liking. Variation in ability to taste propylthiouracil (PROP) might account for this, since PROP supertasters (ST) have been reported both to experience stronger sweetness intensity and to be more likely to dislike sweetness

  19. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)?×Duroc? (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

  20. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-08-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)?×Duroc? (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

  1. Sensory, physical and chemical characteristics of cooked ham manufactured from rapidly chilled and earlier deboned M. semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Tomovi?, Vladimir M; Jokanovi?, Marija R; Petrovi?, Ljiljana S; Tomovi?, Mila S; Tasi?, Tatjana A; Ikoni?, Predrag M; Sumi?, Zdravko M; Soji?, Branislav V; Skaljac, Snežana B; Sošo, Milena M

    2013-01-01

    Effects of rapid chilling of carcasses (at -31°C in the first 3h of chilling, and then at 2-4°C) and earlier deboning (8h post-mortem), compared to rapid (till 24h post-mortem) and conventional chilling (at 2-4°C, till 24h post-mortem), on quality characteristics of pork M. semimebranosus and cooked ham were investigated. Quality measurements included pH value, colour (CIEL a b values) and total aerobic count of M. semimebranosus, as well as sensory (colour, juiciness, texture, and flavour), physical (pH value, colour - CIEL a b values and texture - Warner-Bratzler shear and penetration forces) and chemical (protein, total fat, and moisture content) characteristics of cooked ham. The cooked ham was manufactured from pieces of M. semimebranosus with ultimate lightness (CIEL value) lower than 50. Rapid chilling and earlier deboning significantly increased quantity of M. semimebranosus desirable for cooked ham manufacturing. Earlier start of pork fabrication did not affect important quality characteristics of cooked ham. PMID:22910801

  2. Local Characteristics Are Linked to Food Insecurity Among Households With Elementary School Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith S. Bartfeld; Jeong-Hee Ryu; Lingling Wang

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between community characteristics and household food security status among elementary school children in Wisconsin. Data were from a self-administered survey of parents of elementary school children during 2003–2005 and were linked by ZIP code to data on community characteristics. The sample included 8396 households. Food security was measured with the standard 6-item Food Security Scale.

  3. Prediction of compositional and sensory characteristics using RGB digital images and multivariate calibration techniques.

    PubMed

    Foca, Giorgia; Masino, Francesca; Antonelli, Andrea; Ulrici, Alessandro

    2011-11-14

    In the present paper, the possibility to use the information contained in RGB digital images to gain a fast and inexpensive quantification of colour-related properties of food is explored. To this aim, we present an approach which consists, as first step, in condensing the colour related information contained in RGB digital images of the analysed samples in one-dimensional signals, named colourgrams. These signals are then used as descriptor variables in multivariate calibration models. The feasibility of this approach has been tested using as a benchmark a series of samples of pesto sauce, whose RGB images have been used to predict both visual attributes defined by a panel test and the content of various pigments (chlorophylls a and b, pheophytins a and b, ?-carotene and lutein). The possibility to predict correctly the values of some of the studied parameters suggests the feasibility of this approach for fast monitoring of the main aspect-related properties of a food matrix. The values of the squared correlation coefficient computed in prediction on a test set (R(Pred)(2)) for green and yellow hues were greater than 0.75, while R(Pred)(2) values greater than 0.85 were obtained for the prediction of total chlorophylls content and of chlorophylls/pheophytins ratio. The great flexibility of this blind analysis method for the quantitative evaluation of colour related features of matrices with an inhomogeneous aspect suggests that it is possible to implement automated, objective, and transferable systems for fast monitoring of raw materials, different stages of the manufacture and end products, not necessarily for the food industry only. PMID:22023857

  4. SENSORY PROFILES AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COOKED BREEDER HEN BREAST MEAT DEBONED AT 2, 4, 8,AND 24 HOURS POST-MORTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially processed breeder hen breast fillets were evaluated for effects of deboning (DB) times (2, 4, 8, 24 h) on sensory and physical characteristics of the cooked meat. Right and left fillets were individually packaged in heat-seal bags, labeled, and frozen. After thawing, bags were immerse...

  5. Non-sensory factors in sensory science research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara R. Jaeger

    2006-01-01

    Decisions about what food to buy, eat and serve for one’s family and friends are complex and influenced by many factors other than sensory quality. It is widely agreed that while taste and other sensory qualities are very important, they only partially account for consumers’ food related behaviours. This paper considers the role of several other factors: convenience, price, production

  6. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Akal?n, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A

    2012-07-01

    The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety. PMID:22720919

  7. CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GMO FOODS: BRANDING, CERTIFICATION, AND CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Baker; Michael A. Mazzocco

    2002-01-01

    Two consumer choice models were developed using conjoint analysis to evaluate the effect of potential strategies to gain consumer acceptance of GMO foods. Results indicate that a government certification program would be more effective than the use of a familiar brand in assuring consumers of the safety of GMO foods.

  8. Characteristics of Low-Income Households With Very Low Food Security: An Analysis of the USDA GPRA Food Security Indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Nord

    2007-01-01

    This bulletin describes characteristics of low-income households that had very low food security in 2005. The U.S. Department of Agriculture monitors the food security of low-income households to assess how effectively the Government’s domestic nutrition assistance programs meet the needs of their target populations. In 2005, 12.6 percent of low-income households—those with annual incomes less than 130 percent of the

  9. Chemical characteristics of arsenic in a marine food chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Klumpp; P. J. Peterson

    1981-01-01

    The various chemical forms of 74As accumulated from either water or food by the marine food chain [Fucus spiralis (L.)? Littorina littoralis (L.)?Nucella lapillus] have been separated and characterized. Arsenic components were separated by differential extraction followed by high-voltage paper electrophoresis\\/paper chromatography of the water-soluble fraction and thin-layer chromatography of the lipid-soluble fraction. The algae assimilates arsenic mainly (60%) as

  10. Ground beef patties prepared from brisket, flank and plate have unique fatty acid and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Terronica; Miller, Rhonda K; Kerth, Chris; Smith, Stephen B

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that unique ground beef products could be formulated from brisket, flank, and plate primals. Primals were taken from 4 USDA Select carcasses from conventionally produced cattle, selected at random in a commercial packing plant. Lean and fat trims were separated, and ground beef was formulated from each primal to contain 10, 20, or 30% total fat. Brisket patties contained higher proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids and less saturated fatty acids than flank patties. There were no differences in n-6 or n-3 fatty acids across primal type or fat level. After cooking, brisket patties had higher bloody/serumy and fat-like descriptor values than flank patties. Plate patties generated higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles than patties from the brisket or flank. Brisket patties generally had higher amounts of pleasant headspace volatiles whereas the plate relied more heavily on Maillard-derived volatiles than flank patties. We conclude that individual primals can be used to formulate ground beef with unique compositional and flavor characteristics. PMID:25616056

  11. The Modern Obesity Epidemic, Ancestral Hunter-Gatherers, and the Sensory/Reward Control of Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become a true pandemic. In the United States, over two thirds of adults are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. The increase in the prevalence of obese and overweight individuals has happened too rapidly for it to be due to an alteration in the genome. The gastrointestinal, sensory (taste and…

  12. I'll Have What She's Having: The Impact of Model Characteristics on Children's Food Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Russell, Joshua W.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates children's use of social categories in their food selection. Across three studies, we presented preschoolers with sets of photographs that contrasted food-eating models with different characteristics, including model gender, race (Black, White), age (child or adult), and/or expression (acceptance or rejection of the…

  13. Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiota D. Zygoura; Evangelos K. Paleologos; Michael G. Kontominas

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC\\/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types:

  14. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  15. The Effect of Pasteurization Temperature on Consumer Acceptability, Sensory Characteristics, Volatile Compound Composition, and ShelfLife of Fluid Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Gandy; M. W. Schilling; P. C. Coggins; C. H. White; Y. Yoon; V. V. Kamadia

    2008-01-01

    The relationship among consumer acceptability, de- scriptive sensory attributes, and shelf-life was deter- mined for 2% milk pasteurized at 77, 79, 82, and 85°C. Sensory descriptive attributes and volatile compound composition were monitored over the shelf-life of the products to determine if treatments could be differen- tiated at various times through out the shelf-life of the product. Consumers preferred 79°C

  16. Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Héctor Rodríguez; José Antonio Curiel; José María Landete; Blanca de las Rivas; Félix López de Felipe; Carmen Gómez-Cordovés; José Miguel Mancheño; Rosario Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of food products of plant origin. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavour, astringency, and colour. In addition, the presence of phenolic compounds on the diet is beneficial to health due to their chemopreventive activities against carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, mainly due to their antioxidant activities. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

  17. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ?10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when ?-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  18. Effect of sample preparation method on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast fillets processed for food service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken fillets (Pectoralis major) are one of popular items for food service. In the store, especially in fast food service stores, ready-to-cook meat products are commonly stored in freezers before use. The frozen meat can be cooked either directly from a frozen stage or after thawing. However, the...

  19. The effect of a diet containing grasshoppers and access to free-range on carcase and meat physicochemical and sensory characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Long, R J; Liu, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    1. Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of a diet containing grasshoppers on the carcase, physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a free-range, grassland-based broiler production system. 2. A total of 80, 28-d-old male broilers were reared on grassland containing a large population of grasshoppers (treatment PB). Control birds were reared intensively on a maize-soybean diet (treatment CB). At 91?d of age, 24 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcase, meat and sensory characteristics. 3. Treatment PB produced birds with significantly lower live weights, breast, wing, thigh and drum weights, and higher dressing percentage and breast percentage of carcase, compared with CB. Treatment PB produced breast meat with significantly higher redness values, shear force and protein content, and lower pH values, cooking loss, moisture and fat content compared with CB. Sensory panel results for breast and thigh meats showed no treatment effect on colour and juiciness, but significantly higher scores for chewiness, flavour, aroma and overall appreciation, and lower scores for tenderness from treatment PB compared with CB. 4. Rearing chickens on rangeland may provide an alternative way to produce poultry meat which is considered superior by modern consumers. PMID:23444862

  20. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (P<0.05; 0.70 log CFU/g) of Salmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (P<0.05) psychrotrophic growth. SDLA patties had more purge (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) subjective color scores. There were not large differences in sensory characteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05). PMID:23639886

  1. Chemical composition, techno-functional and sensory properties and effects of three dietary fibers on the quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage.

    PubMed

    Ktari, Naourez; Smaoui, Slim; Trabelsi, Imen; Nasri, Moncef; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of three dietary fibers namely, VITACEL LC200 powdered cellulose (LC200), barley beta-glucan concentrate (BBC), and VITACEL KF500 potato fiber (KF500), on the techno-functional and sensory properties and quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage. The findings revealed interesting functional properties for LC200 fiber. This fiber displayed high water binding capacity (WBC) and oil binding capacity (OBC), values of 16.2 g/g and 10.2 g/g, respectively, which are higher than reported for most fruit and vegetable fiber concentrates. The application of LC200 improved the masticability and elasticity of beef sausage formulations and minimized their hardness and production costs without negatively affecting their sensory properties. Overall, the findings demonstrate the potential functional and economic utility of LC200 fiber as a promising source of dietary fiber. PMID:24013695

  2. Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K Mugula; S. A. M Nnko; J. A Narvhus; T Sørhaug

    2003-01-01

    Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize–sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis,

  3. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. PMID:25465558

  4. Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with the Location of Food Stores and Food Service Places

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Morland; Steve Wing; Ana Diez Roux; Charles Poole

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Names and addresses of places to buy food in Mississippi, North Carolina, Maryland, and Minnesota were obtained from respective departments of health and agriculture. Ad- dresses were geocoded to census tracts. Median house values were used to estimate neighborhood wealth, while the proportion of black residents was used to measure neighborhood racial segregation. Results: Compared to the poorest neighborhoods,

  5. Physiological characteristics of the synaptic response of an identified sensory nonspiking interneuron in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii girard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Takahata; M. Niwa; H. Nakamura

    1995-01-01

    Voltage-dependent variability in the shape of synaptic responses of the LDS interneuron, an identified nonspiking cell of crayfish, to mechanosensory stimulation was studied using intracellular recording and current injection techniques. Stimulation of the sensory root ipsilateral to the interneuron soma evoked a large depolarizing synaptic response. Its peak amplitude was decreased and the time course was shortened when the LDS

  6. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    PubMed

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products. PMID:23575142

  7. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p < 0.05). Income was the only variable that remained associated with higher prevalence of food insecurity in the adjusted PR. Knowing the characteristics of soup-kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations. PMID:25099047

  8. Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Lesschaeve; Ann C Noble

    Bitterness and astringency are found in a variety of foods, including nuts, fruits, chocolate, tea, wine, and soymilk. In fruits and bever- ages, the taste of bitterness and the tactile sensation of astringency are elicited primarily by flavanol polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins). Variations in proanthocyanidin composition, such as polymer size, extent of galloylation, and formation of deriv- atives, affect

  9. Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.

    PubMed

    Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

    2003-02-15

    Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time. PMID:12423921

  10. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  11. The market for genetically modified foods: consumer characteristics and policy implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

    2001-01-01

    Conjoint analysis was used to explore consumer preferences for food products that are the product of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The results of a cluster analysis indicated that consumers fell into three homogeneous groups based on their preference for a branded, low-priced, or GMO-free product. There were some differences between the segments based on the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education,

  12. Measurement Characteristics of the Women’s Health Initiative Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth E. Patterson; Alan R. Kristal; Lesley Fels Tinker; Rachel A. Carter; Mary Pat Bolton; Tanya Agurs-Collins

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) is the largest research program ever initiated in the United States with a focus on diet and health. Therefore, it is important to understand and document the measurement characteristics of the key dietary assessment instrument: the WHI food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).METHODS: Data are from 113 women screened for participation in the WHI in 1995.

  13. Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygoura, Panagiota D.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2011-08-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 °C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 °C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (EC, 1997; EEC, 1993). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [60Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected, since ATBC did not undergo chemical decomposition upon irradiation up to 25 kGy. Finally, specific migration decreased proportionally with increasing polarity of the food-simulating solvent.

  14. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP. PMID:25049698

  15. Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Eggs Obtained from Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil, Dried Whitebait and/or Fructo-oligosaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haechang; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M.; Shin, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait as a source of ?-3 fatty acids (?-3 FA), which could be used to produce eggs enriched with ?-3 FA, and of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as a source of prebiotics on performance of hens (commercial Hy-Line Brown laying hens), and FA composition, internal quality, and sensory characteristics of the eggs. Dietary FOS increased egg weight. The amounts of ?-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the eggs from the hens fed the flaxseed oil alone or flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diets were higher than those of the control. Hedonic scores for off-flavor, fishy flavor, buttery taste and overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil+ dried whitebait were lower (p<0.05) than those of the control. Overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing soybean oil+dried whitebait was lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. However, all the sensory attributes of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil, dried whitebait and FOS were not significantly different from those of the control. These results confirmed that flaxseed oil increases the ALA content in the eggs and a combination of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait increases EPA and DHA in the eggs. Of significance was that addition of FOS to the flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diet improves the sensory characteristics of the eggs enriched with ?-3 FA. PMID:25050046

  16. Effect of farming system and cheesemaking technology on the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid profile, and sensory properties of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, A; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; De Pasquale, C; Mazza, F; Maniaci, G; Di Grigoli, A

    2013-01-01

    Caciocavallo Palermitano is a typical stretched-curd cheese that has been produced over the centuries in Sicily according to traditional cheesemaking technology and using raw milk from autochthonous cow breeds reared at pasture. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of the farming system and processing technology on the characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese, with particular regard to the fatty acid profile. The farming system was either extensive, using autochthonous cows fed a pasture-based diet, or intensive, with specialized dairy cow breeds fed mainly hay and concentrate. The cheese-processing technology was either artisanal, using traditional wooden tools and endemic lactic bacteria, or advanced, using modern steel equipment and selected lactic bacteria. Twelve Caciocavallo Palermitano cheeses, 3 from each of the 4 experimental theses (2 farming systems × 2 cheesemaking technologies), were obtained and aged for 1, 30, 60, and 120 d. Milk of origin and cheeses were analyzed for the main chemical and rheological parameters. Fatty acids were methylated in lyophilized cheese and analyzed by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis was carried out by trained panelists. The PROC GLM of SAS 9.1.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NY) was used for the statistical analysis. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese were influenced more by the farming system than by the cheesemaking technology. Compared with cheese produced through intensive farming, cheese from extensive farming was richer in polyunsaturated, n-3, and odd- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as in conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 C18:2), with accompanying improved human health benefits. The cheesemaking technology produced variation in the evolution of proteolysis during aging, due presumably to the different active microflora, which influenced the sensory profile of the resulting cheese. Indeed, cheese produced by artisanal manufacturing was described as less "bitter" and more "piquant" than cheese produced through the advanced process. PMID:23127907

  17. Dose-response characteristics of methylphenidate on locomotor behavior and on sensory evoked potentials recorded from the VTA, NAc, and PFC in freely behaving rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2006-01-01

    Background Methylphenidate (MPD) is a psychostimulant commonly prescribed for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The mode of action of the brain circuitry responsible for initiating the animals' behavior in response to psychostimulants is not well understood. There is some evidence that psychostimulants activate the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Methods The present study was designed to investigate the acute dose-response of MPD (0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg) on locomotor behavior and sensory evoked potentials recorded from the VTA, NAc, and PFC in freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent electrodes. For locomotor behavior, adult male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; n = 39) rats were given saline on experimental day 1 and either saline or an acute injection of MPD (0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) on experimental day 2. Locomotor activity was recorded for 2-h post injection on both days using an automated, computerized activity monitoring system. Electrophysiological recordings were also performed in the adult male WKY rats (n = 10). Five to seven days after the rats had recovered from the implantation of electrodes, each rat was placed in a sound-insulated, electrophysiological test chamber where its sensory evoked field potentials were recorded before and after saline and 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD injection. Time interval between injections was 90 min. Results Results showed an increase in locomotion with dose-response characteristics, while a dose-response decrease in amplitude of the components of sensory evoked field responses of the VTA, NAc, and PFC neurons. For example, the P3 component of the sensory evoked field response of the VTA decreased by 19.8% ± 7.4% from baseline after treatment of 0.6 mg/kg MPD, 37.8% ± 5.9% after 2.5 mg/kg MPD, and 56.5% ± 3.9% after 10 mg/kg MPD. Greater attenuation from baseline was observed in the NAc and PFC. Differences in the intensity of MPD-induced attenuation were also found among these brain areas. Conclusion These results suggest that an acute treatment of MPD produces electrophysiologically detectable alterations at the neuronal level, as well as observable, behavioral responses. The present study is the first to investigate the acute dose-response effects of MPD on behavior in terms of locomotor activity and in the brain involving the sensory inputs of VTA, NAc, and PFC neurons in intact, non-anesthetized, freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent electrodes. PMID:16417623

  18. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid from extruded linseed influences the fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham from heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Musella, M; Cannata, S; Rossi, R; Mourot, J; Baldini, P; Corino, C

    2009-11-01

    Twenty-four barrows (78.1 +/- 1.7 kg of initial BW) were fed a control diet (2.5% sunflower oil) or an experimental diet containing 5% whole extruded linseed. Both diets were supplemented with 170 mg of vitamin E/kg of feed. At slaughter (160 +/- 9.2 kg of BW), 6 hams were collected per group and delivered to Stazione Sperimentale per l'Industria delle Conserve Alimentari of Parma for seasoning. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of diet on the physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham. The linseed diet increased (P < 0.05) the content of n-3 PUFA in trimmed fat (green ham), semimembranosus muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and the whole slice (dry-cured ham). Moreover, there was a decrease in the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio from 12 to 3 in all of those tissues. In contrast, the greater alpha-linolenic acid content in linseed caused an increase in the iodine value of green hams to a value that is not accepted by the Parma Ham Consortium. A sensory consumer test indicated that linseed-enriched dry-cured ham had the least acceptance score for odor, taste, and overall acceptability descriptors. These data suggest that the use of extruded linseed for pig feed is an acceptable way to improve the nutritional quality of long-cured pork products but could be limited by negative effects on the sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham. PMID:19648498

  19. Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with hunger and weight change during 6 months of caloric restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the characteristics of craved foods and changes in food cravings in a long-term caloric restriction (CR) intervention in overweight women randomized to high or low glycemic load diets. Design: A randomized controlled trial of high or low glycemic load diets provided for 6 mon...

  20. Food Cravings and Energy Regulation: The Characteristics of Craved Foods Before and During Long-Term Caloric Restriction in the CALERIE Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characteristics of food cravings and change in food cravings during 6 months of caloric restriction (CR) were studied in 34 healthy, overweight women (Means+/-SD; 35+/-5y; BMI 27.9+/-1.4kg/m2) participating in the CALERIE trial. After a 7-wk, weight-stable baseline (BL), subjects were randomized...

  1. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower aw values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  2. The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat

    PubMed Central

    Aliani, Michel; Ryland, Donna; Williamson, Jennifer; Rempel, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Ingredients such as ascorbic acid used to preserve redness of the raw meat, and carnosine and ribose used for flavor improvement have been incorporated into minced meats to increase consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible synergistic effect of ascorbic acid, carnosine, and ribose on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat. Samples included control (Co) ±1% carnosine (C), 0.1% ascorbic acid (A), 2% ribose (R) (w/w), and combinations of RC, RA, RCA in the same concentrations as the single ingredient samples. A trained sensory panel (n = 7) measured the intensity of the aromas and flavors of salty, sour, beef, and liver of the bison patties. A consumer acceptance panel (n = 59) evaluated color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of the patties. Hunterlab colorimetry, shear force, cook loss, and drip loss percentage were measured on the cooked patties, and color and pH on the raw patties. The sample containing 2% ribose (R), 1% carnosine (C), and 0.1% ascorbic acid (A) in combination (RCA) showed a significantly higher consumer acceptance for aroma, which could possibly be attributed to the high beef aroma intensity measured by the descriptive analysis panel. RCA had the highest color acceptance which may be related to the high a* value for the cooked sample. RCA also had high overall acceptance corresponding to “like slightly.” Raw and cooked color values, shear force, pH, cook loss and drip loss percentages, and aroma and flavor attribute intensities for RCA were not significantly different from the control sample. The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid may positively affect the aroma and color of minced bison meat leading to higher overall acceptability without compromising sensory and physico-chemical quality. PMID:24804026

  3. An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Meredith, H; Walsh, D; McDowell, D A; Bolton, D J

    2013-09-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5%, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200 ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14%) and CA (5%) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14%), LA (5%), CA (5%) and ASC (1200 ppm) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the Campylobacter counts and a 2.5 to 3 log10 cfu/cm(2) reduction was observed within the shelf-life (3-5 days) of poultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14%) or CA (5%) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44 log10 cfu/cm(2), respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The 'colour' of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14%, w/v) and CA (5%, w/v) was significantly (P?0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The 'intensity of chicken odour' and the perception of 'salt' in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5%, w/v) were also significantly (P?0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14%, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14%) or CA (5%) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product. PMID:23973843

  4. European consumers' acceptance of functional foods.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2010-03-01

    Consumer acceptance of functional foods is analyzed from the perspective of consumer quality perception of food products. Four major dimensions of food quality are identified: taste and other sensory characteristics, healthiness, convenience, and naturalness. Functional foods provide, from the consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products. PMID:20388148

  5. Influence of the addition of natural antioxidant from mate leaves (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill) on the chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of different formulations of Prato cheese.

    PubMed

    Faion, Andréia M; Beal, Patrícia; Ril, Franciele T; Cichoski, Alexandre J; Cansian, Rogério L; Valduga, Alice T; de Oliveira, Débora; Valduga, Eunice

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the addition of dried extract from mate leaves and mesophilic cultures (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and cremoris) on the chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of Prato cheese. The Prato cheese presented high moisture contents (49 to 53 %) and mean pH values of 5.15 for all tested formulations. The addition of mate leaves extract in the product did not influence the growth of the microbial cultures. During the maturation time, all formulations with the addition of adjunct cultures and mate leaves extract presented lower levels of lipid and protein oxidation compared to the control, proving the antioxidant effect of mate extract. The formulation of Prato cheese added of 0.1 wt.% of extract presented acceptability of about 80 % after 30 days of maturation. The sensory evaluation showed that only the formulation added by adjunct culture and 0.2 wt.% of mate extract presented lower values for the attributes global acceptance, texture and flavor, compared to the control. The formulations added of mate leaves extract presented residual bitter flavor after 45 days of storage. PMID:25745220

  6. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-08-22

    This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

  7. The influence of lifestyle characteristics and beliefs about convenience food on the demand for convenience foods in the Irish market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine de Boer; Mary McCarthy; Cathal Cowan; Isabel Ryan

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Irish convenience food consumer and investigates four convenience food categories: ready meals, take-away meals, restaurant meals, and pub meals. A nationally representative (n=1024) survey was undertaken in Ireland amongst primary food purchasers in the household. Within each convenience food category, consumers were segmented into tertiles based on their level of consumption. The tertile with the

  8. Development of a locally sustainable functional food for people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: laboratory testing and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Van Tienen, A; Hullegie, Y M; Hummelen, R; Hemsworth, J; Changalucha, J; Reid, G

    2011-09-01

    The use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and micronutrients has been associated with a preserved immune function among people living with HIV. However, use of these products in the developing world remains limited due to the lack of facilities for production. We describe the development of a yogurt with L. rhamnosus GR-1 at >7×10(7) colony forming units fortified with locally grown Moringa oleifera leaves at 20% of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin A. The product was made by preparing a thin paste of Moringa which was then incubated with 4% probiotic and 2% yogurt mother culture in milk for 6 hours. The addition of M. oleifera enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria in yogurt during the shelf life period at 5 °C (P=0.02), but had no effect on probiotic survival at 21 °C. While the sensory characteristics of probiotic and non-probiotic supplemented Moringa yogurts were indistinguishable, the addition of Moringa reduced consumer acceptance compared to regular yogurt. PMID:21986358

  9. Flavor Characteristics of Hanwoo Beef in Comparison with Other Korean Foods

    PubMed Central

    Van Ba, Hoa; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Inho, Hwang

    2012-01-01

    The present study identified volatile flavor components of Hanwoo longissimus muscle and other Korean foods (Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil) and their traits were compared in relation with flavor precursors that include fatty acids and protein degradation products. Hanwoo longissimus muscle was purchased from a commercial abattoir while the other foods were sampled from three separate households. The results showed totals of 68 (9.94 ?g/g), 60 (15.75 ?g/g), 49 (107.61 ?g/ml) and 50 (7.20 ?g/g) volatile components for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and Hanwoo beef longissimus, respectively (p<0.05). Aldehydes were the most predominant components in beef, but alcohols, acids and esters, and pyrazines are probably the major contributors to the flavor characteristics of other foods. SDS-PAGE revealed that beef longissimus muscle and Doenjang showed higher protein degradation than other foods which could be likely related to chiller ageing and ripening process. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids were approximately 50, 60, 41 and 5% for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and beef longissimus muscle, respectively. Based on the mechanism(s) of generation of the volatile compounds and the chemical composition of each food sample, differences and traits of volatile flavor components among the four food types are likely due to fatty acid profiles, proteolytic activity and processing conditions. Aroma intense compounds like pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds were limited in cooked beef in the current experimental condition (i.e., relatively low heating temperature). This suggests that higher heating temperature as in the case of roasting is needed for the generation of high aroma notes in meat. Furthermore, proteolytic activity and stability of fatty acids during ageing have a great influence on the generation of flavor components in cooked beef. PMID:25049583

  10. Sensory and analytical characteristics of a novel hybrid muskmelon fruit intended for the fresh-cut industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel hybrid muskmelon has been bred specifically for use by the fresh-cut industry in winter. Quality characteristics of fresh-cut chunks from the hybrid were compared to those of its inbred parental lines and to those of a commercial netted muskmelon (cantaloupe) and a non-netted muskmelon (hon...

  11. Microbial, instrumental color and sensory color and odor characteristics of ground beef produced from beef trimmings treated with ozone or chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Stivarius, M R; Pohlman, F W; McElyea, K S; Apple, J K

    2002-03-01

    The effects of beef trimming decontamination with ozone and chlorine dioxide on ground beef microbial, color and odor characteristics were studied. Beef trimmings were inoculated with Escherichia coli (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), then treated with either 1% ozonated water for 7 min (7O) or 15 min (15O), or with 200 ppm chlorine dioxide (CLO) and compared with a control (C). Trimmings were ground, packaged and sampled at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 7 days of display for EC, ST, coliforms (CO), aerobic plate counts (APC), instrumental color, as well as sensory color and odor characteristics. The 15O and CLO treatments reduced (P<0.05) all bacterial types evaluated, whereas the 7O treatment reduced (P<0.05) APC and ST. All treatments caused ground beef to become lighter (L*) in color (P<0.05); however, the 15O treatment was similar (P>0.05) in redness (a*), percentage discoloration, beef odor and off odor intensities when compared to C. PMID:22063402

  12. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version Sensory Dysfunction Overview Why are smell and taste important? Your senses of smell and taste let you fully enjoy the scents and flavors ... and poisonous chemicals. Is there a difference between taste and flavor? Yes. The basic tastes are salty, ...

  13. Sensory analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory evaluation can answer questions about a product that instruments cannot. The human subject is the instrument, and data can provide a wealth of information for a product developer, or results can be very variable and erroneous if all the precautions to minimize bias and external noise are no...

  14. Migration and sensory changes of packaging materials caused by ionising radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welle, Frank; Mauer, Alexandra; Franz, Roland

    2002-03-01

    Irradiation of packaging materials—in most cases plastics—generally lead to a formation of free radicals and ions, with secondary effects such as cross-linking as well as oxidative chain scission. These effects result in a formation of volatile radiolysis products which may induce off-odours in the polymers and may change the migration characteristics of packaging materials. Irradiation affect also polymer additives which change the specific migration behaviour of polymer additives and additive related decomposition products. Migration and sensory changes of pre-sterilised packaging materials have consequences on the quality of packaged goods and consumer's safety. Therefore, migration and sensory properties of packaging materials have specific regulations. Within this paper the effects of the formation of radiolysis products on overall migration, specific migration of food additives or radiolysis products as well as on sensory changes are discussed in view of current European food law.

  15. Sociodemographic characteristics of food handlers and their knowledge, attitude and practice towards food sanitation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zain, Maizun Mohd; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2002-06-01

    Diseases spread through food still remain a common and persistent problems resulting in appreciable morbidity and occasional mortality. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. This study is to explore the pattern of sociodemographic distribution and to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers towards food-borne diseases and food safety. A total of 430 food handlers were randomly selected from Kota Bharu district and interviewed by using structured questionnaire. Distribution of food handlers was Malays (98.8%), females (69.5%), married (81.4%), working in food stalls (64.2%), involved in operational areas (49.3%), having no license (54.2%) and immunized with Ty2 (60.7%). The mean age was 41 +/- 12 years and the mean income was RM 465 +/- 243/month. The educational level was found as no formal education (10.5%), primary school (31.9%), secondary school (57.0%) and diploma/degree holders (0.7%). A significant number of food handlers (57.2%) had no certificate in food handlers training program and 61.9% had undergone routine medical examinations (RME). Almost half (48.4%) had poor knowledge. Multiple logistic regression showed type of premise [Odd ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% Confidence interval (CI) =1.8-7.5, p = 0.0004], educational level (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4, p = 0.0003) and job status of food handlers (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8, p = 0.0031) significantly influenced the level score of knowledge. No significant difference of attitude and practice between trained and untrained food handlers. Findings of this preliminary study may help in planning health education intervention programs for food handlers in order to have improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice towards food-borne diseases and food safety. Furthermore, it will in turn reduce national morbidity and mortality of food-borne diseases. PMID:12236444

  16. Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2012-08-01

    For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

  17. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) emerged for pre-dawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), mid-day leaf water potential (ΨL) and PAW, with berry size, berry weight, pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the grape skins showed significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Data vines were categorized as non-stressed (ΨPD ? -7.9 bars and ΨL ? -14.9 bars) and stressed (ΨPD ? -8.0 bars and ΨL ? -15.0 bars) and subjected to analysis of variance. Significant separation emerged for vines categorized as non-stressed versus stressed at véraison, which correlated to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit. This report does not advocate the use of stress levels herein reported. The vineyard was planted to a vigorous, deep rooted rootstock (V. rupestris cv. St. George), and from years of management is known to be able to withstand stress levels of the magnitude we observed. Nonetheless, the results may suggest there is not a linear relationship between physiological water stress and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point controlling grape composition as well as physiological development.

  18. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption. PMID:19648503

  19. Substituting redberry juniper for oat hay in lamb feedlot diets: Carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and sensory panel traits.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Smith, S B

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that ground juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to lambs would have no negative effects on end products. Lambs were individually fed diets containing mainly sorghum grain and oat hay (control) or DDGS-based diets consisting mainly of DDGS, sorghum grain, and oat hay (0JUN), or 33% (33JUN), 66% (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the hay replaced by juniper. Lambs fed control had greater (P<0.03) shrunk BW and HCW vs. lambs fed 0JUN, but other carcass characteristics and sensory panel traits were similar (P>0.23). As juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets, HCW increased quadratically (P=0.01) and LM fatty acid composition was altered. Feeding juniper did not negatively affect (P>0.57) off-flavor in chops, but enhanced (linear, P<0.05) juiciness, tenderness, and flavor intensity. Lambs fed diets with a combination of oat hay and ground juniper appeared to produce the most acceptable carcasses and lamb chops. PMID:25678414

  20. Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (P<0.05) cooking loss and reduced (P<0.05) emulsion stability in the gel/emulsion systems. Incorporation of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel produced a decrease (P<0.05) of lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values and an increase (P<0.05) of yellowness (b*) as compared to the other samples. The effect of adding seaweed on the texture parameters of low-salt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix. PMID:20374797

  1. Proteolysis, lipolysis, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of Hispánico cheeses made using frozen curd from raw and pasteurized ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rocío; Picon, Antonia; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Hispánico cheese, manufactured from a mixture of cow and ewe milk, is representative of cheese varieties made using milk from more than one animal species in Mediterranean countries. The shortage of ewe milk production in autumn hinders the uniformity of Hispánico cheese composition throughout the year. To surmount this inconvenience of ewe milk seasonality, curds made in spring from raw and pasteurized ewe milk were stored frozen and used four months later for the manufacture of Hispánico cheese. Experimental cheeses were made by mixing fresh curd from pasteurized cow milk with thawed curd from raw or pasteurized ewe milk, and control cheese from a mixture of pasteurized cow and ewe milk in the same proportion. Characteristics of experimental and control cheeses throughout a 60-d ripening period were investigated. On the one hand, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk showed the highest counts of staphylococci, Gram-negative bacteria and coliforms, the highest levels of aminopeptidase and esterase activity, and the highest concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids, alcohols and esters. On the other, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk had concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids and volatile compounds similar to those of control cheese, with the only exception being a higher level of ketones. Flavour intensity reached the highest scores in the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk, followed by the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk. Flavour quality scores of both experimental cheeses were similar, and lower than those of control cheese. PMID:23253470

  2. carleton.ca Food Science

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    ); food safety (contaminants, food poisoning); and the sensory properties of food (taste, appearancecarleton.ca Food Science and Nutrition #12;The production and distribution of food is one on the effective processing, storage and handling of food. The field of food science integrates and applies

  3. The Availability of Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants in the United States Associations with Neighborhood Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Powell; Frank J. Chaloupka; Yanjun Bao

    Background: Parallel to the rising obesity epidemic, food consumption patterns and household expenditures show a marked upward trend in total energy intake derived from away-from- home sources. Methods: This study conducted cross-sectional multivariate analyses to examine associations between local-area racial, ethnic, and income characteristics and the availability of full-service and fast-food restaurants. Based on a U.S. national census of 28,050

  4. Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanne Torjusen; Anne Lise Brantsæter; Margaretha Haugen; Geir Lieblein; Hein Stigum; Gun Roos; Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen; Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire

  5. Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This entire issue is devoted to the problem of producing enough food for the world population and of distributing it equitably. Areas covered include reports on the latest agricultural research, biological research concerned with more efficient photosynthesis, nutrition, and the world social structure, politics, and economics of food. (MA)

  6. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  7. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. Economic Information Bulletin Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of U.S. households with children were food secure throughout 2007, meaning that they had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members. Nearly 16 percent of households with children were food insecure sometime during the year, including 8.3 percent in which children were food insecure…

  8. Probiotic bacteria in fermented foods: product characteristics and starter organisms 1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knut J Heller

    Probiotic bacteria are sold mainly in fermented foods, and dairy products play a predominant role as carriers of probiotics. These foods are well suited to promoting the positive health image of probiotics for several reasons: 1) fermented foods, and dairy products in particular, already have a positive health image; 2) consumers are familiar with the fact that fermented foods contain

  9. The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

  10. The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

  11. Sensory processing disorders.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Judith

    2002-11-01

    Most people are able to effectively process and respond to the sensory stimuli of daily life. But people who have sensory processing disorders struggle to form meaningful responses to sensory stimuli. As a result these individuals often exhibit problems with coordination, sensory-seeking or sensory-avoiding behaviors, and sensory modulation. The concept of sensory processing disorders stems from the work of occupational therapist Jean Ayres, Ph.D. Her work has launched a sensory-based treatment approach, primarily practiced by occupational therapists. This article outlines the theories supporting the notion of sensory processing disorders, options for assessment and treatment, and research on the efficacy of treatment. PMID:12498067

  12. Impact of Gram-negative bacteria in interaction with a complex microbial consortium on biogenic amine content and sensory characteristics of an uncooked pressed cheese.

    PubMed

    Delbès-Paus, Céline; Pochet, Sylvie; Helinck, Sandra; Veisseire, Philippe; Bord, Cécile; Lebecque, Annick; Coton, Monika; Desmasures, Nathalie; Coton, Emmanuel; Irlinger, Françoise; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2012-05-01

    The impact of Gram-negative bacteria on sensory characteristics and production of volatile compounds as well as biogenic amines (BA) in the core of an uncooked pressed type model cheese was investigated in the presence of a defined complex microbial consortium. Eleven strains of Gram-negative bacteria, selected on the basis of their biodiversity and in vitro BA-production ability, were individually tested in a model cheese. Four out of 6 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter freundii UCMA 4217, Klebsiella oxytoca 927, Hafnia alvei B16 and Proteus vulgaris UCMA 3780) reached counts close to 6 log CFU g?¹ in the model cheese. In core of cheeses inoculated with Gram-negative bacteria, only slight differences were observed for microbial counts (Enterococcus faecalis or Lactobacillus plantarum count differences below 1 log CFU g?¹), acetate concentration (differences below 200 mg kg?¹) and texture (greater firmness) in comparison to control cheeses. Cheese core colour, odour and volatile compound composition were not modified. Although ornithine, the precursor of putrescine, was present in all cheeses, putrescine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16 and never exceeded 2.18 mmol kg?¹ cheese dry matter. Cadaverine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16, K. oxytoca 927, Halomonas venusta 4C1A or Morganella morganii 3A2A but at lower concentrations (<1.05 mmol kg?¹ cheese dry matter), although lysine was available. Only insignificant amounts of the detrimental BA histamine and tyramine, as well as isopentylamine, tryptamine or phenylethylamine, were produced in the cheese model by any of the Gram-negative strains, including those which produced these BA at high levels in vitro. PMID:22265286

  13. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  14. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  15. Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

  16. Symmetry of sensory loss in developing diabetic sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rader, Andrew J; Barry, Timothy P

    2009-02-01

    The medical literature presents diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSPN) as an axonal length-dependent symmetric pathology producing a stocking-like pattern of anesthesia in the lower extremities. This has been based on anecdotal reports. Objective research has shown that damage may not occur in a purely length-dependent manner. A stocking distribution of sensory loss is atypical, and plantar sensory loss predominates. A single-blinded, age-matched, control/experimental study was performed of the symmetry of nerve damage in developing DSPN. Control (n = 46) and experimental (n = 83) subjects were examined. The patterns of sensory loss and the severity of axonal damage were evaluated. The right/left symmetry of pathology was recorded for each individual. Although there was not a stocking pattern of anesthesia found in developing DSPN, the pattern and severity of anesthesia were found to be generally symmetric. The severity of sensory impairment was symmetric at the dorsal foot (93%), lateral foot (95%), and plantar foot (69%). The most predominant site of sensory impairment was also symmetric (81%). This argues against a purely metabolic etiology for axonal damage. An anatomic component is implied. Further research will need to include examination of the unique physical characteristics of predominantly affected nerves. PMID:19825745

  17. Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Hee Lee; Megan T. Rowan; Lisa M. Powell; Sara Newman; Ann Carroll Klassen; Kevin D. Frick; Jennifer Anderson; Joel Gittelsohn

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only

  18. Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational week 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. We used linear binomial regression with frequent versus rare use of organic food as outcome variable and characteristics of the respondent as independent variables. The outcome variable was derived from self-reported frequency of organic food use in six main food groups (milk/dairy, bread/cereal, eggs, vegetables, fruit and meat). Results Organic eggs and vegetables were the food items which were most frequently reported to be used "often" or "mostly". The proportion of women reporting frequent intake of organic food was 9.1% (n = 5754). This group included more women in the lower (<25 years) and higher (>40 years) age-groups, with normal or low body mass index, who were vegetarians, exercised regularly (3+times weekly), consumed alcohol and smoked cigarettes during pregnancy (p < 0.001 for all, except alcohol: p=0.044). Further, participants with frequent organic consumption included more women in the lower (?12 years) or higher (17 years +) category of educational attainment, women who were students or had a partner being a student, who belonged to the lowest household income group (both respondent and her partner earned <300 000 NOK), who entered the study 2005-2007, and who lived in an urban area (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions The socio-economic characteristics of pregnant Norwegian women with frequent organic consumption did not unambiguously follow those typically associated with better health, such as higher levels of education and income. Rather, lower household income, and both lowest and highest levels of education were associated with a higher prevalence of frequent organic consumption. The results indicate that personal and socio-economic characteristics are important covariates and need to be included in future studies of potential health outcomes related to organic food consumption during pregnancy. PMID:21172040

  19. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  20. Characteristics and Determinants of Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Mkandawire; Nathaniel D. Aguda

    \\u000a This chapter discusses the persistence of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. Although pervasive poverty and low agricultural\\u000a productivity are important factors in understanding food insecurity in the region, broader global processes are examined.\\u000a It is argued therefore that, while poverty undermines individual and household access to sufficient food through market purchase,\\u000a land inequalities, corruption, structural adjustment programs, civil conflict, HIV\\/AIDS

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF LONG TERM FOOD DEPRIVATION ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LENTICULAR TISSUE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. SHERIF; M. G. MONA

    2009-01-01

    Food and water deprivation-frequent torture methods occur for a variety of reasons. It may be used as a political tool or a method of self-harm. To the best of our knowledge, no solid data are available relating the long-term food deprivation and the eye lens, therefore this study aims to clue this relation if any. Rats were food deprived for

  2. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

  3. Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

    2011-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods. PMID:21359162

  4. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  5. The mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus is involved in acquisition of active exploratory behavior induced by changing from a diet of exclusively milk formula to food pellets in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kitamura, Nobuo; Muroi, Yoshikage; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2006-09-21

    Post-weaning mice fed exclusively milk display low-frequency exploratory behavior [Ishii, T., Itou, T., and Nishimura, M. (2005) Life Sci. 78, 174-179] compared to mice fed a food pellet diet. This low-frequency exploratory behavior switched to high-frequency exploration after a switch from exclusively milk formula to a food pellet diet. Acquisition of the high-frequency exploratory behavior was irreversible. Recently, we demonstrated that the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5) is involved in the control of feeding and exploratory behavior in mice without modulating the emotional state [Ishii, T., Furuoka, H., Itou, T., Kitamura, N., and Nishimura, M. (2005) Brain Res. 1048, 80-86]. We therefore investigated whether the Me5 is involved in acquisition of high-frequency exploratory behavior induced by the switch in diet from an exclusively milk formula to food pellets. Mouse feeding and exploratory behaviors were analyzed using a food search compulsion apparatus, which was designed to distinguish between the two behaviors under standard living conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis of immediate early genes indicated that the Me5, which receives signals from oral proprioceptors, is transiently activated after the diet change. The change from low-frequency to high-frequency exploratory behavior was prevented in milk-fed mice by bilateral lesion of the Me5. These results suggest that the Me5 is activated by signals associated with mastication-induced proprioception and contributes to the acquisition of active exploratory behavior. PMID:16890921

  6. Feeding characteristics of an amoeba (Lobosea: Naegleria) grazing upon cyanobacteria: food selection, ingestion and digestion progress.

    PubMed

    Xinyao, Liu; Miao, Shi; Yonghong, Liao; Yin, Gao; Zhongkai, Zhang; Donghui, Wen; Weizhong, Wu; Chencai, An

    2006-04-01

    Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates has been widely studied in aquatic environments, but data on the grazing of amoebae, are still scarce. From the water samples of Dianchi Lake (Kunming, Yunnan Province, China), we isolated an amoeba, designated as Naegleria sp. strain W2, which had potent grazing effects on some kind of cyanobacteria. The food selection mechanism and the digestion process of the amoeba were investigated in batch experiments. Predation experiments showed that filamentous cyanobacteria (e.g., Anabaena, Cylindrospermum, Gloeotrichia, and Phormidium) were readily consumed, with clearance rates ranging from 0.332 to 0.513 nL amoeba(-1) h(-1). The tight threads (Oscilltoria) and aggregates (Aphanizomenon) could not be ingested; however, their sonicated fragments were observed inside food vacuoles, suggesting that their morphologies prevent them from being ingested. Live video microscopy noted that unicellular Chroococcaceae (e.g., Synechococcus, Aphanocapsa, and Microcystis) were excreted after ingestion, indicating that food selection takes place inside food vacuoles. To determine whether the tastes or the toxins prevented them from being digested, heat-killed cells were retested for predation. Digestion rates and ingestion rates of the amoebae for filamentous cyanobacteria were estimated from food vacuole content volume. Through a "cold-chase" method, we found that the food vacuole contents declined exponentially in diluted amoebae cells, and digestion rates were relatively constant, averaging about 1.5% food vacuole content min(-1) at 28 degrees Celsius. Ingestion strongly depended on the satiation status of the amoebae, starved amoebae fed at higher rates compared with satiated amoebae. Our results suggest that the food selection and food processing mechanisms of the amoeba are similar to those of interception feeding flagellates; however, filamentous cyanobacteria cannot obtain a refuge under the grazing pressure of phagotrophic amoebae, which may widen our knowledge on the grazing of protists. PMID:16598635

  7. Learning Outcomes Food Science & Technology

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    chemistry, food safety, food processing, food packaging, sensory evaluation, flavor chemistry, enology's food and beverage processing industry; · Be responsive in providing outreach activities that convey for the long-term sustainability of Oregon's food processing industry · Provide service to the profession

  8. Introduction to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality and safety of the food supply. All food products require analysis as part of a quality management program throughout the development process (including raw ingredients), through production, and after a product is in the market. In addition, analysis is done of problem samples and competitor products. The characteristics of foods (i.e., chemical composition, physical properties, sensory properties) are used to answer specific questions for regulatory purposes and typical quality control. The nature of the sample and the specific reason for the analysis commonly dictate the choice of analytical methods. Speed, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness often are key factors in this choice. Validation of the method for the specific food matrix being analyzed is necessary to ensure usefulness of the method. Making an appropriate choice of the analytical technique for a specific application requires a good knowledge of the various techniques (Fig. 1.1). For example, your choice of method to determine the salt content of potato chips would be different if it is for nutrition labeling than for quality control. The success of any analytical method relies on the proper selection and preparation of the food sample, carefully performing the analysis, and doing the appropriate calculations and interpretation of the data. Methods of analysis developed and endorsed by several nonprofit scientific organizations allow for standardized comparisons of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of less standard procedures. Such official methods are critical in the analysis of foods, to ensure that they meet the legal requirements established by governmental agencies. Government regulations and international standards most relevant to the analysis of foods are mentioned here but covered in more detail in Chap. 2, and nutrition labeling regulations in the USA are covered in Chap. 3. Internet addresses for many of the organizations and government agencies discussed are given at the end of this chapter.

  9. Evaluation of sorghum genotypes for agronomic and food quality characteristics for pitimi (rice-like product)

    E-print Network

    Blanchet, Claire Louise Colette

    1987-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: plant Breeding EVALUATION OF SORGHUM GENOTYPES FOR AGRONOMIC AND FOOD QUALITY ~ERISTICS FOR PITIMI (RICE-LIKE PRODUCT) . A Thesis by CLAIRE I OUISE COLETTE BLANCHET Approved..., laboratory and food quality parameters. Components of yield such as plant height, days to 50% anthesis, and panicle length were significantly correlated with grain yield. Traits related to endosperm texture such as grain hardness, and pearli ng yield were...

  10. Sensory and non-sensory factors and the concept of externality in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R M; Brake, S J; Reyes, B; Maestas, D

    1983-08-01

    9 obese and 9 normal subjects performed a psychophysical task in which food- or non-food-related stimuli were briefly flashed tachistoscopically at a speed and intensity near the visual threshold. A signal was presented on one-half the trials and noise only on the other one-half of the trials. Using signal detection theory methodology, separate measures of sensory sensitivity (d') and response bias (beta) were calculated. No differences were noted between obese and normal subjects on measures of sensory sensitivity but significant differences on response bias. Obese subjects had consistently lower response criteria than normal ones. Analysis for subjects categorized by whether they were restrained or unrestrained eaters gave findings identical to those for obese and normal. The importance of using a methodology that separates sensory and non-sensory factors in research on obesity is discussed. PMID:6622165

  11. Food Insecurity and Budgeting Among Liberians in the US: How are They Related to Socio-demographic and Pre-resettlement Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nunnery, D L; Haldeman, L A; Morrison, S D; Dharod, J M

    2015-04-01

    Objectives of this study: (1) Examine food insecurity (FI) prevalence and its relationship with sociodemographic and pre-resettlement characteristics; (2) Investigate differences in amount of money spent on food/month by food security status and socio-demographic characteristics. A pilot study with semi-structured in-home interviews was conducted with Liberian caregivers (n = 33). FI was indicated in 61 % of households. FI was higher among women >40, had ? high school education and those making ?$1,000/month. Women arriving in US >15 years of age were more likely to be food insecure. Participants spent an average $109/month on groceries/member. Food insecure women, and those without a car spent more money on food (P < .10). Liberian women in this sample experience high levels of FI upon resettlement. Besides poor economic conditions, pre-resettlement characteristics were associated with food security status. These findings call for future research to understand how preresettlement conditions affect food choices, budgeting and thereby food security status. PMID:24557744

  12. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues. PMID:21624149

  13. Ultrasound Applications in Food Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Mobbs, Tamara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Food scientists today are focused on the development of not only microbiologically safe products with a long storage life, but, at the same time, products that have fresh-like characteristics and a high quality in taste, flavor, and texture. This focus is based on the needs of the consumer, which is one of the main reasons for constant research in the so-called area of emerging technologies. Traditionally, thermal treatments have been used to produce safe food products. Pasteurization of juice, milk, beer, and wine is a common process in which the final product has a storage life of some weeks (generally under refrigeration). However, vitamins, taste, color, and other sensorial characteristics are decreased with this treatment. High temperature is responsible for these effects and can be observed in the loss of nutritional components and changes in flavor, taste, and texture, often creating the need for additives to improve the product.

  14. Milk allergens, their characteristics and their detection in food: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Monaci; Virginie Tregoat; Arjon J. van Hengel; Elke Anklam

    2006-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. This allergy is normally outgrown in the first year of life, however 15% of allergic children remain allergic. Many studies have been carried out to define and characterise the allergens involved in CMA and described two major allergens: casein (?s1-CN) and ?-lactoglobulin. In addition to this,

  15. NEARSHORE-OFFSHORE PATTERNS IN FOOD WEB CHARACTERISTICS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are exploring the use of food web properties to characterize nearshore and offshore habitats in the Great lakes. We analyzed the stable isotope signatures of benthos (predominantly Diporeia hoyi) and plankton from Lake Superior habitats ranging from 20m to 300m depth......

  16. Feeding Characteristics of an Amoeba ( Lobosea : Naegleria ) Grazing Upon Cyanobacteria: Food Selection, Ingestion and Digestion Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Xinyao; Shi Miao; Liao Yonghong; Gao Yin; Zhang Zhongkai; Wen Donghui; Wu Weizhong; An Chencai

    2006-01-01

    Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates has been widely studied in aquatic environments, but data on the grazing of amoebae, are still scarce. From the water samples of Dianchi Lake (Kunming, Yunnan Province, China), we isolated an amoeba, designated as Naegleria sp. strain W2, which had potent grazing effects on some kind of cyanobacteria. The food selection mechanism and the

  17. Effect of product formula, information and consumer characteristics on the acceptance of a new snack food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hely Tuorila; Åsa Andersson; Arja Martikainen; Hannu Salovaara

    1998-01-01

    The acceptance of a new food `yosa' (fermented oat bran pudding, similar to flavored yogurt or porridge) was examined among young (n = 44) and elderly (n = 19) subjects. The samples were sweetened at low or high levels of sucrose and flavored with plum or wildberry jam (four combinations). The subjects rated the expected and actual pleasantness, purchase interest

  18. Do Fast-Food Chains Price Discriminate on the Race and Income Characteristics of an Area?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Graddy

    1997-01-01

    This article reports tests for differences in prices charged by fast-food restaurants that serve markets with customers of widely divergent incomes and ethnic backgrounds. The data contain detailed prices on items sold at over 400 Burger King, Wendy's, KFC, and Roy Rogers restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania locations. I find significant differences in price based on the race and

  19. Meat quality of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (Aepyceros melampus): The effect of gender and age on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of kudu and impala meat.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Mostert, A C; Laubscher, L L

    2009-12-01

    Game meat has distinct sensory characteristics and favourable fatty acid profiles which differ between species. The SFA's percentage was found to be higher in impala meat (51.12%) than kudu meat (34.87%) whilst the total PUFA was higher in kudu (38.88%) than impala (34.06%). Stearic acid (22.67%) was the major fatty acid in impala and oleic acid in kudu (24.35). Linoleic acid, C20:3n-6 and C22:6n-3 were higher in kudu while C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:5n-3 were higher in impala. The PUFA:SFA ratio for kudu (1.22) was higher than for impala (0.73) while impala had a higher n-6 PUFA's to n-3 PUFA ratio (3.76) than kudu (2.20). Kudu was higher in cholesterol (71.42±2.61mg/100gmuscle) than impala (52.54±2.73mg/100gmuscle). Sensory evaluation showed impala had a more intense game aroma and flavour while the initial juiciness of cooked samples of kudu was higher. The results show kudu and impala can be marketed for their unique flavours and aromas as well as being a healthy substitute for other red meats. PMID:20416629

  20. Carcass, sensory, fat color, and consumer acceptance characteristics of Angus-cross steers finished on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forage or on a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Kerth, C R; Braden, K W; Cox, R; Kerth, L K; Rankins, D L

    2007-02-01

    Fall-born Angus-cross steers (n=30) from 1 of 2 sires, were randomly assigned to either an 85% corn, 7.5% cotton-seed hulls, and 7.5% vitamin/mineral/urea supplement diet (GRAIN), 100% ryegrass grazing (RG), or ryegrass grazing then the GRAIN diet for 94d (RG/GRAIN). USDA Yield Grade of steers finished on either the GRAIN or RG/GRAIN regimens were higher (P<0.02) compared to those finished on RG. Marbling score and USDA Quality Grade did not differ (P=0.21 and 0.12, respectively) among the three finishing regimens. Yellowness (b(?)) values of the subcutaneous fat from both strip loins (SL) and ribeye (RE) rolls was lowest (P<0.05) in cuts taken from steers finished on GRAIN. Subcutaneous fat of both SL and RE had lower L(?) and hue angle values, and higher a(?) and b(?) values before trimming than after the fat was trimmed to 0.3cm. Initial and sustained tenderness scores of SL from steers finished on GRAIN were higher when compared to RG/GRAIN or RG regimens (P<0.05). Flavor intensity and beef flavor scores were higher (P<0.05) for SL from GRAIN- or RG/GRAIN-finished steers compared to RG-finished steers. GRAIN SL had lower (P<0.05) WBSF values than RG, but similar (P>0.05) to RG/GRAIN. Trained sensory tenderness and flavor scores and WBSF values for RE were not affected by finishing regimen (P>0.05). GRAIN steaks had a higher consumer overall acceptability score, average price/kg, and rank (P<0.05). While carcass, fat, and sensory disadvantages were present in RG cattle, the overall magnitude of the differences compared to GRAIN cattle was fairly small. PMID:22063665

  1. Food security and marine capture fisheries: characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Serge M.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic contamination, coastal degradation and climate change. Looking towards 2050, the question is how fisheries governance, and the national and international policy and legal frameworks within which it is nested, will ensure a sustainable harvest, maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and adapt to climate change. This paper looks at global fisheries production, the state of resources, contribution to food security and governance. It describes the main changes affecting the sector, including geographical expansion, fishing capacity-building, natural variability, environmental degradation and climate change. It identifies drivers and future challenges, while suggesting how new science, policies and interventions could best address those challenges. PMID:20713390

  2. Hormonal and dietary characteristics in obese human subjects with and without food addiction.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Pardis; Sun, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The concept of food addiction (FA) is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO) matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-? and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight), the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat) and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg) was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium), fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat), omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity. PMID:25558907

  3. Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Pedram, Pardis; Sun, Guang

    2014-01-01

    The concept of food addiction (FA) is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO) matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-? and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight), the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat) and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg) was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium), fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat), omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity. PMID:25558907

  4. Effects of conventional feeds vs. table food waste on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pork

    E-print Network

    Mohr, Darrell Chester

    1984-01-01

    -finishing pigs (Gilster and Wahlstrom, 1973; Irvin et al. ', 1975; Bereskin and Davey, 1978) in some studies, but unaffected in others (Bereskin and Davey, 1976; Shields and Mahan, 1980). a problem associated with percentage lean cuts is that it gives... that higher quality hams had higher processing yields than low quality hams. It is apparent from previous literature that several studies have been conducted utilizing corn diets, sorghum diets and table food waste for growing-finishing pigs. However...

  5. The Association between Socioeconomic Characteristics and Consumption of Food Items among Brazilian Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Vinholes, Daniele B.; Melo, Ione M. F.; Machado, Carlos Alberto; de Castro Chaves, Hilton; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the work place using standardized forms. Results. 4818 workers were interviewed, aged 35.4 ± 10.7 years, 76.5% were men. The workers had an average of 8.7 ± 4.1 years of schooling and 25.4 ± 4.1?kg/m2 of BMI. Men and individuals with less than high school education were less likely to consume dairy products, fruits, and vegetables daily, even after control for confounding factors. Men consumed rice and beans daily more often than women. In comparison to workers aged 50–76 years, those under 30 years old consumed less fruits and green leafy vegetables daily. Conclusion. The food items consumed by Brazilian workers show that there are insufficient consumption according to the guidelines of healthy foods, particularly of dairy products, vegetables, and fruits. PMID:22701097

  6. Immunohistochemical characteristics of human paraganglion cells and sensory corpuscles associated with the urinary bladder. A developmental study in the male fetus, neonate and infant

    PubMed Central

    DIXON, J. S.; JEN, P. Y. P.; GOSLING, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Triple label immunohistochemistry was used to study the coexistence of the catecholamine-synthesising enzymes dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and several neuropeptides including neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM) and galanin (GAL) as well as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in developing pelvic paraganglion cells in a series of human male fetal, neonatal and infant specimens ranging in age from 13 wk of gestation to 3 y postnatal. 13–20 wk old fetal specimens possessed large clusters of paraganglion cells lying lateral to the urinary bladder and prostate gland which were intensely DBH-immunoreactive (-IR) but lacked TH, NOS and the neuropeptides investigated. With increasing fetal age small clusters of paraganglion cells were observed in the muscle coat of the urinary bladder. At 23 wk of gestation occasional paraganglion cells were NOS or NPY-IR while at 26 wk of gestation the majority of paraganglion cells were TH-IR and a few were SOM or GAL-IR. Some postnatal paraganglia within the bladder musculature contained cells which were all VIP, SP or CGRP-IR while others displayed coexistence of NOS and NPY, SP and CGRP, or NPY and VIP. The presence of NOS in certain paraganglion cells indicates their capacity to generate nitric oxide (NO). These results show that human paraganglion cells develop different phenotypes possibly dependent upon their location within the bladder wall. A delicate plexus of branching varicose nerves was observed in the fetal paraganglia which increased in density with increasing gestational age. The majority of these nerves were VIP-IR while others were CGRP, SP, NPY, NOS or GAL-IR. The presence of nerve terminals adjacent to the paraganglion cells implies a neural influence on the functional activity of the paraganglia. Some paraganglia in the late fetal and early postnatal specimens contained Timofeew's sensory corpuscles, resembling pacinian corpuscles in their morphology. The central nerve fibre of these corpuscles displayed immunoreactivity for SP, CGRP and NOS, the latter indicating a possible role for NO in afferent transmission from the urinary bladder. In addition, a few corpuscles were penetrated by a noradrenergic nerve fibre immunoreactive for NPY and TH, which may have a modulatory role on the sensory receptor. PMID:9688506

  7. Influence of different emulsifiers on characteristics of eggless cake containing soy milk: Modeling of physical and sensory properties by mixture experimental design.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Emulsifiers of different structures and functionalities are important ingredients usually used in baking cakes with satisfactory properties. In this study, three emulsifiers including distilled glycerol mono stearate (DGMS), lecithin and sorbitan mono stearate (SMS) were used to bake seven eggless cakes containing soy milk and optimization was performed by using mixture experimental design to produce an eggless cake sample with optimized properties. Physical properties of cake batters (viscosity, specific gravity and stability), cake quality parameters (moisture loss, density, specific volume, volume index, contour, symmetry, color and texture) and sensory attributes of eggless cakes were analyzed to investigate functional potential of the emulsifiers and results were compared with those of control cake containing egg. Almost in all cases emulsifiers, compared to the control cake, changed properties of eggless cakes significantly. Regarding models of different response variables (except for some properties) and their high R(2) (99.51-100), it could be concluded that models obtained by mixture design were significantly fitted for the studied responses. PMID:25190826

  8. The impact of ultimate pH on muscle characteristics and sensory attributes of the longissimus thoracis within the dark cutting (Canada B4) beef carcass grade.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, J; Aalhus, J L; Uttaro, B A; López-Campos, O; Larsen, I L; Bruce, H L

    2014-12-01

    Canada B4 beef carcasses are penalized because the longissimus thoracis (LT) at the grade site (12-13th ribs) is darker than the color threshold for normal bright cherry-red beef. Previous studies have shown that not all B4 carcasses have pH>6.0; therefore, the relationship between LT pH and meat quality was investigated by collecting thirty half-carcasses comprised of the following: ten Canada AA (AA, control), ten B4 with LT pH>6.0 (CL, classic), and ten B4 with LT pH<6.0 (AT, atypical). LT from CL carcasses had the lowest mean lactate level, lowest glucidic potential and highest mean pH value. LT muscle from CL and AT carcasses was dark and had decreased purge, drip loss and cooking loss. Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel results showed that AT beef was toughest (P<0.0001), substantiating economic penalty. Causal mechanisms for AT carcasses may be inconsistent with traditional DFD theory because of close to normal final muscle pH. PMID:25173716

  9. Behavioural consequences of sensory plasticity in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Ben B.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Tosh, Colin R.; Krause, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Sensory plasticity, whereby individuals compensate for sensory deprivation in one sense by an improvement in the performance of an alternative sense, is a well-documented phenomenon in nature. Despite this, the behavioural and ecological consequences of sensory plasticity have not been addressed. Here we show experimentally that some components (vision and chemoreception) of the sensory system of guppies are developmentally plastic, and that this plasticity has important consequences for foraging behaviour. Guppies reared under low light conditions had a significantly stronger response to chemical food cues encountered in isolation than fish reared at higher light levels. Conversely, they exhibited a weaker response to visual-only cues. When visual and olfactory/gustatory cues were presented together, no difference between the strength of response for fish reared at different light intensities was evident. Our data suggest that guppies can compensate for experience of a visually poor, low light environment via a sensory switch from vision to olfaction/gustation. This switch from sight to chemoreception may allow individuals to carry out the foraging behaviour that is essential to their survival in a visually poor environment. These considerations are especially important given the increasing frequency of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems. Compensatory phenotypic plasticity as demonstrated by our study may provide a hitherto unconsidered buffer that could allow animals to perform fundamental behaviours in the face of considerable change to the sensory environment. PMID:20053643

  10. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  11. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-10-26

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function.

  12. Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjánsdóttir, Ása G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Background In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. Objective A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. Design The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Results Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet. PMID:24130513

  13. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. PMID:24794619

  14. Population differentiation in the swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei ): a role for sensory drive?

    PubMed

    Arnqvist, G; Kolm, N

    2010-09-01

    Sensory drive, where the efficacy of a sexual signal depends on the environment in which it is employed, is a potential mechanism behind divergent evolution of secondary sexual traits. Male swordtail characins are equipped with a narrow and transparent extension of the gill cover with a flag-like structure at its tip. This opercular flag mimics a prey item and is employed by males as a 'lure' to attract the attention of females during mating attempts. We conducted a study of genetic and morphological differentiation across swordtail characin populations throughout their native range in Trinidad. The morphology of the opercular flag varied across populations and several aspects of this variation match the predicted hallmarks of sensory drive. First, morphological differentiation of the flag across populations was unrelated to genetic similarity at neutral genetic markers. Second, the shape of the flag covaried with those aspects of body shape that should reflect adaptation to different feeding regimes. Third, and most importantly, the shape of the flag covaried across populations with those environmental characteristics that should most closely reflect differences in local prey abundance. Overall, our results are consistent with a scenario where the evolution of this male sexual signal tracks food-related shifts in female sensory biases across populations, thus providing at least provisional support for a role for sensory drive in population differentiation. PMID:20695971

  15. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    PubMed

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p???0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p???0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p?sensory properties enhancement of extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components. PMID:25745265

  16. With whom to dine? Ravens' responses to food-associated calls depend on individual characteristics of the caller

    PubMed Central

    Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Upon discovering food, common ravens, Corvus corax, produce far-reaching ‘haa’ calls or yells, which are individually distinct and signal food availability to conspecifics. Here, we investigated whether ravens respond differently to ‘haa’ calls of known and unknown individuals. In a paired playback design, we tested responses to ‘haa’ call sequences in a group containing individually marked free-ranging ravens. We simultaneously played call sequences of a male and a female raven in two different locations and varied familiarity (known or unknown to the local group). Ravens responded strongest to dyads containing familiar females, performing more scan flights above and by perching in trees near the respective speaker. Acoustic analysis of the calls used as stimuli showed no sex-, age- or familiarity-specific acoustic cues, but highly significant classification results at the individual level. Taken together, our findings indicate that ravens respond to individual characteristics in ‘haa’ calls, and choose whom to approach for feeding, i.e. join social allies and avoid dominant conspecifics. This is the first study to investigate responses to ‘haa’ calls under natural conditions in a wild population containing individually marked ravens. PMID:25598542

  17. Clinical characteristics of oral tolerance induction of IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated food allergy using interferon gamma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ho; Noh, Geunwoong; Noh, Joonyong; Lee, Soojin; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Kwangju; Choi, Seonphill; Jin, Hyunjung; Cho, Sunheui; Lee, Sangsun

    2010-01-01

    Food allergies are classified as IgE-mediated food allergies (IFAs) and non-IgE-mediated food allergies (NFAs). Recently, oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been found to be successful for treating both IFA and NFA, especially using interferon (IFN) gamma. This study was designed to clarify the clinical characteristics of IFA and NFA and compare the therapeutic characteristics of OIT using subcutaneously administered IFN-gamma for both types of food allergy. In this study, 148 patients were categorized into the IFA and NFA group following food challenge, skin-prick test and food-specific IgE tests. The patients were then treated using protocols specific for IFA and NFA using subcutaneous IFN-gamma injection as a randomized controlled trial. The principle of complete allergy resolution at prior dose in the case of IFA was also evaluated. Only the patients with IFA and NFA treated with OIT using IFN-gamma achieved tolerance successfully. Tolerance was achieved from low-dose range in IFA and in high-dose range for NFA. Complete tolerance was not obtained without achieving complete allergy resolution at each dose of the allergen before increasing the dosage in IFA. Both IFA and NFA can be successfully treated with OIT using IFN-gamma but show different clinical and therapeutic characteristics. IFN-gamma is necessary for the tolerance induction but not for tolerance maintenance. Additional study for the mechanisms of tolerance induction by IFN-gamma is needed. PMID:20819314

  18. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  19. Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food.

    PubMed

    Mbithi-Mwikya, Stephen; Van Camp, John; Mamiro, Peter R S; Ooghe, Wilfried; Kolsteren, Patrick; Huyghebaert, Andre

    2002-05-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanuts (Arachis hypogoea), and mango (Mangifera indica) were processed separately and then combined, on the basis of their amino acid scores and energy content, into a complementary food for children of weaning age. The finger millet and kidney beans were processed by germination, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation. A mixture containing, on a dry matter basis, 65.2, 19.1, 8.0, and 7.7% of the processed finger millet, kidney beans, peanuts, and mango, respectively, gave a composite protein with an in vitro protein digestibility of 90.2% and an amino acid chemical score of 0.84. This mixture had an energy density of 16.3 kJ.g(-1) of dry matter and a decreased antinutrient content and showed a measurable improvement in the in vitro extractability for calcium, iron, and zinc. A 33% (w/v) pap made from a mix of the processed ingredients had an energy density of 5.4 kJ.g(-1) of pap, which is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of well-nourished children of 6-24 months of age at three servings a day and at the FAO average breast-feeding frequency. PMID:11982437

  20. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  1. Principle of solid food texture analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food texture reflects the human’s sensory perception of a food item when it is acted upon by force or deformation during mastication to cause changes or breakdown in the structure of the food. It is one major factor in quality evaluation and grading of solid foods. While food texture evaluation can ...

  2. Sensory and rheological traits of Mexican Queso Chihuahua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, Mexican Queso Chihuahua has been made from raw milk but there are food safety issues for cheeses sold with minimal aging. Pasteurization of the cheesemilk will reduce food safety risks but there are concerns that the sensory traits unique to this cheese will be altered. As part of a...

  3. Migration and sensory evaluation of irradiated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffers, Niels H.; Linssen, Jozef P. H.; Franz, Roland; Welle, Frank

    2004-09-01

    The effects on ionising irradiation on polymer additives, monomers and polymers themselves have been investigated. Changes of initial concentrations of certain additives and monomers, a change in their specific migration as well as sensory changes of the polymers were examined. Polymer stabilizers such as Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168 used in polyethylene were found to be degraded by ionising radiation. Decreased concentrations of stabilisers in polyolefins led to lower specific migration, however, not to lower overall migration into food simulants. Irganox 1076 levels in polystyrene did not change up to irradiation doses of 54 kGy. Sensory properties of LDPE, HDPE, PA6 and PA12 worsened, while sensory properties of PS improved with increasing irradiation doses.

  4. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou; Larsen, Nadja; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-01

    Maari is a spontaneously fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds in West African countries. This type of product is considered to be safe, being consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the fermentation the human pathogen Bacillus cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two production sites of Maari. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial (AMB) counts in raw materials were of 10(5)cfu/ml in DW, and ranged between 6.5×10(3) and 1.2×10(4)cfu/g in potash, 10(9)-10(10)cfu/g in seed mash during fermentation and 10(7) - 10(9) after sun drying. Fifty three out of total 290 AMB isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato by use of ITS-PCR and grouped into 3 groups using PCR fingerprinting based on Escherichia coli phage-M13 primer (M13-PCR). As determined by panC gene sequencing, the isolates of B. cereus belonged to PanC types III and IV with potential for high cytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of glpF, gmk, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi revealed that the M13-PCR group 1 isolates were related to B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, while the M13-PCR group 2 isolates were identical to cereulide (emetic toxin) producing B. cereus strains. The M13-PCR group 1 isolates harboured poly-?-D-glutamic acid capsule biosynthesis genes capA, capB and capC showing 99-100% identity with the environmental B. cereus isolate 03BB108. Presence of cesB of the cereulide synthetase gene cluster was confirmed by PCR in M13-PCR group 2 isolates. The B. cereus harbouring the cap genes were found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product, while the remaining isolates (PanC type IV) were detected in ash, at 48-72h fermentation and in the final product. This work sheds light on the succession and pathogenic potential of B. cereus species in traditional West African food condiment and clarifies their phylogenetic relatedness to B. cereus biovar anthracis. Future implementation of GMP and HACCP and development of starter cultures for controlled Maari fermentations will help to ensure a safe product. PMID:25528535

  5. Time 2 tlk 2nite: use of electronic media by adolescents during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and foods served.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) for girls and older teens. In addition, higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) were also seen among those whose parents had low education levels or were black or Asian; having parental rules about media use significantly reduced these odds. Frequent mealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (P<0.05) and scores indicating less importance placed on mealtimes (P<0.001). Furthermore, frequent mealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (P<0.05). The ubiquitous use of mealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy. PMID:24361006

  6. Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

  7. Food texture analysis in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of food texture encompasses sensory, physiological, and structural aspects. Research in this area must be multidisciplinary in nature, accounting for consumer perception and acceptability, rheology, and structural aspects. This brief review of the field covers sensory panels, instrumenta...

  8. Chemosensory burst coding by mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Arnson, Hannah A; Holy, Timothy E

    2011-07-01

    The capabilities of any sensory system are ultimately constrained by the properties of the sensory neurons: the ability to detect and represent stimuli is limited by noise due to spontaneous activity, and optimal decoding in downstream circuitry must be matched to the nature of the encoding performed at the input. Here, we investigated the firing properties of sensory neurons in the accessory olfactory system, a distinct sensory system specialized for detection of socially relevant odors. Using multielectrode array recording, we observed that sensory neurons are spontaneously active and highly variable across time and trials and that this spontaneous activity limits the ability to distinguish sensory responses from noise. Sensory neuron activity tended to consist of bursts that maintained remarkably consistent statistics during both spontaneous activity and in response to stimulation with sulfated steroids. This, combined with pharmacological and genetic intervention in the signal transduction cascade, indicates that sensory transduction plays a role in shaping overall spontaneous activity. These findings indicate that as-yet unexplored characteristics of the sensory transduction cascade significantly constrain the representation of sensory information by vomeronasal neurons. PMID:21525370

  9. Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

    2014-11-29

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives. PMID:25432627

  10. Sensory acceptability of chocolate with inulina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terezija GOLOB; Jasna BERTONCELJ; Mojca JAMNIK

    The objective of this research was to study the influence of inulin on the sensory characteristics of chocolate. Three types of chocolate (milk, hazelnut and rice) where sucrose was replaced by inulin and fructose were studied in comparison to corresponding ordinary chocolates. A questionnaire between eighty diabetics and fifty-two random consumers showed that the chocolate with inulin was well accepted.

  11. A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

    2012-08-01

    The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

  12. Microbial Studies and Biochemical Characteristics of Controlled Fermented Afiyo- a Nigerian Fermented Food Condiment from Prosopis africana (Guill and Perr.) Taub

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adenike A. O. Ogunshe; Mopelola O. Omotosho; A. D. V. Ayansina

    2007-01-01

    3 Abstract: One hundred and fifteen bacterial strains isolated from fermenting Prosopis africana during a controlled production of okpehe, a Nigerian food-seasoning condiment most popular among the middle belt states of Nigeria were characterized as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, non-sporing Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli according to their differences in morphological, microscopic and biochemical characteristics using

  13. [Sensory neuronopathy: diagnostic strategy].

    PubMed

    Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe; Antoine, Jean-Christophe

    2014-11-01

    Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) depends on a pathophysiological process that targets the sensory neuron in the posterior root ganglia. These rare diseases are sometimes difficult to diagnose because the site of impairment is not directly assessable by conventional neurophysiological techniques. After recalling the general data concerning SNN, we propose an easy to use clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis criteria and guidelines for clinicians in their search for an etiology in a patient with NNS. PMID:25201592

  14. Screening for Sensory Integration Dysfunction. Caught Two, But One Got Away.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a screening program to identify possible sensory integration dysfunction. Describes characteristics of sensory integration dysfunction. Updates case studies of three children now in sixth grade who were screened for sensory integration dysfunction in nursery school to illustrate the use of the screening program, evaluation,…

  15. Using Movement-Based Sensory Interventions to Address Self-Stimulatory Behaviors in Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole M.; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Jolivette, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a three-step process to help teachers determine whether or not the function of a student's stereotypical behavior is sensory-based and if so, how to select and monitor an appropriate sensory intervention to promote instructional engagement. In particular, characteristics of students who are seeking to gain sensory input in…

  16. Separate and unequal: The influence of neighborhood and school characteristics on spatial proximity between fast food and schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naa Oyo A. Kwate; Ji Meng Loh

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveSocial science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fast food restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school

  17. Sensory evaluation ratings and melting characteristics show that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert.

    PubMed

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; Costantino, Amanda C; Gunn, Laura H

    2006-04-01

    Reducing dietary fat intake may lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. This study examined the feasibility of substituting okra gum for 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% milk fat in frozen chocolate dairy dessert. Fifty-six consumers evaluated the frozen dairy desserts using a hedonic scale. Consumers rated color, smell, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability characteristics of all products as acceptable. All ratings were similar among the products except for the aftertaste rating, which was significantly lower for chocolate frozen dairy dessert containing 100% milk-fat replacement with okra gum compared with the control (0% milk-fat replacement) (P<0.05). Whereas melting points of all products were similar, melting rates slowed significantly as milk-fat replacement with okra gum increased, suggesting that okra gum may increase the stability of frozen dairy desserts (P<0.05). Overall, this study shows that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert. PMID:16567157

  18. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans J. Kok; Cees de Graaf

    2010-01-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings

  19. Application of sensory and instrumental volatile analyses to dairy products.

    PubMed

    Croissant, A E; Watson, D M; Drake, M A

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive food flavor analysis requires a multidisciplinary approach. This article presents a comprehensive review of the relationship between sensory and instrumental analysis in the research of food flavor. Common practices for aroma flavor compound isolation, separation, and identification are discussed with strengths and weaknesses of the respective methodologies. A review of whey protein flavor research is presented to demonstrate the range of techniques available for the investigation of food flavors. These techniques are applicable to all food categories. The complexity introduced by food texture regarding flavor analysis is discussed using the attribute creaminess as an example. PMID:22129389

  20. Selected gelling agents in canned dog food affect nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of ileal cannulated dogs.

    PubMed

    Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K; Merchen, N R; Grieshop, Christine M; Smeets-Peeters, Marianne J E; Fahey, G C

    2002-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of gelling agents in canned dog food on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Dogs were fed canned diets with either no gelling agent (control) or one of three gelling agents, wheat starch, a guar gum/carrageenan mixture (50:50), and a locust bean meal (LBM)/carrageenan mixture (50:50) incorporated at two levels (0.2 and 0.5% of the diet on a wet weight basis). Six dogs were fed each diet in a 6 x 7 Youden square design. Dogs fed diets containing gelling agents had higher ileal digestibilities of OM (P = 0.05), fat (P < 0.01), GE (P = 0.02), and total amino acids (P = 0.04) and lower (P < 0.01) total tract DM digestibilities when compared to dogs fed the control diet. Fecal output by dogs fed the control diet, expressed on both an as-is (73.4 g/d) and DM (45.6 g/d) basis, was lower (P < 0.01) than for dogs fed gelling agent-containing diets (mean 102.3 g/d as-is and 57.6 g/d DM). Dogs fed the control diet also had lower (P < 0.01) fecal DM percentages and higher (P = 0.02) fecal scores than dogs fed gelling agent-containing diets. PMID:12389228

  1. Cafeteria diet impairs expression of sensory-specific satiety and stimulus-outcome learning

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    A range of animal and human data demonstrates that excessive consumption of palatable food leads to neuroadaptive responses in brain circuits underlying reward. Unrestrained consumption of palatable food has been shown to increase the reinforcing value of food and weaken inhibitory control; however, whether it impacts upon the sensory representations of palatable solutions has not been formally tested. These experiments sought to determine whether exposure to a cafeteria diet consisting of palatable high fat foods impacts upon the ability of rats to learn about food-associated cues and the sensory properties of ingested foods. We found that rats fed a cafeteria diet for 2 weeks were impaired in the control of Pavlovian responding in accordance to the incentive value of palatable outcomes associated with auditory cues following devaluation by sensory-specific satiety. Sensory-specific satiety is one mechanism by which a diet containing different foods increases ingestion relative to one lacking variety. Hence, choosing to consume greater quantities of a range of foods may contribute to the current prevalence of obesity. We observed that rats fed a cafeteria diet for 2 weeks showed impaired sensory-specific satiety following consumption of a high calorie solution. The deficit in expression of sensory-specific satiety was also present 1 week following the withdrawal of cafeteria foods. Thus, exposure to obesogenic diets may impact upon neurocircuitry involved in motivated control of behavior. PMID:25221530

  2. Food perception and food liking with age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kremer

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: elderly, sensory acuity taste, olfaction, irritation, compensation, just noticeable difference (JND), conjoint analysis, integrated product conceptThe elderly population is rapidly growing worldwide. Food intake and also body weight both tend to involuntarily decrease in people aged 65 years or older. Since weight loss in later life is associated with frailty and increased morbidity, adequate dietary intake has been recognized

  3. Sparsity and Compressed Coding in Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barranca, Victor J.; Kova?i?, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2014-01-01

    Considering that many natural stimuli are sparse, can a sensory system evolve to take advantage of this sparsity? We explore this question and show that significant downstream reductions in the numbers of neurons transmitting stimuli observed in early sensory pathways might be a consequence of this sparsity. First, we model an early sensory pathway using an idealized neuronal network comprised of receptors and downstream sensory neurons. Then, by revealing a linear structure intrinsic to neuronal network dynamics, our work points to a potential mechanism for transmitting sparse stimuli, related to compressed-sensing (CS) type data acquisition. Through simulation, we examine the characteristics of networks that are optimal in sparsity encoding, and the impact of localized receptive fields beyond conventional CS theory. The results of this work suggest a new network framework of signal sparsity, freeing the notion from any dependence on specific component-space representations. We expect our CS network mechanism to provide guidance for studying sparse stimulus transmission along realistic sensory pathways as well as engineering network designs that utilize sparsity encoding. PMID:25144745

  4. FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Shihadeh, Alan

    FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES ANNUAL REPORT OF SPONSORED RESEARCH PROJECTS AND SERVICE of Agricultural and Food Sciences was engaged in sponsored research and development activities amounting to 2 nutrition, ecological landscape design, environment, food safety, food sensory analysis, human nutrition

  5. Associations between characteristics of the home food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early childhood is critical to the development of lifelong food habits. Given the high proportion of children with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, identification of modifiable factors associated with higher consumption may be useful in developing interventions to address this public health issue. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the home food environment that are associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of Australian preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with 396 parents of 3 to 5 year-old children attending 30 preschools within the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using a valid and reliable subscale from the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Associations were investigated between children's fruit and vegetable intake and characteristics of the home food environment including parental role-modeling, parental providing behaviour, fruit and vegetable availability, fruit and vegetable accessibility, pressure to eat, family eating policies and family mealtime practices. Characteristics of the home food environment that showed evidence of an association with children's fruit and vegetable consumption in simple regression models were entered into a backwards stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression analysis used generalised linear mixed models, controlled for parental education, household income and child gender, and was adjusted for the correlation between children's fruit and vegetable consumption within a preschool. Results The multiple regression analysis found positive associations between children's fruit and vegetable consumption and parental fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.005), fruit and vegetable availability (p = 0.006) and accessibility (p = 0.012), the number of occasions each day that parents provided their child with fruit and vegetables (p < 0.001), and allowing children to eat only at set meal times all or most of the time (p = 0.006). Combined, these characteristics of the home food environment accounted for 48% of the variation in the child's fruit and vegetable score. Conclusions This study identified a range of modifiable characteristics within the home food environment that are associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among preschool children. Such characteristics could be considered potential targets for interventions to promote intake among children of this age. PMID:22177136

  6. Demographic characteristics and food choices of participants in the Special Diabetes Program for American Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project.

    PubMed

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Jiang, Luohua; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William G; Zhang, Lijing; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette; Manson, Spero M

    2014-06-23

    Objective. American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) suffer a disproportionate burden of diabetes. Identifying food choices of AI/ANs at risk of type 2 diabetes, living in both rural and urban settings, is critical to the development of culturally relevant, evidence-based education strategies designed to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. Design. At baseline, 3135 AI/AN adults participating in the Special Diabetes Program for American Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project (SDPI-DP) completed a socio-demographic survey and a 27-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The primary dietary behavior goal of SDPI-DP education sessions and lifestyle coaching is changes in food choices, i.e., increased fruits, vegetables and whole grains, decreased high sugar beverages, red meat, and processed foods. Subsequently, program assessment focuses on changes in food types. Foods were delineated using a 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' classification as defined by the educators advising participants. Urban and rural differences were examined using ?(2) tests and two sample t-tests. Multiple linear regressions and linear mixed models were used to assess the association between socio-demographic factors and food choice. Results. Retired participants, those living in urban areas and with high income and education selected healthy foods most frequently. Young males, those with low income and education consumed unhealthy foods most frequently. Selection of unhealthy foods did not differ by urban and rural setting. Conclusions. The ubiquitous nature of unhealthy food choices makes them hard to avoid. Food choice differences by gender, age, income, and setting suggest that nutrition education should more effectively target and meets the needs of young AI/AN males. PMID:24954106

  7. Differences in Food Patterns at Breakfast by Sociodemographic Characteristics among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Barry M Popkin; Terri Carson

    2000-01-01

    Background. Eating breakfast is considered an important determinant of a healthy lifestyle. This study explores the different food patterns of breakfast for adults aged 18–65 in the United States.Methods. Data are from the 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, n = 15,641. Dietary assessment method used was the 24-h recall. Nutrient differences among the breakfast food patterns as

  8. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

  9. Verification of retail food outlet location data from a local health department using ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology: assessing differences by neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

    2012-09-01

    Obtaining valid and accurate data on community food environments is critical for research evaluating associations between the food environment and health outcomes. This study utilized ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology to validate a food outlet retail list obtained from an urban local health department in Baltimore, Maryland in 2009. Ten percent of outlets (n=169) were assessed, and differences in accuracy were explored by neighborhood characteristics (96 census tracts) to determine if discrepancies were differential or non-differential. Inaccuracies were largely unrelated to a variety of neighborhood-level variables, with the exception of number of vacant housing units. Although remote-sensing technologies are a promising low-cost alternative to direct observation, this study demonstrated only moderate levels of agreement with ground-truthing. PMID:22818588

  10. Cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause, and are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms progress slowly. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable, as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain and physical therapy for balance training, and, occasionally, assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  11. Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertil Hultén

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the multi-sensory brand-experience concept in relation to the human mind and senses. It also seeks to propose a sensory marketing (SM) model of the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigating the multi-sensory brand-experience concept within the context of discovery. The qualitative study

  12. Sensory education program development, application and its therapeutic effect in children

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hae-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been Increased interest in the emotional intelligence (EQ) of elementary school students, which is recognized as a more important value than IQ (intelligence quotient) for predict of their success in school or later life. However, there are few sensory education programs, available to improve the EQ of elementary school student's in Korea. This study was conducted to develop an educational program that reflects the characteristics and contents of traditional rice culture and verify the effects of those programs on the EQ of children. The program was developed based on the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation) model and participants were elementary school students in 3rd and 4th grade (n = 120) in Cheonan, Korea. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used. EQ scores pertaining to the basic sense group, culture group, and food group were significantly improved after the sensory educational program(P < 0.05), but no change was observed in the control group. These findings indicate that sensory education contributed to improving elementary school children's Emotional Intelligence (EI) and their actual understanding about Korean traditional rice culture. PMID:24611113

  13. Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess. PMID:22929998

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  15. Phase-specific responses to different qualities of food in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: Developmental, morphological and reproductive characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koutaro Maeno; Seiji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Solitarious female adults are known to produce smaller hatchlings than those produced by gregarious adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. This study investigated developmental, morphological and reproductive responses to different qualities of food in hatchlings of different phases. Mortality was higher, the duration of nymphal development longer and adult body weight lighter with a low-quality food than a high-quality

  16. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n?=?94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1?month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access. PMID:22720722

  17. Sensory Transduction: Getting the Message

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A. James Hudspeth, Ph.D., M.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

    2008-04-18

    This lecture covers the sensory system. More specifically, it provides information about how the sensory system captures, transduces, amplifies, adapts, and passes information from one cell to the next.

  18. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  19. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  20. Our Sensory World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesman, C.; Barringer, M. D.

    The booklet explores the role of sensory experiences in the severely developmentally disabled child. Developmental theory is addressed, followed by specific activity suggestions (broken down into developmental levels) for developing tactile sense, auditory sense, gustatory (taste) sense, olfactory sense, visual sense, and kinesthetic sense.…

  1. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  2. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  3. SENSORY AND RHEOLOGICAL TRAITS OF MEXICAN QUESO CHIHUAHUA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, Mexican Queso Chihuahua has been made from raw milk, but as food safety issues increase for cheeses sold with minimal aging, there is concern that pasteurization of the cheesemilk will alter the sensory traits (flavor and texture) unique to this cheese. An international study was dev...

  4. Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ? the binding problem ? as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

  5. Food Chain & Food Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. B

    2011-10-27

    What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

  6. Effects of 35% corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, beef fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Jenkins, K H; Lewis, J B; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Lawrence, T E; McCollum, F T; Pinedo, P J; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-04-01

    Fifty-four individually-fed Hereford-Angus cross steers (initial BW = 308 ± 9 kg) were used in an unbalanced randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine effects of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass and beef characteristics, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn- (SFC) and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 35% WDGS (DM basis; 0SFC and 35SFC, 0DRC and 35DRC, respectively). Yellow grease was used to equilibrate fat content of diets. Steers were fed 174 d, and were harvested on a single date when the mean ultrasound fat thickness was estimated to be 1.30 cm. No interactions between corn processing and WDGS were observed for performance or carcass characteristics (P ? 0.11). Final BW (556 ± 14 kg) and ADG (1.43 ± 0.06 kg) were not affected (P ? 0.25) by dietary treatment. Steers fed SFC-based diets consumed less feed, and were 10.6% more efficient (P < 0.01) than those fed DRC-based diets. Including WDGS in finishing diets improved feed efficiency of steers consuming both SFC- and DRC-based diets (P ? 0.04). Dietary treatment did not affect HCW, dressing percentage, fat thickness, or yield grade (P ? 0.27). Including WDGS in finishing diets decreased the concentration of 16:1cis-9, 18:1cis-9, and 18:1cis-11 fatty acids, and tended (P ? 0.10) to increase total fat concentration of steaks compared with diets without WDGS. A corn processing method by WDGS interaction was detected for 18:1trans-11 where steaks from 0DRC diets had decreased concentrations compared with other diets. There were no dietary effects on palatability attributes (P > 0.20). Livery-organy aromatics (P = 0.03) and sweet basic tastes (P = 0.01) in steaks from the 35SFC treatment were more intense than in other treatments, but were barely detectable. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances tended to be greater in steaks from steers fed WDGS after 5 d of storage (P = 0.10), and were greater after 7 d. (P < 0.01). Inclusion of WDGS used in this experiment improved G:F with minimal impacts on carcass characteristics. Both WDGS inclusion and corn processing method impacted fatty acid composition. However, diet had minimal impacts on palatability attributes. When compared with diets fat-equilibrated with yellow grease, the primary concern with incorporating WDGS appears to be decreased shelf-life after 5 d of storage. PMID:23589628

  7. Instabilities in sensory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  8. Tactile sensory substitution studies.

    PubMed

    Bach-y-Rita, Paul

    2004-05-01

    Forty years ago a project to explore late brain plasticity was initiated that was to lead into a broad area of sensory substitution studies. The questions at that time were: Can a person who has never seen learn to see as an adult? Is the brain sufficiently plastic to develop an entirely new sensory system? The short answer to both questions is yes, first clearly demonstrated in 1969 ((Bach-y-Rita et al., 1969)). To reach that conclusion, it was first necessary to find a way to get visual information to the brain. That took many years and is still the most challenging aspect of the research and the development of practical sensory substitution and augmentation systems. The sensor array is not a problem: a TV camera for blind persons; an accelerometer for persons with vestibular loss; a microphone for deaf persons. These are common and fully developed devices. The problem is the brain-machine interface (BMI). In this short report, only two substitution systems are discussed, vision and vestibular substitution. PMID:15194608

  9. Rheological characteristics of cold thickened beverages containing xanthan gum-based food thickeners used for dysphagia diets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun M; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Cold beverages are commonly thickened with commercial gum-based food thickeners for consumption by patients with dysphagia. In this study, the rheological properties of a thickened water and five thickened beverages (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, whole milk, and a sport drink) that were prepared with four commercial instant xanthan gum-based thickeners (coded A-D) were investigated at a 3% thickener concentration. All thickened samples showed high shear-thinning behavior with yield stress at the serving temperature of 8°C. The magnitudes of apparent viscosity (?a,50), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G'') of the thickened beverages, except for water, with food thickener A were significantly higher compared with other thickeners (B, C, and D) (P<0.05). The largest increases in K values for thickened beverages were observed at 1-hour storage, and at longer times their K values, except for milk, remained approximately constant. Rheological parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences in flow and dynamic behaviors between the cold thickened beverages prepared with the xanthan gum-based food thickeners (P<0.05), indicating that their rheological properties are strongly influenced by the dispersing medium, the type of food thickener, and storage time. In particular, appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener for preparing thickened beverages seems to be of importance for managing dysphagia. PMID:25441963

  10. Retailing organic foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Jones; Colin Clarke-Hill; Peter Shears; David Hillier

    2001-01-01

    During the past five years consumer demand for organic food has risen dramatically in the wake of a series of high profile scares about food safety. This paper provides a case study of the retailing of organic foods. The case study includes an outline of the characteristics and development of the organic food market, an examination of the different players

  11. Measurement in sensory modulation: the sensory processing scale assessment.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Sarah A; Miller, Lucy J; Sullivan, Jillian C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

  12. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  13. A comparison of microbial characteristics between the thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters exposed to elevated food waste loadings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaohui; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Faqian; Zhu, Weijing; Wu, Weixiang

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion reactors (TR and MR) using food waste as substrate were compared with emphasis on microbial responses to increasing organic loading rate (OLR). At OLR ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 g VS L(-1) d(-1), MR exhibited more stable performance compared to TR in terms of methane yield. Amplicons pyrosequencing results revealed the distinct microbial dynamics in the two reactors. Primarily, MR had greater richness and evenness of bacteria species. With OLR elevated, larger shifts of bacterial phylogeny were observed in MR; Methanosaeta dominated in archaeal community in MR while Methanothermobacter and Methanoculleus were favored in TR. The high functional redundancy in bacterial community integrated with acetoclastic methanogenesis in MR resulted in its better performance; whereas delicate interactions between hydrogen-producer and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in TR were much more prone to disruption. These results are conductive to understanding the microbial mechanisms of low methane yield during food waste anaerobic digestion. PMID:24316484

  14. Sensory integration and praxis patterns in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Roley, Susanne Smith; Mailloux, Zoe; Parham, L Diane; Schaaf, Roseann C; Lane, Christianne Joy; Cermak, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We sought to characterize sensory integration (SI) and praxis patterns of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discern whether these patterns relate to social participation. METHOD. We extracted Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) and Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) scores from clinical records of children with ASD ages 4-11 yr (N = 89) and used SIPT and SPM standard scores to describe SI and praxis patterns. Correlation coefficients were generated to discern relationships among SI and praxis scores and these scores' associations with SPM Social Participation scores. RESULTS. Children with ASD showed relative strengths in visual praxis. Marked difficulties were evident in imitation praxis, vestibular bilateral integration, somatosensory perception, and sensory reactivity. SPM Social Participation scores were inversely associated with areas of deficit on SIPT measures. CONCLUSION. Children with ASD characteristically display strengths in visuopraxis and difficulties with somatopraxis and vestibular functions, which appear to greatly affect participation. PMID:25553746

  15. Microhistological characteristics of selected aquatic plants of Florida, with techniques for the study of manatee food habits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurst, L.A.; Beck, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated in 1978 to develop a technique of identifying and quantifying the digestive tract contents of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and to serve as a manual for the identification and analysis of ingesta collected from manatee carcasses salvaged in Florida. This report includes key microhistological characters found useful in identifying fragments of 83 plant species and three invertebrate groups. Many species of aquatic and wetland plants and invertebrates are available to manatees in Florida as potential foods.

  16. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  17. Temperament and Sensory Features of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Matthew E.; Freuler, Ashley; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Poe, Michele D.; Sabatino, Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3–7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Methods Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt & Carey, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (Carey & McDevitt, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three dimensional constructs of sensory features (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsivness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. Results The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Conclusions Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally associated with sensory response patterns. Shared mechanisms underlying sensory responsiveness, temperament, and social withdrawal may be fruitful to explore in future studies. PMID:22366913

  18. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samantha Rigby; Angela F. Leone; HwaHwan Kim; Connie Betterley; Mary Ann Johnson; Hilda Kurtz; Jung Sun Lee

    ObjectiveExamine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)–accepting stores in Leon County, Florida.

  19. Another unique river: a consideration of some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile River in northwestern Ethiopia in relationship to their aquatic food resources.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, John; Tewabe, Dereje; Todd, Lawrence; Feseha, Mulugeta; Kay, Marvin; Kocurek, Gary; Nachman, Brett; Tabor, Neil; Yadeta, Meklit

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic food resources are important components of many modern human hunter-gatherer diets and yet evidence attesting to the widespread exploitation of this food type appears rather late in the archaeological record. While there are times when, for example, the capture of fish and shellfish requires sophisticated technology, there are other cases when the exact ecological attributes of an individual species and the particulars of its environment make it possible for these foods to be incorporated into the human diet with little or no tool use and only a minimal time investment. In order to better understand the full set of variables that are considered in these sorts of foraging decisions, it is necessary to detail the attributes of each particular aquatic environment. We discuss here some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile and Blue Rivers in the Horn of Africa. Unlike typical perennial rivers, these 'temporary' rivers flow only during a brief but intense wet season; during the much longer dry season, the rivers are reduced to a series of increasingly disconnected waterholes, and the abundant and diverse fish and mollusk populations are trapped in ever smaller evaporating pools. The local human population today utilizes a number of diverse capture methods that range from simple to complex, and vary according to the size and depth of the waterhole and the time of the year. When we view the particular characteristics of an individual river system, we find that each river is 'unique' in its individual attributes. The Horn of Africa is believed to be along the route that modern humans followed on their migration out of Africa, and it is likely that the riverine-based foraging behaviors of these populations accompanied our species on its movement into the rest of the Old World. PMID:25017504

  20. Sensory adaptation for timing perception

    PubMed Central

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-01-01

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  1. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  2. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. Methods: The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ? 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Results: Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts (<200) were noted in 24 patients (13 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Clinically, the patients were classified as asymptomatic (n=34) and symptomatic (n=16). Among the symptomatic patients, nine were on antiretroviral therapy since less than one year (seven of these were on regimen containing stavudine). Ten patients aged more than 40-years had symptomatic neuropathy. No significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy (p=0.21). Impaired vibration (100%) and absent ankle jerks (75%) were commoner than reduced pin sensitivity (46.6%). Twenty two patients had abnormal NCS results (18 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Axonal distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in 14 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Subclinical involvement as evidenced by abnormal NCSs was noted in 5 asymptomatic patients who were all on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Symptomatic neuropathy was seen predominantly in HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy. All patients receiving stavudine containing regimen had severe symptomatic neuropathy within 1 year. There was an increase in the likelihood of symptomatic neuropathy among patients aged > 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy. PMID:25177587

  3. Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

  4. Sensory sea slugs

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Bernard M

    2010-01-01

    Molluscs are a large and diverse group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication. Aplysia is an excellent model in which to investigate and develop breakthrough principles into the molecular aspects of chemoreception in molluscs. We recently identified a large family of rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the chemosensory rhinophore of Aplysia that may be key components of sensory detection. Here, we summarize these findings and provide further insight into the molecular olfactory toolkit used by Aplysia, by taking advantage of our knowledge of their attraction pheromones. Our characterization of rhinophore genes upregulated following pheromone stimulation helps explain the dynamics of olfactory gene expression following chemical stimulation. PMID:21057630

  5. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    Food Allergy Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your immune system ... it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Allergic reactions to food ...

  6. Sensory processing relates to attachment to childhood comfort objects of college students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Kalpidou

    2011-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their attachment to it. Participants with a strong attachment liked the

  7. Expression and Regulation of Catecholaminergic Traits in Primary Sensory Neurons: Relationship to Target Innervation in viva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Katz; Ira B. Black

    Catecholaminergic (CA) phenotypic characteristics have re- cently been detected in adult sensory neurons, demonstrating that CA expression in the periphery extends beyond the sym- pathoadrenal axis. Consequently, we may now determine wheth- er common principles underlie CA phenotypic organization in functionally and embryologically diverse populations of periph- eral neurons. To begin defining sensory transmitter regulation, the present study examined the

  8. Deboning time effect on sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profiling sensory texture characteristics of cooked chicken pectoralis major (breast fillets) deboned at different postmortem (PM) times has been research interests for decades. However, there is lack of peer-reviewed studies to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of hot-deboned versus 2-h c...

  9. Physical and related sensory properties of a swallowable bolus.

    PubMed

    Loret, C; Walter, M; Pineau, N; Peyron, M A; Hartmann, C; Martin, N

    2011-10-24

    Rheology and water content properties of cereal boluses collected just before swallowing were investigated. No specific physical markers for swallowing were found between subjects. Each subject had his own mastication strategy leading to food boluses with different rheological and water content properties. However, for most of the subjects, similar physical properties were found for food boluses obtained from consumption of different cereals. Results showed that the food boluses from different cereals exhibited gel-like properties being in a range from 14.1 kPa to 21.2 kPa (G'(1 Hz, 0.4%)), when swallowed. The food boluses had a static yield stress varying from 1.3 kPa to 4.3 kPa. Another interesting finding was that the water content of food boluses might be an important marker for swallowing since it was similar for different cereal food boluses (around 50%). This physical property might drive the fluid sensory perception, which could also be a sensory swallowing threshold. PMID:21620879

  10. Selective conversion of fibroblasts into peripheral sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Joel W; Eade, Kevin T; Sz?cs, Attila; Lo Sardo, Valentina; Tsunemoto, Rachel K; Williams, Daniel; Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Baldwin, Kristin K

    2015-01-01

    Humans and mice detect pain, itch, temperature, pressure, stretch and limb position via signaling from peripheral sensory neurons. These neurons are divided into three functional classes (nociceptors/pruritoceptors, mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors) that are distinguished by their selective expression of TrkA, TrkB or TrkC receptors, respectively. We found that transiently coexpressing Brn3a with either Ngn1 or Ngn2 selectively reprogrammed human and mouse fibroblasts to acquire key properties of these three classes of sensory neurons. These induced sensory neurons (iSNs) were electrically active, exhibited distinct sensory neuron morphologies and matched the characteristic gene expression patterns of endogenous sensory neurons, including selective expression of Trk receptors. In addition, we found that calcium-imaging assays could identify subsets of iSNs that selectively responded to diverse ligands known to activate itch- and pain-sensing neurons. These results offer a simple and rapid means for producing genetically diverse human sensory neurons suitable for drug screening and mechanistic studies. PMID:25420069

  11. Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

  12. Auditory processing and sensory behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorders as revealed by mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Amanda; Mohr, Bettina; Whitmore, Antony; Garagnani, Max; Pulvermüller, Friedmann; Gutierrez, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Sensory dysfunctions may underlie key characteristics in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study aimed to investigate auditory change detection in children with ASD in order to determine event-related potentials to meaningless and meaningful speech stimuli. 11 high functioning boys with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (mean age=13.0; SD=1.08) and 11 typically developing boys (mean age=13.7; SD=1.5) participated in a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm. Results revealed that compared to TD controls, the children with ASD showed significantly reduced MMN responses to both words and pseudowords in the frontal regions of the brain and also a significant reduction in their activation for words in the Central Parietal regions. In order to test the relationship between sensory processing and auditory processing, children completed the Adult and Adolescent Sensory Profile. As predicted, the children with ASD showed more extreme sensory behaviours and were significantly higher than their typically developing controls across three of the sensory quadrants (sensory sensitivity, low registration and sensory avoidance). Importantly, only auditory sensory sensitivity was able to account for the differences displayed for words in the frontal and central parietal regions when controlling for the effect of group, revealing an inverse relationship of the higher sensory sensitivity scores the less activation in response for words. We discuss how the expression of sensory behaviours in ASD may result in deficient neurophysiological mechanisms underlying automatic language processing. PMID:24565813

  13. Phonology: An Emergent Consequence of Memory Constraints and Sensory Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacerda, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Presents a theoretical model that attempts to account for the early stages of language acquisition in terms of interaction between biological constraints and input characteristics. Notes that the model uses the implications of stochastic representations of the sensory input in a volatile and limited memory. Argues that phonological structure is a…

  14. Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition.

    PubMed

    Susskind, Joshua M; Lee, Daniel H; Cusi, Andrée; Feiman, Roman; Grabski, Wojtek; Anderson, Adam K

    2008-07-01

    It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape and surface reflectance features. We hypothesized that this reflects a fundamental antagonism serving to augment versus diminish sensory exposure. In keeping with this hypothesis, when subjects posed expressions of fear, they had a subjectively larger visual field, faster eye movements during target localization and an increase in nasal volume and air velocity during inspiration. The opposite pattern was found for disgust. Fear may therefore work to enhance perception, whereas disgust dampens it. These convergent results provide support for the Darwinian hypothesis that facial expressions are not arbitrary configurations for social communication, but rather, expressions may have originated in altering the sensory interface with the physical world. PMID:18552843

  15. Functional weakness and sensory disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Stone, J; Zeman, A; Sharpe, M

    2002-01-01

    In the diagnosis of functional weakness and sensory disturbance, positive physical signs are as important as absence of signs of disease. Motor signs, particularly Hoover's sign, are more reliable than sensory signs, but none should be used in isolation and must be interpreted in the overall context of the presentation. It should be borne in mind that a patient may have both a functional and an organic disorder. PMID:12185152

  16. Rheological Principles for Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubert, Christopher R.; Foegeding, E. Allen

    Food scientists are routinely confronted with the need to measure physical properties related to sensory texture and processing needs. These properties are determined by rheological methods, where rheology is a science devoted to the deformation and flow of all materials. Rheological properties should be considered a subset of the textural properties of foods, because the sensory detection of texture encompasses factors beyond rheological properties. Specifically, rheological methods accurately measure "force," "deformation," and "flow," and food scientists and engineers must determine how best to apply this information. For example, the flow of salad dressing from a bottle, the snapping of a candy bar, or the pumping of cream through a homogenizer are each related to the rheological properties of these materials. In this chapter, we describe fundamental concepts pertinent to the understanding of the subject and discuss typical examples of rheological tests for common foods. A glossary is included as Sect. 30.6 to clarify and summarize rheological definitions throughout the chapter.

  17. Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

  18. Evaluation of sensory quality of calf chops: a new methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Etaio, I; Gil, P F; Ojeda, M; Albisu, M; Salmerón, J; Pérez Elortondo, F J

    2013-05-01

    A new method to evaluate the sensory quality of calf chops was developed by discussion with experts. Resulting method comprised four parameters: quality related to odor, texture, flavor and persistence. For each parameter, the sensory characteristics perceived are marked and, by using decision trees, corresponding quality is directly scored, so making the assessment more objective. Global sensory quality is calculated by weighting these four partial qualities. Due to sensory characteristic collection, the method also provides an exhaustive description of each sample. To check the appropriateness of the method, 127 calf chop samples were evaluated by a panel specifically trained to apply it. Results confirmed the suitability of the method to describe the samples and differentiate among them according to their quality level. This innovative approach can be very useful for quality control and also to study the effects of different factors on meat sensory quality. PMID:23403302

  19. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that contain ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have an ...

  20. Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  1. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20?g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45?min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338?kJ, P?=?0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127?kJ, P?<0.001) and explicit liking (P?=?0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P?=?0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P?=?0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P?=?0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P?=?0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. PMID:25636235

  2. Food Processing by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. San Martín; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas; B. G. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    The use of high hydrostatic pressures (HHP) for food processing is finding increased application within the food industry. One of the advantages of this technology is that because it does not use heat, sensory, and nutritional attributes of the product remain virtually unaffected, thus yielding products with better quality than those processed traditional methods. HHP have the ability to inactivate

  3. [The medium chain fat acids. Content in food. Physiology, characteristics of metabolism and application in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Arkhipovski?, A V; Titov, V N

    2013-06-01

    It is rational, according to biology laws and purposes for which cells use fatty acids, to distinguish between saturated (without double bonds in chain), monoene (with one bond), unsaturated (with 2 and 3 double bonds) and polyene (with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds) acids. The saturated and monoene fatty acids are mainly the substratum for oxygenation and working out of energy by cells. The unsaturated fatty acids are the substratum for formation of membranes. The polyene fatty acids are the predecessors of synthesis of eicosanoids and aminophosphotides. With subject to characteristics of metabolism and transfer in vivo, the fatty acids are subdivided into short chain C4 - C8 and medium chain C-10 - C-14 fatty acids. The etherification occurs with glycerin into "short" triglycerides which are not bounded with apoproteins. The long chain fatty acids form "long" triglycerides which in enterocytes are structured by apoprotein B-48 into composition of chylomicrons. It is possible to validly consider that difference in outflow from enterocytes to veins of portal system (which includes veins of omentum) of medium chain fatty acids in the form of short triglycerides can directly input into pathogenesis of syndrome of isolated omental obesity and metabolic syndrome. The another input into the mentioned conditions is the secretion through ductus thoracicus into large veins of greater systemic circulation of long chain fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in the content of chylomicrons. The omental obesity is the only specific symptom of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24340938

  4. Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was identified between beet and cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. PMID:25124655

  5. Sensory and instrumental evaluation of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) aroma.

    PubMed

    Baranauskiene, Renata; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Demyttenaere, Jan C R

    2003-06-18

    The present study investigates the composition of volatile constituents and sensory characteristics of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) grown in Lithuania. Hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, static headspace, and solid phase microextraction methods were used for the isolation of aroma volatiles. Geranyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, citronellol, and geraniol were the major constituents in catnip. Differences in the quantitative compositions of volatile compounds isolated by the different techniques were considerable. A sensory panel performed sensory analysis of the ground herb, pure essential oil, and extract; aroma profiles of the products were expressed graphically, and some effects of odor qualities of individual compounds present in catnip on the overall aroma of this herb were observed. PMID:12797753

  6. Compression characteristics of agglomerated food powders: Effect of agglomerate size and water activity Características de la compresión de alimentos en polvo: Efecto del tamaño del aglomerado y del contenido de humedad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yan; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

    1997-01-01

    The stability of food agglomerates is very important for keeping optimal instant properties as well as flow characteristics. Compression tests have been proven not only to be useful tools in char acterizing attrition, but also excellent descriptors for powder flowability. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of particle size and water activity (a w) on the

  7. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313

  8. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  9. Presynaptic inhibition of spinal sensory feedback ensures smooth movement

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Andrew J. P.; Croce, Katherine R.; Huang, Z. Josh; Abbott, L. F.; Jessell, Thomas M.; Azim, Eiman

    2014-01-01

    The precision of skilled movement depends on sensory feedback and its refinement by local inhibitory microcircuits. One specialized set of spinal GABAergic interneurons forms axo-axonic contacts with the central terminals of sensory afferents, exerting presynaptic inhibitory control over sensory-motor transmission. The inability to achieve selective access to the GABAergic neurons responsible for this unorthodox inhibitory mechanism has left unresolved the contribution of presynaptic inhibition to motor behavior. We used Gad2 as a genetic entry point to manipulate the interneurons that contact sensory terminals, and show that activation of these interneurons in mice elicits the defining physiological characteristics of presynaptic inhibition. Selective genetic ablation of Gad2-expressing interneurons severely perturbs goal-directed reaching movements, uncovering a pronounced and stereotypic forelimb motor oscillation, the core features of which are captured by modeling the consequences of sensory feedback at high gain. Our findings define the neural substrate of a genetically hard-wired gain control system crucial for the smooth execution of movement. PMID:24784215

  10. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla?ek, V.; Svobodová, V.; Bartoní?ek, B.; Rosmus, J.; ?amra, M.

    2004-09-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75°C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30°C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI ?ež 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  11. Applications of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in Food Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiqun Huang; Lars J. Kangas; Barbara A. Rasco

    2007-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decades, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties

  12. Does organic food taste better? A claim substantiation approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Fillion; Stacey Arazi

    2002-01-01

    As the demand for organic foods has grown globally, disputes have arisen on whether organic foods are more nutritious, safer, and better for the environment. To many consumers, though, a major issue is whether organic foods taste different and, especially if they are being asked to pay a premium price, whether they taste better. Via the use of sensory analysis

  13. Exposure, health information and flavour-masking strategies for improving the sensory quality of probiotic juice.

    PubMed

    Luckow, T; Sheehan, V; Fitzgerald, G; Delahunty, C

    2006-11-01

    Probiotics are live microbial food supplements, which have been shown to exert numerous health benefits. Research has identified that probiotics cause perceptible off-flavours that often contribute to consumer dissatisfaction. This research consisted of three objectives. Firstly, to confirm whether probiotics have a significant effect on the sensory quality and the consumer acceptance of juices. Secondly, to evaluate whether the addition of tropical juices masks probiotic off-flavours, thereby increasing consumer liking. Thirdly, to determine whether non-sensory factors (i.e., repeated exposure, and health information) have an impact on consumer liking. Three orange juice products were manufactured for analysis; Control juice, juice containing probiotics, and juice containing probiotics and tropical fruit juices (10% v/v). Descriptive sensory analysis using a trained panel (n=8) determined that probiotic juices possessed unique 'medicinal' characteristics. Using labelled affective magnitude scales, consumers (n=116) evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order in the laboratory. Once assigned into one of three balanced exposure groups, each consumer took home seven, 100mL bottles of one of the juices, and consumed one bottle each day for 7 days. After each in-home consumption, consumers evaluated their 'overall liking' to familiarize themselves with the juice. Furthermore, half of the consumers were provided with information about the presence and the health benefits of probiotics, while the other half of consumers received no information. After 7 days of in-home usage, consumers returned to the laboratory for post-exposure sensory testing, where they re-evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order. Results showed that tropical juices were effective in masking the off-flavours associated with probiotic ingredients, and that consumer liking for the probiotic juice containing tropical juice flavours was maintained over the 7-day exposure period. Exposure and information had significant effects on the 'overall liking' of juices containing probiotic cultures. A significant interaction between exposure and information was observed. Therefore, exposure, health information and flavour-masking techniques can have a positive effect on the hedonic qualities of probiotic juices. PMID:16857295

  14. Sensor Selection and Chemo-Sensory Optimization: Toward an Adaptable Chemo-Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to “adapt” in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID:22319492

  15. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods. PMID:20609376

  16. Crispy and crunchy textures: a critical evaluation of rigid foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The textural attributes of crispness and crunchiness are important factors in the enjoyment of many foods, but they are defined differently among dictionaries, consumers, and researchers. Sensory, mechanical, and acoustic methods have been used to provide data on crispness and crunchiness. Sensory...

  17. An optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction and simultaneous quantification of 26 characteristic components with four structure types in functional foods from ginkgo seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guisheng; Yao, Xin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Zhang, Li; Jin, Chun; Qin, Yong; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-09-01

    An optimized method of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2)) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of 26 characteristic components covering four structure types (flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols) in ginkgo seeds (GSs). The UAE parameters (ultrasound power, time and solvent-to-material ratio) were optimized using a response surface methodology. This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of 26 compounds in Ginkgo biloba using UHPLC-TQ/MS(2); this analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) was successfully applied to ginkgo seed samples, and the analysis showed that GSs are rich in terpene lactones and could be selected as a healthy food resource. The results suggest that UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) might be able to be utilized as a tool for the quality assessment of samples from GSs or other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols as markers. PMID:24731329

  18. In vitro digestibility, crystallinity, rheological, thermal, particle size and morphological characteristics of pinole, a traditional energy food obtained from toasted ground maize.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Y; Utrilla-Coello, R; Bello-Pérez, A; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2015-06-01

    Flour obtained from toasted ground maize grains is widely consumed by different ethnic groups of Northern Mexico and Southwest USA as an energy source. In this work the in vitro digestibility, crystallinity, rheological, thermal, particle size distribution and morphological characteristics of toasted ground white and blue maize flours were studied. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystallinity content was reduced, but that the hydrolysis rate and the in vitro digestibility of starch were greatly improved by the toasting process. The relative amount of rapidly digestible starch showed an important increase at the expense of resistant starch content reduction. The thermal properties of white maize starch increased slightly, but those of the blue maize starch decreased slightly after toasting. Aqueous dispersions formed with 10% (w/w) flour were heated at 90°C for 5min to induce starch gelling, in order to resemble thin porridges. The dispersed gels exhibited higher elastic modulus (G') than loss modulus (G'') in the linear viscoelastic region, with blue maize dispersions displaying higher moduli magnitudes. At higher shear strain amplitudes, G' decreased but G'' first increased and then decreased (overshoot phenomenon). The effects of toasting on the structure and functionality of maize starch are explained on the basis of limited gelatinization of the granules. The results in this work provide insights for understanding the extensive use of pinole by impoverished ethnic groups, and more recently by high performance ultra-runners and athletes, as an energy food. PMID:25843856

  19. Electronic noses in food analysis.

    PubMed

    Haugen, J E

    2001-01-01

    Gas sensor array technology combined with multivariate data processing methods as artificial neural network has been demonstrated to have a promising potential for rapid non-destructive analysis of food quality. It may be applicable in quality control of raw material, food processing or products. This technique cannot completely replace reference methods like the use of sensory panels as the technique requires a frequent calibration against some valid reference method. As with all new techniques there remain some basic problems to be solved concerning sample handling and instrumental performance. The emerging research activity in the development of chemical sensors including hardware and software combined with applied research makes it realistic to expect applications with this technique implemented on-line in the food industry in near future. In particular, promising applications on meat seem to be within the field of spoilage, off-flavor, sensory analysis and fermentation processes. PMID:11548159

  20. Food Signs in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis. PMID:21475464

  1. Assessment of Household Food Security Among Food Stamp Recipient Families in Maryland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl A. Oberholser; Cynthia Reeves Tuttle

    Objectives. We assessed the relationship between food security status and var- ious sociodemographic characteristics among households that include children and that receive food stamps. Methods. A modified version of the US Food Security Survey Module was im- plemented by telephone survey with Maryland food stamp recipients. Results. Of the 245 households, 66% experienced food insecurity. Food secu- rity status was

  2. Prosthetic and Sensory Aids Service (PSAS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blind Rehab Chiropractic Service Polytrauma/TBI Prosthetics & Sensory Aids Recreational Therapy More Health Care Veterans Health Administration ... and programs for medical rehabilitation, prosthetic and sensory aids services that promote the health, independence and quality ...

  3. Endocannabinoid Hedonic Hotspot for Sensory Pleasure: Anandamide in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Enhances ‘Liking’ of a Sweet Reward

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen V Mahler; Kyle S Smith; Kent C Berridge

    2007-01-01

    Cannabinoid drugs such as ?9-THC are euphoric and rewarding, and also stimulate food intake in humans and animals. Little is known about how naturally occurring endogenous brain cannabinoids mediate pleasure from food or other natural sensory rewards. The taste reactivity paradigm measures effects of brain manipulations on affective orofacial reactions to intraorally administered pleasant and unpleasant tastes. Here we tested

  4. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  5. Visualizing an Olfactory Sensory Map

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mombaerts; Fan Wang; Catherine Dulac; Steve K. Chao; Adriana Nemes; Monica Mendelsohn; James Edmondson; Richard Axel

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a genetic approach to visualize axons from olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor, as they project to the olfactory bulb. Neurons expressing a specific receptor project to only two topographically fixed loci among the 1800 glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb. Our data provide direct support for a model in which a topographic map of

  6. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-10-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions. PMID:25303833

  7. Reduced numbers of calcitonin gene-related peptide-(CGRP-) and tachykinin-immunoreactive sensory neurones associated with greater enkephalin immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of a mutant rat with hereditary sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satyabrata Kar; Sally J. Gibson; Francesco Scaravilli; Jean M. Jacobs; Victor R. Aber; Julia M. Polak

    1989-01-01

    The mutilated foot rat is a mutant with autosomal recessive sensory neuropathy and frequent mutilation of the hindlimbs. Decreased numbers of dorsal root ganglion cells and diminished sensitivity to painful stimuli are characteristics of these animals. By use of immunocytochemistry, changes in the distributions of peptides involved in sensory and\\/or autonomic regulation, i.e. calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP), tachykinins, enkephalin and

  8. Oxidative stability and sensory evaluation of microencapsulated flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Ana Karina Mauro; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Freitas, Suely Pereira; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena Miguez da

    2014-01-01

    Cold pressed flaxseed oil was microencapsulated by spray drying using an emulsion containing modified starch. The fatty acid composition, moisture, water activity, wettability, water holding capacity, water solubility, crystallinity, and particle size distribution of the microcapsules were determined. The stability of the microcapsules and the crude oil were assessed. An acceptance test was used for the sensory evaluation of a powdered supplement containing the microcapsules. The fatty acid composition was not significantly affected by the microencapsulation. The moisture, water activity, wettability, water solubility and crystallinity were appropriate for dry powders. The microcapsules had no cracks and showed better oxidative stability compared with the crude oil. Storage under vacuum prevented oxidation of the microcapsules. In sensory evaluation, all quality scores of the supplement containing microcapsules were mid-range or higher. The microencapsulation improved the oxidative stability of the oil and this procedure was satisfactorily applied in powdered food. PMID:23962202

  9. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

  10. Double peak sensory responses at submaximal stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Aprile; Erik Stålberg; Pietro Tonali; Luca Padua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to obtain knowledge about the different physiological situations where a double peak sensory response normally occurs and to better understand the significance of this particular sensory response.Methods: In 14 healthy subjects, conventional orthodromic sensory nerve conduction studies were performed on the median and ulnar nerves using submaximal stimulation. Various stimulus strengths, polarity, electrode

  11. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Brock; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Asbjørn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain

  12. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  13. Response to Vestibular Sensory Events in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the response to vestibular sensory events in persons with autism. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to age- and gender-matched community controls. The…

  14. USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

  15. The production and distribution of food is one of the most important economic activities in the world. The

    E-print Network

    Carleton University

    , food poisoning); and the sensory properties of food (taste, appearance, smell, texture). In CanadaThe production and distribution of food is one of the most important economic activities, and handling of food. The field of food science integrates and applies knowledge from the disciplines

  16. Sensory fusion in Physarum polycephalum and implementing multi-sensory functional computation.

    PubMed

    Whiting, James G H; de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Surface electrical potential and observational growth recordings were made of a protoplasmic tube of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum in response to a multitude of stimuli with regards to sensory fusion or multisensory integration. Each stimulus was tested alone and in combination in order to evaluate for the first time the effect that multiple stimuli have on the frequency of streaming oscillation. White light caused a decrease in frequency whilst increasing the temperature and applying a food source in the form of oat flakes both increased the frequency. Simultaneously stimulating P. polycephalum with light and oat flake produced no net change in frequency, while combined light and heat stimuli showed an increase in frequency smaller than that observed for heat alone. When the two positive stimuli, oat flakes and heat, were combined, there was a net increase in frequency similar to the cumulative increases caused by the individual stimuli. Boolean logic gates were derived from the measured frequency change. PMID:24695059

  17. [Olfactory sensory perception].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Aler; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Valenzuela, Saúl; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    The five senses have had a fundamental importance for survival and socialization of human beings. From an evolutionary point of view the sense of smell is the oldest. This sense has a strong representation within the genome, allowing the existence of many types of receptors that allow us to capture multiple volatile odor producing molecules, sending electrical signals to higher centers to report the outside world. Several cortical areas are activated in the brain, which are interconnected to form an extensive and complex neural network, linking for example, areas involved with memory and emotions, thus giving this sense of perceptual richness. While the concept of flavor is largely related to the sense of taste, smell provides the necessary integration with the rest of the senses and higher functions. Fully understanding the sense of smell is relevant to health professionals. Knowing the characteristics of the receptors, the transduction processes and convergence of information in the higher centers involved, we can properly detect olfactory disorders in our patients. PMID:21879170

  18. 99Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (NFSC) Graduate Catalogue 201415

    E-print Network

    , Human Nutrition, Nutrition Epidemiology, Food Chemistry, Food Microbiology, Food Safety, and Sensory, and toxic elements in humans. Prerequisite: NFSC 274. NFSC 315 Advanced Nutrition: Vitamins 3.0; 3 cr in humans. Prerequisite: NFSC 274. NFSC 395 Graduate Seminar in Nutrition and Food Science 1.0; 1 cr. NFSC

  19. Descriptive Characteristics and Health Outcomes of the Food by Prescription Nutrition Supplementation Program for Adults Living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Jason M.; Cohen, Craig R.; Young, Sera L.; Wamuyu, Catherine; Armes, Mary N.; Otieno, Benard O.; Leslie, Hannah H.; Dandu, Madhavi; Stewart, Christopher C.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical effects and potential benefits of nutrition supplementation interventions for persons living with HIV remain largely unreported, despite awareness of the multifaceted relationship between HIV infection and nutrition. We therefore examined descriptive characteristics and nutritional outcomes of the Food by Prescription (FBP) nutrition supplementation program in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Methods Demographic, health, and anthropometric data were gathered from a retrospective cohort of 1,017 non-pregnant adult patients who enrolled into the FBP program at a Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) site in Nyanza Province between July 2009 and July 2011. Our primary outcome was FBP treatment success defined as attainment of BMI>20, and we used Cox proportional hazards to assess socio-demographic and clinical correlates of FBP treatment success. Results Mean body mass index was 16.4 upon enrollment into the FBP program. On average, FBP clients gained 2.01 kg in weight and 0.73 kg/m2 in BMI over follow-up (mean 100 days), with the greatest gains among the most severely undernourished (BMI <16) clients (p<0.001). Only 13.1% of clients attained a BMI>20, though 44.5% achieved a BMI increase ?0.5. Greater BMI at baseline, younger age, male gender, and not requiring highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were associated with a higher rate of attainment of BMI>20. Conclusion This study reports significant gains in weight and BMI among patients enrolled in the FBP program, though only a minority of patients achieved stated programmatic goals of BMI>20. Future research should include well-designed prospective studies that examine retention, exit reasons, mortality outcomes, and long-term sustainability of nutrition supplementation programs for persons living with HIV. PMID:24646586

  20. Who Buys Local Food?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydia Zepeda; Jinghan Li

    2006-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of food shoppers, a Lancaster-Weinstein model is estimated using probit analysis to investigate the characteristics of local food buyers. Because there is no standard for what “local food†is, consumer research is used to define the term fairly narrowly as buying from farmers’ markets, buying directly from farmers, and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) membership.

  1. The influence of context upon consumer sensory evaluation of chicken-meat quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orla Kennedy; Barbara Stewart-Knox; Peter Mitchell; David Thurnham

    2004-01-01

    There is an apparent lack of research investigating how different test conditions influence or bias consumer sensory evaluation of food. The aim of the present pilot study was to determine if testing conditions had any effect on responses of an untrained panel to a novel chicken product. Assessments of flavour, texture and overall liking of corn-fed chicken were made across

  2. Mechanical-Acoustic and Sensory Evaluations of Corn Starch-Whey Protein Isolate Extrudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the mechanism that relates sensory perception of brittle food foams to their mechanical and acoustic properties during crushing, corn starch was extruded with four levels (0, 6, 12, and 18%) of whey protein isolate (WPI) and two levels of in-barrel moisture (23 and 27%). Texture of the exp...

  3. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chia-Ting

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres’s theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of two age groups, 2- to 5-yr-olds (n = 231) and 6- to 10-yr-olds (n = 223). With each group, we tested several CFA models for goodness of fit with the data. The accepted model was identical for each group and indicated that tactile, vestibular–proprioceptive, visual, and auditory systems form distinct, valid factors that are not age dependent. In contrast, alternative models that grouped items according to sensory processing problems (e.g., over- or underresponsiveness within or across sensory systems) did not yield valid factors. Results indicate that distinct sensory system constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data. PMID:25184467

  4. Longitudinal follow-up of factors associated with food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Michelle A; Nelson, Nickola W; Curtis, Amy B

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders longitudinally. Additionally explored were the stability of the relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity from time 1 to time 2 and the association between food selectivity and restricted and repetitive behavior at time 2. A total of 52 parents of children with autism were surveyed approximately 20 months after completing an initial questionnaire. First and second surveys each contained identical parent-response item to categorize food selectivity level and a scale to measure sensory over-responsivity. A new scale to measure restricted and repetitive behaviors was added at time 2. Results comparing time 1 to time 2 indicated no change in food selectivity level and a stable, significant relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity. The measure of restrictive and repetitive behavior (time 2) was found to significantly predict membership in the severe food selectivity group. However, when sensory over-responsivity and both restricted and repetitive behaviors were included in the regression model, only sensory over-responsivity significantly predicted severe food selectivity. These results support conclusions about the chronicity of food selectivity in young children with autism and the consistent relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity. PMID:24121181

  5. Food texture: pleasure and pain.

    PubMed

    Civille, Gail Vance

    2011-03-01

    Food texture provides sensory signals to consumers. Most of these signals stimulate responses from consumers, both good and bad, because of the expected pleasure - from creamy puddings and ice cream to crispy crackers and snacks. One critical role that texture plays in the success of products is its indication of the freshness and stability of the food product. The mechanical properties of food texture, such as hardness, cohesiveness, crispness, crunchiness, and denseness, are easy indicators of a product's freshness and wholesomeness. Although texture is often considered to be secondary to flavor in evaluating a product's success and acceptability, texture will tip the scales for the consumer, if the texture does not meet the consumer's expectation. Two case studies demonstrate the different texture properties of foods, how they function to generate consumer likes and dislikes, and how texture is key in determining food staleness versus freshness. PMID:20831247

  6. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  7. [Applications of 'quantitative sensory testing'].

    PubMed

    Verberne, Wouter R; Snijders, Tom J; Liem, K Seng; Baakman, Anne Catrien; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) consists of several non-invasive, standardised tests aimed at examining different aspects of the entire somatosensory nervous system. Important advantages of QST over existing supplementary tests such as electromyography are the ability to test the function of thin and unmyelinated nerve fibres as well as the subjective sensation of a somatosensory stimulus. QST is validated in diagnosing small fibre neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain. In scientific research, QST is useful in the study into pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and syndromes with sensory symptoms and in the evaluation of the effect of analgesic treatment on the function of the somatosensory nervous system. In the future, QST could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic test in more forms of neuropathy and in other clinical conditions such as chronic unexplained pain syndromes (e.g. fibromyalgia and whiplash-associated disorder. PMID:23369816

  8. Altered visual sensory fusion in children with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, P; Rodríguez, C; Núñez, J C; Vallejo, G; González-Pienda, J A

    2014-12-01

    Reading is a multi-sensory and multi-cognitive task, and its difficulties (e.g., dyslexia) are not a unitary disorder. There are probably a variety of manifestations that relate to the actual site of impairment. A randomized, pre-test/post-test nonequivalent-groups design was conducted over 4 months with three groups aged between 6 and 8 years. One group comprised 76 participants (34 boys, 42 girls) with reading difficulties and altered sensory fusion (RD+ASF), a second group was made up of 123 students (59 boys, 64 girls) with reading difficulties but without altered sensory fusion (RD), and a third group comprised 81 participants (39 boys, 42 girls) who were young readers (RL) without reading delay, paired with the RD group on reading level. The experimental groups received intervention in the skills of control, stimulus recognition, and phonological awareness during a 4-month period. Both pre-test and post-test measures of errors in reading mechanics and reading routes (word and pseudo-word) were obtained. Poorer results in mechanics and reading routes of the RD+ASF group suggest that the effectiveness of the intervention depended on the characteristics of the groups and on the presence of sensory fusion deficits in the RD students. PMID:25375826

  9. Food poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that contains bacteria, parasites, viruses, or the toxins made ... Food poisoning can affect one person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It ...

  10. Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Information Health and Nutrition Information for Preschoolers Food Safety Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. This ... more about food safety Resources for Nutrition & Health Food Groups & Related Topics Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods ...

  11. Food additives

    MedlinePLUS

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  12. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  13. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  14. Pulsed Light Treatments for Food Preservation. A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gemma Oms-Oliu; Olga Martín-Belloso; Robert Soliva-Fortuny

    2010-01-01

    Consumers demand high-quality processed foods with minimal changes in nutritional and sensory properties. Nonthermal methods\\u000a are considered to keep food quality attributes better than traditional thermal processing. Pulsed light (PL) is an emerging\\u000a nonthermal technology for decontamination of food surfaces and food packages, consisting of short time high-peak pulses of\\u000a broad spectrum white light. It is considered an alternative to

  15. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory

  16. Differences in sensory ecology contribute to resource partitioning in the bats Myotis bechsteinii and Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn M. Siemers; Susan M. Swift

    2006-01-01

    Coexisting animal species frequently differ in resource use in at least one niche dimension and thus avoid competition. While\\u000a a range of morphological differences that lead to differentiation in animals' mechanical access to food have been identified,\\u000a the role of sensory differences in within-guild niche differentiation has received less attention. We tested the hypothesis\\u000a that differences in sensory access to

  17. Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Caplice; Gerald F Fitzgerald

    1999-01-01

    Preservation of foods by fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology. Fermentation ensures not only increased shelf life and microbiological safety of a food but also may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria because of their unique metabolic characteristics are involved in many fermentation

  18. Capsaicin and sensory neurones: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Szolcsányi, János

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red pepper has become not only a "hot" topic in neuroscience but its new target-related unique actions have opened the door for the drug industry to introduce a new chapter of analgesics. After several lines of translational efforts with over 1,000 patents and clinical trials, the 8% capsaicin dermal patch reached the market and its long-lasting local analgesic effect in some severe neuropathic pain states is now well established. This introductory chapter outlines on one hand the historical background based on the author's 50 years of experience in this field and on the other hand emphasizes new scopes, fascinating perspectives in pharmaco-physiology, and molecular pharmacology of nociceptive sensory neurons. Evidence for the effect of capsaicin on C-polymodal nociceptors (CMH), C-mechanoinsensitive (CHMi), and silent C-nociceptors are listed and the features of the capsaicin-induced blocking effects of nociceptors are demonstrated. Common and different characteristics of nociceptor-blocking actions after systemic, perineural, local, intrathecal, and in vitro treatments are summarized. Evidence for the misleading conclusions drawn from neonatal capsaicin pretreatment is presented. Perspectives opened from cloning the capsaicin receptor "Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1" (TRPV1) are outlined and potential molecular mechanisms behind the long-lasting functional, ultrastructural, and nerve terminal-damaging effects of capsaicin and other TRPV1 agonists are summarized. Neurogenic inflammation and the long-list of "capsaicin-sensitive" tissue responses are mediated by an unorthodox dual sensory-efferent function of peptidergic TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals which differ from the classical efferent and sensory nerve endings that have a unidirectional role in neuroregulation. Thermoregulatory effects of capsaicin are discussed in detail. It is suggested that since hyperthermia and burn risk due to enhanced noxious heat threshold are the major obstacles of some TRPV1 antagonists, they could be overcome. The special "multisteric" gating function of the TRPV1 cation channel provides the structural ground for blocking chemical activation of TRPV1 without affecting its responsiveness to physical stimuli. A new chapter of potential analgesics targeting nociceptors is now already supported for pain relief in persistent pathological pain states. PMID:24941663

  19. Probing Food Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Michel; Laurent Sagalowicz

    The relationship between a food’s structure and its properties\\/functionalities is of fundamental interest in food materials\\u000a science. The great expectation is to relate the functionality of a food material to the physico-chemical characteristics of\\u000a its ingredients and their geometric arrangement (i.e., structure formation). Functionalities of interest are either of chemical\\u000a (e.g., flavor release from a given matrix), physical\\/ mechanical (e.g.,

  20. A new pressure sensory mechanism for prey detection in birds: the use of principles of seabed dynamics?

    PubMed Central

    Piersma, T.; Aelst, R. van; Kurk, K.; Berkhoudt, H.; Maas, L. R. M.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in birds. Red knots (Calidris canutus), sandpipers that occur worldwide in coastal intertidal areas, are able to detect their favourite hard-shelled prey even when buried in sand beyond the reach of their bills. In operant conditioning experiments designed to find out whether the birds could tell buckets containing only wet sand from buckets containing hard objects in wet sand, we show that they detect the presence not only of deeply buried live bivalves but also of stones. The latter finding virtually excludes, under experimental conditions, prey-detection mechanisms based on vision, acoustics, smell, taste, vibrational signals emitted by prey, temperature gradients and electromagnetic fields. A failure to discriminate between food and non-food trays with dry sand indicates that pore water is involved. Based on the presence of large arrays of Herbst corpuscles (sensory organs that can measure the acceleration due to changes in pressure), the specifics of foraging technique and the characteristics of sediments on which red knots feed, we deduce that the sensory mechanism involves the perception of pressure gradients that are formed when bills probe in soft sediments in which inanimate objects block pore water flow. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been described before. It is argued that repeated probing in soft, wet sediments allows red knots to induce a residual pressure build-up of sufficient strength to detect the pressure disturbance caused by a nearby object. The cyclic process of shaking loosely packed sand grains followed by gravitational settling into a closer packing, leads, owing to insufficient drainage of the sediment, to a locally increased pressure disturbance that is 'pumped up' at each shake.

  1. Neuroepithelial circuit formed by innervation of sensory enteroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez, Diego V; Shahid, Rafiq A; Erdmann, Alan; Kreger, Alex M; Wang, Yu; Calakos, Nicole; Wang, Fan; Liddle, Rodger A

    2015-02-01

    Satiety and other core physiological functions are modulated by sensory signals arising from the surface of the gut. Luminal nutrients and bacteria stimulate epithelial biosensors called enteroendocrine cells. Despite being electrically excitable, enteroendocrine cells are generally thought to communicate indirectly with nerves through hormone secretion and not through direct cell-nerve contact. However, we recently uncovered in intestinal enteroendocrine cells a cytoplasmic process that we named neuropod. Here, we determined that neuropods provide a direct connection between enteroendocrine cells and neurons innervating the small intestine and colon. Using cell-specific transgenic mice to study neural circuits, we found that enteroendocrine cells have the necessary elements for neurotransmission, including expression of genes that encode pre-, post-, and transsynaptic proteins. This neuroepithelial circuit was reconstituted in vitro by coculturing single enteroendocrine cells with sensory neurons. We used a monosynaptic rabies virus to define the circuit's functional connectivity in vivo and determined that delivery of this neurotropic virus into the colon lumen resulted in the infection of mucosal nerves through enteroendocrine cells. This neuroepithelial circuit can serve as both a sensory conduit for food and gut microbes to interact with the nervous system and a portal for viruses to enter the enteric and central nervous systems. PMID:25555217

  2. Spectroscopic study of food and food toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gavin; Walsh, James E.; Martin, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Fungal infection of food causes billions of dollars of lost revenue per annum as well as health problems, to animals and humans, if consumed in sufficient quantities. Modern food sorting techniques rely on colour or other physical characteristics to filter diseased or otherwise unsuitable foodstuffs from healthy foodstuffs. Their speeds are such that up to 40,000 objects per second can be moved at 4 metres per second, through 1 m wide chutes that offer a wide view for colour and shape sorting. Grain type foods such as coffee or peanuts are often vulnerable to toxic infection from invading fungi. If this happens, then their texture, taste and colour can change. Up to now, only visible wavelengths and colour identification have been used to bulk-sort food, but there has been little research in the ultra violet regions of the spectrum to help identify fungus or toxin infection. This research specifically concentrated on the ultra violet (UV) spectral characteristics of food in an attempt to identify possible spectral changes that occur when healthy food items like peanuts become infected with toxin-producing fungi. Ultimately, the goal is to design, build and construct an optical detection system that can use these 'spectral fingerprints' to more quickly and efficiently detect toxically infected food items.

  3. Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R Sharkey; Wesley R Dean; Cassandra M Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Background  Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides\\u000a insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in\\u000a the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the\\u000a risk

  4. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  5. The evolution of fidelity in sensory systems.

    PubMed

    Sornborger, Andrew T; Adams, Malcolm R

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the effect that noise has on the evolution of measurement strategies and competition in populations of organisms with sensory systems of differing fidelities. We address two questions motivated by experimental and theoretical work on sensory systems in noisy environments: (1) How complex must a sensory system be in order to face the need to develop adaptive measurement strategies that change depending on the noise level? (2) Does the principle of competitive exclusion for sensory systems force one population to win out over all others? We find that the answer to the first question is that even very simple sensory systems will need to change measurement strategies depending on the amount of noise in the environment. Interestingly, the answer to the second question is that, in general, at most two populations with different fidelity sensory systems may co-exist within a single environment. PMID:18407294

  6. From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for…

  7. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system. PMID:24509431

  8. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-02-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  9. Development of a structured sensory honey analysis: application to artisanal Madrid honeys.

    PubMed

    González, M M; de Lorenzo, C; Pérez, R A

    2010-02-01

    In this work a methodology to evaluate the sensory properties of honeys has been developed. The sensory analysis was carried out by means of a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method, based on several reference scales, for the coverage of the designed range for each descriptor. The peculiarity of this sensory analysis is that the reference scales have been constituted by common foodstuffs agreed upon by consensus of the panel. The main sensory attributes evaluated in the analyses were: adhesiveness, viscosity, bitterness, aroma, sweetness, acidity, color and granularity. Both the intensity and persistence of honey aromas have also been estimated, together with the classification of the identified aromatic attributes into different groups. The method was applied to 55 artisanal honeys from Madrid (Spain) with the following results: (i) the developed sensory profile sheet allowed a satisfactory description of Madrid honeys; (ii) correlations between sensory attributes of three broad groups of Madrid honeys were obtained and (iii) aroma persistence, sweetness, bitterness, color and granularity appeared as the main sensorial characteristics of honey with discrimination power between floral and honeydew honeys. PMID:21339118

  10. Barriers to Participation in the Food Stamp Program Among Food Pantry Clients in Los Angeles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Algert; Michael Reibel; Marian J. Renvall

    Substantial numbers of food pantry clients are eligible for food stamps but do not receive them. Background characteristics of 14317 food pantry users in Los Angeles were analyzed to provide information helpful in food stamp outreach programs. Ninety per- cent of food pantry users were living well below poverty level, 59% were Hispanic, and 44% were homeless. Only 15% of

  11. Sensory changes after tongue reduction for macroglossia.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kanako; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Jinno, Shigeharu; Omura, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We report sensory changes after tongue reduction by the Harada-Enomoto method for macroglossia in a 20-year-old woman with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Sensory tests were performed before surgery and 1 week and 2 months after surgery. We assessed the static tactile threshold, vibration sense, static 2-point discrimination, pain threshold, and taste. No sensory loss of any category tested was observed after tongue reduction. PMID:22901656

  12. Chemogenetic Silencing of Neurons in Retrosplenial Cortex Disrupts Sensory Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Siobhan; Todd, Travis P.; Pasternak, Anna R.; Luikart, Bryan W.; Skelton, Patrick D.; Urban, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    An essential aspect of episodic memory is the formation of associations between neutral sensory cues in the environment. In light of recent evidence that this critical aspect of learning does not require the hippocampus, we tested the involvement of the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) in this process using a chemogenetic approach that allowed us to temporarily silence neurons along the entire rostrocaudal extent of the RSC. A viral vector containing the gene for a synthetic inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor (hM4Di) was infused into RSC. When the receptor was later activated by systemic injection of clozapine-N-oxide, neural activity in RSC was transiently silenced (confirmed using a patch-clamp procedure). Rats expressing hM4Di and control rats were trained in a sensory preconditioning procedure in which a tone and light were paired on some trials and a white noise stimulus was presented alone on the other trials during the Preconditioning phase. Thus, rats were given the opportunity to form an association between a tone and a light in the absence of reinforcement. Later, the light was paired with food. During the test phase when the auditory cues were presented alone, controls exhibited more conditioned responding during presentation of the tone compared with the white noise reflecting the prior formation of a tone-light association. Silencing RSC neurons during the Preconditioning phase prevented the formation of an association between the tone and light and eliminated the sensory preconditioning effect. These findings indicate that RSC may contribute to episodic memory formation by linking essential sensory stimuli during learning. PMID:25122898

  13. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

  14. Cortical variability in the sensory-evoked response in autism.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah M; Heeger, David J; Dinstein, Ilan; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-05-01

    Previous findings have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) evince greater intra-individual variability (IIV) in their sensory-evoked fMRI responses compared to typical control participants. We explore the robustness of this finding with a new sample of high-functioning adults with autism. Participants were presented with visual, somatosensory and auditory stimuli in the scanner whilst they completed a one-back task. While ASD and control participants were statistically indistinguishable with respect to behavioral responses, the new ASD group exhibited greater IIV relative to controls. We also show that the IIV was equivalent across hemispheres and remained stable over the duration of the experiment. This suggests that greater cortical IIV may be a replicable characteristic of sensory systems in autism. PMID:25326820

  15. Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

  16. An Evaluation of the Role of Sensory Drive in the Evolution of Lake Malawi Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam R.; van Staaden, Moira J.; Carleton, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the cichlids of Lake Malawi are an important model system for the study of sensory evolution and sexual selection, the evolutionary processes linking these two phenomena remain unclear. Prior works have proposed that evolutionary divergence is driven by sensory drive, particularly as it applies to the visual system. While evidence suggests that sensory drive has played a role in the speciation of Lake Victoria cichlids, the findings from several lines of research on cichlids of Lake Malawi are not consistent with the primary tenets of this hypothesis. More specifically, three observations make the sensory drive model implausible in Malawi: (i) a lack of environmental constraint due to a broad and intense ambient light spectrum in species rich littoral habitats, (ii) pronounced variation in receiver sensory characteristics, and (iii) pronounced variability in male courtship signal characteristics. In the following work, we synthesize the results from recent studies to draw attention to the importance of sensory variation in cichlid evolution and speciation, and we suggest possible avenues of future research. PMID:22779029

  17. Characteristics of enterotoxin distribution, hemolysis, lecithinase, and starch hydrolysis of Bacillus cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat foods.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous environmental microbe implicated as a main cause of food poisoning with various symptoms, depending on the strain type and the isolation source. In this study, the potential virulence factors and biochemical properties of B. cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were analyzed and compared. A total of 347 B. cereus strains were isolated and identified from 687 infant food formulas and RTE food samples. All the isolates had one or more enterotoxin genes, and one-half of the strains had all 3 enterotoxin genes (hbl, nhe, and cytK) that are involved in food poisoning in humans. Here, all the 3 genes were detected in 50% of the B. cereus isolates from RTE foods and only 14% of the isolates were identified from infant formulas. The latter harbored low cytK and bceT, and very low hbl genes. Most B. cereus isolates possessed the hemolysis gene, but not the ces gene. The infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis activity than the other isolates. In addition, 26% of the total isolates showed low lecithinase activities and 10% showed high lecithinase activities. A greater number of isolates from the infant formula showed high lecithinase activity than those from the RTE foods. Approximately 83% of the isolates were positive and 17% were negative for starch hydrolysis. Over 90% of the RTE food isolates and only 35% of the infant formula isolates were positive for starch hydrolysis. However, all the strains possessed nhe, but their harboring patterns of hbl and cytK were significantly different. Most starch-hydrolyzing strains possessed hbl, but only 23% nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates possessed this gene. Moreover, very low nonstarch hydrolyzing strains harbored cytK. Most nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates showed high lecithinase and strong hemolysis activities, and very low hbl and cytK harboring. In summary, most infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis and higher lecithinase activities with lower frequency of harboring hbl and cytK and lower starch hydrolysis compared with RTE food isolates. PMID:25597976

  18. Response bias factors and the sensoristatic model of sensory restriction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gendreau; Faith Carson

    1974-01-01

    Considers that the sensoristatic model of sensory restriction claims sensory isolation lowers sensory thresholds. Evidence for this claim rests on traditional psychophysical procedures which according to signal detection (TSD) theory may confound pure sensory shifts with motivational factors. A TSD analysis of 1 type of sensory restriction procedure, isolation of a circumscribed area of the skin, revealed that in 9

  19. Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. PMID:25542775

  20. Improving Oral Communication Skills of Students in Food Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitmeier, C. A.; Svendsen, L. K.; Vrchota, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Communication activities about food evaluation were incorporated into food preparation courses. Oral reports replaced quizzes and an oral presentation replaced the final exam. A rubric was developed to help students evaluate ingredient functions, procedures, techniques, temperatures, and sensory evaluation. Oral report scores, self-evaluations,…

  1. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  2. Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents.

    PubMed

    Werner, Scott J; Provenza, Frederick D

    2011-02-01

    We learned previously that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) use affective processes to shift flavor preference, and cognitive associations (colors) to avoid food, subsequent to avoidance conditioning. We conducted three experiments with captive red-winged blackbirds to reconcile varied consequences of treated food with conditioned sensory cues. In Experiment 1, we compared food avoidance conditioned with lithium chloride (LiCl) or naloxone hydrochloride (NHCl) to evaluate cue-consequence specificity. All blackbirds conditioned with LiCl (gastrointestinal toxin) avoided the color (red) and flavor (NaCl) of food experienced during conditioning; birds conditioned with NHCl (opioid antagonist) avoided only the color (not the flavor) of food subsequent to conditioning. In Experiment 2, we conditioned experimentally naïve blackbirds using free choice of colored (red) and flavored (NaCl) food paired with an anthraquinone- (postingestive, cathartic purgative), methiocarb- (postingestive, cholinesterase inhibitor), or methyl anthranilate-based repellent (preingestive, trigeminal irritant). Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents avoided the color and flavor of foods experienced during conditioning; methyl anthranilate conditioned only color (not flavor) avoidance. In Experiment 3, we used a third group of blackbirds to evaluate effects of novel comparison cues (blue, citric acid) subsequent to conditioning with red and NaCl paired with anthraquinone or methiocarb. Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents did not avoid conditioned color or flavor cues when novel comparison cues were presented during the test. Thus, blackbirds cognitively associate pre- and postingestive consequences with visual cues, and reliably integrate visual and gustatory experience with postingestive consequences to procure nutrients and avoid toxins. PMID:20971129

  3. Comparison of Food Choice Motives between Malay Husbands and Wives in an Urban Community.

    PubMed

    Asma, A; Nawalyah, A G; Rokiah, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the motives underlying the selection of foods between husbands and wives in an urban community. Thiscross-sectional study was carried out in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia among 150 married couples aged 20 and above, who voluntarily agreed to participate and were not on any special diet. Data were collected using the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) which measured the health-related and non health related factor that influence people's food choices. It consisted of 36 items designed to assess the reported importance of nine factors: health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, and ethical concern. In this study, the FCQ was adapted and a new factor, religion (religious guidelines), was included. Demographic characteristics including age, occupation, education, household income and household size were also collected. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Results showed that 40.7% of husbands (mean age= 43.33 + 11.16 years) and 55.3% of wives (mean age= 41.28 + 10.93 years) perceived themselves as the main food shopper while 12.0% of the husbands and 85.3% of the wives perceived themselves as the main meal planner. Husbands rated religion as the most prominent factor in food choice motives with a mean average rating of 4.56 + 0.59 on a 5-point rating scale, followed by health and convenience factor. Meanwhile, the wives rated health as the most essential factor with mean average rating of 4.49 + 0.58, followed by religion and convenience factor. Sensory appeal, ethical concerns and familiarity were rated as the bottom three factors of food choice motives among these two groups. Price of foods was not considered as an important factor in making food choices for the subjects in this study. In conclusion, the husbands and wives of this urban community rated religion, health and convenience as the three most important food choice motives in food selection. PMID:22691854

  4. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...

  5. Food allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean D. Metcalfe

    1985-01-01

    The clinical expression of food hypersensitivity or food allergy is usually the end-result of a series of complex interactions among ingested food antigens, the digestive tract, tissue mast cells and circulating basophils, and food antigen-specific IgE. In some well-defined, food-induced diseases, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, additional immunologic mechanisms are involved. An understanding of the nature of antigens in foods capable

  6. Food Packaging

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

  7. Food Timeline

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

    The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

  8. Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

  9. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-04-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, visual rehabilitation, and multisensory processes. PMID:24759484

  10. ASIC3 Channels in Multimodal Sensory Perception

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3?6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy. PMID:22778854

  11. A housefly sensory-motor integration laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edwin R. Griff (University of Cincinnati Biological Sciences)

    2010-06-01

    Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly Musca domestica that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration of sensory information that mediate the behaviors.

  12. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  13. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  14. Sensory Perception and Communication in Electric Fish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patricia J. DeCoursey (University of South Carolina; )

    1993-01-01

    Electric fish of the Amazon Basin and Nile River are equipped with electric-generator-receiver organs for both sensory perception and communication. These fish are superbly adapted for life in turbulent, muddy streams and, therefore, provide and excellent illustration of the input of environmental information into central nervous systems via specialized sensory windows.

  15. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. PMID:24415527

  16. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  17. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  18. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  19. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  20. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed March 2015 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is ...

  2. Características del diseño de rutas de distribución de alimentos en el Valle de Aburrá Characteristics of vehicle routing for food distribution in Aburra's Valley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres Felipe Correa; Héctor Manuel Gómez; Jhon Fredy Loaiza; Diana Catalina Loper; Juan Guillermo Villegas

    This paper reports the results of a survey of vehicle routing decisions of food industries located in Aburra's Valle (Colombia). The survey includes the elements of the vehicle routing process: type of decisions, special constraints, goals, tools, advantages and disadvantages of the methods currently in use. Finally, some opportunities to improve the distribution process are identified.

  3. Related Links — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has launched an online mapping tool that locates food deserts. The Food Desert Locator also provides data on population characteristics where residents have limited access to affordable and nutritious foods, including low-income communities. The tool can be used to help advocates expand the availability of nutritious foods in these areas.

  4. Impact of boiling conditions on the molecular and sensory profile of a vegetable broth.

    PubMed

    Mougin, Alice; Mauroux, Olivier; Matthey-Doret, Walter; Barcos, Eugenia Maria; Beaud, Fernand; Bousbaine, Ahmed; Viton, Florian; Smarrito-Menozzi, Candice

    2015-02-11

    Low-pressure cooking has recently been identified as an alternative to ambient and high-pressure cooking to provide food with enhanced organoleptic properties. This work investigates the impact of the cooking process at different pressures on the molecular and sensory profile of a vegetable broth. Experimental results showed similar sensory and chemical profiles of vegetable broths when boiling at 0.93 and 1.5 bar, while an enhancement of sulfur volatile compounds correlated with a greater leek content and savory aroma was observed when boiling at low pressure (80 °C/0.48 bar). Thus, low-pressure cooking would allow preserving the most labile volatiles likely due to the lower water boiling temperature and the reduced level of oxygen. This study evidenced chemical and sensory impact of pressure during cooking and demonstrated that the flavor profile of culinary preparations can be enhanced by applying low-pressure conditions. PMID:25579390

  5. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis with subsequent mild thermal oxidation of tallow on precursor formation and sensory profiles of beef flavours assessed by partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiqing; Tang, Qi; Hayat, Khizar; Karangwa, Eric; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing

    2014-03-01

    Effects of different pretreatments of tallow on flavour precursor development and flavour profiles of beef flavours (BFs) were evaluated. Analysis of free fatty acids and volatiles of tallow by GC and GC-MS indicated that the enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow formed the most characteristic flavour precursors compared with others. The results of descriptive sensory analysis confirmed that beef flavour 4 from enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow had the strongest beefy, meaty and odour characteristics, followed by beef flavour 2 from oxidized tallow. Electronic nose data confirmed the accuracy of the sensory analysis results. The correlation analysis of 51 volatile compounds in tallow and sensory attributes of BFs showed that some compounds, especially aldehydes, made a significant contribution to sensory attributes. Correlation analysis of free fatty acids and sensory attributes through partial least squares regression (PLSR) confirmed that the moderate enzymatic hydrolysis-thermal oxidation pretreatment of tallow was necessary to achieve the characteristic beef flavour. PMID:24334040

  6. Food, ethics and aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Tivadar, Blanka; Luthar, Breda

    2005-04-01

    The authors test the popular thesis of some of the most influential theorists of contemporary societies about the erosion of the social structuring of consumption choices and their consequent individualisation in westernised societies, using the example of food practices. The analysis is based on data obtained from a random sample of the Slovenian population within a research project entitled 'Lifestyles in a Mediated Society.' The aims of the analysis were: (a) to explore the role of socio-demographic variables in food practices, and (b) to discover the inherent logic that motivates each particular set of food practices and which makes them meaningful for the individual, by studying an association of respondents' food practices with their worldview and cultural consumption. A cluster analysis revealed six food cultures (Male traditionalists, Yes-sayers, Male modernists, Weight-watchers, Carefree hedonists, and Health-conscious hedonists) lying along a continuum where traditionalism occupies one end and post-traditionalism the other. The authors conclude that although two out of six food cultures crosscut socio-demographic affiliations and transform food consumption into a constituent part of a lifestyle as an identity project, there is still a significant influence of socio-demographic characteristics (particularly gender and formal education) on food practices in contemporary Slovenia. Furthermore, significant associations exist between food practices, on the one hand, and the respondent's worldview and cultural consumption, on the other. PMID:15808896

  7. Choosing organics: a path analysis of factors underlying the selection of organic food among Australian consumers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart Lockie; Kristen Lyons; Geoffrey Lawrence; Janet Grice

    2004-01-01

    Path analysis of attitudinal, motivational, demographic and behavioural factors influencing food choice among Australian consumers who had consumed at least some organic food in the preceding 12 months showed that concern with the naturalness of food and the sensory and emotional experience of eating were the major determinants of increasing levels of organic consumption. Increasing consumption was also related to

  8. Longitudinal Follow-up of Factors Associated with Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Michelle A.; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders longitudinally. Additionally explored were the stability of the relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity from time 1 to time 2 and the association between food selectivity and restricted and repetitive behavior at time…

  9. Tasting fat: Cephalic phase hormonal responses and food intake in restrained and unrestrained eaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan R. Crystal; Karen L. Teff

    2006-01-01

    Restrained eaters exhibit strict cognitive control over their food intake, primarily by limiting intake of high-fat foods. Earlier studies indicate a relationship between dietary restraint and cephalic phase insulin release, which is hypothesized to influence hunger and food intake. To compare cephalic phase hormonal responses to high- and low-fat stimuli and determine if the sensory experience of tasting fat alters

  10. Control of food handling by cutaneous receptor input in squirrels.

    PubMed

    Brenowitz, G L

    1980-01-01

    In a complementary neuroanatomical study by Brenowitz in 1980, it was shown that tree squirrels (Sciurus niger) have a higher relative density of mechanoreceptors in their glabrous forepaw skin than do ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). The main purpose of this sudy was to test the prediction that tree squirrels would depend upon somatic sensory (cutaneous) input from their forepaws to a greater extent than would ground squirrels in food handling behavior. In addition, a series of more general questions about the sensory control of food handling was examined. First, using different sized food items, it was shown that food handling (rate of manipulation) is subject to sensory control, in general. Secondly, comparision of sham-operated groups with groups receiving median nerve (innervating the palmar surface) lesions showed that cutaneous input from the volar surface of the forepaw contributes to the sensory control in both species of squirrels. Thirdly, comparison of lesion effects in the two species showed that, as predicted, tree squirrels depend upon cutaneous input from their volar forepaw to a greater extent than do ground squirrels. Fourthly, by reanalyzing the above data it was shown that there is continued sensory feedback from food items rather than only an initial evaluation of them. PMID:7437901

  11. Sensory and chemical characteristics of ground goat meat products

    E-print Network

    Myers, Cheri Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    , West Bend Co. , Manitowoc, WI) set at 176. 7'C. The browned meat was then drained. Dry seasonings ? 7. 2 g dehydrated onions, 0. 8 g garlic powder, 0. 6 g black pepper, 2. 4 g chili powder, 0. 5 g paprika, 0. 6 g onion powder, and 1. 0 g ground cumin...

  12. Maple syrup-production, composition, chemistry, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Timothy D; van den Berg, Abby K

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup is made from sap exuded from stems of the genus Acer during the springtime. Sap is a dilute solution of primarily water and sucrose, with varying amounts of amino and organic acids and phenolic substances. When concentrated, usually by heating, a series of complex reactions produce a wide variety of flavor compounds that vary due to processing and other management factors, seasonal changes in sap chemistry, and microbial contamination. Color also forms during thermal evaporation. Flavor and color together are the primary factors determining maple syrup grade, and syrup can range from very light-colored and delicate-flavored to very dark-colored and strong-flavored. PMID:19389608

  13. Food Justice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Gottlieb; Anupama Joshi

    2010-01-01

    In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\

  14. Food Groups

    MedlinePLUS

    Welcome to the Five Food Groups MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

  15. Factors influencing food selection by students in a university foodservice

    E-print Network

    Clement, Camille Therese

    1989-01-01

    students when selecting food in the cafeteria. Results showed 71. 2/o of the students surveyed chose sensory appeal as being most or moderately important (Table 1). These results are consistent with the results obtained by Dalton (10). This data supports... to be an important factor in student food selection with 67. 3 ' considering it most or moderately important in their food selection. Dalton found "expediency", (the equivalent of convenience) to be ranked third in importance with "health value" being second (10...

  16. Behavioral reactions to novel food odors by intertidal hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Tran, Mark V

    2015-04-01

    Novel food items represent important food resources for generalist scavengers, such as intertidal hermit crabs. For animals that rely heavily on olfaction to mediate foraging, their first encounters with novel food items come from the detection of novel food odors. Although crustaceans have been shown to possess sensory mechanisms for processing novel odors, little is known about the level of stimulus reinforcement needed to maintain behavioral responses to novel food odors upon subsequent exposures. In the context of foraging, reinforcement of a novel food odor comes from feeding on the novel food item after sensory detection of the food item. This study tested the behavioral responses of hermit crabs to a novel food odor over repeated exposures both with and without stimulus reinforcement. The results show that stimulus reinforcement is needed for the animals to maintain their baseline level of behavioral responses to the novel food odors. Animals that were allowed to feed on the novel food item after first exposure (reinforced treatment) maintained strong behavioral reactions to the novel food odor during subsequent exposures. The behavioral reactions of animals that were not allowed to feed on the novel food item after first exposure (unreinforced treatment) rapidly declined. PMID:25562193

  17. Effect of ionising radiation treatment on the specific migration characteristics of packaging–food simulant combinations: effect of type and dose of radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Zygoura; E. K. Paleologos; M. G. Kontominas

    2011-01-01

    Migration levels of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticiser from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film into the European Union specified aqueous food simulants (distilled water, 3% w\\/v acetic acid and 10% v\\/v ethanol) were monitored as a function of time. Migration testing was carried out at 40°C for 10 days. Determination of the analyte was performed by applying an analytical methodology based

  18. Feeding current characteristics of three morphologically different bivalve suspension feeders, Crassostrea gigas , Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule , in relation to food competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Troost; Eize J. Stamhuis; Luca A. van Duren; Wim J. Wolff

    2009-01-01

    Introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have shown rapid expansion in the Oosterschelde estuary, while stocks of native bivalves declined slightly or remained stable.\\u000a This indicates that they might have an advantage over native bivalve filter feeders. Hence, at the scale of individual bivalves,\\u000a we studied whether this advantage occurs in optimizing food intake over native bivalves. We investigated feeding current

  19. First record of the temperate species Daphnia curvirostris Eylmann, 1887 emend. Johnson, 1952 (Cladocera: Daphniidae) in Mexico and its demographic characteristics in relation to algal food density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nandini; Marcelo Silva-Briano; Gerardo García García; S. S. S. Sarma; Araceli Adabache-Ortiz; Ricardo Galván de la Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Daphnia curvirostris is a typical European species but has also been recorded in Canada and USA. This is a new record for Mexico and the taxon\\u000a was collected from the Chimaliapan wetlands (State of Mexico, Mexico). Taxonomic descriptions of it are provided using both\\u000a light and scanning-electron microscopes. When cultured on the green alga Scenedesmus acutus at three food levels

  20. Sensory Complications in Patients after Scalp Mass Excision and Its Anatomical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin Seo; Cho, Yong Jun; Kang, Suk Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of postsurgical sensory complications in patients with scalp masses and classify the locations of them from a surgical standpoint according to anatomical considerations. Methods A total of 121 patients who underwent surgery for scalp mass were included in this study. The authors reviewed medical records and preoperative radiologic images. We investigated the complications related to sensory changes after procedure. Enrolled patients have been divided into three groups. Group A included patients with tumors above the superior nuchal line (SNL), Group B with tumors within the trapezius muscle area and patients who had tumors on the lateral trapezius muscle area were assigned to Group C. We compared the incidence related to postoperative sensory complications and summarized their additional treatments for these with clinical outcome. Results There were 12 patients (10%) with sensory complications related on the mass excision site (Group A: 1 patient, Group B: 2 patients, Group C: 9 patients). Six patients were affected with lesser occipital nerve (LON), 2 patients on greater occipital nerve (GON) and 4 patients on GON and LON. Over 6 months after surgery, two of the twelve patients with sensory complications did not have complete recovered pain in spite of proper medications and local chemical neurolysis with 1.0% lidocaine and dexamethasone. Conclusion Occipital neuropathy should be considered as a complication related excision of scalp mass. The sensory complications are more frequent in Group C because of the anatomical characteristics of the occipital nerves and there were no statistical difference for other variables. PMID:25024823

  1. Are both the sensory and the affective dimensions of pain encoded in the face?

    PubMed

    Kunz, Miriam; Lautenbacher, Stefan; LeBlanc, Nadine; Rainville, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    The facial expression of pain plays a crucial role in pain communication and pain diagnostics. Despite its importance, it has remained unknown which dimensions of pain (sensory and/or affective) are encoded in the face. To answer this question, we used a well-established cognitive strategy (suggestions) to differentially modulate the sensory and affective dimensions of pain and investigate the effect of this manipulation on facial responses to experimental pain. Twenty-two subjects participated in the study. Their facial expressions, pain intensity, and unpleasantness ratings as well as skin conductance responses to tonic and phasic heat pain were assessed before and after suggestions directed toward increase in affective and sensory qualities of pain, respectively, were provided. Facial expressions were analyzed with the Facial Action Coding system. As expected, suggestions designed to increase the sensory dimension produced a selective increase in pain intensity ratings, whereas suggestions designed to increase pain affect produced increased unpleasantness ratings and elevated skin conductance responses. Furthermore, suggestions for either increased pain affect or pain sensation produced selective modulations in facial response patterns, with facial movements around the eyes mostly encoding sensory aspects, whereas movements of the eyebrows and of the upper lip were closely associated with the affective pain dimension. The facial expression of pain is a multidimensional response system that differentially encodes affective and sensory pain qualities. This differential encoding might have evolved to guarantee that the specific characteristics of one's pain experience are facially communicated, thereby ensuring adequate help and support from others. PMID:22112930

  2. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

  3. Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A.; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A.; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder. PMID:24359124

  4. Studies on chemical and sensory parameters of coconut oil and its olein blends with sesame oil and palmolein during wheat flour-based product frying.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad I; Asha, M R; Bhat, K K; Khatoon, Sakina

    2011-04-01

    Blends of coconut oil-coconut oil with sesame oil (blend 1); coconut olein with sesame oil (blend 2); coconut olein with palmolein (blend 3) in 1:1 (v/v) ratio-were used in this study for frying Poori, a traditional Indian fast food prepared from wheat flour. Changes in oil quality were determined by chemical and sensory methods. Free fatty acid content did not change whereas peroxide value increased. Anisidine value increased from 5.5, 0.9 and 4.2 to 34.3, 42.8 and 23.6 for blends 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Iodine value showed marginal decrease in blends 1 and 2. Diene value showed no change in all three blends. Sesamol content in blends 1 and 2, total tocopherols in all the three blends, and ?-carotene content in blend 3 decreased after frying. The blends showed a significant decrease (P???0.05) in the characteristic coconut oil odour after frying. Blend 3 showed comparatively better frying stability and also overall sensory quality of poori fried in this blend was the highest. PMID:23572732

  5. Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

    2015-04-15

    The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. PMID:25466130

  6. The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Keegan TH, Hurley S, Goldberg D, Nelson DO, Reynolds P, Bernstein L, Horn-Ross PL, Gomez SL. The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort.

  7. Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Demattè, M. Luisa; Endrizzi, Isabella; Gasperi, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists between food neophobia and both the variety in one person’s diet and previous exposures to different foods. In this review, the more recent findings about food neophobia will be concisely described. Given the suggested connection between the exposure to different foods and food neophobia, this review will focus on the relation between this attitude and human chemosensory abilities. Olfaction, in particular, is a sensory modality that has a central role in flavor perception and in food preference acquisition. Therefore, the latest evidences about its relation with food neophobia will be discussed along with the applied and cognitive implications. PMID:24596565

  8. Steve Otwell, PhD, Laura Garrido & Leslie Sturmer Aquatic Food Products Program

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    & Human Nutrition Department University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 Sensory Characterization Program Food Science and Human Nutrition Department and, the Cedar Key Aquaculture Association. Thank you Science and Human Nutrition Department University of Florida Gainesville, Fla. LESLIE STURMER Shellfish

  9. Flies require bilateral sensory input to track odor gradients in flight

    PubMed Central

    Duistermars, Brian J.; Chow, Dawnis M.; Frye, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Fruit flies make their living on the fly in search of attractive food odors. To maintain forward flight, flies balance the strength of self-induced bilateral visual motion [1] and bilateral wind cues [2], but it is unknown whether they use bilateral olfactory cues to track odors in flight. Tracking an odor gradient requires comparisons across two spatially separated chemosensory organs and has been observed in several walking insects [3–5], including Drosophila [6]. The olfactory antennae are separated by a fraction of a millimeter, and most sensory neurons project bilaterally and symmetrically activate the first-order olfactory relay [7, 8], both of which would seem to constrain the capacity for bilateral sensory comparisons. Are fruit flies nonetheless able to track an odor gradient during flight? Using a modified flight simulator that enables maneuvers in the yaw axis [9], we found that flies readily steer directly toward a laterally positioned odor plume. This capability is abolished by occluding sensory input to one antenna. Mechanosensory input from the Johnston’s organ and olfactory input from the third antennal segment cooperate to direct small angle yaw turns up the plume gradient. We additionally show that sensory signals from the left antenna contribute disproportionately more to odor tracking than the right, providing further evidence of sensory lateralization in invertebrates [10–13]. PMID:19576769

  10. Development of sensory-motor synapses in the spinal cord of the frog.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, E; Westerfield, M

    1983-01-01

    The development and specificity of monosynaptic sensory-motor synapses were studied in the brachial spinal cord of bullfrog tadpoles. Intracellular and extracellular recordings were made from motoneurones innervating several different muscles of the forelimb. Excitatory synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) were elicited by stimulation of various peripheral muscle nerves. Sensory and motor axons in the triceps brachii muscle nerves were electrically excitable at stage XIII, the earliest stage studied. Their conduction velocities were 0.2-0.4 m/s. These velocities increased during subsequent development so that by stage XXII they were approximately 5 m/s. Before stage XVII, synaptic potentials evoked in motoneurones by stimulation of the triceps sensory fibres had a long central latency and fatigued easily. These potentials were probably mediated polysynaptically. At stage XVII, the first short-latency triceps synaptic potentials appeared. They had central latencies of less than 3 ms and represented the direct, monosynaptic input from muscle sensory cells on to motoneurones. During subsequent development the percentage of triceps motoneurones innervated by triceps sensory fibres increased, while the number of long-latency polysynaptic inputs decreased. Both the electrical and chemical components, characteristic of these monosynaptic e.p.s.p.s in adult frogs, were prominent from the time the e.p.s.p.s first appeared. The pattern of innervation of brachial motoneurones by triceps sensory afferents was specific from the beginning. Triceps sensory fibres innervated most triceps motoneurones but very few subscapular or pectoralis motoneurones, just as in adult frogs. At no time were there appreciable numbers of 'aberrant' connexions. The developmental time course of several different classes of sensory-motor connexions was similar. Thus the synaptic specificity of this system cannot be explained by a differential timing of synaptogenesis. PMID:6315924

  11. Shapes, scents and sounds: quantifying the full multi-sensory basis of conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary neuroscience theories assume that concepts are formed through experience in multiple sensory-motor modalities. Quantifying the contribution of each modality to different object categories is critical to understanding the structure of the conceptual system and to explaining category-specific knowledge deficits. Verbal feature listing is typically used to elicit this information but has a number of drawbacks: sensory knowledge often cannot easily be translated into verbal features and many features are experienced in multiple modalities. Here, we employed a more direct approach in which subjects rated their knowledge of objects in each sensory-motor modality separately. Compared with these ratings, feature listing over-estimated the importance of visual form and functional knowledge and under-estimated the contributions of other sensory channels. An item's sensory rating proved to be a better predictor of lexical-semantic processing speed than the number of features it possessed, suggesting that ratings better capture the overall quantity of sensory information associated with a concept. Finally, the richer, multi-modal rating data not only replicated the sensory-functional distinction between animals and non-living things but also revealed novel distinctions between different types of artefact. Hierarchical cluster analyses indicated that mechanical devices (e.g., vehicles) were distinct from other non-living objects because they had strong sound and motion characteristics, making them more similar to animals in this respect. Taken together, the ratings align with neuroscience evidence in suggesting that a number of distinct sensory processing channels make important contributions to object knowledge. Multi-modal ratings for 160 objects are provided as supplementary materials. PMID:23159700

  12. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  13. Treatment of Diabetic Sensory Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zilliox, Lindsay; Russell, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Opinion statement No current disease-modifying treatments have been shown definitively in randomized clinical trials to reduce or reverse diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). It is increasingly recognized that individuals with “prediabetes” or impaired glucose regulation can already have a “small-fiber” neuropathy, or mild DSP, in which sensory axons of both small and larger diameter are damaged. Small-fiber neuropathy is frequently associated with pain, and these patients may present to a neurologist for evaluation before the underlying glucose dysregulation has been diagnosed. It is important to identify these individuals, because aggressive diabetic control and lifestyle interventions can delay the onset of diabetes and may reverse small-fiber neuropathy associated with early diabetes mellitus. Although treatment currently focuses on pain associated with DSP, attention should be paid to potential risk factors for neuropathy. For example, glycemic control and hyperlipidemia should be improved with diet, exercise, and medications. Hypertension that is a risk marker for more severe neuropathy should be treated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers not only treat hypertension but also may directly reduce the progression of neuropathy. Class I or II clinical studies support the use of sodium valproate, pregabalin, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, venlafaxine, opioids, and topical capsaicin in treating diabetic neuropathic pain. Pregabalin and gabapentin are relatively well tolerated and have few medication interactions. Sodium valproate has been shown to be effective but is not recommended for use in women of childbearing potential, and patients must be monitored for hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia. Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline are often used for nocturnal pain but require caution in the elderly or anyone with cardiac disease. Venlafaxine and duloxetine successfully treat neuropathic pain independently of their effect on depression. Opioid medications are associated with a high rate of adverse effects but with careful monitoring, they can be effective in treating resistant neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is an effective topical treatment that lacks systemic side effects. The lidocaine patch is effective in relieving pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia, but only class III evidence supports its use for diabetic neuropathic pain. No current Class I or II studies support other treatment modalities. PMID:21274758

  14. Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with Cinnamaldehyde and Carvacrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5% and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and toma...

  15. Joint Torque Sensory Feedback in the Control of a PUMA Manipulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Pfeffer; Oussama Khatib; John Hake

    1986-01-01

    Accurate control of joint forces is essential to achieve high performance in advanced assembly and other tasks that involve fine motion, active force control, or high speed operations. Joint force control can be substantially improved by sensory feedback. In this paper we present the design and describe the actual characteristics of a joint torque sensor for a PUMA 500. Using

  16. Sensory Impairments and Autism: A Re-Examination of Causal Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Sue; Rugg, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Sensory impairments are widely reported in autism, but remain largely unexplained by existing models. This article examines Kanner's causal reasoning and identifies unsupported assumptions implicit in later empirical work. Our analysis supports a heterogeneous causal model for autistic characteristics. We propose that the development of a…

  17. Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free spaghetti elaborated with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize flours. Luminosity (L*) of the uncooked gluten-free spaghetti was not significantly different from control sampl...

  18. Information for Decision Making and Stimulus Identification is Multiplexed in Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gire, David H.; Whitesell, Jennifer D.; Doucette, Wilder; Restrepo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In recordings from anterior piriform cortex (APC) in awake behaving mice we find that neuronal firing early in the olfactory pathway simultaneously conveys fundamentally different information: odor value – is the odor rewarded? - and identity - what is the smell? Thus, this sensory system performs early multiplexing of information reflecting stimulus–specific characteristics with that used for decision-making. PMID:23792942

  19. Sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of sweetpotato cultivars with varying flesh colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sensory characteristics of sweet potatoes (n = 12 cultivars) with varying flesh color (orange, purple, yellow) and the impact of flesh colors on consumer acceptance were evaluated. A lexicon was developed for sweet potato flavor followed by consumer acceptance testing conducted with and without ...

  20. Information for decision-making and stimulus identification is multiplexed in sensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Gire, David H; Whitesell, Jennifer D; Doucette, Wilder; Restrepo, Diego

    2013-08-01

    In recordings from anterior piriform cortex in awake behaving mice, we found that neuronal firing early in the olfactory pathway simultaneously conveyed fundamentally different information: odor value (is the odor rewarded?) and identity (what is the smell?). Thus, this sensory system performs early multiplexing of information reflecting stimulus-specific characteristics with that used for decision-making. PMID:23792942

  1. Food masquerade.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

  2. Goiter and Laryngeal Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm3, with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm3. The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population. PMID:23818901

  3. Goiter and laryngeal sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm(3), with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm(3). The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population. PMID:23818901

  4. Sensory Ecology, Winter 2011 Stuart Thompson

    E-print Network

    guided behaviors UV, IR and polarization detection Olfaction and taste (chemosensation) The distinction in verts and inverts Cellular mechanism of vertebrate hearing ­ the hair cell and sensory transduction

  5. Nonlinear amplification by active sensory hair bundles

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    vulnerable mechanism. In the cochlea, sensory hair bundles transduce sound-induced vibrations into neural on a hair bundle from the sacculus of the bullfrog with real-time stochastic simulations of hair

  6. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tka?ik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime--when sampling limitations constrain performance--efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. PMID:25396297

  7. Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory

  8. A PDMS Mold with Embedded Sensory Array for Micromolding Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Ruo; C. F. Lin; C. W. Liu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a monitoring method based on embedded sensory array in micromolding mold to monitor micromolding processes. The sensory array includes a resistive thermal flow sensor and a lot of temperature sensors. We design a set of micromachined processes to embed the sensory array in micromolding mold. During micromolding process, the embedded sensory array measures the fluid

  9. Household Segmentation in Food Insecurity and Soil Improving Practices in Ghana

    E-print Network

    Nata, Jifar T

    2013-08-09

    considered are chronic, seasonal, vulnerable food insecure groups and a food secure group. The positions are differentiated by the length of time a household went without sufficient food. Characteristics of operating under seasonal lease, being a food...

  10. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. PMID:24953197

  11. A layered network model of sensory cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to the auditory system. Through an exercise of the model, it is shown that spatial location of sounds may be a natural consequence of the way cochlear response is mapped onto the cortex. 31 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. P50 Sensory Gating in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations. PMID:24430259

  13. World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Betty F.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  14. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    PubMed

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms. PMID:22623149

  15. Anthropogenic noise affects behavior across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R

    2014-10-01

    Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals. PMID:25226190

  16. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca, and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald W. Sparling

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al, Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age,

  17. Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households: Fiscal Year 2010. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Research and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esa Eslami; Kai Filion; Mark Strayer

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of SNAP households and participants nationwide in FY 2010. It also presents an overview of SNAP eligibility requirements and benefit levels. Nearly half of all participants (47 percent) were children and another 8 percent were age 60 or older.

  18. Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households: Fiscal Year 2009. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Research and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Leftin; rew Gothro; Esa Eslami

    2010-01-01

    This report provides information on the demographic and economic characteristics of SNAP households in fiscal year 2009. The average monthly number of participants reached a record high of 32.9 million. Nearly half of recipients were children, another 8 percent were over age 60, about 40 percent lived in households with earnings, the majority of households did not receive cash welfare

  19. Effect of cooking and soaking on physical, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous and foreign rice varieties in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osaretin Albert; T. Ebuehi

    Purpose - The objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of cooking and soaking on the physical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of an indigenous ''ofada'' rice and a foreign ''aroso'' rice varieties in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The two rice varieties were freshly purchased in the raw state, soaked in water and cooked. The physical characteristics, such

  20. U.S. Food Insecurity Status: Toward a Refined Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman-Jensen, Alisha Judith

    2010-01-01

    United States Department of Agriculture defines food insecure as answering affirmatively to three or more food insecurity questions describing a household's ability to acquire enough food. Households indicating low levels of food insecurity (one or two affirmative responses) are considered food secure. This paper compares the characteristics of…

  1. Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in food handling, cooking, and storage can prevent foodborne illness. There are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and ... reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture

  2. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy ...

  3. Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ...

  4. Food Chain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-15

    This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.

  5. Protein Foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Best Protein Choices The best choices are: Plant-based proteins ...

  6. Cellular and Network Mechanisms Underlying Information Processing in a Simple Sensory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Gwen; Henze, Chris; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Realistic, biophysically-based compartmental models were constructed of several primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system. A dynamic atlas of the afferent input to these cells was used to set spatio-temporal parameters for the simulated stimulus-dependent synaptic inputs. We examined the roles of dendritic morphology, passive membrane properties, and active conductances on the frequency tuning of the neurons. The sensitivity of narrow-band low pass interneurons could be explained entirely by the electronic structure of the dendritic arbors and the dynamic sensitivity of the SIZ. The dynamic characteristics of interneurons with higher frequency sensitivity required models with voltage-dependent dendritic conductances.

  7. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  8. Food Chains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hammond

    2009-10-21

    In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

  9. Food Webs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

  10. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  11. Understanding foods as soft materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaele Mezzenga; Peter Schurtenberger; Adam Burbidge; Martin Michel

    2005-01-01

    Foods make up some of the most complex examples of soft condensed matter (SCM) with which we interact daily. Their complexity arises from several factors: the intricacy of components, the different aggregation states in which foods are encountered, and the multitude of relevant characteristic time and length scales. Because foodstuffs are governed by the rules of SCM physics but with

  12. Iced Storage Characteristics of Northern Squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lin; Michael T. Morrissey

    1994-01-01

    The iced storage characteristics of freshwater Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were investigated and the proximate composition and physical nature of squawfish were determined. Quality changes were monitored over 24 days of storage by chemical, physical, microbiological, and sensorial methods of analysis. The Torrymeter readings, K values, and descriptive sensory evaluation demonstrated that squawfish kept well in ice for 15 days.

  13. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  14. Food jags

    MedlinePLUS

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  15. Fried foods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sakurai Midori (None; )

    2006-10-31

    Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

  16. Food Sources

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

  17. Effect of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel powder (DPPP) on textural, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Prateeti; Indrani, D; Singh, R P

    2014-11-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and ?-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits. PMID:25019979

  18. Homemade food Dietary patterns

    E-print Network

    Kamil Konrad; Hozyasz Barbara Radomyska; Karolina Kot; K. K. Hozyasz; B. Radomyska; K. Kot

    Abstract The Mediterranean diet is well known for its health-promoting effects. Among its key ingredients, olive oil is the most characteristic. Processing industries have been successfully manufacturing and marketing jarred baby foods with the use of vegetable oils, including olive oil, as well as other sources of visible fat. We aimed to survey manufacturer claims concerning added fat in jarred infant foods supplied to the Polish market. A total of 124 kinds of infant foods from six suppliers were analyzed. Corn, canola, and soybean oil occupied the first three positions, respectively, in rank order of vegetable oils used in jarred baby foods. In our sample, only one type of readyto-eat jars with vegetables contained olive oil. 11 % of products contained cow milk butter or cream. 61 % of jarred ‘‘dinners’ ’ contained poultry or fish, which are typical sources of animal protein in the Mediterranean diet. Given that commercial baby foods currently available in the Polish market contain no olive oil, we advocate considering home preparation of infant foods with the use of visible fat. Medical professionals should encourage food manufacturers to return to the concepts of the Mediterranean diet for young consumers, aimed at long-term health.

  19. Food Chains and Food Webs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-14

    This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.

  20. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFR? (GDNF family receptor alpha) localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Shelley L.; Payne, Sophie C.; Keast, Janet R.; Osborne, Peregrine B.

    2015-01-01

    GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFR?1, GFR?2 and GFR?3, respectively) and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signaling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFR?. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recovery of sensation, and sensory hypersensitivity that contributes to pain. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of spinal cord and sciatic nerve injuries in adult rodents have identified characteristic changes in GFR?1, GFR?2 or GFR?3 in central spinal cord axons of sensory neurons located in DRG. Here we extend and contrast this analysis by studying injuries of the pelvic and hypogastric nerves that contain the majority of sensory axons projecting to the pelvic viscera (e.g., bladder and lower bowel). At 7 d, we detected some effects of pelvic but not hypogastric nerve transection on the ipsilateral spinal cord. In sacral (L6-S1) cord ipsilateral to nerve injury, GFR?1-immunoreactivity (IR) was increased in medial dorsal horn and CGRP-IR was decreased in lateral dorsal horn. Pelvic nerve injury also upregulated GFR?1- and GFR?3-IR terminals and GFR?1-IR neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus that provides the spinal parasympathetic preganglionic output to the pelvic nerve. This evidence suggests peripheral axotomy has different effects on somatic and visceral sensory input to the spinal cord, and identifies sensory-autonomic interactions as a possible site of post-injury regulation.

  1. Learning about Sensory Integration Dysfunction: Strategies to Meet Young Children's Sensory Needs at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Rains, Kari W.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners and parents are seeking ways to help children who are not able to integrate sensory information; this has generated recent media attention. A child's inability to integrate sensory information can have implications for the whole family and their everyday routines. Research conducted by occupational therapists has provided a rich…

  2. MTH 995-1, Mathematical modeling of human sensory systems I: Fundamentals of human sensory systems

    E-print Network

    ). They consist of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception governing equations for stimulus receptors, neural pathways and brain perceptions so as to understand. Human brain recognizes only electric signals, while external stimuli are chemical, physical, mechanical

  3. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids)

    PubMed Central

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). CONCLUSION The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. PMID:24619938

  4. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  5. Bilateral sensory abnormalities in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain; a quantitative sensory testing (QST) study.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A; Struys, Michel M R F; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  6. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  7. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development.

    PubMed

    Moody, Sally A; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized "neural border zone" forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and nonneural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the preplacodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with cofactor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest, and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently becomes subdivided into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia, and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  8. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

  9. Sensory Over-Responsivity and ADHD: Differentiating Using Electrodermal Responses, Cortisol, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lane, Shelly J; Reynolds, Stacey; Thacker, Leroy

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in sensory modulation have been linked clinically with impaired attention, arousal, and impulsivity for years, but a clear understanding of the relationship between sensory modulation disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has proven elusive. Our preliminary work suggested that patterns of salivary cortisol and electrodermal responsivity to sensation may be linked to different groups of children with ADHD; those with and without sensory over-responsivity (SOR). Additionally, SOR has been linked to anxiety, and anxiety has been linked to ADHD. A clearer understanding of the relationship between anxiety, SOR, and ADHD may support a better understanding of ADHD diagnostic subtypes. We examined neuroendocrine, electrodermal and behavioral characteristics and sought to predict group membership among 6- to 12-year-old children with ADHD and SOR (ADHDs), ADHD and no SOR (ADHDt), and typicals (TYP). Behavioral questionnaires were completed to document SOR and anxiety. Lab testing used a Sensory Challenge Protocol (SCP) with concurrent electrodermal measurement and the collection of cortisol prior to and following the SCP. Results substantiated links between SOR and anxiety, in both TYP and ADHD children. Results suggests that ADHD should be considered in conjunction with anxiety and sensory responsivity; both may be related to bottom-up processing differences, and deficits in prefrontal cortex/hippocampal synaptic gating. PMID:20556242

  10. Qualitative data analysis for an exploratory sensory study of Grechetto wine.

    PubMed

    Esti, Marco; González Airola, Ricardo L; Moneta, Elisabetta; Paperaio, Marina; Sinesio, Fiorella

    2010-02-15

    Grechetto is a traditional white-grape vine, widespread in Umbria and Lazio regions in central Italy. Despite the wine commercial diffusion, little literature on its sensory characteristics is available. The present study is an exploratory research conducted with the aim of identifying the sensory markers of Grechetto wine and of evaluating the effect of clone, geographical area, vintage and producer on sensory attributes. A qualitative sensory study was conducted on 16 wines, differing for vintage, Typical Geographic Indication, and clone, collected from 7 wineries, using a trained panel in isolation who referred to a glossary of 133 white wine descriptors. Sixty-five attributes identified by a minimum of 50% of the respondents were submitted to a correspondence analysis to link wine samples to the sensory attributes. Seventeen terms identified as common to all samples are considered as characteristics of Grechetto wine, 10 of which olfactory: fruity, apple, acacia flower, pineapple, banana, floral, herbaceous, honey, apricot and peach. In order to interpret the relationship between design variables and sensory attributes data on 2005 and 2006 wines, the 28 most discriminating descriptors were projected in a principal component analysis. The first principal component was best described by olfactory terms and the second by gustative attributes. Good reproducibility of results was obtained for the two vintages. For one winery, vintage effect (2002-2006) was described in a new principal component analysis model applied on 39 most discriminating descriptors, which globally explained about 84% of the variance. In the young wines the notes of sulphur, yeast, dried fruit, butter, combined with herbaceous fresh and tropical fruity notes (melon, grapefruit) were dominant. During wine aging, sweeter notes, like honey, caramel, jam, become more dominant as well as some mineral notes, such as tuff and flint. PMID:20103144

  11. Formulation of Extruded Snack Food (Gum Based Cereal–Pulse Blend): Optimization of Ingredients Levels Using Response Surface Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushma Thakur; D. C Saxena

    2000-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyse the effect of corn flour, green gram flour, xanthan, guar gum, arabic gum and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the sensory and objective (expansion ratio) attributes of an extruded snack food. A rotatable central-composite design was used to develop models for the sensory and objective responses. The experiments were run at 160°C with

  12. [Food allergies].

    PubMed

    Oberritter, H

    1991-03-01

    Food allergies are not a phenomenon of our time. The public and published opinion characterize food allergies as an accompanying symptom of our modern industrial society. However, many years before our time, Hippocrates (400 B.C.) and Lucrezius (1. Century A.D.) had described symptoms of illness which seemed to be due to food-allergies and intolerances. Today, allergies (especially food allergies) are often depicted as having increased excessively and that this increase seems to result from harmful substances in the environment, residues, food additives or may even be due to food manufacturing processes. It is estimated that the frequency of all types of allergic illnesses at this time in West-Germany is between 10-20 percent. Taking into consideration all degrees of difficulty, the number of people with food allergies lies under 10 percent of the population, although exact numbers in this area are missing. It is undisputed that food allergies are induced as a result of some of the foreign substances mentioned. However, the predominant share of food allergies occur as a result of natural food substances. The trend towards less processed foods has especially increased the risk of food allergies, since for example unmodified protein may contain more possible allergens than the corresponding protein which has been denatured by heating. The wide distribution of "new" foods from exotic countries and the enormous expansion in the variety of seasonings is also thought of as a cause for many allergies. One cause for more allergens reaching our abundantly set tables is the increased distribution and range of products resulting from expansion of national and international trade. Allergy, which to some extent is due to a malfunctioning immune system, activates certain defense mechanisms in the body. Food or more precisely its contents, then becomes an alien substance or antigen for the body against which it builds certain antibodies to "stay in a good state of health". These antibodies cause typical allergic reaction such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria and difficulty in breathing, after a certain food has been eaten. We must differentiate between food allergies and incompatibility (food intolerances). The body does not produce antibodies for the latter. Unlike food allergies, intolerances can disappear with time. PMID:2059292

  13. Market potential for organic foods in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Wier; Carmen Calverley

    2002-01-01

    Examines the potential of organic foods in European markets, focusing on consumer demand for organic foods and the possibilities for market expansion. Aims to assess potential sales, to identify the factors determining buying propensity, and to identify the main market barriers. Identifies the types of consumers who purchase organic foods, classifying them according to socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Elucidates the

  14. Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Martens

    2000-01-01

    The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

  15. Revealing the lifestyles of local food consumers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Lawson; Miranda Mirosa

    A growing trend is recognised in some consumers specifically choosing to buy locally produced food. This has already led to some changes in food production and distribution systems. As a systems construct, lifestyles are a suitable approach to examine the characteristics of the people leading this counter-trend in food purchasing. Using data from a national study of New Zealanders we

  16. Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page: Lactose intolerance Food additives Gluten intolerance Food poisoning Histamine toxicity Other conditions Lactose intolerance Lactose is ... not considered a food allergy. back to top Food poisoning Some of the symptoms of food allergy, such ...

  17. The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

  18. STDP in the Developing Sensory Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Rylan S; Rao, Deepti; Manis, Paul B; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2010-01-01

    Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been proposed as a mechanism for optimizing the tuning of neurons to sensory inputs, a process that underlies the formation of receptive field properties and associative memories. The properties of STDP must adjust during development to enable neurons to optimally tune their selectivity for environmental stimuli, but these changes are poorly understood. Here we review the properties of STDP and how these may change during development in primary sensory cortical layers 2/3 and 4, initial sites for intracortical processing. We provide a primer discussing postnatal developmental changes in synaptic proteins and neuromodulators that are thought to influence STDP induction and expression. We propose that STDP is shaped by, but also modifies, synapses to produce refinements in neuronal responses to sensory inputs. PMID:21423495

  19. STDP in the Developing Sensory Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Rylan S.; Rao, Deepti; Manis, Paul B.; Philpot, Benjamin D.

    2010-01-01

    Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been proposed as a mechanism for optimizing the tuning of neurons to sensory inputs, a process that underlies the formation of receptive field properties and associative memories. The properties of STDP must adjust during development to enable neurons to optimally tune their selectivity for environmental stimuli, but these changes are poorly understood. Here we review the properties of STDP and how these may change during development in primary sensory cortical layers 2/3 and 4, initial sites for intracortical processing. We provide a primer discussing postnatal developmental changes in synaptic proteins and neuromodulators that are thought to influence STDP induction and expression. We propose that STDP is shaped by, but also modifies, synapses to produce refinements in neuronal responses to sensory inputs. PMID:21423495

  20. A Bayesian framework for sensory adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Norberto M; Balboa, Rosario M

    2002-03-01

    Adaptation allows biological sensory systems to adjust to variations in the environment and thus to deal better with them. In this article, we propose a general framework of sensory adaptation. The underlying principle of this framework is the setting of internal parameters of the system such that certain prespecified tasks can be performed optimally. Because sensorial inputs vary probabilistically with time and biological mechanisms have noise, the tasks could be performed incorrectly. We postulate that the goal of adaptation is to minimize the number of task errors. This minimization requires prior knowledge of the environment and of the limitations of the mechanisms processing the information. Because these processes are probabilistic, we formulate the minimization with a Bayesian approach. Application of this Bayesian framework to the retina is successful in accounting for a host of experimental findings. PMID:11860682