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Sample records for food sensory characteristics

  1. Glycemic responses and sensory characteristics of whole yellow pea flour added to novel functional foods.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental understanding regarding postprandial glycemic responses to foods containing whole yellow-pea flour (WYPF) remains unknown. This, alongside concerns that WYPF possesses unfavorable sensory characteristics has limited the incorporation of WYPF into new functional food products as a healthy novel ingredient. The objective of this study was to evaluate how WYPF modulates postprandial glycemic responses as well as sensory characteristics in novel foods. In a single-blind crossover trial, the present study assessed postprandial glycemic responses of banana bread, biscotti, and spaghetti containing either WYPF or whole wheat flour (WWF). Boiled yellow peas (BYP) and white bread (WB) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. On day 1, subjects evaluated appearance, taste, texture, smell as well as overall acceptance of each WYPF and WWF food on a 5-point hedonic scale. WYPF banana bread (97.9 +/- 17.8 mmol x min/L) and biscotti (83 +/- 13 mmol x min/L), as well as BYP (112.3 +/- 19.9 mmol x min/L), reduced (P < 0.05) glycemic responses compared to WB (218.1 +/- 29.5 mmol x min/L). The glycemic response of WYPF pasta (160.7 +/- 19.4 mmol x min/L) was comparable to WB. WYPF biscotti produced a lower (P = 0.019) postprandial glycemic response compared to WWF biscotti (117.2 +/- 13.1 mmol x min/L). Hedonic responses between corresponding foods were similar except for the WYPF pasta (2.9 +/- 0.9) which possessed a lower sensory score (P = 0.02) for smell compared to WWF pasta (3.6 +/- 1). WYPF can be used to produce low-glycemic functional foods possessing sensory attributes that are comparable to identical food products containing WWF. PMID:20492127

  2. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The results from this research indicate that fibers have an effect on extruded pet food texture and palatability. These results may help pet food companies select ingredients for successful product formulations. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers. PMID:26479141

  3. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers. PMID:26479141

  4. First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pingret, Daniella; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Chemat, Farid

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between manufactured food products using conventional and ultrasound-assisted procedures. Three different foam-type products, chocolate Genoise, basic sponge cake, and chocolate mousse were prepared using both methods with subsequent evaluation of the samples using both sensory and physicochemical methods. Ultrasound-assisted preparations were considered superior according to the sensory analysis, and physicochemical data confirmed this finding. This approach of applying an emerging piece of equipment, with potential industrial application to assist food preparation, consists of a new technique that could be of great interest for the development of not only other food products created by molecular gastronomy but also for practical work carried out by students. PMID:21535748

  5. Laboratory Methods in Sensory Evaluation of Food

    E-print Network

    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, BC MargaretLaboratory Methods in Sensory Evaluation of Food FOOD 529 University of British Columbia Syllabus Professor ­ Sensory Evaluation Food, Nutrition and Health (Rm 323) University of British Columbia Vancouver

  6. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials. PMID:19389606

  7. Pairing Food & Wine A Sensory Exploration

    E-print Network

    Yu, Stella X.

    Pairing Food & Wine A Sensory Exploration Bill Hendriksen #12;The Dilemma Successfully pairing food and wine is often difficult because there are so many factors to consider which are often hard to describe and drink locally #12;Traditional Rules 2) Drink more complex, fuller, and sweeter wines later in the meal

  8. Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

  9. Incorporation of Mg and Ca into nanostructured Fe2O3 improves Fe solubility in dilute acid and sensory characteristics in foods.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Florentine M; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Teleki, Alexandra; Krumeich, Frank; Hurrell, Richard F; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification can be an effective and sustainable strategy to reduce Fe deficiency but selection of iron fortificants remains a challenge. Water-soluble compounds, for example, FeSO(4), usually demonstrate high bioavailability but they often cause unacceptable sensory changes in foods. On the other hand, poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds, for example FePO(4), may cause fewer adverse sensory changes in foods but are usually not well bioavailable since they need to be dissolved in the stomach prior to absorption. The solubility and the bioavailability of poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds can be improved by decreasing their primary particle size and thereby increasing their specific surface area. Here, Fe oxide-based nanostructured compounds with added Mg or Ca were produced by scalable flame aerosol technology. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe solubility in dilute acid. Sensory properties of the Fe-based compounds were tested in 2 highly reactive, polyphenol-rich food matrices: chocolate milk and fruit yoghurt. The Fe solubility of nanostructured Fe(2)O(3) doped with Mg or Ca was higher than that of pure Fe(2)O(3). Since good solubility in dilute acid was obtained despite the inhomogeneity of the powders, inexpensive precursors, for example Fe- and Ca-nitrates, can be used for their manufacture. Adding Mg or Ca lightened powder color, while sensory changes when added to foods were less pronounced than for FeSO(4). The combination of high Fe solubility and low reactivity in foods makes these flame-made nanostructured compounds promising for food fortification. Practical Application: The nanostructured iron-containing compounds presented here may prove useful for iron fortification of certain foods; they are highly soluble in dilute acid and likely to be well absorbed in the gut but cause less severe color changes than FeSO(4) when added to difficult-to-fortify foods. PMID:21535701

  10. Characteristics of food using Queso Fresco cheese as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing and aging affect food characteristics, such as rheology, functional properties, microstructure, and sensory traits. These effects are discussed using Queso Fresco, a popular Hispanic cheese variety, as an example. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data indicated that lipolysis occurr...

  11. S:Sensory&Food Mechanisms for Sensing Fat in Food in the Mouth

    E-print Network

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    S:Sensory&Food Quality Mechanisms for Sensing Fat in Food in the Mouth Presented at the Symposium Pleasure and Beyond" held at the Institute of Food Technologists 2011 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, La., U show that the pleasantness of food texture is represented in the orbitofrontal cortex. These findings

  12. Effect of salmon type, and presence/absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salmon type (pink/red), bone (presence/absence) and retort processing on an infant food product. Salmon fillets were cooked (3 min), homogenized (40%) in water (55%) then starch (5%) was added. The product was hot-filled into glass jars then...

  13. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and food sensory properties: potential and challenges

    E-print Network

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    REVIEW Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and food sensory properties: potential- dimensional gas chromatography and analytical platforms combining two-dimensional gas chromatography chromatography Introduction Targeted omics for food sensory quality objectification Modern omics disciplines

  14. Sensory detection of food rapidly modulates arcuate feeding circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Kuo, Tzu-Wei; Knight, Zachary A

    2015-02-26

    Hunger is controlled by specialized neural circuits that translate homeostatic needs into motivated behaviors. These circuits are under chronic control by circulating signals of nutritional state, but their rapid dynamics on the timescale of behavior remain unknown. Here, we report optical recording of the natural activity of two key cell types that control food intake, AgRP and POMC neurons, in awake behaving mice. We find unexpectedly that the sensory detection of food is sufficient to rapidly reverse the activation state of these neurons induced by energy deficit. This rapid regulation is cell-type specific, modulated by food palatability and nutritional state, and occurs before any food is consumed. These data reveal that AgRP and POMC neurons receive real-time information about the availability of food in the external world, suggesting a primary role for these neurons in controlling appetitive behaviors such as foraging that promote the discovery of food. PMID:25703096

  15. Using Sensory Properties of Food to Trigger Swallowing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Loret, C.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of food consistency on swallowing function has been widely studied, and it is well recognized that by delaying the flow of the food bolus, thickened liquids can help in the management of swallowing dysfunction. However, fewer studies have been carried out on the impact of food sensory properties and related liking on swallowing function. This paper reviews the role of taste, olfaction, and trigeminal perceptions on swallowing function and highlights the need for a deeper investigation of this aspect of patient diet modification. PMID:24915399

  16. GENETIC VERSUS ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON RICE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers worldwide are demanding rice with specific flavor and texture characteristics. To meet consumer need, knowledge of the similarities and differences in both texture and flavor of cultivars is needed. Also needed, is understanding of how sensory characteristics vary with pre-harvest and po...

  17. Sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Sow, T M A; Grongnet, J F

    2010-10-01

    This study identified the sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea. Five chicken samples [live village chicken, live broiler, live spent laying hen, ready-to-cook broiler, and ready-to-cook broiler (imported)] bought from different locations were assessed by 10 trained panelists using 19 sensory attributes. The ANOVA results showed that 3 chicken appearance attributes (brown, yellow, and white), 5 chicken odor attributes (oily, intense, medicine smell, roasted, and mouth persistent), 3 chicken flavor attributes (sweet, bitter, and astringent), and 8 chicken texture attributes (firm, tender, juicy, chew, smooth, springy, hard, and fibrous) were significantly discriminating between the chicken samples (P<0.05). Principal component analysis of the sensory data showed that the first 2 principal components explained 84% of the sensory data variance. The principal component analysis results showed that the live village chicken, the live spent laying hen, and the ready-to-cook broiler (imported) were very well represented and clearly distinguished from the live broiler and the ready-to-cook broiler. One hundred twenty consumers expressed their preferences for the chicken samples using a 5-point Likert scale. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the preference data identified 4 homogenous consumer clusters. The hierarchical cluster analysis results showed that the live village chicken was the most preferred chicken sample, whereas the ready-to-cook broiler was the least preferred one. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) type 1 showed that 72% of the sensory data for the first 2 principal components explained 83% of the chicken preference. The PLSR1 identified that the sensory characteristics juicy, oily, sweet, hard, mouth persistent, and yellow were the most relevant sensory drivers of the Guinean chicken preference. The PLSR2 (with multiple responses) identified the relationship between the chicken samples, their sensory attributes, and the consumer clusters. Our results showed that there was not a chicken category that was exclusively preferred from the other chicken samples and therefore highlight the existence of place for development of all chicken categories in the local market. PMID:20852120

  18. Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage

    PubMed Central

    Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) 10 trained assessors evaluated the intensity of 30 coffee attributes after roasting at the 9th and 18th month of storage, respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed reduction in the sensory qualities of coffee beverages after 9 months storage of roasted coffee beans. The positive associated odor and flavor attributes decreased in their intensity, whereas the negative associated odor and flavor attributes increased significantly (P < 0.05). After 18 months of storage, the rancid odor and flavor which indicate oxidation processes were even considerably perceivable. Consequently, we can assume that changes in sensory quality characteristics of roasted and vacuum-packed coffee beans during storage are possible. PMID:24804030

  19. Quantitative trait loci influencing chemical and sensory characteristics of eating quality in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Azanza, F; Tadmor, Y; Klein, B P; Rocheford, T R; Juvik, J A

    1996-02-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain the chromosomal location and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the chemical and sensory properties of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) eating quality. Eighty-eight RFLPs, 3 cloned genes (sh1, sh2, and dhn1), and 2 morphological markers (a2 and se1) distributed throughout the sweet corn genome were scored in 214 F2:3 families derived from a cross between the inbreds W6786su1Se1 and IL731Asu1se1. Kernel properties associated with eating quality (kernel tenderness and starch, phytoglycogen, sucrose, and dimethyl sulfide concentrations) were quantified on F2:3 sib-pollinated ears harvested at 20 days after pollination. Sensory evaluation was conducted on a subset of 103 F2:3 families to determine intensity of attributes associated with sweet corn eating quality (corn aroma, grassy aroma, sweetness, starchiness, grassy flavor, crispness, tenderness, and juiciness) and overall liking. Single factor analysis of variance revealed significant QTL for all these traits, which accounted for from 3 to 42% of the total phenotypic variation. A proportion of the RFLP markers associated with human sensory response were also found to be associated with kernel characteristics. To our knowledge this is the first report of the identification of QTL associated with human flavor preferences in any food crop. Key words : sweet corn, RFLP, quantitative trait loci, eating quality, sensory evaluation. PMID:18469876

  20. Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

  1. Sensory characteristics of tender points in the lower back.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cynan; Souvlis, Tina; Sterling, Michele

    2010-10-01

    Palpation of tender points in superficial tissue is commonly undertaken in the management of musculoskeletal pain. The sensory characteristics of digitally tender points (DTPs) have not been defined. This study had two major aims: 1) to characterise 'Strain-Counterstrain' DTPs, using quantitative sensory testing (QST) in participants with low back pain (LBP); 2) to compare corresponding points at lumbar sites in participants with LBP to those without LBP. Fifteen participants with LBP (9 females), mean (SD) Oswestry scores 20.8 (10.1)) and 15 participants without LBP (6 females) were included. QST was undertaken by a single examiner blind to the location of DTPs and included measurement of electrical detection and electrical pain threshold, thermal (hot/cold) detection and thermal pain threshold, vibration detection threshold and pressure-pain threshold. In participants with LBP, DTPs demonstrated significantly lower electrical detection and electrical pain thresholds compared to contralateral non-tender points (p < 0.0001). These findings may be indicative of altered central processing of Abeta afferents with terminal receptors at DTPs. Participants with LBP demonstrated elevated cold pain thresholds at lower back sites and at the peripheral shoulder site compared to participants without LBP (p < 0.001). This may also indicate augmented central pain processing in participants with LBP. PMID:20570548

  2. Sight or Scent: Lemur Sensory Reliance in Detecting Food Quality Varies with Feeding Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D.; Drea, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology. PMID:22870229

  3. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4?mg/100?mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7?mg vitamin C equivalents/100?mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products. PMID:23733811

  4. Functional characteristics of control adaptation in intermodal sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Tobias; Pfister, Roland; Busmann, Mareike; Schlüter, Michael-Christian; Leyhe, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    The present work investigated functional characteristics of control adjustments in intermodal sensory processing. Subjects performed an interference task that involved simultaneously presented visual and auditory stimuli which were either congruent or incongruent with respect to their response mappings. In two experiments, trial-by-trial sequential congruency effects were analysed for specific conditions that allowed ruling out "non-executive" contributions of stimulus or response priming to the respective RT fluctuations. In Experiment 1, conflict adaptation was observed in an oddball condition in which interference emanates from a task-irrelevant and response-neutral low-frequency stimulus. This finding characterizes intermodal control adjustments to be based - at least partly - on increased sensory selectivity, which is able to improve performance in any kind of interference condition which shares the same or overlapping attentional requirements. In order to further specify this attentional mechanism, Experiment 2 defined analogous conflict adaptation effects in non-interference unimodal trials in which just one of the two stimulus modalities was presented. Conflict adaptation effects in unimodal trials exclusively occurred for unimodal task-switch trials but not for otherwise equivalent task repetition trials, which suggests that the observed conflict-triggered control adjustments mainly consist of increased distractor inhibition (i.e., down-regulation of task-irrelevant information), while attributing a negligible role to target amplification (i.e., enhancement of task-relevant information) in this setup. This behavioral study yields a promising operational basis for subsequent neuroimaging investigations to define brain activations and connectivities which underlie the adaptive control of attentional selection. PMID:25917247

  5. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg?1, respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg?1) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 23 factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1–9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name “mutton” in some markets would adversely affect prospects. PMID:25493184

  6. Sensory processing in the brain related to the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2007-02-01

    Complementary neurophysiological recordings in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and functional neuroimaging in human subjects show that the primary taste cortex in the rostral insula and adjoining frontal operculum provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature and texture (including viscosity and fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are for some neurons combined by learning with olfactory and visual inputs. Different neurons respond to different combinations, providing a rich representation of the sensory properties of food. In the orbitofrontal cortex feeding to satiety with one food decreases the responses of these neurons to that food, but not to other foods, showing that sensory-specific satiety is computed in the primate (including the human) orbitofrontal cortex. Consistently, activation of parts of the human orbitofrontal cortex correlates with subjective ratings of the pleasantness of the taste and smell of food. Cognitive factors, such as a word label presented with an odour, influence the pleasantness of the odour, and the activation produced by the odour in the orbitofrontal cortex. Food intake is thus controlled by building a multimodal representation of the sensory properties of food in the orbitofrontal cortex and gating this representation by satiety signals to produce a representation of the pleasantness or reward value of food that drives food intake. Factors that lead this system to become unbalanced and contribute to overeating and obesity are described. PMID:17343776

  7. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF DIVERSE RICE CULTIVARS AS INFLUENCED BY GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

  8. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  9. External cues in the control of food intake in humans: the sensory-normative distinction.

    PubMed

    Herman, C P; Polivy, J

    2008-08-01

    We review the history of "external cues" as an important factor in the control of human food intake. We begin with Schachter's proposal that obese individuals are especially (and perhaps exclusively) responsive to external food cues and examine subsequent modifications and challenges to that model and the decline and resurgence of research on external cues. We introduce a distinction between normative and sensory external cues. Normative cues (e.g., portion size) refer to indicators of appropriate intake, whereas sensory cues (e.g., palatability) refer to the hedonic appeal of the food. We propose that normative cues affect everyone, whereas sensory cues, while affecting everyone, have a more powerful effect on some types of individuals (e.g., the obese) than on others. PMID:18499202

  10. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    PubMed Central

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p?0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children. PMID:26652259

  11. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef stock containing glutathione Maillard reaction products prepared at various conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, G Y; Hong, J H; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2011-01-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup samples containing 9 types of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs produced under different reaction conditions on the flavor of the beef soup. The sensory characteristics of the beef stocks were examined using descriptive analysis. In consumer testing, 50 consumers evaluated the overall acceptability and flavor intensities of beef odor, salty taste, beef flavor, and seasoning flavor in the beef soup samples. It was found that the reaction conditions, including sugar type and pH, affected the sensory characteristics of the beef stock containing the GMRPs. The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 7 were characterized with strong beef flavor, chestnut flavor, and cooked rice flavor. However, the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 (XM7) was significantly stronger in beef-related sensory characteristics than the GMRPs reacted with glucose or fructose at pH 7 (GM7 and FM7). The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 3 had strong acid-related attributes whereas the GMRPs reacted at pH 11 exhibited strong sulfur-related attributes and a bitter taste. Overall, the beef soup containing XM7, which was perceived as having a strong beef odor and flavor, was rated the highest consumer acceptability score. This suggests that XM7 has feasibility as a flavor enhancer. To elucidate its effectiveness further, it is required to apply XM7 in various food systems at varying levels and to compare its flavor enhancing effects with other flavor enhancers such as monosodium L-glutamate in future studies. Practical Application: This study characterized sensory attributes of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) reacted under various conditions and evaluated their potential as a flavor enhancer by examining consumer acceptability of beef stock containing the GMRPs. This study showed that the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 had strong 71 beef flavor and the highest consumer acceptability score. The results of this study will provide valuable information for understanding sensory aspect of flavors generated by Maillard reaction of GSH and sugars, since most studies on Maillard reaction focused on chemical reactions. Also, the outcome of this study will help flavor and food industries' efforts to develop a new flavor enhancer for use in a variety of processed food products. PMID:21535706

  12. Instrumental and sensory quality characteristics of blueberry fruit from twelve cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the instrumental and sensory quality characteristics of blueberry fruit from ten highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, Chanticleer, Weymouth, Hannah’s Choice, Duke, Bluecrop, Coville, Berkeley, Bluegold, Elliott and Lateblue) and two rabbiteye (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) cultivars...

  13. Cross-cultural comparisons among the sensory characteristics of fermented soybean using Korean and Japanese descriptive analysis panels.

    PubMed

    Chung, L; Chung, S-J

    2007-11-01

    One of the most important initial steps in exporting a food product to another country from the R&D perspective is to describe and translate the sensory characteristics of a food product appropriately into the language of the target country. The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the sensory characteristics of Korean and Japanese style fermented soybean products, and to cross-culturally compare the lexicons of the identical product generated by the Korean and Japanese panelists. Four types of Korean and 4 types of Japanese style fermented soybean consisting of whole bean type and paste type were analyzed. Ten Korean and 9 Japanese panelists were recruited in Korea. Two separate descriptive analyses were conducted, with the panelists differing in their country of origin. Each group was trained, developed lexicon, and conducted descriptive analysis independently. Analysis of variance and various multivariate analyses were applied to delineate the sensory characteristics of the samples and to compare the cross-cultural differences in the usage of lexicon. The Korean and Japanese panelists generated 48 and 36 sensory attributes, respectively. Cross-cultural consensus was shown for evaluating the whole bean type fermented soybean and white miso, which were relatively distinctive samples. However, for the less distinctive samples, the panelists tend to rate higher in negative attributes for the fermented soybeans that originated from the other country. The Japanese panelists grouped the samples by their country of origin and soy sauce flavor was the main attribute for cross-cultural differentiation. However, the Korean panelists did not make a cross-cultural distinction among the samples. PMID:18034753

  14. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

  15. Fine as North Dakota wine: sensory expectations and the intake of companion foods.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; Payne, Collin R; North, Jill

    2007-04-23

    Taste expectations can influence taste evaluations. It is not known, however, whether the environmental cues that influence taste expectations--such as suggestible names and brand labels--can have a referred impact on the intake volume of companion foods. Adult diners who ordered a prix-fixe restaurant meal were given a complimentary glass of wine that had been relabeled to induce either favorable ("new from California") or unfavorable ("new from North Dakota") taste expectations. An analysis of plate waste indicated that those who believed they had been drinking California wine ate 12% more of their meal than those who instead believed they drank North Dakota wine. In combination with a sensory-based lab study, these results show that environmental cues--such as label-induced sensory expectations--can have a far-reaching impact on the food intake of companion foods. PMID:17292930

  16. Instrumental and sensory quantification of oral coatings retained after swallowing semi-solid foods.

    PubMed

    Prinz, J F; Huntjens, L; de Wijk, R A

    2006-12-01

    After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, some food material is always retained in the mouth. With semi-solid foods this is in the form of a coating that adheres to the oral mucosa. The amount and location of this material may play an important role in food sensations. In this study two quantitative methods of describing the coatings, generated by a set of 16 model custards varying in degree of lubrication (fat content) and degree of viscosity (starch concentration) are investigated. In the first method, a trained quantitative descriptive analysis panel (N=8) was instructed to take single mouthfuls of semi-solid foods, swallow and then rinse twice for 5s with water and spit out. The turbidity of the rinse water was then measured. During the same session, sensory assessments of the products were obtained. In the second method the thickness of the coating on the anterior and middle one-thirds of the tongue was quantified using a pair of opto-electronic reflectance sensors mounted on a probe which was placed on the tongue, one sensor measuring the anterior part of the tongue the other the posterior (middle third) of the tongue. Turbidity of the first rinse related strongly to the food's viscosity, as well as to sensory attributes associated with the food's fat content and viscosity, such as perceived thickness, creaminess and fattiness. Turbidity of subsequent rinses related primarily to fat content. These results indicate that turbidity of rinse water is a useful tool in fundamental (e.g., food texture research) as well as applied research (e.g., product development and quality assurance in food industry). Reflectance varied primarily with fat content and did not relate well to sensory attributes. PMID:17045954

  17. Sensory Correlates of Difficult Temperament Characteristics in Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…

  18. History and characteristics of Okinawan longevity food.

    PubMed

    Sho, H

    2001-01-01

    Okinawan food culture in the Ryukyu island is one of the world's most interesting culture because its consumers have the longest life expectancies and low disability rates. It is a product of cultural synthesis, with a core of Chinese food culture, inputs through food trade with South-East Asia and the Pacific and strong Japanese influences in eating style and presentation. The Satsamu sweet potato provides the largest part of the energy intake (and contributes to self-sufficiency), there is a wide array of plant foods including seaweed (especially konbu) and soy, and of herbaceous plants, accompanied by fish and pork, and by green tea and kohencha tea. Infusing multiple foodstuff and drinking the broth is characteristic. Raw sugar is eaten. The concept that 'food is medicine' and a high regard accorded medical practice are also intrinsic of Okinawan culture. Again, food-centered and ancestral festivities keeep the health dimensions well-developed. Pork, konbu and tofu (soy bean-curd) are indispensable ingredients in festival menus, and the combination of tofu and seaweed are used everyday. Okinawan food culture is intimately linked with an enduring belief of the system and highly developed social structure and network. PMID:11710358

  19. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    PubMed Central

    Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Kristensen, Mette; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Raben, Anne; Kehlet, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking. PMID:25473511

  20. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosso, Randy

    The Food Stamp Program (FSP) provides millions of Americans with the means to purchase food for a nutritious diet. This report presents characteristics of food stamp households nationwide in fiscal year 2001. Information on household characteristics comes from FSP household data collected by the federal Food and Nutrition Service for quality…

  1. Sensory characteristics and antioxidant capacity of red raspberry extract as a preservative in fruity flavoured beverages.

    PubMed

    Ozarda, Ozlem; Barla Demirkoz, Asli; Özdemir, Murat

    2015-10-01

    Sensory evaluation is a critical process in product development and consumer research. It is a fastly growing field due to innovation of novel techniques. The objective of this study was determination of sensory properties of red raspberry extract in fruity flavoured beverages comparison to the synthetic preservatives. For this purpose, an organoleptic stability study on fruity flavoured beverages was conducted storing them at several temperatures (room temperature, 2?±?2 °C and 40?±?2 °C) in the dark for 3 months. Sensory quality of beverages was analysed. Difference in pH and data obtained from °Brix measurements during storage was evaluated statistically. Room temperature and 40?±?2 °C were detected to affect sensory characteristics of beverages. Highest variations were observed at 40?±?2 °C. Beverages stored at 2?±?2 °C displayed most acceptable appearance in organoleptic evaluation and insignificant change occured. It was also found that red raspberry extract provided stable sensory effects, color, flavour and taste, in beverages compared to synthetic preservatives at 2?±?2 °C. PMID:26396417

  2. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents.

  3. Effect of oxygen on volatile and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon during secondary shelf life.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Bo-Sik; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2011-11-01

    The oxidation of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during secondary shelf life was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) and sensory tests, with the support of multivariate statistical analyses such as OPLS-DA loading plot and PCA score plot. Four different oxidation conditions were established during a 1-week secondary shelf life. Samples collected on a regular basis were analyzed to determine the changes of volatile chemicals, with sensory characteristics evaluated through pattern recognition models. During secondary shelf life the separation among collected samples depended on the degree of oxidation in wine. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl decanoate, nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, 2-furancarboxylic acid, dodecanoic acid, and phenylacetaldehyde were determined to be associated with the oxidation of the wine. PCA sensory evaluation revealed that least oxidized wine and fresh wine was well-separated from more oxidized wines, demonstrating that sensory characteristics of less oxidized wines tend toward "fruity", "citrous", and "sweetness", while those of more oxidized wines are positively correlated with "animal", "bitterness", and "dairy". The study also demonstrates that OPLS-DA and PCA are very useful statistical tools for the understanding of wine oxidation. PMID:21954937

  4. Responses of PROP taster groups to variations in sensory qualities within foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J; Soo, J; Campbell, H; Roberts, C

    2004-09-15

    Despite increasing evidence that variations in sensitivity to the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) are also reflected in responses to other tastes in solution, there has been little research examining the impact of PROP sensitivity on responses to sensory qualities in foods or beverages. The present studies examined responses of PROP taster groups to systematic variations in tastes and oral irritation in different foods and beverages. In Experiment 1, PROP groups were asked to discriminate variations in bitterness, sweetness, or sourness within two foods (yogurt and cream cheese) and a beverage (orange juice). In most cases, tasters and especially supertasters (STs) were able to discriminate smaller variations in tastant concentration than PROP nontasters (NTs). Differences were most evident with variations in bitterness and sourness. In Experiment 2, PROP taster groups rated the sweetness, sourness, and oral irritation in carbonated fruit drinks that systematically varied in citric acid (CA) and CO2 concentrations. Ratings of sourness and irritation were highest for STs and lowest for NTs, although there were no group differences for sweetness ratings. These data are some of the first to show PROP taster group differences in tastes and irritation within foods and provide a basis for reported differences of PROP groups in their hedonic responses to foods. PMID:15276811

  5. Sensory characteristics and related volatile flavor compound profiles of different types of whey.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escamilla, F J; Kelly, A L; Delahunty, C M

    2005-08-01

    To characterize the flavor of liquid whey, 11 samples of whey representing a wide range of types were sourced from cheese and casein-making procedures, either industrial or from pilot-plant facilities. Whey samples were assessed for flavor by descriptive sensory evaluation and analyzed for headspace volatile composition by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The sensory data clearly distinguished between the samples in relation to the processes of manufacture; that is, significant differences were apparent between cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. For Mozzarella and Quarg wheys, in which fermentation progressed to low pH values, the starter cultures used for cheese making had a significant influence on flavor. In comparison, Cheddar and Gouda wheys were described by milk-like flavors, and rennet casein wheys were described by "sweet" (oat-like and "sweet") and thermally induced flavors. The volatile compound data obtained by PTR-MS differentiated the samples as distinctive and reproducible "chemical fingerprints". On applying partial least squares regression to determine relationships between sensory and volatile composition data, sensory characteristics such as "rancid" and cheese-like odors and "caramelized milk," yogurt-like, "sweet," and oat-like flavors were found to be related to the presence and absence of specific volatile compounds. PMID:16027181

  6. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  7. Effect of fat content on sensory characteristics of marbled beef from Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Iida, Fumiko; Saitou, Kaoru; Kawamura, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Shizuko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the sensory characteristics of meat samples with a crude fat content between 23.8% and 48.6% taken from 34 Japanese Black steers, we grilled the meat and subjected it to analytical sensory evaluation. We also measured the amounts of moisture, protein, nucleic acid and glutamic acid. An increase in crude fat content increased the tenderness, juiciness, and fattiness in the meat quality evaluation. An increase in crude fat content reduced the crude protein and moisture contents; it also slightly reduced the nucleic acid and glutamic acid contents, although when the reductions in these umami components were assessed relative to the moisture content they changed little. Increasing the fat content up to a certain point greatly enhanced the umami intensity and beef flavor intensity in the meat quality evaluation and raised the overall evaluation score; the peak of the appropriate crude fat content for these purposes was about 36%. PMID:25492124

  8. Rheological characterization and sensory evaluation of a typical soft ice cream made with selected food hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    BahramParvar, M; Razavi, S M A; Khodaparast, M H H

    2010-02-01

    The effect of two novel hydrocolloids known as Balangu seed gum (BSG) and palmate-tuber salep (PTS) with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheological characteristics of a typical soft ice cream was studied. The power law model well described the flow behavior of mixes with a high correlation coefficient (r). The flow behavior index was in the range of 0.450-1.154, while the consistency coefficient varied from 0.051 to 6.822 Pa s(n). All mixes showed a pseudoplastic behavior except the mix containing 0.3% PTS, which was found to have a slightly dilatant characteristic. An increase in the concentration was accompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity and consistency coefficient. The effect of selected gums on some sensory properties of a soft ice cream such as viscosity, coldness, firmness, degree of smoothness (coarseness), liquefying rate, body and texture and total acceptance has also been investigated in this work. The correlation between the apparent viscosity and sensory attributes has been determined because of the importance of viscosity in the quality evaluation of an ice cream. Taking into account the commercial ice cream properties, a 0.4% BSG gum concentration may be recommended. PMID:21339124

  9. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  10. SWIMMING PATTERN AS AN INDICATOR OF THE ROLES OF COPEPOD SENSORY SYSTEMS IN THE RECOGNITION OF FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The roles of copepod sensory systems in the recognition of food were investigated using the 'Bugwatcher', a video-computer system designed to track and describe quantitatively the swimming patterns of aquatic organisms. Copepods acclimated, or non-acclimated to a chemosensory sti...

  11. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of a medicinal soy yogurt containing health-benefit ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Song, Sun-Mi

    2009-01-14

    Medicinal soy yogurt (sogurt) containing high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), free amino acids (FAAs), statins, and isoflavone aglycones was developed using lactic acid bacteria (1:1 mixture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. latis KFRI 01181 and Lactobacillus plantarum KFRI 00144) and Monascus-fermented soybean extract (MFSE, 1.5%, w/v). Changes in the content of some functional components (GABA, FAAs, statins, isoflavones) and physical (pH, titratable acidity, water-holding capacity), biological (viable cell counts), and sensory characteristics of sogurts during fermentation and cold storage were examined. The medicinal sogurt contained significantly (p < 0.05) high levels of FAAs (2011.2 +/- 8.1 mg/100 g of dry weight of sogurt), GABA (45.5 +/- 1.9 mg), statins (100.1 +/- 7.5 microg), and isoflavone aglycones (56.4 +/- 4.6 mg) compared with the control sogurt (1167.1 +/- 8.1 mg, 32.1 +/- 2.5 mg, not detected, and 19.2 +/- 1.9 mg, respectively) after fermentation for 24 h at 35 degrees C. During cold storage for 30 days at 4 degrees C, medicinal sogurt displayed higher water-holding capacity and titratable acidity and total bacterial cells and lower pH than the control sogurt (p < 0.05). Overall sensory acceptability of medicinal sogurt supplemented with MFSE was higher than that of the control sogurt prepared without MFSE. The results indicate that the addition of the appropriate MFSE concentrations (1.5%, w/v) improved the physicochemical properties as well as sensory characteristics of soy yogurt, resulting in enhanced health-benefit ingredients and consumers' preferences. PMID:19063635

  12. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability. PMID:26451358

  13. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability. PMID:26451358

  14. Acquired hedonic and sensory characteristics of odours: influence of sweet liker and propylthiouracil taster status.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; Prescott, John; Gould, Natalie J

    2009-08-01

    Repeated pairings of novel food-related odours with sweet tastes can result in enduring changes in sweetness of the odour alone, but have less consistent effects on odour liking. Variation in ability to taste propylthiouracil (PROP) might account for this, since PROP supertasters (ST) have been reported both to experience stronger sweetness intensity and to be more likely to dislike sweetness than do PROP nontasters (NT). Alternatively, individual differences in liking for sweetness may transfer to sweet-paired odours independently of PROP sensitivity. To explore this, evaluations of sucrose, saccharin, and PROP solutions were used to classify 92 volunteers as either sweet likers or dislikers and as PROP ST, NT, or medium tasters (MT). Changes in pleasantness of odours that had been paired with the taste of saccharin increased in sweet likers but decreased in dislikers. Odour sweetness increased regardless of PROP taster or sweet liker status. PROP ST rated saccharin as more bitter than did other taster groups and also showed greater increases in acquired bitterness of the saccharin-paired odour. Overall, these data suggest that individual differences in evaluation of saccharin reliably predict subsequent changes in evaluation of saccharin-paired odours, with hedonic changes corresponding with liking for sweet tastes and sensory changes reflecting differences in sensory quality between PROP taster groups. PMID:19180363

  15. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. PMID:23962381

  16. Effect of thermosonication on physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of ayran during storage.

    PubMed

    Erkaya, Tuba; Ba?lar, Mehmet; ?engül, Mustafa; Ertugay, Mustafa Fatih

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether thermosonication extends the shelf life of ayran, an acidic milk drink. The effect of thermosonication at different temperatures (60, 70 and 80 °C) and times (1, 3 and 5 min) on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, and sensorial properties of ayran during storage were investigated. According to the results, thermosonication applied at 60 °C decreased lower the bacteria counts, although the Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus counts decreased as the temperature and time increased. The yeast and mold levels in samples treated with thermosonication were <1 log CFU mL(-1) during storage period. The ayran samples had non-Newtonian behavior, and the consistency coefficients of the thermosonicated samples were significantly higher than that of the heat-treated samples. Regarding serum separation, the most effective thermosonication treatment was applied at 70 °C for 3 min. The sensory properties of the thermosonicated samples were better than the thermal-treated samples after storage. PMID:25190646

  17. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  18. Sensory characteristics of meat cooked for prolonged times at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Line; Gunvig, Annemarie; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Knøchel, Susanne; Christensen, Mette

    2012-02-01

    The present study evaluated the sensory characteristics of low temperature long time (LTLT) treated Semitendinosus from pork and beef and Pectoralis profundus from chicken. Semitendinosus and Pectoralis profundus muscles were heat treated at 53 °C and 58 °C for T(c) + 6 h, T(c) + 17 h, and T(c) + 30 h (only Semitendinosus from pork and beef). T(c) was the time for the samples to equalize with the temperature in the water bath. Tenderness increased with increasing heating temperature and time in pork and beef, but not in chicken. Juiciness decreased with increasing heating temperature and time in all species, and cooking loss increased with increasing temperature. A done appearance was developed with increasing heating time at 58 °C in pork and beef, while in chicken the done appearance was only affected by temperature. Flavor attributes were less affected by the LTLT treatment for all species. PMID:21985894

  19. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    PubMed

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P?>?0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P?>?0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P?sensory characteristic (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) scores of SP100 were lower than those of SP50 and the control. The use of surimi powder in fish sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. PMID:25745219

  20. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term (2-week), within-season temporal stability in retail food availability, prices, and quality. Design In-person observations of retail food stores at 2 time points, 2 weeks apart. Setting Southwest Chicago, IL. Sample 157 food stores. Main Outcome Measures Availability and prices of foods selected from the following food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, meats and beans, and dairy, as well as fresh produce quality. Analysis Temporal stability was tested for availability using a McNemar test and for price and quality using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results We found that measures of food availability and prices as well as fresh produce quality at stores were generally stable at the 2 time points. Conclusions and Implications This study suggests that a single observation may be sufficient to accurately characterize within-season food availability, food prices, and fresh produce quality. PMID:20129186

  1. Exposure to foods' non-taste sensory properties. A nursery intervention to increase children's willingness to try fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Dazeley, Paul; Houston-Price, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Activities that engage young children with the sensory properties of foods are popular with nursery schools, despite the lack of evidence for their efficacy in increasing children's consumption of healthy foods. This study provides the first empirical exploration of the effectiveness of a non-taste sensory activity program in a nursery school setting. Ninety-two children aged between 12 and 36 months were allocated either to an intervention group, who took part in looking, listening, feeling and smelling activities with unusual fruits and vegetables every day for 4 weeks, or to a non-intervention control group. In a subsequent mealtime taste test, children touched and tasted more of the vegetables to which they had been familiarized in their playtime activities than of a matched set of non-exposed foods. The results demonstrate that hands-on activities with unfamiliar fruits and vegetables can enhance children's willingness to taste these foods, and confirm the potential for such activities to support healthy eating initiatives. PMID:25218879

  2. Comparison of pork quality and sensory characteristics for antibiotic free yorkshire crossbreds raised in hoop houses.

    PubMed

    Whitley, N; Hanson, D; Morrow, W; See, M T; Oh, S-H

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare pork characteristics and to determine consumer acceptability of pork chops from antibiotic free Yorkshire crossbreds sired by Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY), Tamworth (TY) or Yorkshire (YY) boars and reared in hoop houses. The experiments were conducted at the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCA&TSU) Farm in Greensboro, NC and the Cherry Research Station Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) Alternative Swine Unit in Goldsboro, NC (source of antibiotic free Yorkshire sows used at both places). Twenty-four sows were artificially inseminated at each location in each of three trials. Litters were weaned at 4 wks old, and reared within deep-bedded outdoor hoop houses. To compare pork characteristics, 104 randomly selected animals were harvested at a USDA-inspected abattoir at approximately 200 d of age. Variables measured included pH, color score, L*, a*, b*, marbling score, drip loss, hot carcass weight, backfat thickness (BF), loin muscle area (LMA), and slice shear force. Sensory panel tests were also conducted at two time periods. The data was analyzed with GLM in SAS 9.01 including location, trial, and sire breed as fixed effects. Backfat thickness, LMA, color score and a* were different among breeding groups (p<0.05). The LBY pigs had thicker backfat and smaller LMA than the other breed types. The TY and YY had less backfat than all other breed groups. Color score was lower for YY than BY and LBY but intermediate for TY. The a* was lower for TY than other breeds except LBY which was intermediate. For one sensory panel test, YY pork was more preferred overall as well as for juiciness and texture compared to BY and LBY (p<0.05), but no impact of breed type was noted for the other test, with values similar for BY, LBY, TY and YY pork. This information may help small farmers make decisions about breed types to use for outdoor production. PMID:25049527

  3. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p?

  4. Seeing with sound? exploring different characteristics of a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Macpherson, Tom; Ward, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices convert live visual images into auditory signals, for example with a web camera (to record the images), a computer (to perform the conversion) and headphones (to listen to the sounds). In a series of three experiments, the performance of one such device ('The vOICe') was assessed under various conditions on blindfolded sighted participants. The main task that we used involved identifying and locating objects placed on a table by holding a webcam (like a flashlight) or wearing it on the head (like a miner's light). Identifying objects on a table was easier with a hand-held device, but locating the objects was easier with a head-mounted device. Brightness converted into loudness was less effective than the reverse contrast (dark being loud), suggesting that performance under these conditions (natural indoor lighting, novice users) is related more to the properties of the auditory signal (ie the amount of noise in it) than the cross-modal association between loudness and brightness. Individual differences in musical memory (detecting pitch changes in two sequences of notes) was related to the time taken to identify or recognise objects, but individual differences in self-reported vividness of visual imagery did not reliably predict performance across the experiments. In general, the results suggest that the auditory characteristics of the device may be more important for initial learning than visual associations. PMID:22208131

  5. Microbiological and sensory characteristics of pork loin chops: Role of intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Acuff, G R; Savell, J W; Cross, H R; Boxer, M K; Vanderzant, C

    1988-01-01

    Pork loin chops of High, Intermediate and Low intramuscular fat were trimmed free of subcutaneous fat and then packaged and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film for 0-6 days or in high oxygen barrier (HOB) film for 0-28 days at 4°C ± 1°C. In general, marbling group had no (P > 0·05) effect on the aerobic plate count (APC) and did not result in major differences in the distribution of types in the microflora of pork loin chops. During storage, Pseudomonas spp. became dominant in the microflora of PVC-wrapped chops while Lactobacillus spp. became dominant in the microflora of chops stored in HOB film. Of the sensory characteristics examined, mean surface discoloration and mean overall appearance scores of chops of Low intramuscular fat stored in HOB film were usually lower (P < 0·05) than those of chops of Intermediate and High intramuscular fat. In contrast, marbling group usually had no significant effect on mean surface discoloration and mean overall appearance scores of chops packaged in PVC film. PMID:22055609

  6. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  7. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists. PMID:21535620

  8. The rheology, microstructure and sensory characteristics of a gluten-free bread formulation enhanced with orange pomace.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Norah; Doran, Linda; Auty, Mark; Arendt, Elke; Gallagher, Eimear

    2013-12-01

    The present manuscript studied a previously optimised gluten-free bread formulation containing 5.5% orange pomace (OP) in relation to the batter characteristics (i.e. pre-baking), microstructure (of the flours, batter and bread) and sensory characteristics of the bread. Rheology, RVA and mixolab results illustrated that orange pomace improved the robustness of the gluten-free batter and decreased the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. This was confirmed from the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images, which showed potato starch granules to be more expanded in the control batter when compared to the sample containing orange pomace. Starch granules were also observed to be more enlarged and swollen in the CLSM bread images, suggesting a higher level of gelatinisation occurred in the control sample. Sensory analysis was carried out on the optimised and control bread; panellists scored the flavour, crumb appearance and overall acceptability of the OP-containing breads comparable to the control. PMID:24212437

  9. Effect of product composition on sensory characteristics of acidified milk products 

    E-print Network

    Lai, Pao-Hsueh

    1993-01-01

    The sensory properties of sour creams with different concentrations of milk fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), and diacetyl were evaluated by consumer taste panel. The data was analyzed by Response Surface Methodology to find combinations of ingredients...

  10. Effect of Enterococcus faecium on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Greek Feta cheese.

    PubMed

    Sarantinopoulos, Panagiotis; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2002-06-01

    Greek Feta cheese was prepared using as adjunct starter cultures Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198, E. faecium FAIR-E 243, and their combination. Numbers of enterococci in the control and in the batches containing E. faecium strains as adjunct starters rapidly increased until day 15 of ripening, and then remained constant. Both E. faecium strains positively affected the counts of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), micrococci and coliforms, while thermophilic cocci were not influenced. Moreover. E. faecium FAIR-E 243 enhanced the growth of mesophilic cocci and thermophilic bacilli. Physicochemical characteristics, such as pH, moisture, ash, salt in moisture and fat in dry matter (FDM) were not influenced by the addition of the E. faecium strains. The most pronounced effect was observed in the case of proteolysis. Both E. faecium strains, either as sole adjunct starter or in combination, increased the proteolytic index and the free amino groups concentration, and enhanced degradation of alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins in comparison to the control. Furthermore, the reverse-phase (RP)-HPLC peptide profiles of the water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) fractions were significantly affected by the addition of enterococci. The main volatile compounds produced were ethanol, acetate, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetoin and diacetyl, with highest amounts determined for ethanol, followed by acetate. Both E. faecium strains positively affected taste, aroma, colour and structure of the full-ripened cheeses, as well as the overall sensory profile. The present work emphasizes the technological significance of E. faecium strains and supports their use as adjunct cultures in the manufacture of Feta cheese. PMID:12038582

  11. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    PubMed

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p???0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p???0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p???0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC. PMID:26243954

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

    2012-08-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

  13. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999-NE-183 regional project planting: III. Fruit sensory characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sensory qualities of a new apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivar are central to its consumer acceptance. This study examined the crispness, juiciness, sweetness, acidity, flavor, attractiveness and commercial desirability of 23 new cultivars and breeding selections at nine locations across t...

  14. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ? - 6 to ? -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived. PMID:26028753

  15. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD. PMID:24928779

  16. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ?PD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier seeds, while grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of < -1.5 MPa versus vines with MD > -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a continuous relationship between physiological water status (stress) and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point that may be related to early season PD in controlling grape development as well as composition. Soils analyses revealed the preferred fruit was on vines in areas where soils were shallower rather than any definitive characteristic related to particle size distribution or nutrient availability, suggesting that in this vineyard soil available water is the major controlling factor.

  17. The effect of extended sensory range via the EyeCane sensory substitution device on the characteristics of visionless virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel Robert; Namer-Furstenberg, Rinat; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Mobility training programs for helping the blind navigate through unknown places with a White-Cane significantly improve their mobility. However, what is the effect of new assistive technologies, offering more information to the blind user, on the underlying premises of these programs such as navigation patterns? We developed the virtual-EyeCane, a minimalistic sensory substitution device translating single-point-distance into auditory cues identical to the EyeCane's in the real world. We compared performance in virtual environments when using the virtual-EyeCane, a virtual-White-Cane, no device and visual navigation. We show that the characteristics of virtual-EyeCane navigation differ from navigation with a virtual-White-Cane or no device, and that virtual-EyeCane users complete more levels successfully, taking shorter paths and with less collisions than these groups, and we demonstrate the relative similarity of virtual-EyeCane and visual navigation patterns. This suggests that additional distance information indeed changes navigation patterns from virtual-White-Cane use, and brings them closer to visual navigation. PMID:25693302

  18. Transglutaminase cross-linking effect on sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of Maillard reaction products from soybean protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Song, Na; Tan, Chen; Huang, Meigui; Liu, Ping; Eric, Karangwa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin; Jia, Chengsheng

    2013-01-01

    To improve the yield of Maillard peptides, a microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was used to increase the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in soybean protein hydrolysates by using a cross-linking reaction. The sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of corresponding Maillard Reaction Products (MSPC) was then evaluated. After cross-linking treatment the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in protein hydrolysates and the yield of Maillard peptides increased by 21.19% and 8.71%, respectively, which contributed to the improved mouthfulness of MSPC. The bitter amino acids were significantly decreased and the umami acids were markedly increased in MSPC. Volatile compounds identified by GC-MS analysis showed that the content of the important meaty flavour compounds (such as 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide) of MSPC were dramatically higher than that of MRPs from uncross-linking peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation, it was confirmed that MTGase cross-linking improved the flavour Characteristics and did not affect the antioxidant activity of MSPC. PMID:23017405

  19. Characterization and classification of Japanese consumer perceptions for beef tenderness using descriptive texture characteristics assessed by a trained sensory panel.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Kitsunai, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yosuke; Hatori, Hikari; Muroya, Susumu; Nomura, Masaru; Miyaguchi, Yuji; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Meat tenderness is an important characteristic in terms of consumer preference and satisfaction. However, each consumer may have his/her own criteria to judge meat tenderness, because consumers are neither selected nor trained like an expert sensory panel. This study aimed to characterize consumer tenderness using descriptive texture profiles such as chewiness and hardness assessed by a trained panel. Longissimus muscles cooked at four different end-point temperatures were subjected to a trained sensory panel (n=18) and consumer (n=107) tenderness tests. Multiple regression analysis showed that consumer tenderness was characterized as 'low-chewiness and low hardness texture.' Subsequently, consumers were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to tenderness perceptions in each participant, and the two groups were characterized as 'tenderness is mainly low-chewiness' and 'tenderness is mainly low-hardness' for tenderness perception, respectively. These results demonstrate objective characteristics and variability of consumer meat tenderness, and provide new information regarding the evaluation and management of meat tenderness for meat manufacturers. PMID:24231677

  20. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits. PMID:25715685

  1. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  2. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, El?bieta; Biega?ska-Marecik, Ró?a; Kido?, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  3. Applicability of vacuum impregnation to modify physico-chemical, sensory and nutritive characteristics of plant origin products--a review.

    PubMed

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, El?bieta; Biega?ska-Marecik, Ró?a; Kido?, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  4. Effect of diet, slaughter weight and sex on instrumental and sensory meat characteristics in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, M C; Campo, M M; Olleta, J L; Beltrán, J A; López, M

    2009-05-01

    The effect of the fattening diet, slaughter weight and sex on meat quality was studied in a total of 156 hybrid rabbits. After weaning, rabbits were divided into three groups of 52 animals each (50% male and 50% female), that were allocated for three weeks to one of three commercial diets containing low (14.28%, A), medium (18.04%, B) and high (20.48%, C) fibre content with decreasing energy levels. Animals were slaughtered at 2.0 and 2.3kg after the consumption of a common pre-slaughter non-medicated concentrate and pH, colour, water-holding capacity (WHC), Warner-Bratzler shear test and sensory analysis were all measured. Meat from animals fed with low fibre and high energy was the least luminous. Rabbits slaughtered at 2.0kg showed more yellowness than at 2.3kg at 0min. In both traits, these differences did not prevail after 15min of blooming. Globally, meat from males was more coloured than that of the females, both at 0 and 15min of blooming. No significant differences were found for pH, WHC or shear test for the individual effects. In the sensory analysis, rabbit and grass odours were more intense at 2.0kg than at 2.3kg of slaughter weight. PMID:20416607

  5. Effects of High-Hydrostatic Pressure on Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Oysters.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mu; Lingham, Talaysha; Huang, Yaoxin; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Ji, Lin; Karwe, Mukund; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) in oysters and to evaluate organoleptic characteristics of oysters treated at pressure levels required for HuNoV inactivation. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) HuNoV was inoculated into oysters and treated at 300 to 600 MPa at 25 and 0 °C for 2 min. After HHP, viral particles were extracted by porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) and viral RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Lower initial temperature (0 °C) significantly enhanced HHP inactivation of HuNoV compared to ambient temperature (25 °C; P < 0.05). HHP at 350 and 500 MPa at 0 °C could achieve more than 4 log10 reduction of GII.4 and GI.1 HuNoV in oysters, respectively. HHP treatments did not significantly change color or texture of oyster tissue. A 1- to 5-scale hedonic sensory evaluation on appearance, aroma, color, and overall acceptability showed that pressure-treated oysters received significantly higher quality scores than the untreated control (P < 0.05). Elevated pressure levels at 450 and 500 MPa did not significantly affect scores compared to 300 MPa at 0 °C, indicating increasing pressure level did not affect sensory acceptability of oysters. Oysters treated at 0 °C had slightly lower acceptability than the group treated at room temperature on day 1 (P < 0.05), but after 1 wk storage, no significant difference in sensory attributes and consumer desirability was observed (P > 0.05). PMID:25943304

  6. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and soybeans (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ogundele, Opeolu M; Ogunshe, Adenike O; Fayemi, Olanrewaju E; Ocloo, Fidelis C K

    2015-09-01

    Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut and soybean milks were studied. Milks were prepared from bambara and soybean and then fermented using Lactobacillus delbruieckii subspp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subspp. thermophilus to produce yoghurt. The yoghurts were stored at 7 °C and 27 °C for 9 days and their quality monitored. Results showed that pH of soy and bambara yoghurts decreased during the storage period for both storage temperatures. This decrease in pH was accompanied by simultaneous increase in titratable acidity. Total solids and apparent viscosities of soy and bambara yoghurts increased at 7 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage period. Bambara yoghurt received higher sensory acceptability than soy yoghurt. Predominant microorganisms in the stored yoghurts were lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count in the yoghurts stored at 7 °C decreased but increased at 27 °C during the storage period. Similar trends were followed by total aerobic bacteria, yeast and moulds counts. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Coliform and E. coli were absent in all the yogurt samples. Yoghurts of acceptable quality and safety were produced from bambara groundnut and soybeans. PMID:26345001

  7. Degradation of edible oil during food processing by ultrasound: electron paramagnetic resonance, physicochemical, and sensory appreciation.

    PubMed

    Pingret, Daniella; Durand, Grégory; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Rockenbauer, Antal; Ginies, Christian; Chemat, Farid

    2012-08-01

    During ultrasound processing of lipid-containing food, some off-flavors can be detected, which can incite depreciation by consumers. The impacts of ultrasound treatment on sunflower oil using two different ultrasound horns (titanium and pyrex) were evaluated. An electron paramagnetic resonance study was performed to identify and quantify the formed radicals, along with the assessment of classical physicochemical parameters such as peroxide value, acid value, anisidine value, conjugated dienes, polar compounds, water content, polymer quantification, fatty acid composition, and volatiles profile. The study shows an increase of formed radicals in sonicated oils, as well as the modification of physicochemical parameters evidencing an oxidation of treated oils. PMID:22804736

  8. Influence of extended aging on beef quality characteristics and sensory perception of steaks from the gluteus medius and longissimus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Colle, M J; Richard, R P; Killinger, K M; Bohlscheid, J C; Gray, A R; Loucks, W I; Day, R N; Cochran, A S; Nasados, J A; Doumit, M E

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of post-fabrication aging (2, 14, 21, 42, and 63days) on beef quality characteristics and consumer sensory perception of gluteus medius (GM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) steaks. Lipid oxidation and aerobic plate counts increased (P<0.05) with longer aging periods and retail display times. An aging period by day of retail display interaction (P<0.05) was observed for a* and b* values for both muscles and L* values for the LL. Warner-Bratzler shear force values decreased (P<0.05) with longer aging for the LL, while no difference was observed for the GM. Consumer panel results demonstrated that longer aging periods increased (P<0.05) tenderness of both muscles. Our results indicate that extended aging reduces retail color stability yet has positive effects on consumer perception of tenderness of beef loin muscles. PMID:26172241

  9. Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown Hydroponically at Ambient and

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    Hydroponically at Ambient and Elevated CO2 Leslie Thompson Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University evaluated for use in Advanced Life Support (ALS) applications by hydroponic propagation in environmental, soybeans, lettuce, potatoes or sweet potatoes by hydroponic propagation include ash, protein, carbohydrate

  10. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)?×Duroc? (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

  11. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    PubMed

    Kraujalyt?, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea. PMID:26471629

  12. SENSORY PROFILES AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COOKED BREEDER HEN BREAST MEAT DEBONED AT 2, 4, 8,AND 24 HOURS POST-MORTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially processed breeder hen breast fillets were evaluated for effects of deboning (DB) times (2, 4, 8, 24 h) on sensory and physical characteristics of the cooked meat. Right and left fillets were individually packaged in heat-seal bags, labeled, and frozen. After thawing, bags were immerse...

  13. Chemostimuli for guanylyl cyclase-D-expressing olfactory sensory neurons promote the acquisition of preferences for foods adulterated with the rodenticide warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Kelliher, Kevin R.; Munger, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Many animals have the ability to acquire food preferences from conspecifics via social signals. For example, the coincident detection of a food odor by canonical olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and agonists of the specialized OSNs expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D (GC-D+ OSNs) will promote a preference in recipient rodents for similarly odored foods. It has been hypothesized that these preferences are acquired and maintained regardless of the palatability or quality of the food. We assessed whether mice could acquire and maintain preferences for food that had been adulterated with the anticoagulant rodenticide warfarin. After olfactory investigation of a saline droplet containing either cocoa (2%, w/w) or cinnamon (1%, w/w) along with a GC-D+ OSN-specific chemostimulus (either of the guanylin-family peptides uroguanylin and guanylin; 1–50 nM), C57BL/6J mice exhibited robust preferences for unadulterated food containing the demonstrated odor. The peptide-dependent preference was observed even when the food contained warfarin (0.025% w/w). Repeated ingestion of warfarin-containing food over four days did not disrupt the preference, even though mice were not re-exposed to the peptide stimulus. Surprisingly, mice continued to prefer warfarin-adulterated food containing the demonstrated odor when presented with a choice of warfarin-free food containing a novel odor. Our results indicate that olfactory-mediated food preferences can be acquired and maintained for warfarin-containing foods and suggest that guanylin peptides may be effective stimuli for promoting the ingestion of foods or other edibles with low palatability or potential toxicity. PMID:26283902

  14. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef.

  15. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Akal?n, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A

    2012-07-01

    The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety. PMID:22720919

  16. Investigation of sensory and volatile characteristics of farmed and wild barramundi (Lates calcarifer) using gas chromatography-olfactometry mass spectrometry and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Poole, Sue; Kirchhoff, Stephanie; Forde, Ciarán

    2009-11-11

    Australian aquacultured and wild-caught barramundi (Lates calcarifer) were obtained for sensory evaluation and analysis by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with simultaneous mass spectrometry. Aquacultured barramundi were sourced from commercial farms representing some typical Australian production methods: above-ground recirculation tank, in-ground lined pond, and in-ground earth pond cultivation. Wild barramundi were sourced from three river-mouth sites in Northern Australia: the Gulf of Carpentaria, the Arafura Sea in the Northern Territory, and the Coral Sea, Northern Queensland. Fish were filleted, minced into a homogeneous sample, and blast frozen for subsequent cooking and sensory and volatile analysis. Barramundi mince portions were grilled using a standardized method for sensory descriptive profiling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry analysis. Volatiles from grilled fish were collected using dynamic headspace, and the extracts were subjected to direct-intensity olfactometry analysis by trained assessors. More than 30 odor-active compounds were present in the barramundi extracts, mostly with the same odor-active compounds detected in both wild and aquacultured samples. On average, the perceived GC-O odor intensities of most aroma volatiles were higher in aquacultured samples. This was also reflected by instrumental data, where most volatiles were present at higher concentrations in the aquacultured samples. Additional "muddy", "earthy", and "musty" flavor notes perceived in the lined and earth pond aquacultured samples were related to the presence of 2-methyl isoborneol and geosmin in these samples. Multivariate modeling was used to relate the sensory, olfactometry, and instrumental data; overall, there was good agreement between the data sets. PMID:19824645

  17. Understanding school food service characteristics associated with higher competitive food revenues can help focus efforts to improve school food environments.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Newman, Constance; Ralston, Katherine; Prell, Mark; Ollinger, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Many school food services sell extra foods and beverages, popularly referred to as “competitive foods,” in addition to USDA school meals. On the basis of national survey data, most competitive foods and beverages selected by students are of low nutritional value. Recent federal legislation will allow schools that participate in USDA school meal programs to sell competitive foods only if the food items they sell meet nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of limiting competitive foods on local school food service finances. However, national data indicate that only in a subset of schools do food services receive large amounts of revenues from competitive foods. These food services are typically located in secondary schools in more affluent districts, serving higher proportions of students who do not receive free or reduced price meals. Compared to other food services, these food services couple higher competitive food revenues with lower school meal participation. Increasing school meal participation could increase meal revenues to offset any loss of competitive food revenues. Replacing less-healthful competitive items with healthier options could also help maintain school food service revenues while improving the school food environment. Nationally consistent nutrition standards for competitive foods may encourage development and marketing of healthful products. PMID:22867067

  18. Effect of almond on technological, nutritional, textural and sensory characteristics of goat meat nuggets.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Das, Arun K; Verma, Arun K

    2014-11-01

    An attempt was made through the present study to develop meat based functional food by incorporating almond nut at two different 2.5 and 5 % (Formulation 1 and 2) levels and observe its impact on the different quality attributes against control goat meat nuggets. Almond improved (P?

  19. The effect of flaxseed supplementation on growth, carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile, retail shelf life, and sensory characteristics of beef from steers finished on grasslands of the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial was conducted to determine if steers that were grown and finished while grazing grasses would have a more healthful fatty acid profile in their muscle, grow faster, have different carcass characteristics, and if steaks from these steers would have improved tenderness and altered sensory pane...

  20. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the cheese cracker. We detected significantly lower yeast counts for nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) at 4mo compared with control (regular) salt (1, 1.5 and 2%). We detected no mold growth in any of the treatments at any time. At 4mo, we found no significant differences in sensory color, aroma, crunchiness, overall liking, or acceptability scores of cheese crackers using 1.5 and 1% nano spray-dried salt compared with control. Therefore, 25 to 50% less salt would be suitable for cheese crackers if the particle size of regular salt was reduced 3 log to form nano spray-dried salt. A 3-log reduction in sodium chloride particle size from regular salt to nano spray-dried salt increased saltiness, but a 1-log reduction in salt size from Microsized salt to nano spray-dried salt did not increase saltiness of surface-salted cheese crackers. The use of salt with reduced particle size by nano spray drying is recommended for use in surface-salted cheese crackers to reduce sodium intake. PMID:26142862

  1. Mothers 'don't like it; never tried it': Blind Sensory Test of a Homemade Chicken Liver Baby Food, a Source of Iron, by Infants and their Mothers.

    PubMed

    Campos, Viviani Jaques; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2015-08-01

    A homemade chicken liver baby food (CLBF) that meets infants' nutritional requirements was developed and its acceptance by children and their mothers determined. CLBF's nutritional content was determined by chemical analyses. A blind sensory test (ST) by 50 infants 7-12 months old and their mothers of CLBF and ground beef baby food (GBBF) was applied. Mothers' preferences for liver and beef, answers of an hedonic scale and infants' acceptance were investigated. CLBF met the nutritional requirements for infants. There were no significant differences in the ST between the CLBF and GBBF, either for infants or for their mothers. There was no correlation between mothers' like or dislike of liver and the ST scores. Infants tried and liked the CLBF that match dietary recommendations and could help prevent iron deficiency. Mothers, on the other hand, demonstrated an 'I don't like it; I never tried it' attitude. PMID:26116829

  2. The Modern Obesity Epidemic, Ancestral Hunter-Gatherers, and the Sensory/Reward Control of Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become a true pandemic. In the United States, over two thirds of adults are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. The increase in the prevalence of obese and overweight individuals has happened too rapidly for it to be due to an alteration in the genome. The gastrointestinal, sensory (taste and…

  3. Seasonal variation in leaf characteristics and food selection by larval noctuids on an evergreen Mediterranean shrub

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    Seasonal variation in leaf characteristics and food selection by larval noctuids on an evergreen of both relative preference and total consumption, to this seasonal variation in chemical and physical their consumption of young leaves relative to old leaves and developing fruits in response to seasonal changes. Food

  4. I'll Have What She's Having: The Impact of Model Characteristics on Children's Food Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Russell, Joshua W.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates children's use of social categories in their food selection. Across three studies, we presented preschoolers with sets of photographs that contrasted food-eating models with different characteristics, including model gender, race (Black, White), age (child or adult), and/or expression (acceptance or rejection of the…

  5. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  6. The influence of salt concentration on the chemical, ripening and sensory characteristics of Iranian white cheese manufactured by UF-Treated milk.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mostafa; Guzeler, Nuray; Hayaloglu, Ali A

    2015-08-01

    Iranian White cheese was manufactured from ultrafiltered cows' milk using different concentrations of salt consisting of 1, 2.5, 4% and salt free. Chemical composition, proteolysis, counts for lactic acid bacteria and sensory evaluation were examined during 90 d of ripening. It was found that the use of different salt concentrations significantly influenced all chemical composition, proteolysis, total number of lactic acid bacteria and sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Increasing the salt concentrations caused a proportional decrease in proteolysis determined by both urea-PAGE of caseins and RP-HPLC of peptides. With increased salt concentration, total number of lactic acid bacteria decreased. Cheeses with 1 and 2.5% salt were suitable and acceptable in odour and flavour that may be due to the proportional level of proteolysis products. In conclusion, reducing salt concentration from 4 to 2.5 and 1% had no ineligible effect on the quality and acceptability of the cheese. PMID:26119429

  7. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; ?at, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists. PMID:26604374

  8. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics, sensory properties and volatile composition between commercial and New Zealand made wakame from Undaria pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Balbas, Jessica; Hamid, Nazimah; Liu, Tingting; Kantono, Kevin; Robertson, John; White, William Lindsey; Ma, Qianli; Lu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to obtain chemical and sensory profiles of the New Zealand wakame from Undaria pinnatifida for the first time since the lift of its commercial harvest in May 2010. We compared mannitol content, sensory quality and volatile profiles of wakame produced from New Zealand U. pinnatifida with Japanese and Korean commercial samples. Sensory analysis showed that New Zealand wakame processed in August was different from commercially available wakame in texture only. A total of 10 alkanes, 5 ester, 3 alcohol, 13 aldehyde, 8 ketone and 2 alkyne were detected in the two New Zealand processed wakame samples. Mannitol content in freeze-dried U. pinnatifida was also measured and result showed that mannitol was the only free carbohydrate in U. pinnatifida. PMID:25976807

  9. PREDICTION OF COLOR, TENDERNESS, AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF STEAKS BY VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY. A FEASIBILITY STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color, texture and sensory attributes of 24 beef carcasses at 2, 4, 8, 14, and 21 days post mortem were predicted by visible/near infrared (visible/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy in 400-1080 nm region. Predicting the Hunter a*, b*, and E* values yielded the coefficient of determination (R**2) in cal...

  10. Effect of sample preparation method on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast fillets processed for food service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken fillets (Pectoralis major) are one of popular items for food service. In the store, especially in fast food service stores, ready-to-cook meat products are commonly stored in freezers before use. The frozen meat can be cooked either directly from a frozen stage or after thawing. However, the...

  11. A preliminary analysis of the correlation of food-web characteristics with hydrology and nutrient gradients in the southern Everglades

    E-print Network

    Trexler, Joel C.

    , disturbance, food-chain length, food web, stable isotopes Abstract We estimated trophic position and carbonA preliminary analysis of the correlation of food-web characteristics with hydrology and nutrient dried and the average number of days per year the sites were inundated for the previous 10 years. Food

  12. Enhancement of CGRP sensory afferent innervation in the gut during the development of food allergy in an experimental murine model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaemin; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kuramoto, Hirofumi; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2013-01-18

    Recent advances in neuroscience and immunology have revealed a bidirectional interaction between the nervous and immune systems. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tract may be modulated by neuro-immune interactions, but little information about this interaction is available. Intrinsic and extrinsic primary afferent neurons play an important role in this interaction because of their abilities to sense, process and transmit various information in the intestinal microenvironment. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is exclusively contained in intrinsic and extrinsic primary afferent neurons in the mouse intestine. Therefore, we investigated CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the colonic mucosa of mice induced to develop food allergy. CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were specifically increased with the development of food allergy, and the fibers were juxtaposed to mucosal mast cells in the colonic mucosa of food allergy mice. Denervation of the extrinsic afferent neurons using neonatal capsaicin treatment did not affect the development of food allergy or the density and distribution of CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the colonic mucosa of food allergy mice. Furthermore, the mRNA and plasma level of CGRP was increased in food allergy mice. These results suggest that the activation of intrinsic primary afferent neurons in the intestine contributes to the development and pathology of food allergy. PMID:23261435

  13. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP. PMID:25049698

  14. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  15. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  16. Sensory responses to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) or sucrose solutions and food preferences in young women.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Henderson, S A; Shore, A B; Barratt-Fornell, A

    1998-11-30

    Genetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been linked with a greater number of food aversions and reported rejection of some bitter foods. Healthy young women (n = 121) were divided into nontasters, tasters and supertasters of PROP according to their PROP detection thresholds and the ratio of intensity ratings of PROP versus NaCl solutions. Hedonic response profiles to sucrose solutions distinguished between likers and dislikers of sweet. All subjects completed a 171-item food preference checklist. Food preference data were reduced by factor analyses, subscales of which were tested for reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Greater PROP sensitivity was associated with lower acceptance of coffee, cruciferous vegetables, tart citrus fruit, dark breads, and selected fats. In contrast, liking for sucrose solutions was linked to liking for sugar in tea and coffee, but not to any special pattern of food acceptance. Strategies aimed at increasing the consumption of grains, vegetables, and fruit should consider the role of inherited taste makers and their potential impact on dietary habits. PMID:9929687

  17. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ?-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration.

  18. Sensory development.

    PubMed

    Clark-Gambelunghe, Melinda B; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sensory development is complex, with both morphologic and neural components. Development of the senses begins in early fetal life, initially with structures and then in-utero stimulation initiates perception. After birth, environmental stimulants accelerate each sensory organ to nearly complete maturity several months after birth. Vision and hearing are the best studied senses and the most crucial for learning. This article focuses on the cranial senses of vision, hearing, smell, and taste. Sensory function, embryogenesis, external and genetic effects, and common malformations that may affect development are discussed, and the corresponding sensory organs are examined and evaluated. PMID:25836703

  19. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower aw values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  20. The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat

    PubMed Central

    Aliani, Michel; Ryland, Donna; Williamson, Jennifer; Rempel, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Ingredients such as ascorbic acid used to preserve redness of the raw meat, and carnosine and ribose used for flavor improvement have been incorporated into minced meats to increase consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible synergistic effect of ascorbic acid, carnosine, and ribose on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat. Samples included control (Co) ±1% carnosine (C), 0.1% ascorbic acid (A), 2% ribose (R) (w/w), and combinations of RC, RA, RCA in the same concentrations as the single ingredient samples. A trained sensory panel (n = 7) measured the intensity of the aromas and flavors of salty, sour, beef, and liver of the bison patties. A consumer acceptance panel (n = 59) evaluated color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of the patties. Hunterlab colorimetry, shear force, cook loss, and drip loss percentage were measured on the cooked patties, and color and pH on the raw patties. The sample containing 2% ribose (R), 1% carnosine (C), and 0.1% ascorbic acid (A) in combination (RCA) showed a significantly higher consumer acceptance for aroma, which could possibly be attributed to the high beef aroma intensity measured by the descriptive analysis panel. RCA had the highest color acceptance which may be related to the high a* value for the cooked sample. RCA also had high overall acceptance corresponding to “like slightly.” Raw and cooked color values, shear force, pH, cook loss and drip loss percentages, and aroma and flavor attribute intensities for RCA were not significantly different from the control sample. The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid may positively affect the aroma and color of minced bison meat leading to higher overall acceptability without compromising sensory and physico-chemical quality. PMID:24804026

  1. Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygoura, Panagiota D.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2011-08-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 °C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 °C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (EC, 1997; EEC, 1993). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [60Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected, since ATBC did not undergo chemical decomposition upon irradiation up to 25 kGy. Finally, specific migration decreased proportionally with increasing polarity of the food-simulating solvent.

  2. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E.; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. Objective To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Design Systematic review Data Sources Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. Study Selection We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Data Analysis Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. Results 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Conclusion Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the effects of personal characteristics on price sensitivity are not supported by the evidence, which shows heterogeneity between studies and populations. Trial Registration PROSPERO CRD42014009705 PMID:26151133

  3. Fortification with iron chelate and substitution of sucrose by sucralose in light uvaia sherbet (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess): physical, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Tales Márcio de Oliveira; Pereira, Cristina Guimarães; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2015-09-01

    In this work, iron fortified light uvaia sherbet, with low sucrose content, was developed and its physical, chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The central composite rotational design (CCRD), applicable to the response surface methodology, was used to analyze the formulations. In the formulations, in addition of iron fortification (9 to 15 mg/100 g), the sucrose was substituted by micronized sucralose in a proportion of 66-94 %. The responses were analyzed with respect to changes in pH, total solids, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, calories, overrun, nucleation and thawing temperatures, rheological parameters and sensory attributes. Protein contents and acidity were similar in all formulations. There was a reduction of over 25 % in the caloric value. The rheological results showed pseudoplastic behavior and significant viscosity differences among the tested sherbets. In the overrun and thawing behavior results the sucrose concentration had a significant influence as the formulations with substitution by 28 g of sucralose/kg of sucrose showed greater air incorporation. In the flavor attribute there was not significance in relation to the iron fortification. Sherbets prepared with substitution of sucrose by sucralose and fortified with iron showed good acceptability, more stability and more resistant to thawing. PMID:26344966

  4. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches. PMID:26344980

  5. Mercury biomagnification through food webs is affected by physical and chemical characteristics of lakes.

    PubMed

    Clayden, Meredith G; Kidd, Karen A; Wyn, Brianna; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern because the organic form, methyl Hg (MeHg), can biomagnify to harmful concentrations in fish, fish-eating wildlife, and humans. Food web transfer of MeHg has been explored using models of log MeHg versus relative trophic position (nitrogen isotopes, ?(15)N), but regression slopes vary across systems for unknown reasons. In this study, MeHg biomagnification was determined for 11 lake food webs in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and compared to physical and chemical lake characteristics using principal component and multiple regression analyses. MeHg biomagnification (regression slopes of log MeHg versus baseline-adjusted ?(15)N for fishes and invertebrates) varied significantly across lakes and was higher in systems with lower aqueous nutrient/MeHg/chloride scores. This is one of the largest, consistent data sets available on MeHg biomagnification through temperate lake food webs and the first study to use a principal component and multiple regression approach to understand how lake chemical and physical characteristics interact to affect biomagnification among systems. Overall, our results show that the magnitude of MeHg biomagnification through lake food webs is related to the chemical and physical characteristics of the systems, but the underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:24099312

  6. Effects of the Plane of Nutrition on Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Quality Traits of the Muscle in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chai Hyun; Jung, Dae-Yun; Choi, Jung Seok; Jin, Sang-Keun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the feasibility of using the low plane of nutrition (LPN) as a means of improving the meat quality of crossbred finishing pigs with a medium weight gain potential. Twenty-four barrows and 24 gilts weighing approximately 48 kg were placed on LPN [a finisher (2.86 Mcal ME/kg and 0.67% lysine) for 91 d] or on a high plane of nutrition [HPN; a commercial grower for 38 d and a finisher (3.35 Mcal ME/kg and 0.9% lysine) for 46 d]. Five barrows and five gilts per treatment weighing approximately 125 kg were slaughtered after the indicated days on the respective diets, followed by physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation on their muscles. Overall average daily gain was 12.6% less in the LPN group vs. the HPN group (p<0.05). The redness (a*) of fresh longissimus muscle (LM) from the loin as well as from Boston butt was greater in the LPN group vs. HPN whereas the shear force for fresh LM from these primals and semimembranosus muscle was lower in the former. In sensory evaluation for cooked LM, no treatment effect was detected in any of the quality traits examined, except for a lower color score in the LPN vs. HPN group. Results suggest that meat quality of the finishing pigs can be improved to some extent by using LPN. However, the present pigs, whose backfat thickness was 24 mm at 125 kg, are thought not to be lean enough to be fattened over 120 kg.

  7. Comparison of physical, chemical, and sensorial characteristics between U.S.-imported and Northwestern Mexico retail beef.

    PubMed

    González-Rios, H; Peña-Ramos, A; Valenzuela, M; Zamorano-García, L; Cumplido-Barbeitia, G; González-Méndez, N F; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2010-01-01

    To compare beef from Northwestern Mexico (NMEX) and that imported from the United States in physical-chemical (PC) and sensory traits, samples of ribeye (m. Longissimus dorsi thoracis, LDT) and knuckle (m. Vastus lateralis, VL) of Mexican (64 LDT; 51 VL) and U.S. (28 LDT; 25 VL) origin were purchased randomly from select retail stores located in 3 cities of NMEX. PC evaluation measured contents of moisture, fat and cholesterol, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), pH, CIE L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss, and normalized fatty acid profile (FAP). Trained panelists evaluated raw and cooked samples for 2 and 6 different organoleptic traits, respectively. Mexican and U.S.-imported LDT steaks did not differ (P>0.05) in PC traits. VL samples differed in L*, b*, hue*, WBSF, and fat content by country of origin (COO). The WBSF for cooked VL samples from the United States was lower (P < 0.05) and fat content was greater (P<0.05) than those for NMEX steaks. The FAP varied between muscles; Mexican LDT had a higher content of C18:0, while VL from the United States had a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a higher PUFA/Saturated ratio (P<0.05). Although sensory traits tended to be rated higher for Mexican LDT and VL steaks, no statistical differences with U.S.-imported samples were detected (P > 0.05). Results indicated that domestic and U.S. retail steaks sold in the NMEX are similar in eating quality and PC, whereas differences observed in FAP deserve further attention from a nutritional standpoint. PMID:21535586

  8. HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH RING-NECKED PHEASANT USE OF WINTER FOOD PLOTS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH RING-NECKED PHEASANT USE OF WINTER FOOD PLOTS IN EASTERN University 1991 #12;HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH RING-NECKED PHEASANT USE OF WINTER FOOD PLOTS the Brookings County Pheasant Restoration Association and the Pheasants for Everyone Program (GF&P). I

  9. Effects of electron-beam irradiation on the shelf life, microbial populations and sensory characteristics of summer truffles (Tuber aestivum) packaged under modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Carmen Susana; Blanco, Domingo; Marco, Pedro; Oria, Rosa; Venturini, María Eugenia

    2011-02-01

    The effects of two doses of electron-beam irradiation (1.5 kGy and 2.5 kGy) on the microbial populations (total mesophilic aerobes, Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, molds and yeasts) and sensory characteristics of Tuber aestivum packaged under modified atmospheres were monitored immediately after treatment, and weekly during 42 days of storage at 4 °C. Treatment with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy reduced the pseudomonads populations by 4.3 and 5.5 logs, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased by 5.4 logs with the 1.5 kGy dose and counts below the detection limit (<1.0 log cfu/g) were obtained with the 2.5 kGy dose. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were less affected by the ionizing radiation treatments and they became the dominant microbial populations throughout storage with microbial counts up to 7.1 log cfu/g. The carbon dioxide levels inside the packages containing irradiated truffles were lower than those of the non-irradiated ones, suggesting a decrease in the respiration rate of the treated ascocarps. The treatments with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy e-beam did not negatively affect the sensory characteristics of truffles, but a visible superficial yeast growth was detected in truffles irradiated with 1.5 kGy at the end of their shelf life (day 28). Treatment with 2.5 kGy e-beam has prolonged the shelf life to 42 days, compared with 21 days for the untreated samples. PMID:21056786

  10. Food Cravings and Energy Regulation: The Characteristics of Craved Foods Before and During Long-Term Caloric Restriction in the CALERIE Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characteristics of food cravings and change in food cravings during 6 months of caloric restriction (CR) were studied in 34 healthy, overweight women (Means+/-SD; 35+/-5y; BMI 27.9+/-1.4kg/m2) participating in the CALERIE trial. After a 7-wk, weight-stable baseline (BL), subjects were randomized...

  11. Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with hunger and weight change during 6 months of caloric restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the characteristics of craved foods and changes in food cravings in a long-term caloric restriction (CR) intervention in overweight women randomized to high or low glycemic load diets. Design: A randomized controlled trial of high or low glycemic load diets provided for 6 mon...

  12. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-08-22

    This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

  13. Physicochemical and sensory characteristic changes in fortified peanut spreads after 3 months of storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jui-Yueh; Phillips, R Dixon; Resurreccion, Anna V A; Hung, Yen-Con

    2002-04-10

    Three amino acid-balanced, vitamin- and mineral-fortified peanut spreads were stored at 4, 23, and 40 degrees C for 3 months. These were 69.6% peanut/19% soybean-40.5% fat, 61.9% peanut/19% soybean-44.5% fat, and 74.1% peanut/14% nonfat dry milk (NFDM)-40% fat. The peanut spreads were fortified with vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6), vitamin C, calcium, and iron to provide 33.3% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children. Water-soluble vitamins were quite stable in deaerated peanut spreads. The antioxidant activity of phytochemicals in soybean prevented vitamin A degradation in soy-containing spreads, whereas the NFDM spread lost 70% of the initial content. Instron analysis detected major changes in texture when peanut spreads were stored at 40 degrees C, suggesting that the polymorphic form of lipid transformed and the proper crystallization of stabilizer was destroyed. Panelists did not detect the texture changes in peanut spreads stored at different temperatures. At 40 degrees C, the primary deteriorative changes in sensory quality were increased browning and the development of "soybean" and "oxidized" flavors as well as decreased "roasted peanutty" flavor. PMID:11929300

  14. [A review of the oro-dento-facial characteristics of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (familial dysautonomia)].

    PubMed

    Mass, E

    2013-01-01

    The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunction of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type Ill, known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, was first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include dental trauma; dental and soft tissue self-mutilation; normal dental age; normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth; smaller tooth size; different and disproportional tooth components; normal alveolar bone height; small jaws, mild crowding, and malocclusions. These persons have craniofacial morphology that is different from accepted norms but they resemble norms of their ethnic origin. The subjects can have gray, pale, shiny faces with an asymmetric suffering expression; frontal bossing, with eventual hypertelorism and narrow lips; a low caries rate; drooling, and hypersalivation. They can have changes in salivary composition and content, which influences plaque and calculus and increases the risk of gingival and periodontal diseases. They also have difficulty in controlling oral muscles; a progressive decrease in number of tongue fungiform papillae, accompanied by lack of taste buds; and specific dysgeusia, but a normal sense of smell. PMID:23697298

  15. A review of the oro-dento-facial characteristics of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (familial dysautonomia).

    PubMed

    Mass, Eliyahu

    2012-01-01

    The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunction of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III, known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, was first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include dental trauma; dental and soft tissue self-mutilation; normal dental age; normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth; smaller tooth size; different and disproportional tooth components; normal alveolar bone height; small jaws, mild crowding, and malocclusions. These persons have craniofacial morphology that is different from accepted norms but they resemble norms of their ethnic origin. The subjects can have gray, pale, shiny faces with an asymmetric suffering expression; frontal bossing, with eventual hypertelorism and narrow lips; a low-caries rate; drooling, and hypersalivation. They can have changes in salivary composition and content, which influences plaque and calculus and increases the risk of gingival and periodontal diseases. They also have difficulty in controlling oral muscles; a progressive decrease in number of tongue fungiform papillae, accompanied by lack of taste buds; and specific dysgeusia, but a normal sense of smell. PMID:22229594

  16. Spatial-temporal modeling of neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and food stores.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua L; Peterson, Marc; Rummo, Pasquale; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-15

    The literature on food stores, neighborhood poverty, and race/ethnicity is mixed and lacks methods of accounting for complex spatial and temporal clustering of food resources. We used quarterly data on supermarket and convenience store locations from Nielsen TDLinx (Nielsen Holdings N.V., New York, New York) spanning 7 years (2006-2012) and census tract-based neighborhood sociodemographic data from the American Community Survey (2006-2010) to assess associations between neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and food store distributions in the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) of 4 US cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and San Francisco, California). We fitted a space-time Poisson regression model that accounted for the complex spatial-temporal correlation structure of store locations by introducing space-time random effects in an intrinsic conditionally autoregressive model within a Bayesian framework. After accounting for census tract-level area, population, their interaction, and spatial and temporal variability, census tract poverty was significantly and positively associated with increasing expected numbers of supermarkets among tracts in all 4 MSAs. A similar positive association was observed for convenience stores in Birmingham, Minneapolis, and San Francisco; in Chicago, a positive association was observed only for predominantly white and predominantly black tracts. Our findings suggest a positive association between greater numbers of food stores and higher neighborhood poverty, with implications for policy approaches related to food store access by neighborhood poverty. PMID:25515169

  17. Rheological, physico-sensory, nutritional and storage characteristics of bread enriched with roller milled fractions of black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.).

    PubMed

    Indrani, D; Sakhare, Suresh D; Milind; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2015-08-01

    Black gram grains were fractionated using roller flour mill. Effect of combination of additives (CA) namely dry gluten powder, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, fungal ?-amylase on the rheological and bread making characteristics of wheat flour partly replaced with roller milled fractions of black gram was studied. With increase in the addition of straight run flour (SRF), protein rich fraction (PRF), protein and fiber rich fraction (P&FRF) from 0 to 20 %, fiber rich fraction, FRF (0-15 %), the farinograph water absorption increased and dough stability decreased; amylograph pasting temperature increased and peak viscosity decreased; bread volume decreased and crumb firmness value increased indicating adverse effect of these fractions on the rheological and bread making characteristics of wheat flour. Sensory evaluation showed that breads were acceptable only up to the level of 15 % for SRF, PRF & P&FRF and 10 % for FRF. However, when CA containing dry gluten powder, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and fungal ?-amylase was incorporated the overall quality of the products improved. Use of these fractions increased the protein and fiber contents of bread by 1.24-1.66 and 1.48-3.79 times respectively. The results showed that possibility of utilising roller milled black gram fractions along with CA to improve the taste, texture and nutritional quality of bread. PMID:26243951

  18. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ? 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ? 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  19. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ? 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ? 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  20. Supplemental Table 1 See Figure 1 Sensory mode

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    (Embiotocidae) habitats. Vis. Res. 44:1127­45 5 Visual Fishes 1, 3, 5, 7 Cummings ME. 2007. Sensory trade, Amcoff M, Mann RP, Arnqvist G. 2012. Diversification of a food-mimicking male ornament via sensory drive

  1. Food characteristics, long-term habituation and energy intake: Laboratory and field studies

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Fletcher, Kelly D.; O’Neill, Jessica; Roemmich, James N.; Raynor, Hollie; Bouton, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Greater food variety is related to increased energy intake, and one approach to reduce food intake is to reduce food variety. The effects of varying the variety of foods at the dinner meal to reduce energy intake was assessed in laboratory and field experiments. Experiment 1 randomly assigned 31 overweight children to one of three conditions that provided one laboratory meal per day over a week. Conditions were the SAME macaroni and cheese, SIMILAR types of macaroni and cheese, or a VARIETY of high-energy-dense foods. On days 1 and 5 all children consumed the same macaroni and cheese meal. Results showed significant differences in energy consumed between SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY from day 1 to 5, with SAME and SIMILAR decreasing and VARIETY increasing energy intake. Trials to habituation, a potential mechanism for the variety effect, showed the same pattern of between group differences as energy intake. Experiment 2 randomly assigned 30 overweight children to conditions that provided the SAME, SIMILAR or VARIETY of high-energy-dense entrees along with a variety of low-energy-dense dinner entrees to eat in their homes for four weeks. Results showed significant between group differences in energy intake across weeks, with significant decreases over weeks for the SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY groups. The pattern of results across the experiments shows the same pattern of reduction in energy intake if children eat the same or similar characteristics of foods (types of macaroni and cheese), which may provide ideas about how to develop dietary variety prescriptions that can reduce intake and be tested in clinical trials. PMID:23085682

  2. Rural and Urban Differences in the Associations between Characteristics of the Community Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between measures of the household and retail food environments and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in both urban and rural environmental contexts. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Data for FV intake and other characteristics were collected via survey instrument and geocoded to the objective food

  3. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) emerged for pre-dawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), mid-day leaf water potential (ΨL) and PAW, with berry size, berry weight, pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the grape skins showed significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Data vines were categorized as non-stressed (ΨPD ? -7.9 bars and ΨL ? -14.9 bars) and stressed (ΨPD ? -8.0 bars and ΨL ? -15.0 bars) and subjected to analysis of variance. Significant separation emerged for vines categorized as non-stressed versus stressed at véraison, which correlated to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit. This report does not advocate the use of stress levels herein reported. The vineyard was planted to a vigorous, deep rooted rootstock (V. rupestris cv. St. George), and from years of management is known to be able to withstand stress levels of the magnitude we observed. Nonetheless, the results may suggest there is not a linear relationship between physiological water stress and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point controlling grape composition as well as physiological development.

  4. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Web version Sensory Dysfunction Overview Why are smell and taste important? Your senses of smell and taste let you fully enjoy the scents ... bitter and sour. Flavor involves both taste and smell. For example, because a person is able to ...

  5. Family and infant characteristics associated with timing of core and non-core food introduction in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H.M.; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify family and infant characteristics associated with timing of introduction of two food types: core foods (nutrient-dense) and non-core foods (nutrient-poor) in a population-based sample of mothers and infants. Method Participants were 1861 mothers and infants from the Gemini twin birth cohort (one child per family). Family and infant characteristics were assessed when the infants were around 8 months old. Timing of introducing core and non-core foods was assessed at 8 and 15 months. As the distributions of timing were skewed, three similar-sized groups were created for each food type: earlier (core: 1–4 months; non-core: 3–8 months), average (core: 5 months; non-core: 9–10 months), and later introduction (core: 6–12 months; non-core: 11–18 months). Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine predictors of core and non-core food introduction, with bootstrapping to test for differences between the core and non-core models. Results Younger maternal age, lower education level, and higher maternal BMI were associated with earlier core and non-core food introduction. Not breastfeeding for at least 3 months and higher birth weight were specifically associated with earlier introduction of core foods. Having older children was specifically associated with earlier introduction of non-core foods. Conclusion There are similarities and differences in the characteristics associated with earlier introduction of core and non-core foods. Successful interventions may require a combination of approaches to target both food types. PMID:23486509

  6. Sociodemographic characteristics of food handlers and their knowledge, attitude and practice towards food sanitation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zain, Maizun Mohd; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2002-06-01

    Diseases spread through food still remain a common and persistent problems resulting in appreciable morbidity and occasional mortality. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. This study is to explore the pattern of sociodemographic distribution and to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers towards food-borne diseases and food safety. A total of 430 food handlers were randomly selected from Kota Bharu district and interviewed by using structured questionnaire. Distribution of food handlers was Malays (98.8%), females (69.5%), married (81.4%), working in food stalls (64.2%), involved in operational areas (49.3%), having no license (54.2%) and immunized with Ty2 (60.7%). The mean age was 41 +/- 12 years and the mean income was RM 465 +/- 243/month. The educational level was found as no formal education (10.5%), primary school (31.9%), secondary school (57.0%) and diploma/degree holders (0.7%). A significant number of food handlers (57.2%) had no certificate in food handlers training program and 61.9% had undergone routine medical examinations (RME). Almost half (48.4%) had poor knowledge. Multiple logistic regression showed type of premise [Odd ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% Confidence interval (CI) =1.8-7.5, p = 0.0004], educational level (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4, p = 0.0003) and job status of food handlers (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8, p = 0.0031) significantly influenced the level score of knowledge. No significant difference of attitude and practice between trained and untrained food handlers. Findings of this preliminary study may help in planning health education intervention programs for food handlers in order to have improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice towards food-borne diseases and food safety. Furthermore, it will in turn reduce national morbidity and mortality of food-borne diseases. PMID:12236444

  7. Effect of vacuum packaging and low-dose irradiation on the microbial, chemical and sensory characteristics of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Raouf; Ben Miloud, Najla; Selmi, Salah; Dhib, Soukeina; Sadok, Saloua

    2009-12-01

    The effects of vacuum packaging followed by gamma irradiation treatment (1.5 kGy) on the shelf-life of fillets of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) were examined, during chill storage. The control and the treated packs were analyzed periodically for chemical (TMA, TBARS, biogenic amines) and microbial characteristics. Based on chemical and microbial data, vacuum packaging - by itself - was improper in extending the shelf-life of chub mackerel, estimated to 7 days. On the 7th day, TMA and Histamine contents reached the defect action levels, associated with the presence of mesophiles (3.7 log UFC/g); total coliforms (3.5 log UFC/g); staphylococci (1.9 log UFC/g) and the emergence of Pseudomonas (1.7 log UFC/g), in both the control and the vacuum packaged lots. Combination of vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiation was found to delay the spoilage during 14 days of refrigerated storage, based on chemical and microbial analyses. Similarly, consumer hedonic tests were performed to determine the effect of different treatments on the taste of fish fillets. For all treatments, consumers failed to discriminate treated samples from the control, on the 2nd day of storage (p > 0.05). The acceptability test showed that low-dose irradiation (1.5 kGy) optimised the sensory quality, on the 3rd day of storage (p < 0.05). The employment of vacuum packaging combined to a low-dose gamma-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on chub mackerel is recommended to enhance microbiological quality (4 log reduction), alleviate chemical changes and extend the shelf-life by 7 days, leading to consumer appreciation of these products. PMID:19835766

  8. Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2012-08-01

    For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

  9. Prospective food diaries demonstrate breastfeeding characteristics in a UK birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Kate E C; Aksoy, Burcu; Palmer, Anna; Jenner, Katharine; Oliver, Erin M; Maskell, Joe; Kemp, Terri; Foote, Keith D; Roberts, Graham C; Ellahi, Basma; Margetts, Barrie M

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding duration and exclusive breastfeeding rates are universally below those recommended by World Health Organization. Due to limitations and challenges associated with researching breastfeeding characteristics, the times when exclusivity is likely to be lost and when women are most likely to discontinue breastfeeding have not yet been identified. Prospective food diaries allow reliable description of the dynamics of breastfeeding to be made to help identify these key time periods. Food diaries detailing intake from birth until the cessation of breastfeeding were analysed for 718 infants recruited into a national arm of an international multicentre birth cohort study (EuroPrevall). Analyses included linear regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier time course analysis. Breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding cessation rates for younger mothers (<25 years) are high in the first few weeks after delivery but slow markedly in the period 10-12 weeks after delivery. Cessation rates are consistent from 0 to 26 weeks in older mothers. This difference in feeding patterns led to significant differences between the two different age groups at 26 weeks for breastfeeding (P?=?0.006) and exclusive breastfeeding at 8 weeks (P?=?0.009). Forty-nine per cent of younger mothers (<25 years) stopped breastfeeding before their infant was 3 weeks old. To increase breastfeeding duration, further work is required to investigate the attitudes and perceptions associated with such high breastfeeding cessation rates in younger mothers during these very early post-natal weeks. PMID:26419217

  10. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. Economic Information Bulletin Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of U.S. households with children were food secure throughout 2007, meaning that they had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members. Nearly 16 percent of households with children were food insecure sometime during the year, including 8.3 percent in which children were food insecure…

  11. Seasonal variation in leaf characteristics and food selectionby larval noctuids on an evergreen Mediterranean shrub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Conchita; Herrera, Carlos M.

    2000-07-01

    Despite year round availability of foliage, abundance of generalist noctuid larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in evergreen-dominated Mediterranean forests has a narrow, distinct spring peak. This restricted larval period has been suggested to result in part from avoidance of the nutritionally poor mature foliage, and preference for nutritionally superior spring-produced young leaves. This study examines this hypothesis by (i) documenting differences in nutritional characteristics between expanding (April) and mature (June) young leaves of the evergreen Mediterranean shrub Daphne laureola L. (Thymelaeaceae), and (ii) experimentally studying the feeding preferences of noctuid larvae for young leaves, old leaves (? 1 yr old), and developing fruits of this species in one south-eastern Spanish locality. Young leaves of D. laureola declined in nutrient concentration and specific dry mass from April to June. The responses of noctuid larvae, in terms of both relative preference and total consumption, to this seasonal variation in chemical and physical features of young leaves were also investigated. When noctuid larvae were simultaneously offered young leaves, old leaves and developing fruits, they exhibited similar preferences for young leaves and developing fruits, and rejected old leaves developed during the previous year. Noctuid larvae did not modify their consumption of young leaves relative to old leaves and developing fruits in response to seasonal changes. Food selection patterns exhibited by D. laureola noctuid herbivores, notably the rejection of old leaves in favour of young ones, are consistent with the hypothesis relating restricted larval periods of these generalist consumers with the low food value of the previous season leaves of evergreen Mediterranean plants.

  12. Journal of Theoretical Biology 252 (2008) 649661 The characteristics of species in an evolutionary food web model

    E-print Network

    McKane, Alan

    2008-01-01

    the number of features which define a species, as well as their nature, and find that in the resulting webs species are added to the food web on an evolutionary timescale, whereas extinction events, alongJournal of Theoretical Biology 252 (2008) 649­661 The characteristics of species in an evolutionary

  13. Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

  14. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  15. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  16. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork back fat replaced by dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-02-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20%, 15%, and 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with a makgeolli lees fiber were investigated regarding approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, emulsion stability, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory evaluation. The moisture and ash contents, redness, and yellowness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurters containing makgeolli lees fiber than in the control with 30% fat. With increasing fat levels, samples displayed higher pH, lightness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, apparent viscosity, and sensory quality, while displaying lower cooking loss and total expressible fluid. The results show that fat levels of frankfurters with added makgeolli lees fiber can be successfully reduced. Thus, 20% fat frankfurters with the addition of 2% makgeolli lees fiber are similar in quality to regular frankfurters with 30% fat. PMID:24200582

  17. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    S?czyk, ?ukasz; ?wieca, Micha?; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification. PMID:26471602

  18. Biochar characteristics produced from food-processing products and their sorptive capacity for mercury and phenanthrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2015-04-01

    Various organic-rich wastes including wood chips, animal manure, and crop residues have been used for biochar production. Biochar is used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility but its use as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes is gaining increased attention. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. The scope of the present work was to evaluate the effect of key characteristics of biochars on their sorptive properties. Raw materials for biochar production were evaluated including byproducts from brewering, coffee, wine, and olive oil industry. The charring process was performed at different temperatures under limited-oxygen conditions using specialized containers. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined. Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. Raw food-processing waste demonstrates low surface area that increases by 1 order of magnitude by thermal treatment up to 750oC. At temperatures from 750 up to 900oC, pyrolysis results to biochars with surface areas 210-700 m2/g. For the same temperature range, a high percentage (46 to73%) of the pore volume of the biochars is due to micropores. Positive results were obtained when high surface area biochars were tested for their ability to remove organic (i.e. phenanthrene) and inorganic (i.e. mercury) compounds from aqueous solutions. All these properties point to new materials that can effectively be used for environmental remediation.

  19. Physiology&Behavior,Vol.29. pp. 409-417.PergamonPress, 1982.Printedin the U.S.A. How Sensory Properties of Foods Affect

    E-print Network

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    of the subject's favorite color. Changes in the shape of food (which affects both appearance and mouth feel) were CABANAC and his colleagues [3, 4, 5, 6] have shown in man that the pleasantness of the taste or smell

  20. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

  1. [GMOs in food: risk assessment and management; scientific and regulatory characteristics].

    PubMed

    Casse, Francine; Hervieu, François

    2002-01-01

    Genetic transformation constitutes a new tool for improvement of microorganisms, animals and plants used in food. Foreseeable risks are evoked, as well as management measures to avoid GMO unsuspected risks. Few risks are specific to GMOs. Present elements of french and european regulations concerning placing on the market and follow up GMOs and other novel foods are described. PMID:12669357

  2. Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

    2011-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods. PMID:21359162

  3. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  4. Development of a headspace trap HRGC/MS method for the assessment of the relevance of certain aroma compounds on the sensorial characteristics of commercial apple juice.

    PubMed

    Nikfardjam, Martin Pour; Maier, Daniel

    2011-06-15

    A reliable and simple method was developed for the completely automatised analysis of apple juice aroma compounds. In total 26 flavour compounds could be measured by headspace trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We used the method to analyse 85 commercially available apple juices, of which 67 apple juices were not from concentrate. Our results show that apple juices not from concentrate are mainly characterised by flavour compounds responsible for fruity, ripe, and sweet aroma impressions, such as 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, ethylbutyrate, and ethyl-2-methylbutyrate. On the contrary, apple juices made from concentrate were dominated by acetaldehyde, E-2-hexenal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and hexanal, which are mainly responsible for sensory impressions, such as 'green, fresh, estery'. According to our data, neither of the single compounds nor indexes calculated thereof as suggested by some authors could be used for the reliable assessment of apple juice quality. Thus, these results suggest that sensory evaluation remains the ultimate mean to reliably assess apple juice quality. PMID:25213978

  5. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    PubMed

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits. PMID:26345002

  6. Prevalence, enumeration, and pheno- and genotypic characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw foods in South China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Moutong; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Wu, Shi; Guo, Weipeng

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause serious illness in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women, the elderly, and newborns. The aim of this study was to: (i) evaluate the prevalence and contamination level [most probable number (MPN)] of L. monocytogenes in 567 retail raw foods (fishery products, n = 154; raw/fresh meat, n = 123; frozen foods, n = 110; edible fungi, n = 108; vegetables, n = 72) collected from South China and (ii) to gain further knowledge on the phenotype and genotype distributions of this important foodborne pathogen. Approximately 22% of the samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The contamination levels were between 0.3 and 10 MPN/g in 75.0%, between 10 and 100 MPN/g in 11.0% and less than 100 MPN/g in 14.0% of the countable samples. Five serogroups were identified among the 177 foodborne L. monocytogenes isolates, with 1/2a-3a (42.4%) and 1/2b-3b (26.0%) serogroups being the most dominant. Serogroups I.1 and II.2 were only found in the edible mushrooms, while serogroup III was dominant in the fishery products, suggesting that specific serogroups of L. monocytogenes may have distinct ecological niches. Ten (5.6%) L. monocytogenes isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Genetic relatedness analysis revealed the absence of distinct associations between specific food types, antibiotic resistance, serogroups, and genetic diversity. The present study provided the first baseline data on the prevalence, contamination level, and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from raw foods in South China. Some multidrug resistant strains belonged to the epidemiologically important serogroups (I.1 and II.1), implying a potential public health risk. In addition, these findings also provide basic information for the Chinese food safety associated authorities to draft appropriate standards to control L. monocytogenes contamination and improve microbiological safety of raw foods. PMID:26483765

  7. Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xioawa; Whittle, Mike; Swanson, Heidi K; Johnston, Tom; Guildford, Stephanie

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The "rate" of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (?(15)N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to ?(15)N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes (?(15)N; ?(13)C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. PMID:22982939

  8. Effect of low-dose radiation on microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of chicken meat stored aerobically at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Balamatsia, Christiana C; Rogga, Kondylia; Badeka, Anastasia; Kontominas, Michael G; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2006-05-01

    The effect of gamma-radiation (0.5, 1, and 2 kGy) on the shelf life of fresh skinless chicken breast fillets stored aerobically at 4 degrees C was evaluated. Microbiological, chemical, and sensorial changes occurring in chicken samples were monitored for 21 days. Irradiation reduced populations of bacteria, i.e., total viable bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and the effect was more pronounced at the highest dose (2 kGy). Pseudomonads, yeasts and molds, and Enterobacteriaceae were highly sensitive to gamma-radiation and were completely eliminated at all doses. Of the chemical indicators of spoilage, thiobarbituric values for nonirradiated and irradiated aerobically packaged chicken samples were in general low (<1 mg of malonaldehyde per kg of muscle) during refrigerated storage for 21 days. With regard to volatile amines, both trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values for nonirradiated aerobically packaged chicken increased steeply, with final values of ca. 20.3 and 58.5 mg N/100 g of muscle, respectively. Irradiated aerobically packaged chicken samples had significantly lower TMA-N and TVB-N values (P < 0.05) of ca. 2.2 to 3.6 and 30.5 to 37.1 mg N/100 g of muscle, respectively, during refrigerated storage for 21 days. Of the biogenic amines monitored, only putrescine and cadaverine were detected in significant concentrations in both nonirradiated and irradiated chicken samples, whereas histamine formation was noted only in nonirradiated samples throughout storage. On the basis of sensorial evaluation, low-dose irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) in combination with aerobic packaging extended the shelf life of fresh chicken fillets by ca. 4 to 5 days, whereas irradiation at 2.0 kGy extended the shelf life by more than 15 days compared with that of nonirradiated chicken. PMID:16715814

  9. Psychological characteristics of people with perceived food intolerance in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Knibb, R C; Armstrong, A; Booth, D A; Platts, R G; Booth, I W; MacDonald, A

    1999-12-01

    In most adults who believe themselves to be food intolerant there is no objective supporting evidence. It has therefore been proposed that the misperception of intolerance to food is linked to psychiatric illness or personality disorder. This hypothesis was tested in a community-derived sample of individuals who attributed an adverse symptom to a type of food. A random mailing recruited 955 participants aged > or =18 years, of whom 232 perceived themselves to be food intolerant (PFI). All recruits were sent two questionnaires, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the shortened version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). A total of 535 GHQ-28 and 518 EPQ-R forms were returned that were correctly completed, an overall response rate of 55%. For the subscales of the EPQ-R, neuroticism was greater in those with a PFI than those without. Women with a PFI were more extroverted than control women. For the GHQ-28 subscales, women with a PFI had significantly higher scores than control women on somatic symptoms, anxiety, insomnia, and severe depression. There was a greater percentage of psychiatric caseness among women with a PFI than among men with a PFI or control women. Nevertheless, this percentage was no greater than that reported among a reference sample derived from NHS and university staff. It is concluded that perceived food intolerance is associated with psychological distress in women with a PFI, and neurotic symptoms in both men and women with a PFI, but there is no greater prevalence of psychiatric disorder among women or men with a PFI than there is in some professional groups. PMID:10661602

  10. Introduction to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality and safety of the food supply. All food products require analysis as part of a quality management program throughout the development process (including raw ingredients), through production, and after a product is in the market. In addition, analysis is done of problem samples and competitor products. The characteristics of foods (i.e., chemical composition, physical properties, sensory properties) are used to answer specific questions for regulatory purposes and typical quality control. The nature of the sample and the specific reason for the analysis commonly dictate the choice of analytical methods. Speed, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness often are key factors in this choice. Validation of the method for the specific food matrix being analyzed is necessary to ensure usefulness of the method. Making an appropriate choice of the analytical technique for a specific application requires a good knowledge of the various techniques (Fig. 1.1). For example, your choice of method to determine the salt content of potato chips would be different if it is for nutrition labeling than for quality control. The success of any analytical method relies on the proper selection and preparation of the food sample, carefully performing the analysis, and doing the appropriate calculations and interpretation of the data. Methods of analysis developed and endorsed by several nonprofit scientific organizations allow for standardized comparisons of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of less standard procedures. Such official methods are critical in the analysis of foods, to ensure that they meet the legal requirements established by governmental agencies. Government regulations and international standards most relevant to the analysis of foods are mentioned here but covered in more detail in Chap. 2, and nutrition labeling regulations in the USA are covered in Chap. 3. Internet addresses for many of the organizations and government agencies discussed are given at the end of this chapter.

  11. Food security and marine capture fisheries: characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Serge M.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic contamination, coastal degradation and climate change. Looking towards 2050, the question is how fisheries governance, and the national and international policy and legal frameworks within which it is nested, will ensure a sustainable harvest, maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and adapt to climate change. This paper looks at global fisheries production, the state of resources, contribution to food security and governance. It describes the main changes affecting the sector, including geographical expansion, fishing capacity-building, natural variability, environmental degradation and climate change. It identifies drivers and future challenges, while suggesting how new science, policies and interventions could best address those challenges. PMID:20713390

  12. Influence of different emulsifiers on characteristics of eggless cake containing soy milk: Modeling of physical and sensory properties by mixture experimental design.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Emulsifiers of different structures and functionalities are important ingredients usually used in baking cakes with satisfactory properties. In this study, three emulsifiers including distilled glycerol mono stearate (DGMS), lecithin and sorbitan mono stearate (SMS) were used to bake seven eggless cakes containing soy milk and optimization was performed by using mixture experimental design to produce an eggless cake sample with optimized properties. Physical properties of cake batters (viscosity, specific gravity and stability), cake quality parameters (moisture loss, density, specific volume, volume index, contour, symmetry, color and texture) and sensory attributes of eggless cakes were analyzed to investigate functional potential of the emulsifiers and results were compared with those of control cake containing egg. Almost in all cases emulsifiers, compared to the control cake, changed properties of eggless cakes significantly. Regarding models of different response variables (except for some properties) and their high R(2) (99.51-100), it could be concluded that models obtained by mixture design were significantly fitted for the studied responses. PMID:25190826

  13. Ultrasound Applications in Food Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Mobbs, Tamara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Food scientists today are focused on the development of not only microbiologically safe products with a long storage life, but, at the same time, products that have fresh-like characteristics and a high quality in taste, flavor, and texture. This focus is based on the needs of the consumer, which is one of the main reasons for constant research in the so-called area of emerging technologies. Traditionally, thermal treatments have been used to produce safe food products. Pasteurization of juice, milk, beer, and wine is a common process in which the final product has a storage life of some weeks (generally under refrigeration). However, vitamins, taste, color, and other sensorial characteristics are decreased with this treatment. High temperature is responsible for these effects and can be observed in the loss of nutritional components and changes in flavor, taste, and texture, often creating the need for additives to improve the product.

  14. Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Wright, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    In this review we explore the relationship between synaesthesia and sensory substitution and argue that sensory substitution does indeed show properties of synaesthesia. Both are associated with atypical perceptual experiences elicited by the processing of a qualitatively different stimulus to that which normally gives rise to that experience. In the most common forms of sensory substitution, perceptual processing of an auditory or tactile signal (which has been converted from a visual signal) is experienced as visual-like in addition to retaining auditory/tactile characteristics. We consider different lines of evidence that support, to varying degrees, the assumption that sensory substitution is associated with visual-like experiences. We then go on to analyse the key similarities and differences between sensory substitution and synaesthesia. Lastly, we propose two testable predictions: firstly that, in an expert user of a sensory substitution device, the substituting modality should not be lost. Secondly that stimulation within the substituting modality, but by means other than a sensory substitution device, should still produce sensation in the normally substituted modality. PMID:22885223

  15. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. PMID:24794619

  16. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-01

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. PMID:25109863

  17. Sensory Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

  18. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-10-26

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function.

  19. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflower seed (SS) groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05). Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm) was greater (p<0.05) than that of the other groups. Final yield grade converted into numerical values was 2.0 for the RB group, 1.7 for the Control and SS groups, and 1.4 for the FS group. Marbling degrees for the Control, SS, RB, and FS groups were 5.3, 5.1, 4.7, and 4.6, respectively. Percentages of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and arachidic acid (C20:0) in the LM were not different among the groups. Palmitoleic (C16:1) acid was higher (p<0.05) in the SS group. The concentration of oleic acid was highest (p<0.05) in the Control group (47.73%). The level of linolenic acid (C18:3) was 2.3 times higher (p<0.05) in the FS group compared to the other groups. Methionine concentration was (p<0.05) higher in FS (1.7 mg/100 g) and SS (1.2 mg/100 g) steers than in the Control or RB groups. Glutamic acid and ?-aminoadipic acid (?-AAA) contents were (p<0.05) higher in the FS group compared to the other groups. LM from the FS group had numerically higher (p>0.05) scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been caused by increases in flavor related amino acids such as methionine, glutamic acid and ?-AAA and peptides, anserine and carnosine, and their complex reactions. PMID:26732444

  20. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of typical and atypical Escherichia coli O157, clinical and food isolates.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Beata; Osek, Jacek; Bonar, Agnieszka; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Rudnicka, Wies?awa; Rózalska, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Enrichment, colony isolation and confirmation are three general phases of a standard diagnostic method. E. coli O 157 (the main member of EHEC group) differs metabolically from other strains of E. coli in a number of ways. Most isolates are slow- or non-fermenters of sorbitol and lack the enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUD). But, a variety of atypical strains of E. coli O157 (sorbitol-fermenting variants, nonmotile and GUD-positive) have been reported. The discovery of these atypical pathogenic strains brings into question the validity of testing for the pathogen only by biotyping. Using classical cultivation and immunomagnetic separation, we have isolated from food a few atypical E. coli O157 (sorbitol-fermenting strains, GUD positive, nonmotile O157 strain which does not agglutinate with O157 latex and does not produce Shiga toxin). On the other hand, non-O157 VTEC (O26 serotype) producing Shiga toxin was isolated from meat. Molecular markers of E. coli O157 and virulence-associated factors of strains with aberrant biochemical properties were studied by PCR. This method helped us in the final identification of isolates. Since it was suggested that the production of verotoxins (VT) is accompanied by the production of enterohemolysin (Ehly) such correlation has also been evaluated in respect to the collection of VTEC of human, animal and food origin. PMID:14594402

  1. Quantitative sensory testing in pain management.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Carlos J; Abdi, Salahadin

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST), a set of noninvasive methods used to assess sensory and pain perception, has been used for three decades. The precision of the instruments and the uninvasiveness encouraged many QST-based trials. The developments made have benefited multiple disciplines. QST relies on analysis of an individual's response to external stimuli, reflecting the integrity of the PNS and the sensory pathway. The sensory pathway cannot be assessed in isolation from the affective and cognitive characteristics of patients or testers. Many variables potentially affect the reliability and reproducibility of QST, which after all, is designed for the testing of individuals by other individuals. Several decades of QST research have yielded exciting contributions, but the future of QST cannot be fully known. PMID:26399563

  2. Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence and Characteristics in Retail Raw Foods in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Yan, Ze?an; Hu, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail raw foods covering most provincial capitals in China were studied with testing of 1036 samples of vegetables, edible mushrooms, raw meat, aquatic products and quick-frozen products from September 2012 to January 2014. The total prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 20.0% (207/1036), and the most probable number (MPN) values of 65.7% of the positive samples ranged from 0.3 to 110 MPN/g. Geographical differences were observed in this survey, and the results of both qualitative and quantitative methods indicated that the levels in the samples from North China were higher than those in the samples from South China. A total of 248 isolates were analyzed, of which approximately half belonged to molecular serogroup 1/2a-3a (45.2%), followed by 1/2b-3b-7 (30.6%), 1/2c-3c (16.1%), 4b-4d-4e (5.2%) and 4a-4c (2.8%). Most of the isolates carried hly (100%), inlB (98.8%), inlA (99.6%), inlC (98.0%) and inlJ (99.2%), and 44.8% of the isolates were llsX-positive. Seventeen epidemic clones (ECs) were detected, with 7 strains belonging to ECI (2.8%) and 10 belonging to ECIII (4.03%). Resistance to clindamycin (46.8%) was commonly observed, and 59 strains (23.8%) were susceptible to all 14 tested antibiotics, whereas 84 (33.9%) showed an intermediate level of resistance or were resistant to two or more antibiotics, including 7 multi-resistant strains that exhibited resistance to more than 10 antibiotics. The data obtained in the present study provides useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to Chinese consumers, and this information will have a significant public health impact in China. Furthermore, the presence of virulence markers, epidemic clones, as well as the antibiotic resistance amongst the isolates strongly implies that many of these strains might be capable of causing listeriosis, and more accurate treatment of human listeriosis with effective antibiotics should be considered. This research represents a more full-scale and systematical investigation of the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in retail raw foods in China, and it provides baseline information for Chinese regulatory authorities that will aid in the formulation of a regulatory framework for controlling L. monocytogenes with the aim of improving the microbiological safety of raw foods. PMID:26317852

  3. Page 1 of 8 FOOD 531 (6 credits) -Food Research Project

    E-print Network

    , food processing, food analysis, food safety, and/or regulation and marketing of food, as required, quality assurance, and analysis of chemical, physical, nutritional or sensory properties, food marketingPage 1 of 8 FOOD 531 (6 credits) - Food Research Project Integration of the principles of research

  4. Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjánsdóttir, Ása G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Background In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. Objective A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. Design The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Results Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet. PMID:24130513

  5. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  6. Sensory Correlations in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

  7. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p?0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

  8. With whom to dine? Ravens' responses to food-associated calls depend on individual characteristics of the caller

    PubMed Central

    Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Upon discovering food, common ravens, Corvus corax, produce far-reaching ‘haa’ calls or yells, which are individually distinct and signal food availability to conspecifics. Here, we investigated whether ravens respond differently to ‘haa’ calls of known and unknown individuals. In a paired playback design, we tested responses to ‘haa’ call sequences in a group containing individually marked free-ranging ravens. We simultaneously played call sequences of a male and a female raven in two different locations and varied familiarity (known or unknown to the local group). Ravens responded strongest to dyads containing familiar females, performing more scan flights above and by perching in trees near the respective speaker. Acoustic analysis of the calls used as stimuli showed no sex-, age- or familiarity-specific acoustic cues, but highly significant classification results at the individual level. Taken together, our findings indicate that ravens respond to individual characteristics in ‘haa’ calls, and choose whom to approach for feeding, i.e. join social allies and avoid dominant conspecifics. This is the first study to investigate responses to ‘haa’ calls under natural conditions in a wild population containing individually marked ravens. PMID:25598542

  9. Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food.

    PubMed

    Mbithi-Mwikya, Stephen; Van Camp, John; Mamiro, Peter R S; Ooghe, Wilfried; Kolsteren, Patrick; Huyghebaert, Andre

    2002-05-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanuts (Arachis hypogoea), and mango (Mangifera indica) were processed separately and then combined, on the basis of their amino acid scores and energy content, into a complementary food for children of weaning age. The finger millet and kidney beans were processed by germination, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation. A mixture containing, on a dry matter basis, 65.2, 19.1, 8.0, and 7.7% of the processed finger millet, kidney beans, peanuts, and mango, respectively, gave a composite protein with an in vitro protein digestibility of 90.2% and an amino acid chemical score of 0.84. This mixture had an energy density of 16.3 kJ.g(-1) of dry matter and a decreased antinutrient content and showed a measurable improvement in the in vitro extractability for calcium, iron, and zinc. A 33% (w/v) pap made from a mix of the processed ingredients had an energy density of 5.4 kJ.g(-1) of pap, which is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of well-nourished children of 6-24 months of age at three servings a day and at the FAO average breast-feeding frequency. PMID:11982437

  10. Novel approaches and application of contemporary sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of the iron-fortified foods have been frequently listed as causes of unsuccessful iron fortification programs. An excellent prospect for improving consumer acceptance of iron-fortified foods is the incorporation of a thorough, organized, and unified approach to sensory evaluation practices into iron fortification programs for product optimization. The information gained from systematic sensory evaluation allows for the manipulation of the sensory attributes, and thus improvement of the sensory properties of the fortified food. However, iron fortification programs have not systematically measured the effect of fortification on the sensory quality of the food. Because sensory evaluation is an important criterion in successful iron fortification, an integrated approach is necessary. Therefore, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work closely with each other to select the most suitable sensory tests and methods. The objectives of this article are to: (1) critically review and discuss some traditional and contemporary approaches and applications of sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs, and (2) demonstrate the importance of incorporating a multidisciplinary, systematic sensory evaluation approach in iron fortification programs.

  11. Time 2 tlk 2nite: use of electronic media by adolescents during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and foods served.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) for girls and older teens. In addition, higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) were also seen among those whose parents had low education levels or were black or Asian; having parental rules about media use significantly reduced these odds. Frequent mealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (P<0.05) and scores indicating less importance placed on mealtimes (P<0.001). Furthermore, frequent mealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (P<0.05). The ubiquitous use of mealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy. PMID:24361006

  12. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou; Larsen, Nadja; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-01

    Maari is a spontaneously fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds in West African countries. This type of product is considered to be safe, being consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the fermentation the human pathogen Bacillus cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two production sites of Maari. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial (AMB) counts in raw materials were of 10(5)cfu/ml in DW, and ranged between 6.5×10(3) and 1.2×10(4)cfu/g in potash, 10(9)-10(10)cfu/g in seed mash during fermentation and 10(7) - 10(9) after sun drying. Fifty three out of total 290 AMB isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato by use of ITS-PCR and grouped into 3 groups using PCR fingerprinting based on Escherichia coli phage-M13 primer (M13-PCR). As determined by panC gene sequencing, the isolates of B. cereus belonged to PanC types III and IV with potential for high cytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of glpF, gmk, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi revealed that the M13-PCR group 1 isolates were related to B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, while the M13-PCR group 2 isolates were identical to cereulide (emetic toxin) producing B. cereus strains. The M13-PCR group 1 isolates harboured poly-?-D-glutamic acid capsule biosynthesis genes capA, capB and capC showing 99-100% identity with the environmental B. cereus isolate 03BB108. Presence of cesB of the cereulide synthetase gene cluster was confirmed by PCR in M13-PCR group 2 isolates. The B. cereus harbouring the cap genes were found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product, while the remaining isolates (PanC type IV) were detected in ash, at 48-72h fermentation and in the final product. This work sheds light on the succession and pathogenic potential of B. cereus species in traditional West African food condiment and clarifies their phylogenetic relatedness to B. cereus biovar anthracis. Future implementation of GMP and HACCP and development of starter cultures for controlled Maari fermentations will help to ensure a safe product. PMID:25528535

  13. Evaluation of food processing wastewater loading characteristics on metal mobilization within the soil.

    PubMed

    Julien, Ryan; Safferman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater generated during food processing is commonly treated using land-application systems which primarily rely on soil microbes to transform nutrients and organic compounds into benign byproducts. Naturally occurring metals in the soil may be chemically reduced via microbially mediated oxidation-reduction reactions as oxygen becomes depleted. Some metals such as manganese and iron become water soluble when chemically reduced, leading to groundwater contamination. Alternatively, metals within the wastewater may not become assimilated into the soil and leach into the groundwater if the environment is not sufficiently oxidizing. A lab-scale column study was conducted to investigate the impacts of wastewater loading values on metal mobilization within the soil. Oxygen content and volumetric water data were collected via soil sensors for the duration of the study. The pH, chemical oxygen demand, manganese, and iron concentrations in the influent and effluent water from each column were measured. Average organic loading and organic loading per dose were shown to have statistically significant impacts using Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient on effluent water quality. The Hydraulic resting period qualitatively appeared to have impacts on effluent water quality. This study verifies that excessive organic loading of land application systems causes mobilization of naturally occurring metals and prevents those added in the wastewater from becoming immobilized, resulting in ineffective wastewater treatment. Results also indicate the need to consider the organic dose load and hydraulic resting period in the treatment system design. Findings from this study demonstrate waste application twice daily may encourage soil aeration and allow for increased organic loading while limiting the mobilization of metals already in the soil and those being applied. PMID:26327299

  14. A Transfer of Technology from Engineering: Use of ROC Curves from Signal Detection Theory to Investigate Information Processing in the Brain during Sensory Difference Testing

    PubMed Central

    Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews a beneficial effect of technology transfer from Electrical Engineering to Food Sensory Science. Specifically, it reviews the recent adoption in Food Sensory Science of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a tool that is incorporated in the theory of signal detection. Its use allows the information processing that takes place in the brain during sensory difference testing to be studied and understood. The review deals with how Signal Detection Theory, also called Thurstonian modeling, led to the adoption of a more sophisticated way of analyzing the data from sensory difference tests, by introducing the signal-to-noise ratio, d?, as a fundamental measure of perceived small sensory differences. Generally, the method of computation of d? is a simple matter for some of the better known difference tests like the triangle, duo–trio and 2-AFC. However, there are occasions when these tests are not appropriate and other tests like the same–different and the A Not–A test are more suitable. Yet, for these, it is necessary to understand how the brain processes information during the test before d? can be computed. It is for this task that the ROC curve has a particular use. PMID:21535617

  15. Mechanisms for sensing fat in food in the mouth: Presented at the Symposium "The Taste for Fat: New Discoveries on the Role of Fat in Sensory Perception, Metabolism, Sensory Pleasure and Beyond" held at the Institute of Food Technologists 2011 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, USA., June 12, 2011.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2012-03-01

    The brain areas that represent taste including the primary taste cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex also provide a representation of oral texture. Fat texture is represented by neurons independently of viscosity: some neurons respond to fat independently of viscosity, and other neurons encode viscosity. The neurons that respond to fat also respond to silicone and paraffin oil, indicating that the sensing is texture-specific not chemo-specific. This fat sensing is not related to free fatty acids such as linoleic acid, and a few other neurons that respond to free fatty acids typically do not respond to fat in the mouth. Complementary human functional neuroimaging studies show that the pleasantness of food texture is represented in the orbitofrontal cortex. These findings have implications for the design of foods that mimic the pleasant texture of fat in the mouth but have low energy content, and thus for the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:22384967

  16. Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

    2015-09-01

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives. PMID:25432627

  17. Comparison of aroma-active compounds and sensory characteristics of durian (Durio zibethinus L.) wines using strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with odor activity values and partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Shu, Chang; Chen, HeXing; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2015-02-25

    The study evaluated the effects of five different strains (GRE, RC212, Lalvin D254, CGMCC2.4, and CGMCC2.23) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aromatic characteristics of fermented durian musts. In this work, 38 and 43 compounds in durian juices and wines were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) with the aid of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), respectively. According to the measured odor activity values (OAV), only 11 and 15 aroma compounds had OAVs >1 in durian juices or wines, among which 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl ethyl disulfide, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl octanoate were major contributors to the aroma of juices and wines. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to detect positive correlations between sensory analysis and aroma compounds. The results showed that the attributes were closely related to aroma compounds. PMID:25620380

  18. Sensory and rheological traits of Mexican Queso Chihuahua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, Mexican Queso Chihuahua has been made from raw milk but there are food safety issues for cheeses sold with minimal aging. Pasteurization of the cheesemilk will reduce food safety risks but there are concerns that the sensory traits unique to this cheese will be altered. As part of a...

  19. Different beers with different hops. Relevant compounds for their aroma characteristics.

    PubMed

    Inui, Takako; Tsuchiya, Fumihiko; Ishimaru, Mariko; Oka, Kaneo; Komura, Hajime

    2013-05-22

    Hop-derived aroma characteristics in beer are very important for the quality of beer. This study compared the differences of hop aroma characteristics and the compounds contained in beer by changing the variety of hops applying the idea of "food metabolomics" on the GC×GC/TOF-MS analysis data, to clarify which aroma compounds contribute to the differences of hop aroma profiles indicated by sensory descriptors. As a result, by focusing only on hop-derived compounds, 67 compounds were strongly correlated with one or more of the sensory descriptors. Furthermore, the odor descriptions of each key compound corresponded well to each sensory descriptor. Thus, these compounds are likely to be the key compounds explaining the differences of hop aroma characteristics in beer. This study led to the suggestion that understanding the relationship between the comprehensive nontarget analysis by GC×GC-TOF/MS and organoleptic evaluation using PCA is effective in estimating the key compounds. PMID:23627300

  20. Characterization of Nutritional Composition, Antioxidative Capacity, and Sensory Attributes of Seomae Mugwort, a Native Korean Variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Cho Rong; Suh, Soo Hwan; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Gwi Gun; Park, Cheung-Seog; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jong Hun; Song, Sang-Wook; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated Seomae mugwort (a Korean native mugwort variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot), exclusively cultivated in the southern Korean peninsula, and the possibility of its use as a food resource. In the present study, we compared the nutritional and chemical properties as well as sensory attributes of Seomae mugwort and the commonly consumed species Artemisia princeps Pamp. In comparison with A. princeps, Seomae mugwort had higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and essential amino acids. In addition, Seomae mugwort had better radical scavenging activity and more diverse volatile compounds than A. princeps as well as favorable sensory attributes when consumed as tea. Given that scant information is available regarding the Seomae mugwort and its biological, chemical, and sensory characteristics, the results herein may provide important characterization data for further industrial and research applications of this mugwort variety. PMID:26550520

  1. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  2. A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

    2012-08-01

    The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

  3. Food texture analysis in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of food texture encompasses sensory, physiological, and structural aspects. Research in this area must be multidisciplinary in nature, accounting for consumer perception and acceptability, rheology, and structural aspects. This brief review of the field covers sensory panels, instrumenta...

  4. Principle of solid food texture analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food texture reflects the human’s sensory perception of a food item when it is acted upon by force or deformation during mastication to cause changes or breakdown in the structure of the food. It is one major factor in quality evaluation and grading of solid foods. While food texture evaluation can ...

  5. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  6. Sparsity and Compressed Coding in Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barranca, Victor J.; Kova?i?, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2014-01-01

    Considering that many natural stimuli are sparse, can a sensory system evolve to take advantage of this sparsity? We explore this question and show that significant downstream reductions in the numbers of neurons transmitting stimuli observed in early sensory pathways might be a consequence of this sparsity. First, we model an early sensory pathway using an idealized neuronal network comprised of receptors and downstream sensory neurons. Then, by revealing a linear structure intrinsic to neuronal network dynamics, our work points to a potential mechanism for transmitting sparse stimuli, related to compressed-sensing (CS) type data acquisition. Through simulation, we examine the characteristics of networks that are optimal in sparsity encoding, and the impact of localized receptive fields beyond conventional CS theory. The results of this work suggest a new network framework of signal sparsity, freeing the notion from any dependence on specific component-space representations. We expect our CS network mechanism to provide guidance for studying sparse stimulus transmission along realistic sensory pathways as well as engineering network designs that utilize sparsity encoding. PMID:25144745

  7. Cafeteria diet impairs expression of sensory-specific satiety and stimulus-outcome learning

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    A range of animal and human data demonstrates that excessive consumption of palatable food leads to neuroadaptive responses in brain circuits underlying reward. Unrestrained consumption of palatable food has been shown to increase the reinforcing value of food and weaken inhibitory control; however, whether it impacts upon the sensory representations of palatable solutions has not been formally tested. These experiments sought to determine whether exposure to a cafeteria diet consisting of palatable high fat foods impacts upon the ability of rats to learn about food-associated cues and the sensory properties of ingested foods. We found that rats fed a cafeteria diet for 2 weeks were impaired in the control of Pavlovian responding in accordance to the incentive value of palatable outcomes associated with auditory cues following devaluation by sensory-specific satiety. Sensory-specific satiety is one mechanism by which a diet containing different foods increases ingestion relative to one lacking variety. Hence, choosing to consume greater quantities of a range of foods may contribute to the current prevalence of obesity. We observed that rats fed a cafeteria diet for 2 weeks showed impaired sensory-specific satiety following consumption of a high calorie solution. The deficit in expression of sensory-specific satiety was also present 1 week following the withdrawal of cafeteria foods. Thus, exposure to obesogenic diets may impact upon neurocircuitry involved in motivated control of behavior. PMID:25221530

  8. Functional food science in Japan: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Arai, S

    2000-01-01

    In 1984, a new science related to functional food was initiated by a National Project team under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education and Science. It was followed by a great many academic and industrial studies to occupy a central position in the field of food and nutritional sciences. In 1993, the Ministry of Health and Welfare established a policy of "Foods for Specified Health Uses" (FOSHU) by which health claims of some selected functional foods are legally permitted. Up to now (November 22. 1999), 167 FOSHU products have been born. Since the time (1984) when the concept of functional food" was proposed, it seems that the science in Japan has been progressing along, among others, a unique path of development. The uniqueness is seen in the development of functional foods by minimizing undesirable as well as maximizing desirable food factors. Hypoallergenic foods, developed from their materials by removing allergens, offer a good example. Another characteristic may be found in the field of sensory science which aims at elucidating a molecular logic of the senses of taste and smell in reference to their effects on physiological systems in the body. The paper discusses some characteristics of functional food science in Japan, with special emphasis on these topics. PMID:11216474

  9. Sensory education program development, application and its therapeutic effect in children

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hae-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been Increased interest in the emotional intelligence (EQ) of elementary school students, which is recognized as a more important value than IQ (intelligence quotient) for predict of their success in school or later life. However, there are few sensory education programs, available to improve the EQ of elementary school student's in Korea. This study was conducted to develop an educational program that reflects the characteristics and contents of traditional rice culture and verify the effects of those programs on the EQ of children. The program was developed based on the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation) model and participants were elementary school students in 3rd and 4th grade (n = 120) in Cheonan, Korea. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used. EQ scores pertaining to the basic sense group, culture group, and food group were significantly improved after the sensory educational program(P < 0.05), but no change was observed in the control group. These findings indicate that sensory education contributed to improving elementary school children's Emotional Intelligence (EI) and their actual understanding about Korean traditional rice culture. PMID:24611113

  10. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  11. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  12. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  13. INTRODUCTION Sensory antennae

    E-print Network

    Reichenbach, Tobias

    , on the scale of organs, the cornea and lens of the human eye constitute a sensory antenna that captures light antennae, for they provide a large surface over which to capture light and transfer the resultant, enhancing the animal's sensitivity, but also spectrally modifies the incoming sound (Middlebrooks and Green

  14. Our Sensory World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesman, C.; Barringer, M. D.

    The booklet explores the role of sensory experiences in the severely developmentally disabled child. Developmental theory is addressed, followed by specific activity suggestions (broken down into developmental levels) for developing tactile sense, auditory sense, gustatory (taste) sense, olfactory sense, visual sense, and kinesthetic sense.…

  15. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  16. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  17. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  18. Sensory Organs Types of Sensory Stimuli Insects detect 4 types of sensory

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    Photoreceptors These detect photons of light Photon strikes a pigment cell, causing a chemical or mechanical1 Sensory Organs Types of Sensory Stimuli Insects detect 4 types of sensory stimuli: Mechanical Heat/temperature Chemical Visual Mechanoreceptors These detect pressure changes resulting from: Air

  19. Volatile and sensory profiling of cocktail bitters.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arielle J; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic cocktail bitters are derived from the alcoholic extraction of a variety of plant materials and are used as additives in mixed drinks to enhance aroma and flavor. In this study sixteen commercial bitters were analyzed using volatile (GC-MS) and sensory profiling and multivariate statistics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS). The samples differed significantly in their citrus, celery, and spice characteristics. 148 volatile compounds were tentatively identified and the composition varied significantly with the type of bitters sample evaluated. PLS analysis showed that the volatile data correlated well overall to the sensory data, explaining 60% of the overall variability in the dataset. Primary aldehydes and phenylpropanoids were most closely related to green and spice-related sensory descriptors. However, the sensory impact of terpenoid compounds was difficult to predict in many cases. This may be due to the wide range of aroma qualities associated with terpenes as well as to concentration, synergistic or masking effects. PMID:25722175

  20. Quantitative sensory testing.

    PubMed

    Soomekh, David

    2006-07-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of peripheral neuropathy from any cause has come to the forefront of the research community in the past few years. Both past and new diagnostic and treatment options have been and are being studied to better understand and properly treat this debilitating and sometimes devastating disease. One such advancement is the clinical use of quantitative sensory testing. To identify etiology of the neuropathy early, the testing instrument would need to identify changes throughout the course of the disease, have a normative database, and show a clear distinction between the absence or presence of disease. The pressure specified sensory device (PSSD) was developed in 1992 to painlessly investigate the cutaneous pressure thresholds quantitatively and accurately. PMID:16958387

  1. Instabilities in sensory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  2. CRYPTOGENIC SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause. They are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). The age of onset is variable but usually in the sixth to seventh decade of life, affecting men and women equally. CSPN symptoms progress slowly, most patients present with distal leg paresthesias or pain that progressed over years to involve the hands. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain (see Treatment of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy chapter) and physical therapy for balance training and occasionally assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  3. SENSORY AND RHEOLOGICAL TRAITS OF MEXICAN QUESO CHIHUAHUA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, Mexican Queso Chihuahua has been made from raw milk, but as food safety issues increase for cheeses sold with minimal aging, there is concern that pasteurization of the cheesemilk will alter the sensory traits (flavor and texture) unique to this cheese. An international study was dev...

  4. Rheological characteristics of cold thickened beverages containing xanthan gum-based food thickeners used for dysphagia diets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun M; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-01-01

    Cold beverages are commonly thickened with commercial gum-based food thickeners for consumption by patients with dysphagia. In this study, the rheological properties of a thickened water and five thickened beverages (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, whole milk, and a sport drink) that were prepared with four commercial instant xanthan gum-based thickeners (coded A-D) were investigated at a 3% thickener concentration. All thickened samples showed high shear-thinning behavior with yield stress at the serving temperature of 8°C. The magnitudes of apparent viscosity (?a,50), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G'') of the thickened beverages, except for water, with food thickener A were significantly higher compared with other thickeners (B, C, and D) (P<0.05). The largest increases in K values for thickened beverages were observed at 1-hour storage, and at longer times their K values, except for milk, remained approximately constant. Rheological parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences in flow and dynamic behaviors between the cold thickened beverages prepared with the xanthan gum-based food thickeners (P<0.05), indicating that their rheological properties are strongly influenced by the dispersing medium, the type of food thickener, and storage time. In particular, appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener for preparing thickened beverages seems to be of importance for managing dysphagia. PMID:25441963

  5. [Application of food supplement, of a duilder-rose for prevention of stressful disturbance of physiological and biochemical characteristics of erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Kushnerova, N F; Fomenko, S E; Lesnikova, L N; Kushnerova, T V; Rakhmanin, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    In the article results of researches of influence of food supplement allocated of a guelder-rose (Viburnum sargentii Koehne) on structural and physiological characteristics of erythrocytes are presented to blood of the doctors-surgeons who are exposed during of the working day to complex stressful influence (psychologic-emotional, chemical, intensity of labour process, etc). It is shown that preventive application a polyphenolic complex from a guelder-rose promoted restoration of average volume and diameter of erythrocytes, normalization of a parity of quantitative structure of neutral lipids and phospholipids, to preservation of permeability of membranes. The food supplement allocated of a guelder-rose can be used in a treatment and prophylactic feed. PMID:21574471

  6. Correlational Research to Examine the Relation Between Attachment and Sensory Modulation in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Deborah A; Carrasco, Ricardo C; Neuman, Ariela; Kloos, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a relation exists between attachment and sensory modulation in young children. Participants were 68 children ages 3-6 yr recruited through the local community. Caregivers were asked to complete a standardized behavioral inventory of sensory modulation patterns, and parent-child interactions were observed in their home. The evaluator categorized these interactions on the basis of items related to attachment security and dependency. Results revealed modest correlations between attachment and sensory modulation: rs(66)=.28, p=.02. The capacity to predict sensory modulation function by attachment characteristics and the capacity to predict attachment characteristics by sensory modulation function was significant but small (p<.05). These findings supporting a relation between attachment and sensory modulation should be considered when assessing and planning treatment of children with problems in one or both of these areas. PMID:26114458

  7. The effects of focal epileptic activity on regional sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling and postictal modulation of bilateral sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sam; Bruyns-Haylett, Michael; Kennerley, Aneurin; Boorman, Luke; Overton, Paul G; Ma, Hongtao; Zhao, Mingrui; Schwartz, Theodore H; Berwick, Jason

    2013-10-01

    While it is known that cortical sensory dysfunction may occur in focal neocortical epilepsy, it is unknown whether sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling is also disrupted during epileptiform activity. Addressing this open question may help to elucidate both the effects of focal neocortical epilepsy on sensory responses and the neurovascular characteristics of epileptogenic regions in sensory cortex. We therefore examined bilateral sensory-evoked neurovascular responses before, during, and after 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 15 mmol/L, 1 ?L) induced focal neocortical seizures in right vibrissal cortex of the rat. Stimulation consisted of electrical pulse trains (16 seconds, 5 Hz, 1.2 mA) presented to the mystacial pad. Consequent current-source density neural responses and epileptic activity in both cortices and across laminae were recorded via two 16-channel microelectrodes bilaterally implanted in vibrissal cortices. Concurrent two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy was used to produce spatiotemporal maps of total, oxy-, and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration. Compared with control, sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling was altered during ictal activity, but conserved postictally in both ipsilateral and contralateral vibrissal cortices, despite neurovascular responses being significantly reduced in the former, and enhanced in the latter. Our results provide insights into sensory-evoked neurovascular dynamics and coupling in epilepsy, and may have implications for the localization of epileptogenic foci and neighboring eloquent cortex. PMID:23860375

  8. Sensory Subtypes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latent Profile Transition Analysis using a National Survey of Sensory Features

    PubMed Central

    Ausderau, Karla K.; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M.; Watson, Linda R.; Boyd, Brian A.; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Methods Sensory subtypes and their stability over one year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N=1294; Time 2 N=884). Results Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over one year. Conclusions Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. PMID:25039572

  9. Antagonistic Characteristics Against Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria Isolated from Feces of Healthy Thai Infants

    PubMed Central

    Uraipan, Supansa; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food-borne pathogens are among the most significant problems in maintaining the health of people. Many probiotics have been widely reported to alleviate and protect against gastrointestinal infections through antibacterial secretion. However, the majority of them cannot always play antagonistic roles under gut conditions. Probiotic bacteria of human origin must possess other protective mechanisms to survive, out-compete intestinal flora and to successfully establish in their new host at a significant level. Objectives: Probiotic characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria isolated from the feces of Thai infants were primarily investigated in terms of gastric acid and bile resistances, antibacterial activity and mucin adhesion ability. Antagonistic interaction through secretion of antibacterial compounds and competitive exclusion against food-borne pathogens were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Culturable LAB and bifidobacteria were isolated from feces of Thai infants. Their ability to withstand gastric acid and bile were then evaluated. Acid and bile salt tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria were identified. They were then further assessed according to their antagonistic interactions through antibacterial secretion, mucin adhesion and competitive mucin adhesion against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Results: Gastric acid and bile tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria isolated from healthy infant feces were identified and selected according to their antagonistic interaction against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. These antagonistic probiotics included four strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of L. casei, five strains of L. plantarum, two strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and three strains of B. bifidum. All strains of the selected LAB inhibited all pathogenic bacteria tested through antibacterial secretion, while bifidobacteria showed high level of competitive exclusion against the pathogenic bacteria. Conclusions: These human-derived LAB and bifidobacteria exhibited different mechanisms involved in pathogenic inhibition. Therefore a combination of these probiotic strains could be a great promise and possibility for the development of probiotic products to effectively prevent and control food-borne infection in humans. PMID:26301060

  10. Microhistological characteristics of selected aquatic plants of Florida, with techniques for the study of manatee food habits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurst, L.A.; Beck, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated in 1978 to develop a technique of identifying and quantifying the digestive tract contents of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and to serve as a manual for the identification and analysis of ingesta collected from manatee carcasses salvaged in Florida. This report includes key microhistological characters found useful in identifying fragments of 83 plant species and three invertebrate groups. Many species of aquatic and wetland plants and invertebrates are available to manatees in Florida as potential foods.

  11. Use of iodized salt in processed Philippine food products.

    PubMed

    Azanza, P; Cariaso, K; Dela Cerna, M C; de Ocampo, C; Galvez, F; Moises, M; Pujanes, K

    1998-06-01

    The effects of iodized salt use on the quality of processed Philippine food products were evaluated. Samples for the study included dried-salted and smoked fish products, nitrite-cured pork, and fermented plain and flavored shrimp pastes. Generally, no significant differences were detected between the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the test products prepared with iodized and unfortified NaCl salts. The salting process in each food operation significantly increased the iodine content of the test products. However, subsequent losses in the absorbed iodine were recorded due to the boiling, smoking, drying, fermenting and heating processes in the different operations. It was recommended that studies be undertaken on the addition of iodine to semi-processed or completely processed food products to lessen iodine losses. PMID:24393638

  12. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  13. Another unique river: a consideration of some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile River in northwestern Ethiopia in relationship to their aquatic food resources.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, John; Tewabe, Dereje; Todd, Lawrence; Feseha, Mulugeta; Kay, Marvin; Kocurek, Gary; Nachman, Brett; Tabor, Neil; Yadeta, Meklit

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic food resources are important components of many modern human hunter-gatherer diets and yet evidence attesting to the widespread exploitation of this food type appears rather late in the archaeological record. While there are times when, for example, the capture of fish and shellfish requires sophisticated technology, there are other cases when the exact ecological attributes of an individual species and the particulars of its environment make it possible for these foods to be incorporated into the human diet with little or no tool use and only a minimal time investment. In order to better understand the full set of variables that are considered in these sorts of foraging decisions, it is necessary to detail the attributes of each particular aquatic environment. We discuss here some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile and Blue Rivers in the Horn of Africa. Unlike typical perennial rivers, these 'temporary' rivers flow only during a brief but intense wet season; during the much longer dry season, the rivers are reduced to a series of increasingly disconnected waterholes, and the abundant and diverse fish and mollusk populations are trapped in ever smaller evaporating pools. The local human population today utilizes a number of diverse capture methods that range from simple to complex, and vary according to the size and depth of the waterhole and the time of the year. When we view the particular characteristics of an individual river system, we find that each river is 'unique' in its individual attributes. The Horn of Africa is believed to be along the route that modern humans followed on their migration out of Africa, and it is likely that the riverine-based foraging behaviors of these populations accompanied our species on its movement into the rest of the Old World. PMID:25017504

  14. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-07-29

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence of weak electric fields in water. Perhaps the electric sense is used to detect moving prey in moist soil. PMID:9720114

  15. Sensory Optimization by Stochastic Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system’s preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit, and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: the higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics, and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

  16. Effect of Novel Starter Culture on Reduction of Biogenic Amines, Quality Improvement, and Sensory Properties of Doenjang, a Traditional Korean Soybean Fermented Sauce Variety.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Hae-Kyong; Yoo, Jung-Ah; Hong, Sung-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-08-01

    To select appropriate microorganisms as starter cultures for the reliable and reproducible fermentation of soybean fermented products of Korean Doenjang, various ratios of fungi (Aspergillus oryzae J, Mucor racemosus 15, M. racemosus 42) combined with Bacillus subtilis TKSP 24 were selected as either single, double, or multiple Meju strains for commercial mass production of Doenjang, followed by analysis of sensory characteristics. In the sensory evaluation, Doenjang BAM15-1 and BAM42-1, which were fermented with multiple strains (1:1:1), showed the highest sensory scores as compared to control. Based on sensory characteristics, 6 Doenjang samples were subjected to quantitative determination of amino acids, free sugars, and organic acids (volatile and nonvolatile) contents, followed by determination of biogenic amines. Total sweet taste amino acid contents were highest in BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 samples (333.7 and 295.8 mg/100 g, respectively) and similar that of control (391.1 mg/100 g). Samples BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed the relatively high volatile and nonvolatile organic acid contents (154.24, 192.26, and 71.31, 82.42 mg/100 g, respectively). In addition, BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed negligible biogenic amine formation, ranging from 0.00 to 1.02 and 0.00 to 3.92 mg/100 g, respectively. These findings indicate that determination of food components along with sensory and quality attributes using multiple microbial Meju strains as a starter culture may provide substantial results on improved quality fermented Doenjang products. PMID:26147854

  17. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  18. Rapid determination of pork sensory quality using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Lonergan, Steven M; Yu, Chenxu

    2012-07-01

    Existing objective methods to predict sensory attributes of pork in general do not yield satisfactory correlation to panel evaluations, and their applications in meat industry are limited. In this study, a Raman spectroscopic method was developed to evaluate and predict tenderness, juiciness and chewiness of fresh, uncooked pork loins from 169 pigs. Partial Least Square Regression models were developed based on Raman spectroscopic characteristics of the pork loins to predict the values of the sensory attributes. Furthermore, binary barcodes were created based on spectroscopic characteristics of the pork loins, and subjected to multivariate statistical discriminant analysis (i.e., Support Vector Machine) to differentiate and classify pork loins into quality grades ("good" and "bad" in terms of tenderness and chewiness). Good agreement (>83% correct predictions) with sensory panel results was obtained. The method developed in this report has the potential to become a rapid objective assay for tenderness and chewiness of pork products that may find practical applications in pork industry. PMID:22341828

  19. The effect of chilled conditioning at 4°C on selected water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors in Bison bison longissimus dorsi muscle and their impact on sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jennifer; Ryland, Donna; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors were monitored using chromatography methods in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of six grain-fed Bison bison, stored at 4°C for 2, 4, 8, 15 and 21 days in order to investigate their potential impact on sensory attributes of cooked bison meat. While pH and lipid-soluble compounds remained mostly unchanged, several changes in water-soluble compounds were observed. The breakdown of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) led to increases in inosine, hypoxanthine and ribose (7-fold). Non-polar amino acids including valine, leucine and phenylalanine showed the most significant increases over 21 days. Trained panelists (n=8) found a significant increase at day 15 in vinegary/sour aroma, tenderness and juiciness, while chewiness and connective tissue significantly decreased. Although, most flavor attributes were undetectable, partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed most water-soluble precursors were positively correlated with extended conditioning as well as beef and oily/fatty flavors. Quantitative changes observed in flavor precursors may be responsible for some sensory attributes developed during the heating process. PMID:23896147

  20. Biofilm Formation and Adherence Characteristics of Listeria ivanovii Strains Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of Listeria ivanovii isolates to exist as biofilm structures. The ability of Listeria ivanovii isolates to adhere to a surface was determined using a microtiter plate adherence assay whereas the role of cell surface properties in biofilm formation was assessed using the coaggregation and autoaggregation assays. Seven reference bacterial strains were used for the coaggregation assay. The degree of coaggregation and autoaggregation was determined. The architecture of the biofilms was examined under SEM. A total of 44 (88%) strains adhered to the wells of the microtiter plate while 6 (12%) did not adhere. The coaggregation index ranged from 12 to 77% while the autoaggregation index varied from 11 to 55%. The partner strains of S. aureus, S. pyogenes, P. shigelloides, and S. sonnei displayed coaggregation indices of 75% each, while S. Typhimurium, A. hydrophila, and P. aeruginosa registered coaggregation indices of 67%, 58%, and 50%, respectively. The ability of L. ivanovii isolates to form single and multispecies biofilms at 25°C is of great concern to the food industry where these organisms may adhere to kitchen utensils and other environments leading to cross-contamination of food processed in these areas. PMID:23365535

  1. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  2. Selective conversion of fibroblasts into peripheral sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Joel W; Eade, Kevin T; Sz?cs, Attila; Sardo, Valentina Lo; Tsunemoto, Rachel K; Williams, Daniel; Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Baldwin, Kristin K

    2015-01-01

    Humans and mice detect pain, itch, temperature, pressure, stretch and limb position via signaling from peripheral sensory neurons. These neurons are divided into three functional classes (nociceptors/pruritoceptors, mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors) that are distinguished by their selective expression of TrkA, TrkB or TrkC receptors, respectively. We found that transiently coexpressing Brn3a with either Ngn1 or Ngn2 selectively reprogrammed human and mouse fibroblasts to acquire key properties of these three classes of sensory neurons. These induced sensory neurons (iSNs) were electrically active, exhibited distinct sensory neuron morphologies and matched the characteristic gene expression patterns of endogenous sensory neurons, including selective expression of Trk receptors. In addition, we found that calcium-imaging assays could identify subsets of iSNs that selectively responded to diverse ligands known to activate itch- and pain-sensing neurons. These results offer a simple and rapid means for producing genetically diverse human sensory neurons suitable for drug screening and mechanistic studies. PMID:25420069

  3. Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

  4. The effect of feeding native warm-season grasses during the stocker phase on meat composition, quality characteristics, and sensory properties of loin steaks from forage-finished cattle.

    PubMed

    Kurve, V; Joseph, P; Williams, J B; Boland, H T; Riffell, S K; Kim, T; Schilling, M W

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the quality of beef from cattle that were fed native warm-season grass (NWSG) in the stocker phase and forage finished on tall fescue. Seventy-two British crossbred steers were randomly allotted to 9 pasture plots with 3 different forage treatments that included Bermuda grass (BER), Indian grass monoculture (IND), and big bluestem, little bluestem, and Indian grass (MIX) and forage finished on tall fescue. Two steers were randomly selected from each pasture plot for meat quality analyses (n = 18). Carcasses graded 67% Select for IND and 17% for both BER and MIX treatments, respectively. All other carcasses received quality grades of Standard. Steaks from treatments did not differ (P > 0.05) in sensory attributes, average sensory acceptability, color, tenderness, pH, or bacterial counts at each storage time, with limited differences in aroma, flavor, and texture. The IND steaks had lower cooking loss (P < 0.05) than steaks from the MIX and BER treatments. Steaks from the BER treatment had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (P < 0.05) after 6 d of storage when compared with steaks from the MIX and IND treatments, which indicated a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Cluster analysis was conducted to group consumers on the basis of their preference and liking of steak from the different forage treatments. On the basis of panelists' acceptability scores, consumers were grouped into 4 clusters. The largest group (60% of consumers) liked all treatments between moderately and very much. In addition, 17% of consumers preferred steaks from the IND treatment over the BER treatment, and 11% of consumers preferred steaks from the BER and IND treatments over steaks from the MIX treatment. Overall, results indicate that high-quality forage-fed beef can be produced when cattle are fed mixed NWSG, Indian grass, or Bermuda grass during the stocker phase and then finished on tall fescue. PMID:26020352

  5. The loss of scents: do defects in olfactory sensory neuron development underlie human disease?

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2015-06-01

    The olfactory system is a fascinating and beguiling sensory system: olfactory sensory neurons detect odors underlying behaviors essential for mate choice, food selection, and escape from predators, among others. These sensory neurons are unique in that they have dendrites contacting the outside world, yet their first synapse lies in the central nervous system. The information entering the central nervous system is used to create odor memories that play a profound role in recognition of individuals, places, and appropriate foods. Here, the structure of the olfactory epithelium is given as an overview to discuss the origin of the olfactory placode, the plasticity of the olfactory sensory neurons, and finally the origins of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuroendocrine cells. For the purposes of this review, the development of the peripheral sensory system will be analyzed, incorporating recently published studies highlighting the potential novelties in development mechanisms. Specifically, an emerging model where the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb develop simultaneously from a continuous neurectoderm patterned at the end of gastrulation, and the multiple origins of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuroendocrine cells associated with the olfactory sensory system development will be presented. Advances in the understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying olfactory sensory system development allows for a more thorough understanding of the potential causes of human disease. PMID:26111003

  6. Presynaptic inhibition of spinal sensory feedback ensures smooth movement

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Andrew J. P.; Croce, Katherine R.; Huang, Z. Josh; Abbott, L. F.; Jessell, Thomas M.; Azim, Eiman

    2014-01-01

    The precision of skilled movement depends on sensory feedback and its refinement by local inhibitory microcircuits. One specialized set of spinal GABAergic interneurons forms axo-axonic contacts with the central terminals of sensory afferents, exerting presynaptic inhibitory control over sensory-motor transmission. The inability to achieve selective access to the GABAergic neurons responsible for this unorthodox inhibitory mechanism has left unresolved the contribution of presynaptic inhibition to motor behavior. We used Gad2 as a genetic entry point to manipulate the interneurons that contact sensory terminals, and show that activation of these interneurons in mice elicits the defining physiological characteristics of presynaptic inhibition. Selective genetic ablation of Gad2-expressing interneurons severely perturbs goal-directed reaching movements, uncovering a pronounced and stereotypic forelimb motor oscillation, the core features of which are captured by modeling the consequences of sensory feedback at high gain. Our findings define the neural substrate of a genetically hard-wired gain control system crucial for the smooth execution of movement. PMID:24784215

  7. Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was identified between beet and cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. PMID:25124655

  8. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  9. Rheological Principles for Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubert, Christopher R.; Foegeding, E. Allen

    Food scientists are routinely confronted with the need to measure physical properties related to sensory texture and processing needs. These properties are determined by rheological methods, where rheology is a science devoted to the deformation and flow of all materials. Rheological properties should be considered a subset of the textural properties of foods, because the sensory detection of texture encompasses factors beyond rheological properties. Specifically, rheological methods accurately measure "force," "deformation," and "flow," and food scientists and engineers must determine how best to apply this information. For example, the flow of salad dressing from a bottle, the snapping of a candy bar, or the pumping of cream through a homogenizer are each related to the rheological properties of these materials. In this chapter, we describe fundamental concepts pertinent to the understanding of the subject and discuss typical examples of rheological tests for common foods. A glossary is included as Sect. 30.6 to clarify and summarize rheological definitions throughout the chapter.

  10. Keeping consumers safe: food providers' perspectives on pureed food.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Twelve focus groups were conducted in five sites with 80 allied health providers to identify their perspectives on providing pureed food to consumers. Thematic care analysis was completed to summarize and interpret these data. Providers' greatest concern was keeping consumers safe, and the right texture was prioritized over sensory appeal and acceptance. Providers recognized that these foods impacted the quality of life of consumers and worked to rationalize these diets with residents/patients and their families. In addition, offering foods they knew to be poorly accepted affected their self-concept as providers. As a result of these challenges, they did whatever they could in the kitchen and tableside to promote intake of pureed foods. Those in the "food chain" of pureed food provision suggested several ways to further improve these products. Greater communication between those who assist consumers with eating and those who produce the pureed food they consume is needed to promote acceptable pureed products. PMID:25105713

  11. Food Service Food Service

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Food Service Employee Handbook #12;Food Service Employee Handbook This document is available and procedures listed in the Food Service Employee Hand- book. ____________________________ ________ Signature of the Food Service Employee Handbook. After signing it, remove and return it to your Manager/Supervisor. #12

  12. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  13. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  14. Evolving concepts of sensory adaptation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems constantly adapt their responses to match the current environment. These adjustments occur at many levels of the system and increasingly appear to calibrate even for highly abstract perceptual representations of the stimulus. The similar effects of adaptation across very different stimulus domains point to common design principles but also continue to raise questions about the purpose of adaptation. PMID:23189092

  15. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  16. USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

  17. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  18. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

  19. Phytochemicals of foods, beverages and fruit vinegars: chemistry and health effects.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; McDonald, Jaime; Chandrasekara, Anoma; Zhong, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Plant-based foods and food ingredients provide a wide range of phytochemicals and antioxidants that render their beneficial health effects through a number of mechanisms. The presence of phenolics in different plant materials and beverages depends on the source material which dictates the type and quantity present. In addition, processing of raw materials, including fermentation, may alter the chemical nature and efficacy of their phenolic constituents. While vinegar has traditionally been used for food preservation and as a seasoning, more recently, fruit vinegars with different sensory characteristics have appeared in the marketplace. In addition to acetic acid, fruit vinegars often contain citric, malic, lactic, and tartaric acids and may also include phenolics, some of which are produced as a result of fermentaion. The beneficial health effects of fruit vinegars may in part be related to the process-induced changes in their phenolics and generation of new antioxidative phenolics during fermentation. PMID:18296384

  20. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory

  1. Crispy and crunchy textures: a critical evaluation of rigid foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The textural attributes of crispness and crunchiness are important factors in the enjoyment of many foods, but they are defined differently among dictionaries, consumers, and researchers. Sensory, mechanical, and acoustic methods have been used to provide data on crispness and crunchiness. Sensory...

  2. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla?ek, V.; Svobodová, V.; Bartoní?ek, B.; Rosmus, J.; ?amra, M.

    2004-09-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75°C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30°C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI ?ež 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  3. PFGE: importance in food quality.

    PubMed

    Vernile, Anna; Giammanco, Giovanni; Massa, Salvatore

    2009-11-01

    In late 19 century, great interest has arisen for food quality. This is referred as absence of pathogens in food (safety for consumers) and as nutritional quality of food (organoleptic characteristics). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is, among the molecular techniques developed in the last years, one of the most reliable, discriminative and reproducible technique. It can be used in clinical field for the identification of pathogens and the origin of outbreaks, and in food microbiology for the identification of pathogens (food borne disease surveillance) or of microorganisms responsible for the organoleptic characteristics of food. The present article shows some useful patents related to PFGE and importance in food quality. PMID:20653547

  4. Collection Policy: FOOD SCIENCE Subject Scope | Priority Tables | Other policies . . .

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    . International Food Science 8. Sensory Evaluation. In addition to the M.S. and PhD research degrees, twoCollection Policy: FOOD SCIENCE Subject Scope | Priority Tables | Other policies . . . 1.0 TEACHING, RESEARCH AND EXTENSION PROGRAMS 1.1 Mission and emphases of the department Food Science activity at Cornell

  5. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  6. Sensory fusion in Physarum polycephalum and implementing multi-sensory functional computation.

    PubMed

    Whiting, James G H; de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Surface electrical potential and observational growth recordings were made of a protoplasmic tube of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum in response to a multitude of stimuli with regards to sensory fusion or multisensory integration. Each stimulus was tested alone and in combination in order to evaluate for the first time the effect that multiple stimuli have on the frequency of streaming oscillation. White light caused a decrease in frequency whilst increasing the temperature and applying a food source in the form of oat flakes both increased the frequency. Simultaneously stimulating P. polycephalum with light and oat flake produced no net change in frequency, while combined light and heat stimuli showed an increase in frequency smaller than that observed for heat alone. When the two positive stimuli, oat flakes and heat, were combined, there was a net increase in frequency similar to the cumulative increases caused by the individual stimuli. Boolean logic gates were derived from the measured frequency change. PMID:24695059

  7. Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.

    PubMed

    Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure. PMID:18618404

  8. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  9. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  10. Capsaicin and sensory neurones: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Szolcsányi, János

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red pepper has become not only a "hot" topic in neuroscience but its new target-related unique actions have opened the door for the drug industry to introduce a new chapter of analgesics. After several lines of translational efforts with over 1,000 patents and clinical trials, the 8% capsaicin dermal patch reached the market and its long-lasting local analgesic effect in some severe neuropathic pain states is now well established. This introductory chapter outlines on one hand the historical background based on the author's 50 years of experience in this field and on the other hand emphasizes new scopes, fascinating perspectives in pharmaco-physiology, and molecular pharmacology of nociceptive sensory neurons. Evidence for the effect of capsaicin on C-polymodal nociceptors (CMH), C-mechanoinsensitive (CHMi), and silent C-nociceptors are listed and the features of the capsaicin-induced blocking effects of nociceptors are demonstrated. Common and different characteristics of nociceptor-blocking actions after systemic, perineural, local, intrathecal, and in vitro treatments are summarized. Evidence for the misleading conclusions drawn from neonatal capsaicin pretreatment is presented. Perspectives opened from cloning the capsaicin receptor "Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1" (TRPV1) are outlined and potential molecular mechanisms behind the long-lasting functional, ultrastructural, and nerve terminal-damaging effects of capsaicin and other TRPV1 agonists are summarized. Neurogenic inflammation and the long-list of "capsaicin-sensitive" tissue responses are mediated by an unorthodox dual sensory-efferent function of peptidergic TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals which differ from the classical efferent and sensory nerve endings that have a unidirectional role in neuroregulation. Thermoregulatory effects of capsaicin are discussed in detail. It is suggested that since hyperthermia and burn risk due to enhanced noxious heat threshold are the major obstacles of some TRPV1 antagonists, they could be overcome. The special "multisteric" gating function of the TRPV1 cation channel provides the structural ground for blocking chemical activation of TRPV1 without affecting its responsiveness to physical stimuli. A new chapter of potential analgesics targeting nociceptors is now already supported for pain relief in persistent pathological pain states. PMID:24941663

  11. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  12. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches.

    PubMed

    Prestes, R C; Silva, L B; Torri, A M P; Kubota, E H; Rosa, C S; Roman, S S; Kempka, A P; Demiate, I M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded as MOD2 (2.5 % of Thermtex) were studied. The following tests were performed: physicochemical characterization (moisture, ash, protein, starch and lipid contents, and water activity); cooling, freezing and reheating losses; texture (texture profile test); color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C and h); microbiological evaluation; sensory evaluation (multiple comparison and preference test); and histological evaluation (light microscopy). There was no significant difference (p?>?0.05) for ash, protein, cooling loss, cohesiveness or in the preference test for the tested samples. The other evaluated parameters showed significant differences (p?food and its microscopic structure. The best results were obtained for formulation MOD2 (2.5 % Thermtex). The addition of modified starch resulted in a better performance than the native starch in relation to the evaluated technological parameters, mainly in relation to reheating losses, which demonstrated the good interaction between the modified starch in the structure of the product and the possibility of the application of this type of starch in other types of functional meat products. PMID:26139901

  13. Sensory and Functionality Differences of Whey Protein Isolate Bleached by Hydrogen or Benzoyl Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tucker J; Foegeding, E Allen; Drake, MaryAnne

    2015-10-01

    Whey protein is a highly functional food ingredient used in a wide variety of applications. A large portion of fluid whey produced in the United States is derived from Cheddar cheese manufacture and contains annatto (norbixin), and therefore must be bleached. The objective of this study was to compare sensory and functionality differences between whey protein isolate (WPI) bleached by benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP). HP and BP bleached WPI and unbleached controls were manufactured in triplicate. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were conducted to determine flavor differences between treatments. Functionality differences were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, protein solubility, SDS-PAGE, and effect of NaCl concentration on gelation relative to an unbleached control. HP bleached WPI had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation and sulfur containing volatile compounds than both BP and unbleached WPI (P < 0.05). HP bleached WPI was characterized by high aroma intensity, cardboard, cabbage, and fatty flavors, while BP bleached WPI was differentiated by low bitter taste. Overrun and yield stress were not different among WPI (P < 0.05). Soluble protein loss at pH 4.6 of WPI decreased by bleaching with either hydrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide (P < 0.05), and the heat stability of WPI was also distinct among WPI (P < 0.05). SDS PAGE results suggested that bleaching of whey with either BP or HP resulted in protein degradation, which likely contributed to functionality differences. These results demonstrate that bleaching has flavor effects as well as effects on many of the functionality characteristics of whey proteins. PMID:26317318

  14. Sensorial pedagogies, hungry fat cells and the limits of nutritional health education

    PubMed Central

    Sanabria, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the way the category of ‘the sensorial' is mobilised across obesity research and care practices for overweight persons in France. The ‘natural' body is understood to have developed mechanisms that motivate eaters to seek out energy-dense foods, a hardwiring that is maladaptive in today's plethoric food environment. The article analyses the feedback models mobilised in scientific literature on the neuroendocrine processes regulating appetite. The analysis of how ‘the sensorial' is studied and used to treat patients provides a vantage point onto the ways foods and bodies transform each other. Recent findings show that fat cells influence metabolism by secreting hormones, revealing that eaters are affected by the materiality of the foods they ingest. ‘The sensorial' functions as a regulator in the feedback mechanisms where social norms regulating foodscapes become enfolded in the molecular processes that control appetite regulation. The article traces the work that the category of ‘the sensorial' does as it flows through the loops and feedbacks between scientific evidence, policy and care. It examines the way pleasure and the sensations of eaters are increasingly foregrounded in French nutritional health promotion strategies in a context where informing eaters is increasingly deemed ineffective. PMID:26157470

  15. Plasticity of chemoreceptor gene expression: Sensory and circuit inputs modulate state-dependent chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Matthew; van der Linden, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    Animals dramatically modify their chemosensory behaviors when starved, which could allow them to alter and optimize their food-search strategies. Dynamic changes in the gene expression of chemoreceptors may be a general mechanism underlying food and state-dependent changes in chemosensory behaviors. In our recent study,(1) we identified chemoreceptors in the ADL sensory neuron type of C. elegans that are modulated by feeding state and food availability. Here, we highllight our recent findings by which sensory inputs into ADL, neuronal outputs from ADL, and circuit inputs from the RMG interneuron, which is electrically connected to ADL, are required to regulate an ADL-expressed chemoreceptor. This sensory and circuit-mediated regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression is dependent on cell-autonomous pathways acting in ADL, e.g. KIN-29, DAF-2, OCR-2 and calcium signaling, and circuit inputs from RMG mediated by NPR-1. Based on these findings, we propose an intriguing but speculative feedback modulatory circuit mechanism by which sensory perception of food and internal state signals may be coupled to regulate ADL-expressed chemoreceptors, which may allow animals to precisely regulate and fine-tune their chemosensory neuron responses as a function of feeding state. PMID:26430563

  16. Mechanical-Acoustic and Sensory Evaluations of Corn Starch-Whey Protein Isolate Extrudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the mechanism that relates sensory perception of brittle food foams to their mechanical and acoustic properties during crushing, corn starch was extruded with four levels (0, 6, 12, and 18%) of whey protein isolate (WPI) and two levels of in-barrel moisture (23 and 27%). Texture of the exp...

  17. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions. PMID:25303833

  18. Sensory Intolerance: Latent Structure and Psychopathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A.; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. Objectives First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. Method A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Results Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: Those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n = 150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n = 384). Sensory intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology. Conclusions Consistent with recent research, these findings provide further evidence for a sensory intolerance syndrome. The findings provide a rationale for conducting future research for determining whether a sensory intolerance syndrome should be included in the diagnostic nomenclature. PMID:24703593

  19. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system. PMID:24509431

  20. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-02-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  1. Neuroepithelial circuit formed by innervation of sensory enteroendocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Bohórquez, Diego V.; Shahid, Rafiq A.; Erdmann, Alan; Kreger, Alex M.; Wang, Yu; Calakos, Nicole; Wang, Fan; Liddle, Rodger A.

    2015-01-01

    Satiety and other core physiological functions are modulated by sensory signals arising from the surface of the gut. Luminal nutrients and bacteria stimulate epithelial biosensors called enteroendocrine cells. Despite being electrically excitable, enteroendocrine cells are generally thought to communicate indirectly with nerves through hormone secretion and not through direct cell-nerve contact. However, we recently uncovered in intestinal enteroendocrine cells a cytoplasmic process that we named neuropod. Here, we determined that neuropods provide a direct connection between enteroendocrine cells and neurons innervating the small intestine and colon. Using cell-specific transgenic mice to study neural circuits, we found that enteroendocrine cells have the necessary elements for neurotransmission, including expression of genes that encode pre-, post-, and transsynaptic proteins. This neuroepithelial circuit was reconstituted in vitro by coculturing single enteroendocrine cells with sensory neurons. We used a monosynaptic rabies virus to define the circuit’s functional connectivity in vivo and determined that delivery of this neurotropic virus into the colon lumen resulted in the infection of mucosal nerves through enteroendocrine cells. This neuroepithelial circuit can serve as both a sensory conduit for food and gut microbes to interact with the nervous system and a portal for viruses to enter the enteric and central nervous systems. PMID:25555217

  2. Nuptial gifts of male spiders function as sensory traps.

    PubMed Central

    Stålhandske, Pia

    2002-01-01

    While nuptial food gifts come in various forms in arthropods, their evolutionary origins are unclear. A previous study on insects has shown that such gifts may arise as a sensory trap that exploits a female's underlying motivation to feed. Here I present independent evidence of a sensory trap in spiders. In certain visually oriented spiders, I suggest that males initially exploit the maternal care instinct by producing a nuptial gift that closely resembles the female egg sac. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis cover their prey gift with a silk layer, transforming it into a white round object. In a laboratory experiment I tested whether the colour of the gift affected the rate that females accepted males displaying their gifts. I found that the brighter and the more alike the nuptial gift to a female's egg sac, the faster the female responded by grabbing the gift. My results support the hypothesis that the nuptial gift in P. mirabilis works as a sensory trap. PMID:12028772

  3. Physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh potato-based pasta (gnocchi).

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Laura; Balestra, Federica; Romani, Santina; Rocculi, Pietro; Rosa, Marco Dalla

    2010-01-01

    This study dealt with the characterization and quality assessment of 3 kinds of potato-based pasta (gnocchi) made with steam-cooked, potato puree (water added to potato flakes), and reconstituted potatoes as main ingredients. The aim of the research was to evaluate the quality of the products in terms of physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics. Water content, water activity, color (L* and h°), and texture (texture profile analysis [TPA] and shearing test) were evaluated on both raw and cooked samples. In addition, on the recovered cooking water the loss of solid substances was determined and on the cooked gnocchi a sensory assessment was performed. Eight sensory attributes (yellowness, hardness, gumminess, adhesiveness, potato taste, sweet taste, flour taste, and sapidity) were investigated. Statistically significant differences among products were obtained, especially concerning textural properties. In fact, sample made with reconstituted potatoes and emulsifiers resulted the hardest (8.53 ± 1.22 N), the gummiest (2.90 ± 0.05 N), and the "chewiest" (2.90 ± 0.58 N) after cooking. Gnocchi made with potato puree or reconstituted potatoes significantly differed from the one produced with steam-cooked potatoes in terms of sensory properties (yellowness, hardness, flour taste, and sapidity). Pearson's correlation analysis between some textural instrumental and sensory parameters showed significant correlation coefficients (0.532 < r < 0.810). Score plot of principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed obtained results from physicochemical and sensory analyses, in terms of high discriminant capacity of colorimetric and textural characteristics. PMID:21535629

  4. A new pressure sensory mechanism for prey detection in birds: the use of principles of seabed dynamics?

    PubMed Central

    Piersma, T.; Aelst, R. van; Kurk, K.; Berkhoudt, H.; Maas, L. R. M.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in birds. Red knots (Calidris canutus), sandpipers that occur worldwide in coastal intertidal areas, are able to detect their favourite hard-shelled prey even when buried in sand beyond the reach of their bills. In operant conditioning experiments designed to find out whether the birds could tell buckets containing only wet sand from buckets containing hard objects in wet sand, we show that they detect the presence not only of deeply buried live bivalves but also of stones. The latter finding virtually excludes, under experimental conditions, prey-detection mechanisms based on vision, acoustics, smell, taste, vibrational signals emitted by prey, temperature gradients and electromagnetic fields. A failure to discriminate between food and non-food trays with dry sand indicates that pore water is involved. Based on the presence of large arrays of Herbst corpuscles (sensory organs that can measure the acceleration due to changes in pressure), the specifics of foraging technique and the characteristics of sediments on which red knots feed, we deduce that the sensory mechanism involves the perception of pressure gradients that are formed when bills probe in soft sediments in which inanimate objects block pore water flow. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been described before. It is argued that repeated probing in soft, wet sediments allows red knots to induce a residual pressure build-up of sufficient strength to detect the pressure disturbance caused by a nearby object. The cyclic process of shaking loosely packed sand grains followed by gravitational settling into a closer packing, leads, owing to insufficient drainage of the sediment, to a locally increased pressure disturbance that is 'pumped up' at each shake.

  5. Food Provider Food License

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Bon Pain (ABP Corporation) 08/01/16 None food lic exempt- national chain B&W Catering 05/19/16 10 (Susan ZaK) 01/21/16 09/16/16 None Compliant BJ's food lic exempt- national chain Bloods Catering Party/08/16 Compliant Hannaford None food lic exempt- national chain Hanover Consumer Co-Operative 03/15/16 01/01/16 06

  6. Determination of absolute threshold and just noticeable difference in the sensory perception of pungency.

    PubMed

    Orellana-Escobedo, L; Ornelas-Paz, J J; Olivas, G I; Guerrero-Beltran, J A; Jimenez-Castro, J; Sepulveda, D R

    2012-03-01

    Absolute threshold and just noticeable difference (JND) were determined for the perception of pungency using chili pepper in aqueous solutions. Absolute threshold and JND were determined using 2 alternative forced-choice sensory tests tests. High-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to determine capsaicinoids concentration in samples used for sensory analysis. Sensory absolute threshold was 0.050 mg capsaicinoids/kg sample. Five JND values were determined using 5 reference solutions with different capsaicinoids concentration. JND values changed proportionally as capsaicinoids concentration of the reference sample solutions changed. Weber fraction remained stable for the first 4 reference capsaicinoid solutions (0.05, 0.11, 0.13, and 0.17 mg/kg) but changed when the most concentrated reference capsaicinoids solution was used (0.23 mg/kg). Quantification limit for instrumental analysis was 1.512 mg/kg capsaicinoids. Sensory methods employed in this study proved to be more sensitive than instrumental methods. Practical Application: A better understanding of the process involved in the sensory perception of pungency is currently required because "hot" foods are becoming more popular in western cuisine. Absolute thresholds and differential thresholds are useful tools in the formulation and development of new food products. These parameters may help in defining how much chili pepper is required in a formulated product to ensure a perceptible level of pungency, as well as in deciding how much more chili pepper is required in a product to produce a perceptible increase in its pungency. PMID:22384966

  7. Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

  8. [Acute Sensory Neuropathies and Acute Autonomic Neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Koike, Haruki

    2015-11-01

    From the perspective of neuropathies with an acute onset mimicking that of Guillain-Barr? syndrome (GBS), cases with profound sensory and/or autonomic impairment without any significant weakness have been reported. Although the possibility of infectious or toxic etiologies should be carefully excluded, immune mechanisms similar to those in GBS are suggested to be involved in these so-called acute sensory neuropathies and acute autonomic neuropathies. The types of neuropathy include those with predominant sensory manifestations, predominant autonomic manifestations such as autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and both sensory and autonomic manifestations such as acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Neuronopathy in the sensory and/or autonomic ganglia (i.e., ganglionopathy) has been commonly suggested in patients with these types of neuropathies. The presence of Anti-GD1b antibodies has been reported in some of the patients with acute sensory neuropathy with deep sensory impairment, whereas anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies are reported to be present in half of the patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The discovery of anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies significantly expanded the spectrum of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. This is because some of the patients with chronic progression mimicking neurodegenerative diseases such as pure autonomic failure were positive for these antibodies. In contrast, pathologically significant autoantibodies have not been identified in acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenesis and the spectrum of these types of neuropathies. PMID:26560953

  9. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

  10. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. PMID:25912870

  11. The role of appeals to tradition in origin food marketing. A survey among Polish consumers.

    PubMed

    Bry?a, Pawe?

    2015-08-01

    The frequency of the use of tradition in marketing is growing. Appealing to tradition reflects the need to have reference points, trust and stability. The perceived authenticity of a product is strongly connected with its origin, which is expressed by the factors of time (history), place (area), socialisation (local community) and naturalness (raw materials). The paper aims to examine consumer attitudes, preferences and behaviours regarding origin food in Poland. We carried out a survey in a representative sample of 1000 Polish consumers. According to our respondents, the characteristics differentiating origin food from conventional food include links with tradition as well as sensory and health properties. Referring to the typology proposed by van der Meulen, traditionality and territoriality are the most important characteristics of origin food. The perceived authenticity of origin products depends to the largest extent on such factors as: natural taste, product quality, sale in the region of origin and labelling. The most important determinants of origin food selection include: traditional recipe, taste, and product uniqueness. PMID:25916623

  12. Barriers to participation in the food stamp program among food pantry clients in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Algert, Susan J; Reibel, Michael; Renvall, Marian J

    2006-05-01

    Substantial numbers of food pantry clients are eligible for food stamps but do not receive them. Background characteristics of 14317 food pantry users in Los Angeles were analyzed to provide information helpful in food stamp outreach programs. Ninety percent of food pantry users were living well below poverty level, 59% were Hispanic, and 44% were homeless. Only 15% of the food pantry clients received food stamps, with homelessness and limited English language skills acting as barriers to food stamp program participation. PMID:16571694

  13. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  14. The CCHamide 1 receptor modulates sensory perception and olfactory behavior in starved Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Abu; Gulati, Jyotasana; Gro?e-Wilde, Ewald; Vogel, Heiko; Hansson, Bill S.; Knaden, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory response of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to food odor is modulated by starvation. Here we show that this modulation is not restricted to food odors and their detecting sensory neurons but rather increases the behavioral response to odors as different as food odors, repellents and pheromones. The increased behavioral responsiveness is paralleled by an increased physiological sensitivity of sensory neurons regardless whether they express olfactory or ionotropic receptors and regardless whether they are housed in basiconic, coeloconic, or trichoid sensilla. Silencing several genes that become up-regulated under starvation confirmed the involvement of the short neuropeptide f receptor in the starvation effect. In addition it revealed that the CCHamide-1 receptor is another important factor governing starvation-induced olfactory modifications. PMID:24067446

  15. Nutritional, sensory and physical analysis of pumpkin flour incorporated into weaning mix.

    PubMed

    Usha, R; Lakshmi, M; Ranjani, M

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a cereal-pulse complementary food fortified with different concentrations of pumpkin powder (Cucurbita moschata), and to analyse its sensory and physic-chemical parameters. Fresh pumpkins(Cucurbita moschata) were procured from the market and dehydrated and powdered in the laboratory. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and whole green gram (Vigna radiate) were germinated, dried, pulverised and combined with powdered rice (Oryza sativa) in the ratio of 2:1:1. Pumpkin powder was added to this mixture at 10%, 20% and 30% variations. The complementary weaning food mix was subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, colour, flavour, texture and overall acceptability) by semi-trained panelists. The mix was analysed for its moisture, energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, beta-carotene and anti-oxidant content. Nutritional analysis of the weaning mix demonstrated that there was a significant increase in the protein, fibre, carbohydrate and antioxidant levels with an increase in concentration of pumpkin powder. The sensory analysis revealed that the complementary food mix with 20% pumpkin powder fortification had good sensory qualities. PMID:22691991

  16. Food safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... food. Avoid cross-contaminating food items. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. Always ...

  17. Integron, Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Included in the Norwegian Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Marianne; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Slettemeås, Jannice Schau; Böckerman, Inger; Norström, Madelaine

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (n=331) isolates from humans with bloodstream infections were investigated for the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons. The integron cassettes arrays were characterized and the findings were compared with data from similar investigations on resistant E. coli from meat and meat products (n=241) produced during the same time period. All isolates were obtained from the Norwegian monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens and in the veterinary sector. Methods used included PCR, sequencing, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing and subtyping, pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis and serotyping. Integrons of class 1 and 2 occurred significantly more frequently among human isolates; 45.4% (95% CI: 39.9-50.9) than among isolates from meat; 18% (95% CI: 13.2 -23.3), (p<0.01, Chi-square test). Identical cassette arrays including dfrA1-aadA1, aadA1, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, oxa-30-aadA1 (class 1 integrons) and dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 (class 2 integrons) were detected from both humans and meat. However, the most prevalent cassette array in human isolates, dfrA17-aadA5, did not occur in isolates from meat, suggesting a possible linkage between this class 1 integron and a subpopulation of E. coli adapted to a human host. The drfA1-aadA1 and aadA1 class 1 integrons were found frequently in both human and meat isolates. These isolates were subjected to further studies to investigate similarities with regard to transferability, plasmid and host strain characteristics. We detected incF plasmids with pMLST profile F24:A-:B1 carrying drfA1-aadA1 integrons in isolates from pork and in a more distantly related E. coli strain from a human with septicaemia. Furthermore, we showed that most of the class 1 integrons with aadA1 were located on incF plasmids with pMLST profile F51:A-:B10 in human isolates. The plasmid was present in unrelated as well as closely related host strains, demonstrating that dissemination of this integron also could be attributed to clonal spread. In conclusion, among the systematically collected isolates from two different sources, some significant differences concerning integron prevalence and integron variants were observed. However, closely related plasmids as vehicles for specific class 1 integrons in isolates from meat and from a human with bloodstream infection were found. The occurrence of similar multi-resistance plasmids in bacteria from a food source and from a human clinical sample highlights the possible role of meat as a source of resistance elements for pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26047499

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed March 2015 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE On this page: Description Genetic changes ... November 2012 What is hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE? Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type ...

  20. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  1. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  2. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  3. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

  4. SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS: MEASURES OF NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need for tests of sensory function to be incorporated in laboratory and toxicity testing. t is clear that sensory dysfunction may frequently occur, but go undetected, in standard animal toxicological testing protocols. ensory evoked potential technology can be employed...

  5. Sensory innervation of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fishman, R B; Dark, J

    1987-12-01

    The presumption that sensory information does not arise from white adipose tissue was reevaluated using the neuroanatomical tracer, "true blue." Fluorescent cell bodies were observed in dorsal root ganglia of rats after tracer was implanted into inguinal or dorsal subcutaneous fat depots. Sensory information from adipose tissue may play an important role in the regulation of regional and total body fat mass. PMID:3425770

  6. Active Sensing Virtually all sensory experience

    E-print Network

    Born, Richard

    moving the stimulus into a region of high acuity with respect to the sense organ. Thesis: sensingActive Sensing #12;Virtually all sensory experience occurs in the context of active behaviors #12;· Sensing actions are often rapid compared to the speed of sensory transduction itself. · Sensing actions

  7. Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

  8. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  9. ()nstraints on Sensory Processing RACHEL I. WILSON

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Rachel

    ()nstraints on Sensory Processing RACHEL I. WILSON evolution of sensory systems is driven are fundamentally in conflict with as they pressure evolution in opposite neural systems are shaped by the need be suboptimal in an artificial system, and thus engineers must be careful not to draw the wrong lessons from

  10. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  11. Sensory and chemical characteristics of ground goat meat products 

    E-print Network

    Myers, Cheri Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Ground goat meat and beef with 15% target fat content were produced using primal cuts of goat meat and beef chuck roasts obtained at 24 hours and ~7 days postmortem, respectively, and analyzed for total fat, moistures total and nowhere irons 2...

  12. Body-scaled affordances in sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Travieso, David; Gómez-Jordana, Luis; Díaz, Alex; Lobo, Lorena; Jacobs, David M

    2015-12-15

    The research field on sensory substitution devices has strong implications for theoretical work on perceptual consciousness. One of these implications concerns the extent to which the devices allow distal attribution. The present study applies a classic empirical approach on the perception of affordances to the field of sensory substitution. The reported experiment considers the perception of the stair-climbing affordance. Participants judged the climbability of steps apprehended through a vibrotactile sensory substitution device. If measured with standard metric units, climbability judgments of tall and short participants differed, but if measured in units of leg length, judgments did not differ. These results are similar to paradigmatic results in regular visual perception. We conclude that our sensory substitution device allows the perception of affordances. More generally, we argue that the theory of affordances may enrich theoretical debates concerning sensory substitution to a larger extent than has hitherto been the case. PMID:26587958

  13. Spectroscopic study of food and food toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gavin; Walsh, James E.; Martin, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Fungal infection of food causes billions of dollars of lost revenue per annum as well as health problems, to animals and humans, if consumed in sufficient quantities. Modern food sorting techniques rely on colour or other physical characteristics to filter diseased or otherwise unsuitable foodstuffs from healthy foodstuffs. Their speeds are such that up to 40,000 objects per second can be moved at 4 metres per second, through 1 m wide chutes that offer a wide view for colour and shape sorting. Grain type foods such as coffee or peanuts are often vulnerable to toxic infection from invading fungi. If this happens, then their texture, taste and colour can change. Up to now, only visible wavelengths and colour identification have been used to bulk-sort food, but there has been little research in the ultra violet regions of the spectrum to help identify fungus or toxin infection. This research specifically concentrated on the ultra violet (UV) spectral characteristics of food in an attempt to identify possible spectral changes that occur when healthy food items like peanuts become infected with toxin-producing fungi. Ultimately, the goal is to design, build and construct an optical detection system that can use these 'spectral fingerprints' to more quickly and efficiently detect toxically infected food items.

  14. Modeling Inhibitory Interneurons in Efficient Sensory Coding Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mengchen; Rozell, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    There is still much unknown regarding the computational role of inhibitory cells in the sensory cortex. While modeling studies could potentially shed light on the critical role played by inhibition in cortical computation, there is a gap between the simplicity of many models of sensory coding and the biological complexity of the inhibitory subpopulation. In particular, many models do not respect that inhibition must be implemented in a separate subpopulation, with those inhibitory interneurons having a diversity of tuning properties and characteristic E/I cell ratios. In this study we demonstrate a computational framework for implementing inhibition in dynamical systems models that better respects these biophysical observations about inhibitory interneurons. The main approach leverages recent work related to decomposing matrices into low-rank and sparse components via convex optimization, and explicitly exploits the fact that models and input statistics often have low-dimensional structure that can be exploited for efficient implementations. While this approach is applicable to a wide range of sensory coding models (including a family of models based on Bayesian inference in a linear generative model), for concreteness we demonstrate the approach on a network implementing sparse coding. We show that the resulting implementation stays faithful to the original coding goals while using inhibitory interneurons that are much more biophysically plausible. PMID:26172289

  15. Thermoelectricity and noncellular sensory transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Brandon

    2003-03-01

    Sharks and rays possess electrosensors that provide environmental data assisting such tasks as prey detection and mate location. These organs are also incredibly sensitive to minute changes in temperature, and their reaction to temperature is unlike any other thermoreceptor known in nature. We have collected samples of the extracellular gel that fills the electrosensitive organs, and, while characterizing its material properties, we have found an average thermopower of roughly 300 microvolts/Kelvin. We will discuss the implications of these data in terms of a novel, noncellular mode of sensory transduction, in which a thermal fluctuation is translated into an electrical stimulus by the gel. We will also contrast the gel to more established thermoelectric materials.

  16. Cladodes from prickly pear as a functional ingredient: effect on fat retention, oxidative stability, nutritional and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Msaddak, Lotfi; Siala, Rayda; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Ayadi, M A; Nasri, Moncef; Zouari, Nacim

    2015-12-01

    The stems of Opuntia ficus-indica known as cladodes are rich source of bioactive and functional substances, which make them important candidate for the production of health-promoting food. Cladodes powder was incorporated at different levels of substitution (2.5%, 5% and 7.5%) in cookies (butter/wheat flour: 55/100?m/m). Substitution of wheat flour by cladodes powder improved dietary fiber, ash, potassium, magnesium and calcium contents of enriched cookies. The results also revealed that cladodes supplementation increased hardness; however, it decreased a* and b* values and reduced exudate loss of cookies during storage. Moreover, rising levels of cladodes powder contribute to the increase of antioxidant activity of cookies and decreased their oxidative degradation. Sensory evaluation showed that cladodes supplementation at 5% level remained acceptable at 5-point hedonic scale. The present study suggested that cladodes supplementation in high-fat cookies not only added nutritional value to food, but also improved its functional characteristics. PMID:26460166

  17. Prey capture in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus albifrons: sensory acquisition strategies and electrosensory consequences.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M E; Maciver, M A

    1999-05-01

    Sensory systems are faced with the task of extracting behaviorally relevant information from complex sensory environments. In general, sensory acquisition involves two aspects: the control of peripheral sensory surfaces to improve signal reception and the subsequent neural filtering of incoming sensory signals to extract and enhance signals of interest. The electrosensory system of weakly electric fish provides a good model system for studying both these aspects of sensory acquisition. On the basis of infrared video recordings of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons) feeding on small prey (Daphnia magna) in the dark, we reconstruct three-dimensional movement trajectories of the fish and prey. We combine the reconstructed trajectory information with models of peripheral electric image formation and primary electrosensory afferent response dynamics to estimate the spatiotemporal patterns of transdermal potential change and afferent activation that occur during prey-capture behavior. We characterize the behavioral strategies used by the fish, with emphasis on the functional importance of the dorsal edge in prey capture behavior, and we analyze the electrosensory consequences. In particular, we find that the high-pass filter characteristics of P-type afferent response dynamics can serve as a predictive filter for estimating the future position of the prey as the electrosensory image moves across the receptor array. PMID:10210661

  18. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

  19. From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for…

  20. Nanovesicle-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structures Mimicking Mammalian Pain Sensory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Youngtac; Jin, Hye Jun; An, Jeong Mi; Park, Juhun; Moon, Seok Jun; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-03-01

    We developed a ``chemical-pain sensor'' based on a single-walled carbon nanotube-based field effect transistor (SWNT-FET) functionalized with rat pain sensory receptor, rat transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (rTRPV1) mimicking a mammalian pain sensory system. The sensor can selectively detect chemical pain stimuli such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin with a sensitivity of a 1 pM detection limit. Since this sensor allows one to quantitatively measure the concentration of chemical pain stimuli just like animal sensory systems, it can be used for various practical applications such as food screening. In addition, TRP families including rTRPV1 protein used for the sensor are now suggested as potential drug targets related to nerve and circulation disorders. Thus, the capability of measuring TRP responses using our sensor platform should open up other applications such as drug screening and basic research related with nerve and circulation systems.

  1. The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Keegan TH, Hurley S, Goldberg D, Nelson DO, Reynolds P, Bernstein L, Horn-Ross PL, Gomez SL. The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort.

  2. Improving Oral Communication Skills of Students in Food Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitmeier, C. A.; Svendsen, L. K.; Vrchota, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Communication activities about food evaluation were incorporated into food preparation courses. Oral reports replaced quizzes and an oral presentation replaced the final exam. A rubric was developed to help students evaluate ingredient functions, procedures, techniques, temperatures, and sensory evaluation. Oral report scores, self-evaluations,…

  3. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  4. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  5. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-08-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  6. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  7. Sensory pathophysiology in chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Krarup, C; Trojaborg, W

    1996-02-01

    Pathophysiological changes in sensory fibres in chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathy (CADP) are poorly understood, and it is not known to what extent sensory loss may be due to axonal loss or to conduction block. Motor and sensory nerve condition were studied in 18 patients with CADP to delineate abnormalities in the compound sensory action potential (CSAP) recorded proximally along the limb. To distinguish small CSAPs from noise, near-nerve needle electrodes and electronic averaging were used. In all, 58 motor and 78 sensory nerves in the upper and lower limbs were studied, and in 29 nerves, motor and sensory conduction was compared over the same proximal and distal segments of the upper limbs. The proximal/distal amplitude ratio (P/D ratio) of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was reduced in 76% of the nerves compared with only 21% of the CSAPs. The amplitudes of CMAPs evoked and of CSAPs recorded distally were reduced to the same extent. The prolongation of the distal motor latency (DML) was linearly related to the reduction in amplitude of the CMAP whereas reduction of the distal sensory conduction velocity (SCVd) mainly occurred if the amplitude of the CSAP was reduced more than 70%. The proximal motor nerve conduction velocity (MCVp) was reduced by 40-50%, twice as much as the reduction in distal MCV (MCVd) (calculated from the reciprocal DML), and related to the reduction in the P/D ratio of the CMAP. The proximal SCV (SCVp) decreased approximately 20%, similar to the reduction in SCVd and out of proportion to the marked reduction of the MCVp. The results suggest different pathophysiological changes in sensory and motor fibres in CADP. Thus, nerve fibre loss could account for most of the abnormal parameters in sensory conduction, whereas demyelination was the dominating cause of motor nerve dysfunction. PMID:8624687

  8. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  9. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  10. Sensory Impairments and Autism: A Re-Examination of Causal Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Sue; Rugg, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Sensory impairments are widely reported in autism, but remain largely unexplained by existing models. This article examines Kanner's causal reasoning and identifies unsupported assumptions implicit in later empirical work. Our analysis supports a heterogeneous causal model for autistic characteristics. We propose that the development of a…

  11. Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free spaghetti elaborated with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize flours. Luminosity (L*) of the uncooked gluten-free spaghetti was not significantly different from control sampl...

  12. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  13. Information for Decision Making and Stimulus Identification is Multiplexed in Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gire, David H.; Whitesell, Jennifer D.; Doucette, Wilder; Restrepo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In recordings from anterior piriform cortex (APC) in awake behaving mice we find that neuronal firing early in the olfactory pathway simultaneously conveys fundamentally different information: odor value – is the odor rewarded? - and identity - what is the smell? Thus, this sensory system performs early multiplexing of information reflecting stimulus–specific characteristics with that used for decision-making. PMID:23792942

  14. Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. PMID:25542775

  15. Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

    2015-04-15

    The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. PMID:25466130

  16. Signs and Symptoms of Food Allergy and Food-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemant P; Bansil, Shweta; Uygungil, Burcin

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence. In order for pediatric clinicians to appropriately diagnose and manage food allergies, the characteristic signs and symptoms of these potentially severe reactions must be recognized. Unlike nonimmunologic adverse food reactions (such as lactose intolerance and food poisoning), food allergies by definition are immune-mediated responses that occur reproducibly on food ingestion. The varying clinical presentations of food allergy include IgE-mediated disorders, mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, and cell-mediated food allergies. This review describes the clinical manifestations of each of these categories of food allergy, with special emphasis on recognition of food-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:26456438

  17. Food allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergy symptoms. Any food can cause an allergic reaction. The most common food allergies are to: Eggs ( ... preservatives, can cause a food allergy or intolerance reaction. Some people have an oral allergy. This is ...

  18. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  19. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Food Allergies KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > I Feel Sick! > ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  20. Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory

  1. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  2. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  3. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  4. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  5. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  6. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nathalie; Lösl, Marlene; Schröder, Nadja; Gießl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies. PMID:26378583

  7. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Nathalie; Lösl, Marlene; Schröder, Nadja; Gießl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies. PMID:26378583

  8. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. PMID:24415527

  9. Neonatal sensory nerve injury-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory deprivation studies in neonatal mammals, such as monocular eye closure, whisker trimming, and chemical blockade of the olfactory epithelium have revealed the importance of sensory inputs in brain wiring during distinct critical periods. But very few studies have paid attention to the effects of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage on synaptic wiring of the central nervous system (CNS) circuits. Peripheral somatosensory nerves differ from other special sensory afferents in that they are more prone to crush or severance because of their locations in the body. Unlike the visual and auditory afferents, these nerves show regenerative capabilities after damage. Uniquely, damage to a somatosensory peripheral nerve does not only block activity incoming from the sensory receptors but also mediates injury-induced neuro- and glial chemical signals to the brain through the uninjured central axons of the primary sensory neurons. These chemical signals can have both far more and longer lasting effects than sensory blockade alone. Here we review studies which focus on the consequences of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage in the principal sensory nucleus of the brainstem trigeminal complex. PMID:25956829

  10. A layered network model of sensory cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to the auditory system. Through an exercise of the model, it is shown that spatial location of sounds may be a natural consequence of the way cochlear response is mapped onto the cortex. 31 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Comparing sensory experiences across individuals: recent psychophysical advances illuminate genetic variation in taste perception.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M

    2000-08-01

    Modern psychophysics has traveled considerably beyond the threshold measures that dominated sensory studies in the first half of this century. Current methods capture the range of perceived intensity from threshold to maximum and promise to provide increasingly accurate comparisons of perceived intensities across individuals. The application of new psychophysical tools to genetic variation in taste allowed us to discover supertasters, individuals who live in particularly intense taste worlds. Because of the anatomy of the taste system, supertasters feel more burn from oral irritants like chili peppers, more creaminess/ viscosity from fats and thickeners in food and may also experience more intense oral pain. Not surprisingly, these sensory differences influence food choices and thus health. A discussion of the milestones on the road to understanding genetic variation in taste must include discussion of some potholes as well. Often our failures have been as instructive as our successes in the effort to evaluate the impact of genetic variation in taste. PMID:10944509

  12. Use of gamma-irradiation technology in combination with edible coating to produce shelf-stable foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouattara, B.; Sabato, S. F.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    This research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of low-dose gamma-irradiation combined with edible coatings to produce shelf-stable foods. Three types of commercially distributed food products were investigated: precooked shrimps, ready to cook pizzas, and fresh strawberries. Samples were coated with various formulations of protein-based solutions and irradiated at total doses between 0 and 3 kGy. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth. Sensorial analysis was also performed using a nine-point hedonic scale to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics (odor, taste and appearance). The results showed significant ( p?0.05) combined effect of gamma-irradiation and coating on microbial growth (APCs and Pseudomonas putida). The shelf-life extension periods ranged from 3 to 10 days for shrimps and from 7 to 20 days for pizzas, compared to uncoated/unirradiated products. No significant ( p>0.05) detrimental effect of gamma-irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, taste, appearance) was observed. In strawberries, coating with irradiated protein solutions resulted in significant reduction of the percentage of mold contamination.

  13. Longitudinal Follow-up of Factors Associated with Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Michelle A.; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders longitudinally. Additionally explored were the stability of the relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity from time 1 to time 2 and the association between food selectivity and restricted and repetitive behavior at time…

  14. Related Links — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has launched an online mapping tool that locates food deserts. The Food Desert Locator also provides data on population characteristics where residents have limited access to affordable and nutritious foods, including low-income communities. The tool can be used to help advocates expand the availability of nutritious foods in these areas.

  15. Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with Cinnamaldehyde and Carvacrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5% and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and toma...

  16. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID:26025087

  17. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. PMID:24953197

  18. Food, ethics and aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Tivadar, Blanka; Luthar, Breda

    2005-04-01

    The authors test the popular thesis of some of the most influential theorists of contemporary societies about the erosion of the social structuring of consumption choices and their consequent individualisation in westernised societies, using the example of food practices. The analysis is based on data obtained from a random sample of the Slovenian population within a research project entitled 'Lifestyles in a Mediated Society.' The aims of the analysis were: (a) to explore the role of socio-demographic variables in food practices, and (b) to discover the inherent logic that motivates each particular set of food practices and which makes them meaningful for the individual, by studying an association of respondents' food practices with their worldview and cultural consumption. A cluster analysis revealed six food cultures (Male traditionalists, Yes-sayers, Male modernists, Weight-watchers, Carefree hedonists, and Health-conscious hedonists) lying along a continuum where traditionalism occupies one end and post-traditionalism the other. The authors conclude that although two out of six food cultures crosscut socio-demographic affiliations and transform food consumption into a constituent part of a lifestyle as an identity project, there is still a significant influence of socio-demographic characteristics (particularly gender and formal education) on food practices in contemporary Slovenia. Furthermore, significant associations exist between food practices, on the one hand, and the respondent's worldview and cultural consumption, on the other. PMID:15808896

  19. Food as a vehicle for transmission of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Doyle, Michael P

    2007-10-01

    Contaminated food continues to be the principal vehicle for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) to humans. A large number of foods, including those associated with outbreaks (alfalfa sprouts, fresh produce, beef, and unpasteurized juices), have been the focus of intensive research studies in the past few years (2003 to 2006) to assess the prevalence and identify effective intervention and inactivation treatments for these pathogens. Recent analyses of retail foods in the United States revealed E. coli O157:H7 was present in 1.5% of alfalfa sprouts and 0.17% of ground beef but not in some other foods examined. Differences in virulence patterns (presence of both stx1 and stx2 genes versus one stx gene) have been observed among isolates from beef samples obtained at the processing plant compared with retail outlets. Research has continued to examine survival and growth of STEC in foods, with several models being developed to predict the behavior of the pathogen under a wide range of environmental conditions. In an effort to develop effective strategies to minimize contamination, several influential factors are being addressed, including elucidating the underlying mechanism for attachment and penetration of STEC into foods and determining the role of handling practices and processing operations on cross-contamination between foods. Reports of some alternative nonthermal processing treatments (high pressure, pulsed-electric field, ionizing radiation, UV radiation, and ultrasound) indicate potential for inactivating STEC with minimal alteration to sensory and nutrient characteristics. Antimicrobials (e.g., organic acids, oxidizing agents, cetylpyridinium chloride, bacteriocins, acidified sodium chlorite, natural extracts) have varying degrees of efficacy as preservatives or sanitizing agents on produce, meat, and unpasteurized juices. Multiple-hurdle or sequential intervention treatments have the greatest potential to minimize transmission of STEC in foods. PMID:17969631

  20. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFR? (GDNF family receptor alpha) localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Shelley L.; Payne, Sophie C.; Keast, Janet R.; Osborne, Peregrine B.

    2015-01-01

    GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFR?1, GFR?2 and GFR?3, respectively) and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signaling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFR?. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recovery of sensation, and sensory hypersensitivity that contributes to pain. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of spinal cord and sciatic nerve injuries in adult rodents have identified characteristic changes in GFR?1, GFR?2 or GFR?3 in central spinal cord axons of sensory neurons located in DRG. Here we extend and contrast this analysis by studying injuries of the pelvic and hypogastric nerves that contain the majority of sensory axons projecting to the pelvic viscera (e.g., bladder and lower bowel). At 7 d, we detected some effects of pelvic but not hypogastric nerve transection on the ipsilateral spinal cord. In sacral (L6-S1) cord ipsilateral to nerve injury, GFR?1-immunoreactivity (IR) was increased in medial dorsal horn and CGRP-IR was decreased in lateral dorsal horn. Pelvic nerve injury also upregulated GFR?1- and GFR?3-IR terminals and GFR?1-IR neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus that provides the spinal parasympathetic preganglionic output to the pelvic nerve. This evidence suggests peripheral axotomy has different effects on somatic and visceral sensory input to the spinal cord, and identifies sensory-autonomic interactions as a possible site of post-injury regulation. PMID:25914629

  1. Composition and sensory evaluation of lamb carcasses used for the traditional Mexican lamb dish, "barbacoa".

    PubMed

    Rubio, M S; Torres, N; Gutiérrez, J; Méndez, R D

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in carcass characteristics and sensory attributes of "barbacoa" (a traditional Mexican lamb dish), both of imported (New Zealand) and domestic lambs in Mexico. A total of 28 carcasses from Pelibuey, Pelibuey×Suffolk and imported lambs were used. Carcass composition was determined by dissection of primal cuts from the left half of each carcass. The "barbacoa" from each ovine group was prepared separately in order to perform a consumer sensory evaluation for aroma, taste and tenderness. Results showed that imported lambs had larger carcasses, greater fatness and had better conformation than national lambs. There was no difference between groups in terms of lean tissue percentage (muscle+others) or in total carcass fat. The sensory attributes of the "barbacoa" did not differ among breeds. Pelibuey lambs (rustic, prolific and adaptable to the wide variety of Mexican climates) show competitive production performance in relation to specialized breeds. PMID:22061334

  2. Food Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Food sensitivities are a common but frequently unrecognized cause of chronic symptomatology in patients with known allergies. Food sensitivities often are not detected by skin testing. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the treatment of food sensitivities; the provocative sublingual and intradermal tests for sensitivities, and the importance of eliciting complete past and family histories from the allergic patient. Because patients with symptoms of food sensitivity are likely to visit their family doctor first, he should be the first to detect and treat them. Usually patients with a food sensitivity obtain relief from symptoms when the offending food(s) are excluded from their diet. PMID:21283500

  3. The Applicability of the Short Sensory Profile for Screening Sensory Processing Disorders among Israeli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the applicability of the short sensory profile (SSP) for screening sensory processing disorders (SPDs) among typical children in Israel, and to evaluate the relationship between SPDs and socio-demographic parameters. Participants were 395 Israeli children, aged 3 years to 10 years 11 months, with typical…

  4. Spatiotemporal Integration in Somatosensory Perception: Effects of Sensory Saltation on Pointing at Perceived Positions on the Body Surface

    PubMed Central

    Trojan, Jörg; Stolle, Annette M.; Carl, Antonija Mrši?; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Tan, Hong Z.; Hölzl, Rupert

    2010-01-01

    In the past, sensory saltation phenomena (Geldard and Sherrick, 1972) have been used repeatedly to analyze the spatiotemporal integration capacity of somatosensory and other sensory mechanisms by means of their psychophysical characteristic. The core phenomenon consists in a systematic mislocalization of one tactile stimulus (the attractee) toward another successive tactile stimulus (the attractant) presented at another location, increasing with shorter intervals. In a series of four experiments, sensory saltation characteristics were studied at the forearm and the abdomen. Participants reported the perceived positions of attractees, attractants, and reference stimuli by pointing. In general, saltation characteristics compared well to those reported in previous studies, but we were able to gain several new insights regarding this phenomenon: (a) the attractee–attractant interval did not exclusively affect the perceived attractee position, but also the perceived attractant position; (b) saltation characteristics were very similar at different body sites and orientations, but did show differences suggesting anisotropy (direction-dependency) in the underlying integration processes; (c) sensory saltation could be elicited with stimulation patterns crossing the body midline on the abdomen. In addition to the saltation-specific results, our experiments demonstrate that pointing reports of perceived positions on the body surface generally show pronounced systematic biases compared to veridical positions, moderate intraindividual consistency, and a high degree of inter-individual variability. Finally, we address methodological and terminological controversies concerning the sensory saltation paradigm and discuss its possible neurophysiological basis. PMID:21833262

  5. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. PMID:26113454

  6. Can Tactile Sensory Processing Differentiate Between Children with Autistic Disorder and Asperger's Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective There are debates whether autistic disorder (autism) and Asperger's disorder are two distinct disorders. Moreover, interventional sensory occupational therapy should consider the clinical characteristics of patients. Already, commonalities and differences between Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder are not well studied. The aim of this study is to compare tactile sensory function of children with autistic disorder and children with Asperger's disorder. Methods Tactile sensory function was compared between 36 children with autism and 19 children with Asperger's disorder. The two disorders were diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision. The parent-reported Tactile Dysfunction Checklist was used to assess the three aspects of hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, and poor tactile perception and discrimination. Developmental coordination was also assessed. Results Developmental coordination problems total score was not associated with group. The mean (standard deviation) score of tactile hyper-responsivity was not different between the groups. Tactile hyporesponsivity and poor tactile perception and discrimination scores were statistically higher in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder group. Conclusion These results for the first time indicated that at least some aspects of tactile perception can differentiate these two disorders. Children with autistic disorder have more tactile sensory seeking behaviors than children with Asperger's disorder. Moreover, the ability of children with autistic disorder for tactile discrimination and sensory perception is less than those with Asperger's disorder. Interventional sensory therapy in children with autistic disorder should have some characteristics that can be different and specific for children with Asperger's disorder. Formal intelligence quotient testing was not performed on all of the children evaluated, which is a limitation to this study. In some cases, a clinical estimation of intelligence quotient was given, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the data. Additional research using formal intelligence quotient testing on all of the subjects should be performed in order to draw more concrete conclusions. PMID:21686145

  7. The neurocognitive consequences of the wandering mind: a mechanistic account of sensory-motor decoupling

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Julia W. Y.; Handy, Todd C.

    2013-01-01

    A unique human characteristic is our ability to mind wander – a state in which we are free to engage in thoughts that are not directly tied to sensations and perceptions from our immediate physical environment. From a neurocognitive perspective, it has been proposed that during mind wandering, our executive resources are decoupled from the external environment and directed to these internal thoughts. In this review, we examine an underappreciated aspect of this phenomenon – attenuation of sensory-motor processing – from two perspectives. First, we describe the range of widespread sensory, cognitive and motor processes attenuated during mind wandering states, and how this impacts our neurocognitive processing of external events. We then consider sensory-motor attenuation in a class of clinical neurocognitive disorders that have ties to pathological patterns of decoupling, reviews suggesting that mind wandering and these clinical states may share a common mechanism of sensory-motor attenuation. Taken together, these observations suggest the sensory-motor consequences of decoupled thinking are integral to normal and pathological neurocognitive states. PMID:24133472

  8. Recent developments in the sensorial assessment of cosmetic products: a review.

    PubMed

    Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetic development is not exclusively guided by notions of rational effectiveness but also by notions of sensoriality. Thus, the sensorial properties of a cosmetic product are studied using internationally recognized discriminating or descriptive methods. Descriptive sensory profiling is an essential tool in this process as it allows an experienced panel to assess the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of a product. The results obtained with this method enable to get a more accurate image of the product. However, given the new demands of the industrial world and the new innovation paths (shorter development times, complex products or willingness to include the consumers in the process) a need to access new methods has arisen. These 'alternative' methods that offer product positioning, ratings and attribute citation frequency, can be implemented with either a panel of experts or with consumers. The flash profile, the pivot® profile or the check all that apply (CATA) are just a few of the methods that the cosmetic professionals have started to test. This article reviews the methods used in the sensory assessment of cosmetic products. The analysis carried out shows that the complementarity application of sensory assessment is essential in the upstream innovation phase of a product. PMID:25824827

  9. Sensory Over-Responsivity and ADHD: Differentiating Using Electrodermal Responses, Cortisol, and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Shelly J.; Reynolds, Stacey; Thacker, Leroy

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in sensory modulation have been linked clinically with impaired attention, arousal, and impulsivity for years, but a clear understanding of the relationship between sensory modulation disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has proven elusive. Our preliminary work suggested that patterns of salivary cortisol and electrodermal responsivity to sensation may be linked to different groups of children with ADHD; those with and without sensory over-responsivity (SOR). Additionally, SOR has been linked to anxiety, and anxiety has been linked to ADHD. A clearer understanding of the relationship between anxiety, SOR, and ADHD may support a better understanding of ADHD diagnostic subtypes. We examined neuroendocrine, electrodermal and behavioral characteristics and sought to predict group membership among 6- to 12-year-old children with ADHD and SOR (ADHDs), ADHD and no SOR (ADHDt), and typicals (TYP). Behavioral questionnaires were completed to document SOR and anxiety. Lab testing used a Sensory Challenge Protocol (SCP) with concurrent electrodermal measurement and the collection of cortisol prior to and following the SCP. Results substantiated links between SOR and anxiety, in both TYP and ADHD children. Results suggests that ADHD should be considered in conjunction with anxiety and sensory responsivity; both may be related to bottom-up processing differences, and deficits in prefrontal cortex/hippocampal synaptic gating. PMID:20556242

  10. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

  11. Food insecurity and food deserts.

    PubMed

    Camp, Nadine L

    2015-08-15

    Food insecurity has been steadily increasing in the United States with prevalence at nearly 15% of all households. Nurse practitioners can assess for food insecurity and provide local resources for families living in neighborhoods without easy access to healthy foods, otherwise known as food deserts. PMID:26180911

  12. Characteristic Chemical Components and Aroma-active Compounds of the Essential Oils from Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus Used in Japanese Traditional Food.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Satoshi; Usami, Atsushi; Yorimoto, Tomohito; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were ?-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and ?-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. ?-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and ?-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus. PMID:25891110

  13. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies. PMID:26164472

  14. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm, and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized “neural border zone” forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and non-neural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with co-factor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally-derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently subdivides into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, somatic sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  15. Food industry scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This Scoping Study provides an analysis of market and economic forces affecting food industry manufacturing processes, and the current and potential role of electrotechnologies in improving productivity and competitiveness. The research and development activities of food trade associations and research institutions are examined. EPRI-sponsored activities and utility programs affecting food industry customers are reviewed. These analyses indicate that significant opportunities exist for the application of various electrotechnologies in most food processing sectors. Due to the processing methods, energy use characteristics and industry growth trends, the dairy, fruit and vegetables, grain and beverage processing sectors present the most promising applications. However, not all of this potential is being effectively tapped. utilities need better-defined programs to help their food industry customers identify efficient energy utilization options and technologies. The appropriate use of electrotechnologies could help improve food industry productivity, processing efficiency and product quality. This Scoping Study recommends the establishment of an EPRI food electrotechnology office. The office will work with affiliated organizations in major food processing regions to design education and technical support, R D and technology transfer programs for EPRI-member utilities. 24 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Feeding state, insulin and NPR-1 modulate chemoreceptor gene expression via integration of sensory and circuit inputs.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Matthew; Nelson, Dru; Winbush, Ari; Hintz, Rebecca; Ryu, Leesun; Chung, Samuel H; Kim, Kyuhyung; Gabel, Chrisopher V; van der Linden, Alexander M

    2014-10-01

    Feeding state and food availability can dramatically alter an animals' sensory response to chemicals in its environment. Dynamic changes in the expression of chemoreceptor genes may underlie some of these food and state-dependent changes in chemosensory behavior, but the mechanisms underlying these expression changes are unknown. Here, we identified a KIN-29 (SIK)-dependent chemoreceptor, srh-234, in C. elegans whose expression in the ADL sensory neuron type is regulated by integration of sensory and internal feeding state signals. We show that in addition to KIN-29, signaling is mediated by the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor, OCR-2 TRPV channel, and NPR-1 neuropeptide receptor. Cell-specific rescue experiments suggest that DAF-2 and OCR-2 act in ADL, while NPR-1 acts in the RMG interneurons. NPR-1-mediated regulation of srh-234 is dependent on gap-junctions, implying that circuit inputs regulate the expression of chemoreceptor genes in sensory neurons. Using physical and genetic manipulation of ADL neurons, we show that sensory inputs from food presence and ADL neural output regulate srh-234 expression. While KIN-29 and DAF-2 act primarily via the MEF-2 (MEF2) and DAF-16 (FOXO) transcription factors to regulate srh-234 expression in ADL neurons, OCR-2 and NPR-1 likely act via a calcium-dependent but MEF-2- and DAF-16-independent pathway. Together, our results suggest that sensory- and circuit-mediated regulation of chemoreceptor genes via multiple pathways may allow animals to precisely regulate and fine-tune their chemosensory responses as a function of internal and external conditions. PMID:25357003

  17. Feeding State, Insulin and NPR-1 Modulate Chemoreceptor Gene Expression via Integration of Sensory and Circuit Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Matthew; Nelson, Dru; Winbush, Ari; Hintz, Rebecca; Ryu, Leesun; Chung, Samuel H.; Kim, Kyuhyung; Gabel, Chrisopher V.; van der Linden, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    Feeding state and food availability can dramatically alter an animals' sensory response to chemicals in its environment. Dynamic changes in the expression of chemoreceptor genes may underlie some of these food and state-dependent changes in chemosensory behavior, but the mechanisms underlying these expression changes are unknown. Here, we identified a KIN-29 (SIK)-dependent chemoreceptor, srh-234, in C. elegans whose expression in the ADL sensory neuron type is regulated by integration of sensory and internal feeding state signals. We show that in addition to KIN-29, signaling is mediated by the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor, OCR-2 TRPV channel, and NPR-1 neuropeptide receptor. Cell-specific rescue experiments suggest that DAF-2 and OCR-2 act in ADL, while NPR-1 acts in the RMG interneurons. NPR-1-mediated regulation of srh-234 is dependent on gap-junctions, implying that circuit inputs regulate the expression of chemoreceptor genes in sensory neurons. Using physical and genetic manipulation of ADL neurons, we show that sensory inputs from food presence and ADL neural output regulate srh-234 expression. While KIN-29 and DAF-2 act primarily via the MEF-2 (MEF2) and DAF-16 (FOXO) transcription factors to regulate srh-234 expression in ADL neurons, OCR-2 and NPR-1 likely act via a calcium-dependent but MEF-2- and DAF-16-independent pathway. Together, our results suggest that sensory- and circuit-mediated regulation of chemoreceptor genes via multiple pathways may allow animals to precisely regulate and fine-tune their chemosensory responses as a function of internal and external conditions. PMID:25357003

  18. The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

  19. Food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David T; Dobmeier, Stephen G; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2007-05-01

    Food poisoning is encountered throughout the world. Many of the toxins responsible for specific food poisoning syndromes are no longer limited to isolated geographic locations. With increased travel and the ease of transporting food products, it is likely that a patient may present to any emergency department with the clinical effects of food poisoning. Recognizing specific food poisoning syndromes allows emergency health care providers not only to initiate appropriate treatment rapidly but also to notify health departments early and thereby prevent further poisoning cases. This article reviews several potential food-borne poisons and describes each agent's mechanism of toxicity, expected clinical presentation, and currently accepted treatment. PMID:17482025

  20. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  1. World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Betty F.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  2. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses. PMID:26396342

  3. Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Zhang, Shujuan; Arneborg, Nils; Bredie, Wender L P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the volatile and non-volatile compositions as well as sensory properties of the most common monovarietal white wine (var. Solaris) in Denmark. Using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 volatile compounds were identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while the remainder were described by less pleasant flavours, such as chemical, wood and rooibos/smoke. Partial least squares regression (PLS) showed that acetates and ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids were associated with floral and fruity odours while ethyl esters of branched-chain fatty acids were less associated with them. The study also suggested that differences in vintage were less characteristic than differences caused due to sulphite management by producers. PMID:25053038

  4. Sensory evaluation of whey and sweet cream buttermilk.

    PubMed

    Jinjarak, S; Olabi, A; Jiménez-Flores, R; Sodini, I; Walker, J H

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the sensory attributes of sweet cream buttermilk (CBM) and a nontraditional product, whey buttermilk (WBM). Whey buttermilk results from processing whey cream into butter. The products were evaluated as fresh liquid buttermilk obtained directly from the butter churn, and as reconstituted buttermilk or whey buttermilk powders. Sweet cream buttermilk and WBM were produced either at the Dairy Products Technology Center (experimental samples, n = 2) or provided by the industry (n = 2 from 2 different commercial sources). Nine panelists were trained for twenty-four 1-h sessions; they then rated samples on a 15-cm line scale in triplicate using descriptive analysis. Data obtained were analyzed using SAS statistical software. Results indicated that WBM had similar sensory characteristics as regular CBM; however, there was a marked color difference between them. Liquid buttermilk was not significantly different from reconstituted buttermilk powder on many attributes. However, WBM was significantly more yellow, more sour, and more astringent than the CBM samples, and it had more cardboard flavor than the commercially produced CBM. Liquid buttermilk was not significantly different from reconstituted buttermilk powder on many attributes. However, some buttermilk types had more cardboard aroma and flavor in their powdered form than in liquid form. Most attributes showed no significant differences across replicates, indicating consistency of rating. Principal component analysis showed that attributes were separated on the 2 principal components based on production site and processing form (fresh vs. reconstituted). PMID:16772560

  5. The Postnatal Development of Spinal Sensory Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Maria; Jennings, Ernest

    1999-07-01

    The mechanisms by which infants and children process pain should be viewed within the context of a developing sensory nervous system. The study of the neurophysiological properties and connectivity of sensory neurons in the developing spinal cord dorsal horn of the intact postnatal rat has shed light on the way in which the newborn central nervous system analyzes cutaneous innocuous and noxious stimuli. The receptive field properties and evoked activity of newborn dorsal horn cells to single repetitive and persistent innocuous and noxious inputs are developmentally regulated and reflect the maturation of excitatory transmission within the spinal cord. These changes will have an important influence on pain processing in the postnatal period.

  6. Use of edible films and coatings to extend the shelf life of food products.

    PubMed

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan

    2009-06-01

    The increased consumer demand for high quality, extended shelf life, ready to eat foods has initiated the development of several innovative techniques to keep their natural and fresh appearance as long as possible and at the same time render them safe. Packaging has been an important element in these preservation concepts for providing the appropriate (mechanical and functional) protection to the commodity. Since synthetic packaging materials contribute to the environmental pollution, edible coatings and packages have been proposed to replace or complement conventional packaging. Biodegradable and edible films and coatings are made from naturally occurring polymers and functional ingredients, and formed on the surface of food products. Edible films and coating have long been known to protect perishable food products from deterioration and reduce quality loss. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO(2), O(2), water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and be produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color, nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Patents on edible films and food products are also discussed in this article. PMID:20653537

  7. Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs

    E-print Network

    Hoeinghaus, David J.

    Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs-900 Parana´, Brasil. Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that affects community structure and ecosystem function. What determines the length of food chains is not well resolved

  8. Sensory, functional, and analytical comparisons of whey butter with other butters.

    PubMed

    Jinjarak, S; Olabi, A; Jiménez-Flores, R; Walker, J H

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the sensory attributes of whey (WB), cultured (CB), and regular sweet cream (SB) unsalted butters produced at the Dairy Products Technology Center (experimental; n = 3) or obtained from commercial sources (n = 6). Nine judges were trained for nine 1-h sessions; they then rated samples on a 15-cm line scale in triplicate using descriptive analysis. Data obtained were analyzed using SAS statistical software. Significant differences between the 3 types of butters were obtained on yellow, shiny, acidic odor, melt rate, porous, hard, spreadable, cheese odor, mouthcoating, nutty, cardboard odors, acidic, nutty, diacetyl, and grassy flavors. Cultured butter and SB were significantly shinier than WB. Whey butter was more yellow than CB, which in turn was more yellow than SB. Whey butter was more porous, and had higher scores on nutty flavor and cardboard odor than SB and CB. Sweet cream butter was significantly harder than CB but not WB. Cultured butter had more mouthcoating, acidic odor and flavor, and grassy flavor than SB and WB. The commercial samples were more porous, crumbly, and had significantly more artificial butter odor, rancid odor, and flavor. Results from principal component analysis indicated that experimental WB and SB were similar and were characterized by a sweet taste. Whey butter's characteristics compared favorably with commercial CB and were very similar to sweet cream butter. No major significant differences were obtained for triangle tests, with the exception of that for WB and CB in pound cake. No significant differences were obtained for the acceptability of the different versions of any of the 3 foods. PMID:16772559

  9. Multivariate analysis of the sensory changes in the dehydrated cowpea leaves.

    PubMed

    Nyambaka, Hudson; Ryley, Janice

    2004-09-01

    Processing of foods, especially dehydration is known to result in alteration of sensory and nutritional qualities. Cowpea leaves is one of the common leafy vegetables consumed in Kenya that contain high levels of pro-vitamin A compounds and has good carotene retention during processing. A tasting panel was trained using a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) test that was developed and used to characterize the sensory properties of dehydrated cowpea leaves. The panel identified sensory attributes in dehydrated cowpea leaves that were important in discriminating the dehydrated samples from the fresh material. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the QDA scores. The first principal component (PC1) which accounted for 85% of the variance was an index of the interrelationship among variables in differentiating the samples while PC2, which accounted for the remaining variance measured the attributes influence in discriminating samples. The results of the sensory attributes mean scores showed that aroma, texture and appearance had high influence in discriminating between the fresh, the sun-dried and the solar-dried samples. The solar dried products were close to the fresh material, which was characterized, as soft and tender with an appealing dark green color, than the sun dried product. The sun dried products differed from the other products more on appearance. PMID:18969564

  10. Food additives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling foods Salt, to preserve meats "Indirect" ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is reviewed regularly. Some substances that ...

  11. Food labeling

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared mostly ...

  12. Food Groups

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About the Protein Foods Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Vegetarian Choices Tips for Making Wise Choices Food Gallery Dairy All About the Dairy Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Non-Dairy Sources of Calcium Tips to Making ...

  13. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Print this page Get email updates Order publications Food Allergy Guidelines Ebook Download eBook versions of the ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Food Allergy NIAID is the lead Institute at the ...

  14. Protein Foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Less - 2016-jan-fitness-100-calories.html Food & Fitness Burn 100 Calories in 30 Minutes or Less ... Power of Avocados - 2016-jan-avocados.html Food & Fitness The Power of Avocados Celebrate good fats as ...

  15. Characterizations and Electrical Modelling of Sensory Samples Formed from Synthesized Vanadium (V) Oxide and Copper Oxide Graphene Quantum Tunneling Composites (GQTC) Applied in Electrotribology.

    PubMed

    Habdank-Wojewódzki, Tadeusz; Habdank, Josef; Cwik, Przemyslaw; Zimowski, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    CuO and V?O? graphene quantum tunneling composites (GQTC) presented in this article were produced and their sensory properties were analyzed. The composites were synthesised using two stage high-power milling process, which resulted in materials that have good temeprature and pressure sensory properties. Described production process defines internal structure of materials such that when used as sensor in the desired range, it exhibits a strong percolation effect. The experiment, with controlled changing physical conditions during electrotribological measurement, enabled analyzing of the composites' conductivity as a function of the sensory properties: applied temperature, pressure, tangential force and wear. The sensory characteristic was successfully modelled by invertible generalized equations, and used to create sensor capable of estimating temperature or pressure in the real time. The developed materials have the potential to be applied in the areas where miniaturization is essential, due to the materials exhibiting good sensory properties in mini and micro scale. PMID:26742044

  16. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

  17. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  18. Effect of incorporation of soy flour to wheat flour on nutritional and sensory quality of biscuits fortified with mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Farzana, Tasnim; Mohajan, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The research study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of soy-mushroom-enriched biscuits which could be used as a protein supplemented cereal snack food. In this study, wheat flour was replaced with soy flour at different levels that is 20% (T3), 15% (T2), and 10% (T1) and without soy flour was kept as control (To). Mushroom was added in both biscuits. Biscuits were analyzed for chemical and sensory parameters. Protein content of soy flour-supplemented biscuits increased from 11.07% to 17.86% as compared to control along with a significant increased in fat (17.36–20.89%), fiber (0.48–0.92%), iron (1.56–1.99 mg/100 g), and energy value (463–485 Kcal/g). Ash content also increased but not significantly. Results from chemical analyses and organoleptic evaluation indicate that good quality biscuits can be prepared by substituting wheat flour with 15% soy flour and addition of mushroom powders may affect the backing quality. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) of the Bangladeshi population can be reduced through the development of biscuits in this way. PMID:26405522

  19. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  20. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  1. Food Sources

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

  2. Food jags

    MedlinePLUS

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  3. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (often shortened to HSAN2 ) On this ... 2011 What is HSAN2? Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSAN2) is a condition that primarily ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (often shortened to HSAN5 ) On this ... 2011 What is HSAN5? Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN5) is a condition that primarily ...

  6. Sensory Biology: Novel Peripheral Organization for Better Smell

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Crystal M.; Zhao, Haiqing

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sensory systems have adopted various ways to enhance detection and discrimination. A recent study shows a novel spatial organization of sensory cells in the peripheral olfactory system in mice for better odor detection. PMID:26439338

  7. Crossmodal integration: a glimpse into the development of sensory remapping.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marko; Dekker, Tessa; Petrini, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Correctly localising sensory stimuli in space is a formidable challenge for the newborn brain. A new study provides a first glimpse into how human brain mechanisms for sensory remapping develop in the first year of life. PMID:24892917

  8. Sensory Biology: Novel Peripheral Organization for Better Smell.

    PubMed

    Wall, Crystal M; Zhao, Haiqing

    2015-10-01

    Sensory systems have adopted various ways to enhance detection and discrimination. A recent study shows a novel spatial organization of sensory cells in the peripheral olfactory system in mice for better odor detection. PMID:26439338

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov Research studies PubMed Recent literature Conditions > Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (often shortened to MEMSA ) On ... definitions Reviewed June 2011 What is MEMSA? Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia, commonly called MEMSA, is part ...

  10. U.S. Food Insecurity Status: Toward a Refined Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman-Jensen, Alisha Judith

    2010-01-01

    United States Department of Agriculture defines food insecure as answering affirmatively to three or more food insecurity questions describing a household's ability to acquire enough food. Households indicating low levels of food insecurity (one or two affirmative responses) are considered food secure. This paper compares the characteristics of…

  11. Concept Development for Mainstreamed Sensory Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Victoria J.; Degler, Lois Sauer

    Noting that sensory impaired children often have poorly developed or ungeneralized concept development that impedes their ability to comprehend stories or content texts, this paper presents a brief description of the learning problems of these children as they relate to the reading process. It then presents implications for teaching reading and a…

  12. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  13. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tka?ik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

  14. A Housefly Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griff, Edwin R; Kane, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly "Musca domestica" that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration…

  15. Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation. PMID:24834571

  16. Sensory ecology: see me, hear me.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    The animal world is replete with vibrant colours: these are often used as display signals and selection has solved a fundamental problem in information transfer by enhancing the detectability of these signals against the backgrounds on which they are perceived by the particular sensory systems of their receivers. PMID:18054765

  17. Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

    2004-01-01

    A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for…

  18. A physical basis for sensory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwich, Kenneth H.

    2014-11-01

    It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

  19. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  20. A crossed brain stem syndrome without crossed sensory symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Vrettos, Apostolos; Fiotaki, Kyriaki; Galati, Elpida; Plachouras, Diamantis

    2013-01-01

    Lateral medullary infarction (LMI) or Wallenberg syndrome is a type of brain stem stroke, more specifically, a type of crossed brain stem syndrome. LMI is a well-described entity with several documented typical characteristics including pain and temperature impairment in the ipsilateral to the lesion side of the face and the contralateral side of the trunk and limbs. We present a case of LMI which describes a patient who presented with atypical features of analgesia and thermanaesthesia on the contralateral side of the face and absence of sensory deficit on the ipsilateral side. We attributed this pattern of involvement to a lesion that affects the ventral trigeminothalamic tract and spares the dorsolateral part of the medulla where the spinal trigeminal tract and its nucleus lie. This case report highlights the presence of atypical presentations of LMI that may initially challenge the physician's diagnostic reasoning. PMID:23355553

  1. A crossed brain stem syndrome without crossed sensory symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Vrettos, Apostolos; Fiotaki, Kyriaki; Galati, Elpida; Plachouras, Diamantis

    2013-01-01

    Lateral medullary infarction (LMI) or Wallenberg syndrome is a type of brain stem stroke, more specifically, a type of crossed brain stem syndrome. LMI is a well-described entity with several documented typical characteristics including pain and temperature impairment in the ipsilateral to the lesion side of the face and the contralateral side of the trunk and limbs. We present a case of LMI which describes a patient who presented with atypical features of analgesia and thermanaesthesia on the contralateral side of the face and absence of sensory deficit on the ipsilateral side. We attributed this pattern of involvement to a lesion that affects the ventral trigeminothalamic tract and spares the dorsolateral part of the medulla where the spinal trigeminal tract and its nucleus lie. This case report highlights the presence of atypical presentations of LMI that may initially challenge the physician's diagnostic reasoning. PMID:23355553

  2. [Food addiction].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, L; Correia, J C; Golay, A

    2015-03-25

    Food addiction is a common term used in everyday language by obese patients. Although the neurobiological evidence points to some similarities between addictive mechanisms and the consumption of certain foods, this diagnosis is not yet officially recognized. After a brief history of food addiction compared to other eating disorders, we review the neurobiological processes underlying this concept. A food addiction assessment tool is presented and discussed with the current literature and new classifications of the DSM-5. The concept of food addiction needs to be rethought and requires further research. PMID:26027200

  3. [Edible coating effects on the sensory quality of green bell pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) during storage].

    PubMed

    Uquiche Carrasco, Edgar; Villarroel Tudesca, Mario; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2002-03-01

    Edible coating based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and stearic acid were applied on green bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) samples in order to investigate its effects as protecting agent to enhance natural characteristics of products. Samples were submitted to three lots according to: (T1) uncoated; (T2) coated in lower part of the stem; (T3) coated all over the surface (T3). During storage at 5 +/- 1 degrees C, for 28 days, sensory quality and weight loss were evaluated. Sensory characteristics such as color, appearance and firmness were controlled using a composite scoring test. At the end of the study, T3 treatment showed better sensory stability than T1 (p < 0.05), none significant changes between T2 and T3 were found. The coated samples showed less firmness deterioration compared with control samples. The color was the attribute that changed less, without significant difference between treatments (p > 0.05). PMID:12214553

  4. Towards standardisation of the Sensory Profile Checklist Revisited: Perceptual and Sensory Sensitivities in Autism Spectrum Conditions 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Lee Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although sensory and perceptual symptoms have been associated with ASC from the time that autism was first defined as a diagnosis (Kanner, 1943), and despite many personal accounts from individuals with ASC themselves ...

  5. Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R. )

    1989-05-01

    Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues.

  6. The Construct Validity and Responsiveness of Sensory Tests in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Derek K.M; MacDermid, JoyC; Walton, Dave; Grewal, Ruby

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose : Sensory evaluation is fundamental to evaluation of patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and responsiveness for sensory threshold tests in patients with CTS. Methods : Sixty-three patients diagnosed with CTS were evaluated prior to orthotic intervention and again at follow up at 6 and 12 weeks. Sensory tests included touch threshold PSSD (Pressure Specified Sensory Device) and vibration threshold (Vibrometer). Construct validity was assessed by comparing sensory tests to hand function, and dexterity testing using Spearman rho (rs). Patients were classified as either responders or non-responders to orthotic intervention based on the change score of the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) of 0.5. Responsiveness of the sensory tools was measured using ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves, SRM (Standardized Response Mean), and ES (Effect Sizes). Results : The PSSD had low to moderate correlations (rs ? 0.32) while Vibrometer scores had moderate correlations (rs = 0.36 - 0.41) with dexterity scores. The Clinically Important Difference (CID) for the PSSD was estimated at 0.15 g/mm2 but was not discriminative. The Vibrometer demonstrated moderate responsiveness, with a SRM = 0.61 and an ES = 0.46 among responders. The PSSD had a SRM = 0.09 and an ES = 0.08 and showed low responsiveness for patients with a clinically important improvement in symptoms. Conclusion : Measurement properties suggest that the Vibrometer was preferable to the PSSD because it was more correlated to hand function, and was more responsive. Clinicians may choose use the Vibrometer opposed to the PSSD for determining important change in sensation after orthotic intervention. PMID:24894813

  7. Experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center is described. A sensory evaluation of the high density foods was conducted first to test the acceptability of the products. A shelf-life study of the high density foods was also conducted for three different time lengths at three different temperatures. The nutritional analysis of the high density foods is at present incomplete.

  8. INTRODUCTION In multicellular organisms, sensory perception relies on cells

    E-print Network

    Swoboda, Peter

    sensory structures. In many sense organs these structures are modified cilia: vertebrate examples include). In Drosophila, nonvisual sensory perception relies on two major classes of sense organs. Type I organs neuron in a type I organ bears a single sensory dendrite with a modified cilium. Type II sense organs

  9. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  10. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  11. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  12. Sensory Integration and Its Effects on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Judy

    This paper provides an overview of the literature on sensory integration in young children. First it explains the importance of "sensory integration" in child development and normal functioning. It goes on to note signs of a sensory integration dysfunction (such as hyper-or hypo-sensitivity to touch, poor coordination, and poor behavioral…

  13. Sensory stimulation activates both motor and sensory components of the swallowing system

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Soren Y.; Poletto, Christopher J.; Knorr-Chung, Bethany R.; Reynolds, Richard C.; Simonyan, Kristina; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Volitional swallowing in humans involves the coordination of both brainstem and cerebral swallowing control regions. Peripheral sensory inputs are necessary for safe and efficient swallowing, and their importance to the patterned components of swallowing has been demonstrated. However, the role of sensory inputs to the cerebral system during volitional swallowing is less clear. We used four conditions applied during functional magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate between sensory, motor planning, and motor execution components for cerebral control of swallowing. Oral air pulse stimulation was used to examine the effect of sensory input, covert swallowing was used to engage motor planning for swallowing, and overt swallowing was used to activate the volitional swallowing system. Breath-holding was also included to determine whether its effects could account for the activation seen during overt swallowing. Oral air pulse stimulation, covert swallowing and overt swallowing all produced activation in the primary motor cortex, cingulate cortex, putamen and insula. Additional regions of the swallowing cerebral system that were activated by the oral air pulse stimulation condition included the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and thalamus. Although air pulse stimulation was on the right side only, bilateral cerebral activation occurred. On the other hand, covert swallowing minimally activated sensory regions, but did activate the supplementary motor area and other motor regions. Breath-holding did not account for the activation during overt swallowing. The effectiveness of oral-sensory stimulation for engaging both sensory and motor components of the cerebral swallowing system demonstrates the importance of sensory input in cerebral swallowing control. PMID:18515150

  14. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to clinicians about the underlying symptoms and treatment of these patients. PMID:19132764

  15. Stability and selectivity of a chronic, multi-contact cuff electrode for sensory stimulation in human amputees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Daniel W.; Schiefer, Matthew A.; Keith, Michael W.; Anderson, J. Robert; Tyler, Dustin J.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Stability and selectivity are important when restoring long-term, functional sensory feedback in individuals with limb-loss. Our objective is to demonstrate a chronic, clinical neural stimulation system for providing selective sensory response in two upper-limb amputees. Approach. Multi-contact cuff electrodes were implanted in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves of the upper-limb. Main results. Nerve stimulation produced a selective sensory response on 19 of 20 contacts and 16 of 16 contacts in subjects 1 and 2, respectively. Stimulation elicited multiple, distinct percept areas on the phantom and residual limb. Consistent threshold, impedance, and percept areas have demonstrated that the neural interface is stable for the duration of this on-going, chronic study. Significance. We have achieved selective nerve response from multi-contact cuff electrodes by demonstrating characteristic percept areas and thresholds for each contact. Selective sensory response remains consistent in two upper-limb amputees for 1 and 2 years, the longest multi-contact sensory feedback system to date. Our approach demonstrates selectivity and stability can be achieved through an extraneural interface, which can provide sensory feedback to amputees.

  16. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Sullivan, Bridget S; Duffy, Valerie B

    2010-06-16

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  17. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2010-01-01

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  18. Chemical and enzymatic synthesis of a library of 2-phenethyl esters and their sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Li, Tianhu; Liu, Shao-Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-07-01

    We report a simple enzymatic approach to synthesise phenethyl esters as natural flavouring materials. Chemical and lipase-catalysed esterification reactions between fatty acids of C4-C18 and 2-phenethyl alcohol were studied. Both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/FID. The acid and thermal stabilities of 2-phenethyl esters were excellent and can meet the requirements of food matrices under most processing conditions. Sensory evaluation showed that each 2-phenethyl ester with a different carbon-chain-length fatty acid had unique sensory notes. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable 2-phenethyl alcohol-derived esters were synthesised from butter oil and 2-phenethyl alcohol. The influence of several physicochemical parameters (temperature, substrate molar ratio, enzyme loading, shaking speed and time) on the transesterification reaction was investigated to give optimal reaction conditions, leading to a high yield of 80.0%. PMID:24518334

  19. Out of thin air: Sensory detection of oxygen and carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels vary in different environments and locally fluctuate during respiration and photosynthesis. Recent studies in diverse animals have identified sensory neurons that detect these external variations and direct a variety of behaviors. Detection allows animals to stay within a preferred environment as well as identify potential food or dangers. The complexity of sensation is reflected in the fact that neurons compartmentalize detection into increases, decreases, short-range and long-range cues. Animals also adjust their responses to these prevalent signals in context of other cues, allowing for flexible behaviors. In general, the molecular mechanisms for detection suggest that sensory neurons adopted ancient strategies for cellular detection and coupled them to brain activity and behavior. This review highlights the multiple strategies that animals use to extract information about their environment from variations in oxygen and carbon dioxide. PMID:21262460

  20. National Survey of Sensory Features in Children with ASD: Factor Structure of the Sensory Experience Questionnaire (3.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M.; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e.,…

  1. Effects of Agar Gel Strength and Fat on Oral Breakdown, Volatile Release, and Sensory Perception Using in Vivo and in Vitro Systems.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Eyres, Graham T; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Cochet-Broch, Maeva; Delahunty, Conor M; Lundin, Leif; Appelqvist, Ingrid M

    2015-10-21

    The density and composition of a food matrix affect the rates of oral breakdown and in-mouth flavor release as well as the overall sensory experience. Agar gels of increasing concentration (1.0, 1.7, 2.9, and 5% agarose) with and without added fat (0, 2, 5, and 10%) were spiked with seven aroma volatiles. Differences in oral processing and sensory perception were systematically measured by a trained panel using a discrete interval time intensity method. Volatile release was measured in vivo and in vitro by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Greater oral processing was required as agar gel strength increased, and the intensity of flavor-related sensory attributes decreased. Volatile release was inversely related to gel strength, showing that physicochemical phenomena were the main mechanisms underlying the perceived sensory changes. Fat addition reduced the amount of oral processing and had differential effects on release, depending on the fat solubility or lipophilicity of the volatiles. PMID:26435196

  2. Noradrenergic and cholinergic modulation of olfactory bulb sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Devore, Sasha; Linster, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Neuromodulation in sensory perception serves important functions such as regulation of signal to noise ratio, attention, and modulation of learning and memory. Neuromodulators in specific sensory areas often have highly similar cellular, but distinct behavioral effects. To address this issue, we here review the function and role of two neuromodulators, acetylcholine (Ach) and noradrenaline (NE) for olfactory sensory processing in the adult main olfactory bulb. We first describe specific bulbar sensory computations, review cellular effects of each modulator and then address their specific roles in bulbar sensory processing. We finally put these data in a behavioral and computational perspective. PMID:22905025

  3. Attention Wins over Sensory Attenuation in a Sound Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liyu; Gross, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sensory attenuation’, i.e., reduced neural responses to self-induced compared to externally generated stimuli, is a well-established phenomenon. However, very few studies directly compared sensory attenuation with attention effect, which leads to increased neural responses. In this study, we brought sensory attenuation and attention together in a behavioural auditory detection task, where both effects were quantitatively measured and compared. The classic auditory attention effect of facilitating detection performance was replicated. When attention and sensory attenuation were both present, attentional facilitation decreased but remained significant. The results are discussed in the light of current theories of sensory attenuation. PMID:26302246

  4. Attention Wins over Sensory Attenuation in a Sound Detection Task.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liyu; Gross, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    'Sensory attenuation', i.e., reduced neural responses to self-induced compared to externally generated stimuli, is a well-established phenomenon. However, very few studies directly compared sensory attenuation with attention effect, which leads to increased neural responses. In this study, we brought sensory attenuation and attention together in a behavioural auditory detection task, where both effects were quantitatively measured and compared. The classic auditory attention effect of facilitating detection performance was replicated. When attention and sensory attenuation were both present, attentional facilitation decreased but remained significant. The results are discussed in the light of current theories of sensory attenuation. PMID:26302246

  5. THE EFFECTS OF DIET AND FEED WITHDRAWAL TIMES ON THE SENSORY DESCRIPTIVE PROFILE OF BROILER BREAST MEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of diet and feed withdrawal times on the sensory and physical characteristics of broiler breast meat were determined. Feeds formulated with three dietary carbohydrate sources (corn, milo, wheat) were fed to broilers starting at 28 d of age. Birds (n=192) were processed between 42 and ...

  6. THE EFFECTS OF DIET AND FEED WITHDRAWAL ON THE SENSORY DESCRIPTIVE AND INSTRUMENTAL PROFILES OF BROILER BREAST FILLETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of diet and feed withdrawal times on the sensory and physical characteristics of broiler breast meat were determined. Feeds formulated with three dietary carbohydrate sources (corn, milo, wheat) were fed to broilers starting at 28 d of age. Birds (n=192) were processed between 42 and 52 d...

  7. Sensory processing dysfunction among Saudi children with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    Al-Heizan, Mohammed O.; AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Natho, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] There is a dearth of studies that have examined the occurrence of sensory processing dysfunction and its components in Saudi Arabian children with autism. Therefore, this study investigated the manifestation of sensory processing dysfunction in autism and compared the functional components of sensory processing between Saudi Arabian children with and without autism. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 46 Saudi Arabian children with autism and 30 children without autism participated in this study. The sensory processing functions of both groups were assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. [Results] The overall findings indicated that 84.8% of children with autism demonstrated definite sensory processing dysfunction. The most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the under-responsive/seeks sensation (89.13%), auditory filtering (73.90%), and tactile sensitivity (60.87%) domains. Most of the children without autism (66.66%) demonstrated typical sensory function; the most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the tactile sensitivity (33.3%), under-responsive/seeks sensation (23.33%), and movement sensitivity (20%) domains. [Conclusion] Saudi Arabian children with and without autism have clinically significant sensory dysfunctions. However, the prevalence of those sensory dysfunctions in children with autism is significantly higher than in the children without autism. PMID:26157208

  8. Sensory processing dysfunction among Saudi children with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Al-Heizan, Mohammed O; AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Natho, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] There is a dearth of studies that have examined the occurrence of sensory processing dysfunction and its components in Saudi Arabian children with autism. Therefore, this study investigated the manifestation of sensory processing dysfunction in autism and compared the functional components of sensory processing between Saudi Arabian children with and without autism. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 46 Saudi Arabian children with autism and 30 children without autism participated in this study. The sensory processing functions of both groups were assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. [Results] The overall findings indicated that 84.8% of children with autism demonstrated definite sensory processing dysfunction. The most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the under-responsive/seeks sensation (89.13%), auditory filtering (73.90%), and tactile sensitivity (60.87%) domains. Most of the children without autism (66.66%) demonstrated typical sensory function; the most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the tactile sensitivity (33.3%), under-responsive/seeks sensation (23.33%), and movement sensitivity (20%) domains. [Conclusion] Saudi Arabian children with and without autism have clinically significant sensory dysfunctions. However, the prevalence of those sensory dysfunctions in children with autism is significantly higher than in the children without autism. PMID:26157208

  9. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Whitt, Jessica L

    2015-12-01

    Sensory loss leads to widespread adaptation of brain circuits to allow an organism to navigate its environment with its remaining senses, which is broadly referred to as cross-modal plasticity. Such adaptation can be observed even in the primary sensory cortices, and falls into two distinct categories: recruitment of the deprived sensory cortex for processing the remaining senses, which we term 'cross-modal recruitment', and experience-dependent refinement of the spared sensory cortices referred to as 'compensatory plasticity.' Here we will review recent studies demonstrating that cortical adaptation to sensory loss involves LTP/LTD and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity is observed in adults, hence cross-modal sensory deprivation may be an effective way to promote plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices. PMID:26310109

  10. Health foods and foods with health claims in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohama, Hirobumi; Ikeda, Hideko; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi

    2006-04-01

    The terms 'nutraceuticals' and 'dietary or food supplements' are not very popular in Japan as compared to most of other countries. However, the concept of 'functional foods', which benefits the structure and function of the human body, is known as a result of research studies initiated on the health benefits of foods in 1984. The Ministry of Education organized a national research and development project to evaluate the functionalities of various foods. Researchers from diverse scientific fields succeeded to define new functions of food, successfully incorporating the previously recognized functions of nutrition, sensory/satisfaction and physiological effects of ingredients in foods. Some of the food manufacturers and distributors unfortunately capitalized on such food functionalities to promote 'health foods' by claiming drug-like effects and violating laws. In 1991, the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) now as the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) introduced a 'foods for specified health uses' (FOSHU) system, for the control of such exaggerated and misleading claims. The other reason for such enforcement is due to an increase in the population of elderly people and lifestyle-related diseases that include obesity, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In 2001, a new regulatory system, 'foods with health claims' (FHC) with a 'foods with nutrient function claims' (FNFC) system and newly established FOSHU was introduced. In addition, MHLW has changed the existing FOSHU, FNFC and other systems in 2005. Such changes include the new subsystems of FOSHU such as (1) standardized FOSHU, (2) qualified FOSHU and (3) disease risk reduction claims for FOSHU. In the present chapter, two guidelines that require good manufacturing practice (GMP) and self-investigative systems for ensuring the safety of raw materials used for products in the dosage forms such as capsules, tablets, etc. have been discussed. Furthermore, issues related to positioning and definition of supplements are also discussed in the light of the enhancement of understanding the beneficial roles that supplements may play for human health in Japan. PMID:16488527

  11. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  12. The effect of spinal cord injury on the neurochemical properties of vagal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Herrity, April N; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Stirling, David P; Rau, Kristofer K; Hubscher, Charles H

    2015-06-15

    The vagus nerve is composed primarily of nonmyelinated sensory neurons whose cell bodies are located in the nodose ganglion (NG). The vagus has widespread projections that supply most visceral organs, including the bladder. Because of its nonspinal route, the vagus nerve itself is not directly damaged from spinal cord injury (SCI). Because most viscera, including bladder, are dually innervated by spinal and vagal sensory neurons, an impact of SCI on the sensory component of vagal circuitry may contribute to post-SCI visceral pathologies. To determine whether SCI, in male Wistar rats, might impact neurochemical characteristics of NG neurons, immunohistochemical assessments were performed for P2X3 receptor expression, isolectin B4 (IB4) binding, and substance P expression, three known injury-responsive markers in sensory neuronal subpopulations. In addition to examining the overall population of NG neurons, those innervating the urinary bladder also were assessed separately. All three of the molecular markers were represented in the NG from noninjured animals, with the majority of the neurons binding IB4. In the chronically injured rats, there was a significant increase in the number of NG neurons expressing P2X3 and a significant decrease in the number binding IB4 compared with noninjured animals, a finding that held true also for the bladder-innervating population. Overall, these results indicate that vagal afferents, including those innervating the bladder, display neurochemical plasticity post-SCI that may have implications for visceral homeostatic mechanisms and nociceptive signaling. PMID:25855310

  13. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-01

    Food odors stimulate appetite and innate food-seeking behavior in hungry animals. The smell of food also induces salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. Conversely, sustained odor exposure may induce satiation. We demonstrate novel effects of food odors on food ingestion, metabolism and endocrine signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Acute exposure to attractive vinegar odor triggers a rapid and transient increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues. Sustained exposure to food odors, however, decreases food intake. Hunger-induced strengthening of synaptic signaling from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to brain neurons increases food-seeking behavior, and conversely fed flies display reduced food odor sensitivity and feeding. We show that increasing the strength of OSN signaling chronically by genetic manipulation of local peptide neuromodulation reduces feeding, elevates carbohydrates and diminishes lipids. Furthermore, constitutively strengthened odor sensitivity altered gene transcripts for AKH, DILPs and some of their targets. Thus, we show that food odor can induce a transient anticipatory endocrine response, and that boosted sensitivity to this odor affects food intake, as well as metabolism and hormonal signaling. PMID:25782410

  14. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life.

    PubMed

    Martens, Erik A; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H; Visser, André

    2015-09-22

    Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. PMID:26378212

  15. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Erik A.; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S.; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H.; Visser, André

    2015-01-01

    Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. PMID:26378212

  16. Food for Thought: The Mathematics of the Kitchen Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Anthony; Bragg, Leicha A.

    2011-01-01

    A kitchen garden is not just a place to grow food for cooking; it is a place of sensory stimulation through extraordinary explorations and investigations into the natural world. A kitchen garden contains vegetables, fruits, herbs, edible flowers, and/or ornamental plants; and animals such as chickens for supplying eggs, as well as manure for…

  17. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  18. Benefits of Pathway Splitting in Sensory Coding

    PubMed Central

    Sompolinsky, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In many sensory systems, the neural signal splits into multiple parallel pathways. For example, in the mammalian retina, ?20 types of retinal ganglion cells transmit information about the visual scene to the brain. The purpose of this profuse and early pathway splitting remains unknown. We examine a common instance of splitting into ON and OFF neurons excited by increments and decrements of light intensity in the visual scene, respectively. We test the hypothesis that pathway splitting enables more efficient encoding of sensory stimuli. Specifically, we compare a model system with an ON and an OFF neuron to one with two ON neurons. Surprisingly, the optimal ON–OFF system transmits the same information as the optimal ON–ON system, if one constrains the maximal firing rate of the neurons. However, the ON–OFF system uses fewer spikes on average to transmit this information. This superiority of the ON–OFF system is also observed when the two systems are optimized while constraining their mean firing rate. The efficiency gain for the ON–OFF split is comparable with that derived from decorrelation, a well known processing strategy of early sensory systems. The gain can be orders of magnitude larger when the ecologically important stimuli are rare but large events of either polarity. The ON–OFF system also provides a better code for extracting information by a linear downstream decoder. The results suggest that the evolution of ON–OFF diversification in sensory systems may be driven by the benefits of lowering average metabolic cost, especially in a world in which the relevant stimuli are sparse. PMID:25186757

  19. Acupuncture, connective tissue, and peripheral sensory modulation.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Helene M

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable controversy surrounds the legitimacy of acupuncture as a treatment, a growing literature on the physiological effects of acupuncture needling in animals and humans is providing new insights into basic cellular mechanisms including connective tissue mechanotransduction and purinergic signaling. This review summarizes these findings and proposes a model combining connective tissue plasticity and peripheral sensory modulation in response to the sustained stretching of tissue that results from acupuncture needle manipulation. PMID:25072149

  20. Robot vision and sensory controls, V

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the expanding and important subjects of robot vision and sensory controls. These advanced industrial techniques are now solving real application problems and improving productivity, quality, reliability and product cost. RoViSeC embraces the whole spectrum of sensing and measurement, including the technologies of machine vision, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, tactile and other sensing, speech recognition, voice synthesis, sensor based robots, hardware and software. All aspects of the latest research are included while retaining an essentially practical outlook.

  1. Optical methods for texture analyses: brief overview on approaches for nondestructive sensing of food texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventionally food texture is measured using sensory panels or instrumentation which are destructive tests that are time consuming and potentially expensive. Ideally distributors of fresh produce and manufacturers of processed foods require a rapid method that can nondestructively measure the text...

  2. Taste, olfactory and food texture reward processing in the brain and obesity

    E-print Network

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    REVIEW Taste, olfactory and food texture reward processing in the brain and obesity ET Rolls Oxford and obesity are related in many cases to an increased reward value of the sensory inputs produced by foods in the prevention and treatment of overeating and obesity. International Journal of Obesity (2011) 35, 550­561; doi

  3. Irradiation, microwave and alternative energy-based treatments for low water activity foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increasing recognition of low water activity foods as vectors for human pathogens. Partially or fully dried agricultural commodities, along with modern formulated dried food products, are complex, and designed to meet a variety of nutritional, sensory, and market-oriented goal. This comp...

  4. AN OUTLOOK OF NONTHERMAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES AS FOOD SAFETY INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  5. Basic and supplementary sensory feedback in handwriting

    PubMed Central

    Danna, Jérémy; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The mastering of handwriting is so essential in our society that it is important to try to find new methods for facilitating its learning and rehabilitation. The ability to control the graphic movements clearly impacts on the quality of the writing. This control allows both the programming of letter formation before movement execution and the online adjustments during execution, thanks to diverse sensory feedback (FB). New technologies improve existing techniques or enable new methods to supply the writer with real-time computer-assisted FB. The possibilities are numerous and various. Therefore, two main questions arise: (1) What aspect of the movement is concerned and (2) How can we best inform the writer to help them correct their handwriting? In a first step, we report studies on FB naturally used by the writer. The purpose is to determine which information is carried by each sensory modality, how it is used in handwriting control and how this control changes with practice and learning. In a second step, we report studies on supplementary FB provided to the writer to help them to better control and learn how to write. We suggest that, depending on their contents, certain sensory modalities will be more appropriate than others to assist handwriting motor control. We emphasize particularly the relevance of auditory modality as online supplementary FB on handwriting movements. Using real-time supplementary FB to assist in the handwriting process is probably destined for a brilliant future with the growing availability and rapid development of tablets. PMID:25750633

  6. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  7. Loss of sensory elements in the apical sensory organ during metamorphosis in the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Jones, Guadalupe J; Hadfield, Michael G

    2011-02-01

    Larvae of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae are induced to metamorphose by a water-borne chemical cue released by the adult nudibranch's prey, the coral Porites compressa. In competent larvae, the apical sensory organ (ASO) includes five serotonergic parampullary neurons; five ampullary neurons, the ampullae of which are filled with sensory cilia; and a basal neuropil. After sensing the coral cue, the ASO undergoes radical morphological changes: a deterioration of sensory elements in the ASO and serotonergic axons originating from them to innervate the velum. Three hours after metamorphic induction, the velar lobes are lost, the serotonergic axons begin to break apart, the five parampullary neurons begin to degenerate, and the five ampullary neurons retract away from the epidermal surface. The extent of deterioration evident by this time suggests that the parampullary and ampullary components of the ASO are no longer functional. By 10 h after metamorphic induction, labeling of the ciliary bundles in the ampullary neurons has disappeared, and it is likely that these cells have degenerated. The results presented here provide evidence that the sensory neurons of the ASO and probably the entire organ are solely larval structures that do not persist into the adult sensory-nervous system in P. sibogae. PMID:21385956

  8. Inconsistent Access to Food and Cardiometabolic Disease: The Effect of Food Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Darleen C.; Ramsey, Natalie LM; Yu, Sophia SK; Ricks, Madia; Courville, Amber B.; Sumner, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity is defined as limited or uncertain ability to acquire nutritionally adequate and safe foods in socially acceptable ways. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has divided food insecurity into two categories: low food security and very low food security. Low food security is characterized by irregular access to food, binge eating when food is available, overconsumption of energy-dense foods, obesity, and even type 2 diabetes. This type of food insecurity occurs in impoverished urban areas of high-income countries such as the United States. In contrast, very low food security is distinctly different from low food security and can lead to undernutrition and frank starvation. Very low food security is found in developing countries in both rural areas and urban slums. In these countries, food insecurity is often exacerbated by natural disasters and climate changes that compromise food availability. With a focus on the social, economic, and behavioral factors that promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease in food insecure households in the United States, this review will first define the key terms and concepts associated with food insecurity. Then, the characteristics of food insecure households and the relationship to cardiometabolic disease will be discussed. Finally, the cardiac consequences of food insecurity in developing countries will be briefly described. PMID:22629473

  9. Holiday Foods

    E-print Network

    Reasonover, Frances L.; Sweeten, Mary K.

    1981-01-01

    's birthdays or birthday parties for family members and friends usually includes a cake and a beverage. Complementary foods such as ice cream, nuts, little sandwiches and pickles are sometimes included . Or, cheese dips with vegetable, fruit, chip... . ....... . .... . .......... . ... . .. . ..... . .. . .. . . ... . ... . Serving ... . ................... . ... . . . . . .. .. . . ..... . . . .. .. .. . .. . Clean-up .. . ................ . .... . ....... .. . ... . .. . Holiday Food Service Styles ......... . . ... ................ . Spring...

  10. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  11. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  12. Monitoring based maintenance utilizing actual stress sensory technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumitro, Sunaryo; Kurokawa, Shoji; Shimano, Keiji; Wang, Ming L.

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, many infrastructures have been deteriorating. In order to maintain sustainability of those infrastructures which have significant influence on social lifelines, economical and rational maintenance management should be carried out to evaluate the life cycle cost (LCC). The development of structural health monitoring systems, such as deriving evaluation techniques for the field structural condition of existing structures and identification techniques for the significant engineering properties of new structures, can be considered as the first step in resolving the above problem. New innovative evaluation methods need to be devised to identify the deterioration of infrastructures, e.g. steel tendons, cables in cable-stayed bridges and strands embedded in pre- or post-tensioned concrete structures. One of the possible solutions that show 'AtoE' characteristics, i.e., (a)ccuracy, (b)enefit, (c)ompendiousness, (d)urability and (e)ase of operation, elasto-magnetic (EM) actual stress sensory technology utilizing the sensitivity of incremental magnetic permeability to stress change, has been developed. Numerous verification tests on various steel materials have been conducted. By comparing with load cell, strain gage and other sensory technology measurement results, the actual stresses of steel tendons in a pre-stressed concrete structure at the following stages have been thoroughly investigated: (i) pre-stress change due to set-loss (anchorage slippage) at the tendon fixation stage; (ii) pre-stress change due to the tendon relaxation stage; (iii) concrete creep and shrinkage at the long term pre-stressing stage; (iv) pre-stress change in the cyclic fatigue loading stage; and (v) pre-stress change due to the re-pre-stress setting stage. As the result of this testing, it is confirmed that EM sensory technology enables one to measure actual stress in steel wire, strands and steel bars precisely without destroying the polyethylene covering sheath and enables one to provide adequate accuracy and reliability for monitoring actual stresses of those steel tendons during the life cycle of infrastructures. An example of a field application at a cable-stayed bridge is described.

  13. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  14. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  15. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Shrimp Powder

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Chun, Soon-Sil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of adding shrimp (Periclimenes imperator) powder to Appenzeller cheese on quality and characteristics during ripening were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared containing 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% shrimp powder. Changes in the lactic acid bacterial populations, pH, water-soluble nitrogen concentrations, consumer acceptability, colour and texture were monitored during ripening. The addition of shrimp powder did not affect the appearance or consumer sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Likewise, cheese cohesiveness, fracturability, and springiness were not significantly altered. It was concluded that the quality of the Appenzeller cheese was not affected by adding shrimp powder.

  16. Applications of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in Food Science

    SciTech Connect

    HUang, Yiqun; Kangas, Lars J.; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2007-02-01

    Abstract Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decade, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties of various food products during processing and distribution. ANNs have a great deal of promise for modeling complex tasks in process control and simulation, and in applications of machine perception including machine vision and the electronic nose for food safety and quality control. This review discusses the basic theory of the ANN technology and its applications in food science, providing food scientists and the research community an overview of the current research and future trend of the applications of ANN technology in this field.

  17. Applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in food science.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiqun; Kangas, Lars J; Rasco, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decades, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties of various food products during processing and distribution. ANNs hold a great deal of promise for modeling complex tasks in process control and simulation and in applications of machine perception including machine vision and electronic nose for food safety and quality control. This review discusses the basic theory of the ANN technology and its applications in food science, providing food scientists and the research community an overview of the current research and future trend of the applications of ANN technology in the field. PMID:17364697

  18. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  19. Texture of Frozen Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  20. Modeling structure-sensory texture relations in semi-hard cheese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, T. J. Timo; Schreurs, P. J. G. Piet; Luyten, J. M. J. G. Hannemieke; Meijer, H. E. H. Han

    2015-01-01

    Product and process design in the food industry often still remains a very empirical activity. This will not lead to leap changes in product functionality or composition. We aim at developing quantitative models which relate the microstructure of semi-hard cheese to sensory texture. With these models we want to design more resource efficient process routes and healthier options for full fat semi-hard cheese. In this paper the role of multi-scale simulations using a Finite Element Method in developing these models will be discussed.

  1. Ethanol Affects the Development of Sensory Hair Cells in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%–1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

  2. Effect of additional of Hoodia Gordonii and seaweed powder on the sensory and physicochemical properties of brown rice bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajal, Masturah Ebni; Ghani, Maaruf Abd; Daud, Norlida Mat

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of the nutritional content of food has increased with the emergence of various health products in the market. Cereal bar is one of the beneficial foods among consumer that concern on their healthy food. This study was conducted to develop a brown rice bar that contain active ingredients (H. gordonii and seaweed powder) and to determine the effect on sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties (colour, texture and proximate analysis) of this product. This study consisted of two phases in which the first phase consisted of development of ten formulations including control. All of the formulations were undergo analysis of colour, texture and sensory evaluation. Based on the sensory evaluation, Control (H. gordonii: 0%, seaweed: 0%) and two best formulations that consist of formulation 6 (H. gordonii: 1.6%; seaweed: 2.8%) and formulation 9 (H. gordonii: 2.4%, seaweed: 2.8%) were chosen to undergo the second phase which is proximate analysis. Base on the result, were significant different (p<0.05) on proximate analysis except for the protein and moisture content. Therefore, it can be concluded that H. gordonii is a good source of fiber when adding in a bar.

  3. Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder.

    PubMed

    Koca, Nurcan; Erbay, Zafer; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2015-05-01

    Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white cheese powder. Composition, color, physical properties, reconstitution, and sensory characteristics of white cheese powders were determined. The results revealed that the white cheese powders produced in this study had low moisture content ratios and water activity values. High outlet air temperatures caused browning and enhanced Maillard reactions. Additionally, high outlet air temperatures increased wettability and dispersibility and decreased the solubility of white cheese powders. Free fat content was positively correlated with inlet air temperature and negatively correlated with outlet air temperature and atomization pressure. Sensory analyses revealed that white cheese powder samples had acceptable sensory characteristics with the exception of the sample produced at an outlet air temperature of 100°C, which had high scores for scorched flavor and color and low scores for cheese flavor. PMID:25771045

  4. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child’s sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. Methods A total of 359 adults with (n?=?196) and without (n?=?163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Results Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P?sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach’s alpha?=?.92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha?=?.93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r?=?-.46) and within the ASC (r?=?-.49) and control group (r?=?-.21). Conclusions The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension. PMID:24791196

  5. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  6. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H.; Caviness, John N.; Shill, Holly A.; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated ?-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia. PMID:26041249

  7. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders.

    PubMed

    Torri, L; Piochi, M; Marchiani, R; Zeppa, G; Dinnella, C; Monteleone, E

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to present a sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders (GSP). The combined sensory evaluation approach, involving a descriptive and an affective test, respectively, was applied to evaluate the effect of the addition of grape skin powders from 2 grape varieties (Barbera and Chardonnay) at different levels [0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%; weight (wt) powder/wt curd] on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of innovative soft cow milk cheeses. The experimental plan envisaged 7 products, 6 fortified prototypes (at rates of Barbera and Chardonnay of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%) and a control sample, with 1 wk of ripening. By means of a free choice profile, 21 cheese experts described the sensory properties of prototypes. A central location test with 90 consumers was subsequently conducted to assess the acceptability of samples. The GSP enrichment strongly affected the sensory properties of innovative products, mainly in terms of appearance and texture. Fortified samples were typically described with a marbling aspect (violet or brown as function of the grape variety) and with an increased granularity, sourness, saltiness, and astringency. The fortification also contributed certain vegetable sensations perceived at low intensity (grassy, cereal, nuts), and some potential negative sensations (earthy, animal, winy, varnish). The white color, the homogeneous dough, the compact and elastic texture, and the presence of lactic flavors resulted the positive drivers of preference. On the contrary, the marbling aspect, granularity, sandiness, sourness, saltiness, and astringency negatively affected the cheese acceptability for amounts of powder, exceeding 0.8 and 1.6% for the Barbera and Chardonnay prototypes, respectively. Therefore, the amount of powder resulted a critical parameter for liking of fortified cheeses and a discriminant between the 2 varieties. Reducing the GSP particle size and improving the GSP dispersion in the curd would reduce the effect of powder addition on sensory properties, thereby encouraging the use of these polyphenol-based fortifiers in cheeses. The proposed approach allowed the identification of sensory properties critical for product acceptability by consumers, thus helping the optimization of both fortifier characteristics and new cheese production and composition. PMID:26585476

  8. Sensory Processing in Autism: A Review of Neurophysiologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Elysa Jill; Hinkley, Leighton Barett Nicholas; Hill, Susanna Shan; Nagarajan, Srikantan Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Atypical sensory-based behaviors are a ubiquitous feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this article, we review the neural underpinnings of sensory processing in autism by reviewing the literature on neurophysiological responses to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli in autistic individuals. We review studies of unimodal sensory processing and multi-sensory integration that use a variety of neuroimaging techniques, including: electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We then explore the impact of covert and overt attention on sensory processing. With additional characterization, neurophysiologic profiles of sensory processing in ASD may serve as valuable biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic interventions for autism and reveal potential strategies and target brain regions for therapeutic interventions. PMID:21289533

  9. Adaptation to sensory input tunes visual cortex to criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Clawson, Wesley P.; Pobst, Jeff; Karimipanah, Yahya; Wright, Nathaniel C.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    A long-standing hypothesis at the interface of physics and neuroscience is that neural networks self-organize to the critical point of a phase transition, thereby optimizing aspects of sensory information processing. This idea is partially supported by strong evidence for critical dynamics observed in the cerebral cortex, but the impact of sensory input on these dynamics is largely unknown. Thus, the foundations of this hypothesis--the self-organization process and how it manifests during strong sensory input--remain unstudied experimentally. Here we show in visual cortex and in a computational model that strong sensory input initially elicits cortical network dynamics that are not critical, but adaptive changes in the network rapidly tune the system to criticality. This conclusion is based on observations of multifaceted scaling laws predicted to occur at criticality. Our findings establish sensory adaptation as a self-organizing mechanism that maintains criticality in visual cortex during sensory information processing.

  10. Sensory Differences and Mealtime Behavior in Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Andrianopoulos, Mary V.; Mailloux, Zoe; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sensory differences and mealtime behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 34) and compared the results with those of similarly aged peers who were typically developing (TD; n = 34). Results from parent-report and child-report questionnaires indicated that children with ASD scored significantly differently from TD peers on the measures of sensory differences and eating behaviors. Data also supported a correlation between sensory differences and eating difficulties in children with ASD. The results of this study will help caregivers and their children with ASD identify problem eating behaviors that may be associated with sensory differences. Sensory strategies and techniques offered by occupational therapy practitioners may contribute to greater success during mealtimes for children with ASD and their families, with increased comfort and less stress. The findings also support a need to further explore the influence of sensory differences on mealtime behaviors. PMID:26379266

  11. Effect of processing and storage and sensory and nutritional quality of raw, frozen, canned green beans and broccoli

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.N.; Kramer, A.; Onishi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Recent concern with energy consumption has accelerated the search for methods of preservation and shelf-life extension of foods with the two-fold aim of reducing food waste and minimizing energy consumption. Studies were undertaken to determine first whether the shelf-life of raw vegetables could be extended substantially by blanching and packaging in reduced oxygen, and secondly to determine whether these same vegetables could be canned and they would retain superior quality when heat-processing minimally in a process equivalent to the heat process required for retortable pouches. The sensory qualities and nutritional values of vegetables so processed are evaluated. 3 refs.

  12. Tailoring physicochemical and sensorial properties of defatted soybean flour using jet-milling technology.

    PubMed

    Muttakin, Syahrizal; Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-11-15

    The effects of jet-milling on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of defatted soybean flour (DSF) were investigated. Superfine DSF powder (DSF-JM; D50 = 4.3 ± 0.1 ?m) was prepared from DSF powder (DSF-150; D50 = 257.0 ± 1.7 ?m) via conventional sifting followed by jet-milling. The jet-milled DSF showed significant increases in hydration properties, with increases in the water-holding capacity, water-solubility index, and swelling capacity of 24%, 39%, and 32%, respectively. Soluble dietary fibre and fat-binding capacity of DSF-JM also increased significantly (p < 0.05). A quantitative descriptive analysis by trained panelists indicated that the sensorial properties of DSF were also modified by jet milling. The DSF-JM showed significant reductions in bitterness and roughness, but sweetness increased, and the colour of DSF-JM changed to a brighter achromatic colour. These results indicate that superfine DSF could be an ingredient used to modify physical and sensorial properties of food. PMID:25977004

  13. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Emin; Ö?ütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized ?' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. PMID:26259923

  14. Characterization of taste-active compounds of various cherry wines and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yunwei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing; Song, Shiqing; Jia, Chengsheng; Yu, Haiyan; Fang, Lingling; Xu, Chunhua

    2012-08-01

    Five cherry wines exhibiting marked differences in taste and mouthfeel were selected for the study. The taste and mouthfeel of cherry wines were described by four sensory terms as sour, sweet, bitter and astringent. Eight organic acids, seventeen amino acids, three sugars and tannic acid were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five phenolic acids were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). The relationship between these taste-active compounds, wine samples and sensory attributes was modeled by partial least squares regression (PLSR). The regression analysis indicated tartaric acid, methionine, proline, sucrose, glucose, fructose, asparagines, serine, glycine, threonine, phenylalanine, leucine, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, arginine and tannic acid made a great contribution to the characteristic taste or mouthfeel of cherry wines. PMID:22795555

  15. Effect of whey and casein protein hydrolysates on rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Masoodi, F A; Khatkar, Bupinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies were investigated. Water absorption (%) decreased significantly as the amount of milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates increased up to a level of 15 % in the wheat flour. Dough extensibility decreased with inrease in parental proteins and their hydrolysates in wheat flour, significantly. Similarly, the pasting properties also varied significantly in direct proportion to the quantity added in the wheat flour. The colour difference (?E) of cookies supplemented with milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates were significantly higher than cookies prepared from control. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies at 5 % level of supplementation were found to be acceptable. Also the scores assigned by the judges for texture and colour were in good agreement with the measurements derived from the physical tests. PMID:26344985

  16. STORAGE, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FAT FISH AND RICE FLOUR COEXTRUDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; Amarender Singh Bawa

    2013-10-01

    The present research is on understanding the storage, nutritional and sensory characteristics of high-fat fish (khoira) and rice flour coextrudates at storage temperature of 30C. The extruder processing conditions used are barrel temperature (200C), screw speed (109 rpm), fish content of feed (44%) and feed moisture content (39%). Sorption isotherm data indicated that the safe aw level was about 0.4–0.7. Guggenheim -Anderson -de Boer model described the sorption data adequately with an r2 value of 0.99. During the initial 15 days of storage, there was a loss of vitamin A and total tocopherols by 64.4 and 20.6%, and an increase in peroxides and free fatty acid content by about 116 mg/kg and 21.7%. The nonlinear mathematical model developed has adequately described the changes in nutritional and storage properties. Sensory attributes indicated that the product fried for 15 s was most acceptable.

  17. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... uh) Campylobacter (say: kam-pe-low-BAK-tur) E. coli (say: EE KOLE-eye) To avoid food poisoning, ... Second Rule Botulism Being Safe in the Kitchen E. Coli Belly Pain Salmonellosis Why Do I Need to ...

  18. Food pollution.

    PubMed

    Trevino, R J

    1999-06-01

    Food can influence the human body in many ways, both positively and negatively. Several key elements of contemporary food cultivation and production are presented, along with their potential consequences to our health. The history of food cultivation and consumption is contrasted between early hunter-gatherer societies and modern day societies. Natural nutrient-rich foods produced from the soil in early societies have been replaced with artificial supplements and treated with pesticides and herbicides to control plant disease. The evolution of pesticides is chronicled from the synthesis of DDT in 1870 to present day. Several commonly used chemicals are described along with their documented side effects. A number of methods of pest control from ancient to modern day are offered as alternatives to polluting chemicals. Integrated pest management is proposed as a promising, economically feasible method of pest management, reducing pollution and risk to wildlife and human health. PMID:10352445

  19. Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than others. Unsaturated fats , which are found in vegetable oils, nuts, and fish, are often called "good fats." ... these foods too, but they are also in vegetable oils that have been specially treated (hydrogenated) so they ...

  20. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. The allergic reaction may ...