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Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products  

PubMed Central

Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products.

Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat



Sensory Design of Foods for the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims:Elderly persons with dysphagia need food that requires little or no chewing, that is easy to swallow and has attractive sensory characteristics. The aim was to investigate how ingredients varied according to experimental designs influence the perceived sensory, chewing and swallowing characteristics of two types of texture-modified model foods. Methods: Meat- and carrot-based, texture-modified model foods were produced. The following

Gunnar Hall; Karin Wendin



Sensory analysis of pet foods.  


Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24497160

Koppel, Kadri



Seminar and Workshop on Sensory Evaluation of Food in Nicaragua.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sensory evaluation - a scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze, and interpret reactions to those characteristics of foods perceived by the senses - is a relatively new field which has become essential in developing, improving, and evaluating...

R. E. Baldwin



Food Intake Is Influenced by Sensory Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake.

Naish, Katherine R.; Harris, Gillian



Sensory perception of creaminess and its relationship with food structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical difficulties are frequently encountered in understanding the meaning of creaminess as used as a sensory attribute, and in the compositional and physical characteristics of foods that give rise to creaminess. Selected factors have been investigated in this project. The size of dispersed particles (solid, liquid and gaseous) on the perceived creaminess was of particular interest during the course of

David Kilcast; Stuart Clegg



Effects of retail style or food service style packaging type and storage time on sensory characteristics of bacon manufactured from commercially sourced pork bellies.  


Objectives were to characterize differences in pork bellies that were stored frozen for different durations prior to processing and characterize sensory properties of the bacon derived from those bellies when stored in either retail or food service style packaging. Bellies (n = 102) were collected from 4 different time periods, fresh bellies (never frozen) and bellies frozen for 2, 5, or 7 mo, and manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Food service bacon was packaged in oxygen-permeable polyvinyl lined boxes layered on wax-covered lined paper and blast frozen (-33 °C) for 45 or 90 d after slicing. Retail bacon was vacuum-packaged in retail packages and refrigerated (2 °C) in the dark for 60 or 120 d after slicing. At the end of respective storage times after slicing, bacon was analyzed for sensory attributes and lipid oxidation. Off-flavor and oxidized odor of bacon increased (P < 0.01) with increasing storage time in both packaging types. Lipid oxidation increased (P < 0.01) as storage time increased from day 0 to day 45 in food service packaged bacon from frozen bellies, but was unchanged (P ? 0.07) with time in food service packaged bacon from fresh bellies. Lipid oxidation was also unchanged (P ? 0.21) over time in retail packaged bacon, with the exception of bellies frozen for 5 mo, which was increased from day 0 to day 90. Overall, off-flavor, oxidized odor, and lipid oxidation increased as storage time after processing increased. Freezing bellies before processing may exacerbate lipid oxidation as storage time after processing was extended. PMID:24837349

Lowe, B K; Bohrer, B M; Holmer, S F; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C



Effect of salmon type and presence/absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products.  


Salmon-based infant food (puree) and toddler food (puree plus chunks) were manufactured from pink salmon, with and without bone, and from Sockeye salmon, with and without bone, to contain 45% salmon, 55% water, and 5% starch. Products were retort processed at 118 to 121 degrees C for 55 min in a steam-jacketed still retort. A trained descriptive panel (n = 7) evaluated infant and toddler foods separately. Instrumental color, pH, and water activity were also determined. Infant and toddler foods were also evaluated by a consumer panel (n = 104) of parents for product acceptability. During the manufacturing process (cooking, homogenization, retort processing), salmon infant food from pink salmon lost much of its characteristic pink color while that from sockeye salmon retained a greater amount. Bitterness was more evident in samples with bones. In the toddler food formulation containing chunks, the odor and flavor characteristics were influenced primarily by the type of salmon. The presence of bone affected visual pink color and lightness, and salmon odor only. Consumers scored products made with sockeye salmon as more acceptable despite the fact that they had more off-flavor than products from pink salmon. The appearance and thickness of the pureed infant food was more acceptable than the toddler food with chunks despite the chunky toddler product having more acceptable salmon flavor. This indicates that the color and appearance of the prototypes were the main drivers for liking. Of the total number of parents surveyed, 73% would feed this salmon product to their children. PMID:20722949

DeSantos, F A; Ramamoorthi, L; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S



Developments in dairy foods sensory science and education: From student contests to impact on product quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food scientists use three methods for tracing the causes and nature of various sensory quality problems in dairy foods: (1) chemical procedures, (2) microbiological analyses, and (3) sensory evaluation techniques. Food technologists or scientists who have received training and experience in flavor evaluation of dairy foods are deemed to have an advantage over a counterpart who may be competent only

F. W. Bodyfelt; M. A. Drake; S. A. Rankin



Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods  

PubMed Central

Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that reduce the viscosity, increase the solubility, impart desirable sensory characteristics, and potentially avoid excessive energy and nutrient thinning.

Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane



Sight or Scent: Lemur Sensory Reliance in Detecting Food Quality Varies with Feeding Ecology  

PubMed Central

Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology.

Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D.; Drea, Christine M.



Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage  

PubMed Central

How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) 10 trained assessors evaluated the intensity of 30 coffee attributes after roasting at the 9th and 18th month of storage, respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed reduction in the sensory qualities of coffee beverages after 9 months storage of roasted coffee beans. The positive associated odor and flavor attributes decreased in their intensity, whereas the negative associated odor and flavor attributes increased significantly (P < 0.05). After 18 months of storage, the rancid odor and flavor which indicate oxidation processes were even considerably perceivable. Consequently, we can assume that changes in sensory quality characteristics of roasted and vacuum-packed coffee beans during storage are possible.

Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen



Sensorial Contribution and Formation Pathways of Thiols in Foods: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1990s, more than 300 publications have been devoted to the organoleptic relevance of thiols in foods (meats, wines, fruits). The available data about their physicochemical and sensorial properties, occurrence in foods, and potential formation pathways are compiled in this article.

Catherine Vermeulen; Laurence Gijs; Sonia Collin



Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257.  


Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage. PMID:23744118

Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S



Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0-14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1×10 3-1.7×10 5 CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD 90) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D 10 doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, ?-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life.

Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, I.-hsin; Hsieh, Po-Chow



Aggregation of sensory data using fuzzy logic for sensory quality evaluation of food.  


A method of sensory evaluation using fuzzy logic has been proposed in this paper. The method was applied for evaluation of sensory quality of tea liquor made out of dried CTC tea. Linguistic data (e.g., excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, fair, not-satisfactory, etc.) on individual tea liquor's quality attributes and the perception of the evaluators (e.g., extremely important, highly important, important, somewhat important, not-at-all important, etc.) for relative importance of these quality attributes were obtained. Sensory score between 0 and 100 for (i) Judges' preference for different quality attributes of tea liquor in general, (ii) Quality attributes ranking of tea liquor and the (ii) Overall quality of tea liquor were estimated. The last one can be utilized for the ranking of the different tea liquors. PMID:24426020

Debjani, Chakraborty; Das, Shrilekha; Das, H



The contribution of psychological and sensory factors to food preference patterns as measured by the Food Attitudes Survey (FAS).  


The relationship between food preference patterns and several psychological and sensory variables was assessed using the Food Attitudes Survey (FAS). Previous research with the FAS, which consists of preference ratings for a variety of common, unusual and fictitious foods, showed that it provides both reliable and valid information about individual differences in food preferences and attitudes (Frank & van der Klaauw, 1994). In the studies reported here, significant correlations were found between preferences for a variety of activities (as measured by the Activity Attitudes Survey or ACT) and liking for and willingness to try foods, It was also found that individuals who report that they are unwilling to try many foods are low in general sensation seeking, and that odor pleasantness ratings significantly correlate with liking for and willingness to try foods. No associations were found between FAS performance and general phobic tendencies, optimism/pessimism or disordered eating. Multiple regression analysis revealed that responses on the ACT, sensation seeking scale, a 20-item food and eating questionnaire and odor pleasantness judgments could account for from 41 to 65% of the variance in food likes, dislikes and willingness to try foods. It was concluded that personality and sensory factors contribute to pattern of responding on the FAS, and that FAS response patterns provide an index of both attitudes toward foods and general openness to experiences and activities. PMID:7495323

Raudenbush, B; van der Klaauw, N J; Frank, R A



Food bank users: sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The continued expansion of food assistance programs makes it im- portant to examine the sociodemographic characteristics and nutritional profiles of people relying on this service. The authors undertook such a study in a large urban centre. Methods: A total of 490 food bank users were randomly selected from a stratified random sample of 57 urban food banks in Montreal.

Linda Jacobs Starkey; Harriet V. Kuhnlein; Katherine Gray-Donald



Quantification of sensory and food quality: the R-index analysis.  


The accurate quantification of sensory difference/similarity between foods, as well as consumer acceptance/preference and concepts, is greatly needed to optimize and maintain food quality. The R-Index is one class of measures of the degree of difference/similarity, and was originally developed for sensory difference tests for food quality control, product development, and so on. The index is based on signal detection theory and is free of the response bias that can invalidate difference testing protocols, including categorization and same-different and A-Not A tests. It is also a nonparametric analysis, making no assumptions about sensory distributions, and is simple to compute and understand. The R-Index is also flexible in its application. Methods based on R-Index analysis have been used as detection and sensory difference tests, as simple alternatives to hedonic scaling, and for the measurement of consumer concepts. This review indicates the various computational strategies for the R-Index and its practical applications to consumer and sensory measurements in food science. PMID:19723222

Lee, Hye-Seong; van Hout, Danielle



Objective and quantitative definitions of modified food textures based on sensory and rheological methodology  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients who suffer from chewing and swallowing disorders, i.e. dysphagia, may have difficulties ingesting normal food and liquids. In these patients a texture modified diet may enable that the patient maintain adequate nutrition. However, there is no generally accepted definition of ‘texture’ that includes measurements describing different food textures. Objective Objectively define and quantify categories of texture-modified food by conducting rheological measurements and sensory analyses. A further objective was to facilitate the communication and recommendations of appropriate food textures for patients with dysphagia. Design About 15 food samples varying in texture qualities were characterized by descriptive sensory and rheological measurements. Results Soups were perceived as homogenous; thickened soups were perceived as being easier to swallow, more melting and creamy compared with soups without thickener. Viscosity differed between the two types of soups. Texture descriptors for pâtés were characterized by high chewing resistance, firmness, and having larger particles compared with timbales and jellied products. Jellied products were perceived as wobbly, creamy, and easier to swallow. Concerning the rheological measurements, all solid products were more elastic than viscous (G?>G?), belonging to different G? intervals: jellied products (low G?) and timbales together with pâtés (higher G?). Conclusion By combining sensory and rheological measurements, a system of objective, quantitative, and well-defined food textures was developed that characterizes the different texture categories.

Wendin, Karin; Ekman, Susanne; Bulow, Margareta; Ekberg, Olle; Johansson, Daniel; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Stading, Mats



Sensory Perception of Food and Insulin-Like Signals Influence Seizure Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Food deprivation is known to affect physiology and behavior. Changes that occur could be the result of the organism's monitoring of internal and external nutrient availability. In C. elegans, male mating is dependent on food availability; food-deprived males mate with lower efficiency compared to their well-fed counterparts, suggesting that the mating circuit is repressed in low-food environments. This behavioral response could be mediated by sensory neurons exposed to the environment or by internal metabolic cues. We demonstrated that food-deprivation negatively regulates sex-muscle excitability through the activity of chemosensory neurons and insulin-like signaling. Specifically, we found that the repressive effects of food deprivation on the mating circuit can be partially blocked by placing males on inedible food, E. coli that can be sensed but not eaten. We determined that the olfactory AWC neurons actively suppress sex-muscle excitability in response to food deprivation. In addition, we demonstrated that loss of insulin-like receptor (DAF-2) signaling in the sex muscles blocks the ability of food deprivation to suppress the mating circuit. During low-food conditions, we propose that increased activity by specific olfactory neurons (AWCs) leads to the release of neuroendocrine signals, including insulin-like ligands. Insulin-like receptor signaling in the sex muscles then reduces cell excitability via activation of downstream molecules, including PLC-? and CaMKII.

Gruninger, Todd R.; Gualberto, Daisy G.; Garcia, L. Rene



Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in certain microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory parameters of kefir were studied during refrigerated storage. Kefir batches were prepared using 1% and 5% added kefir grains, and samples for analysis were taken 24 h after inoculation and then after 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage at 5±1 °C. After fermentation for 24 h after inoculation, lactobacilli and

A. Irigoyen; I. Arana; M. Castiella; P. Torre; F. C. Ibáñez



A Neuromedin U Receptor Acts with the Sensory System to Modulate Food Type-Dependent Effects on C. elegans Lifespan  

PubMed Central

The type of food source has previously been shown to be as important as the level of food intake in influencing lifespan. Here we report that different Escherichia coli food sources alter Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. These effects are modulated by different subsets of sensory neurons, which act with nmur-1, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U receptors. Wild-type nmur-1, which is expressed in the somatic gonad, sensory neurons, and interneurons, shortens lifespan only on specific E. coli food sources—an effect that is dependent on the type of E. coli lipopolysaccharide structure. Moreover, the food type-dependent effect of nmur-1 on lifespan is different from that of food-level restriction. Together our data suggest that nmur-1 processes information from specific food cues to influence lifespan and other aspects of physiology.

Regenass, Martin; Alcedo, Joy



Sensory characteristics and oxidative stability of soybean oil and flour extracted with aqueous isopropyl alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean flakes extracted with hexane or aqueous isopropyl alcohol (85%, 87.7% and 90.5% IPA by weight) were processed to toasted\\u000a flours and the miscellas to refined soybean oils. These products were evaluated for sensory characteristics and oxidative\\u000a stability. Sensory analyses of initial oils and flours indicated good quality products. Initial flavor scores of IPA-extracted\\u000a oils and flours were not significantly

K. Warner; E. C. Baker



Rheological characteristics of food gum (Cissus populnea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological characteristics (consistency and flow behavior indices) of food gum (Cissus populnea) exudates obtained from the fresh leaves and stem as well as dried leaves and stem were determined at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C using a rotational viscometer at shear rates of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 rpm for effective design and simulation of its momentum

Joseph Shi-an Alakali; Simon Verlumun Irtwange; Moses Mkavga


Sensory Correlates of Difficult Temperament Characteristics in Preschool Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…

Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi



Shelf life and sensory characteristics of baby spinach subjected to electron beam irradiation.  


The use of ionizing radiation for the control of foodborne pathogens and extending the shelf life of fresh iceberg lettuce and fresh spinach has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of electron beam irradiation for controlling foodborne pathogens has been reported. For this experiment, the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh spinach was studied. Total aerobic plate counts were reduced by 2.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g at 0.7 and 1.4 kGy, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria were reduced at both doses of e-beam but grew slowly over the 35 d of the experiment. Yeasts and molds were not reduced in samples exposed to 0.7 kGy whereas 1.4 kGy significantly reduced microbial counts. Gas compositions (O(2) and CO(2)) were significantly different than controls. Oxygen levels inside the spinach sample bags decreased over time; however, O(2) levels did not drop below 1% that can induce anaerobic fermentation. CO(2) levels for all treatments increased through day 4; yet 7 d after irradiation, CO(2) level differences were not significant in both control and irradiated samples. Irradiation dose did not affect the basic tastes, aromatics, or mouth feels of fresh spinach, however; hardness attributes decreased as irradiated dose increased and slimy attributes of fresh spinach were higher in control samples compared to irradiated samples. PMID:20722955

Neal, Jack A; Booren, Betsy; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Miller, Rhonda K; Lucia, Lisa M; Maxim, Joseph E; Castillo, Alejandro



Comparing the Sensory Characteristics of Doughnuts Made With Trans-Fat-Free Canola Shortening, Trans-Fat-Free Palm Shortening, and Trans-Fat Vegetable\\/Soybean Shortening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the adverse health effects associated with consuming trans-fats, foodservice companies continue to reduce\\/eliminate the amount of trans-fats used to prepare doughnuts and other foods. People eat doughnuts because they like the taste, however, meaning companies must reduce\\/eliminate trans-fats in a manner that has minimal impact on consumer preference. This study evaluated the sensory characteristics of doughnuts fried in

Peter L. Bordi Jr; Kimberly S. Snyder; S. William Hessert Jr



Sensorial characteristics of japanese quail eggs (Coturnix japonica) supplemented with synthetic pigments and selenomethionine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic pigments from external sources are supplemented in sorghum replacement diets in the substitution for the corn diet of Japanese quails, in order to compensate the decrease in egg yolk color. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of the following synthetic pigments: yellow (apo-ester), red (canthaxanthin), and selenomethionine on sensorial characteristics of eggs laid by Japanese

José Brandão Fonseca; Enayde de Almeida Melo; Vera Lúcia; Priscila Antão dos Santos; Quésia Jemima da Silva




EPA Science Inventory

The roles of copepod sensory systems in the recognition of food were investigated using the 'Bugwatcher', a video-computer system designed to track and describe quantitatively the swimming patterns of aquatic organisms. Copepods acclimated, or non-acclimated to a chemosensory sti...


Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Summer 1994 (Advance Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report uses data collected by the Food and Consumer Service for quality control purposes for Fiscal year and summer (July & August) 1994. It describes the demographic characteristics of food stamp recipients and the average benefit per houshold. It a...

S. Smolkin



Sensory characteristics of commercial lactose-free milks manufactured in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the sensory characteristics of ultrapasteurized (UP) lactose-free milk of different fat contents, and compared them with regular milk. Nine milk samples (six UP lactose-free and three regular) containing 0, 2 or 3g milkfat\\/100mL were tested by a descriptive panel. A consumer test with three UP lactose-free milk and three regular samples was also conducted. The skim milks were

Koushik Adhikari; Lauren M. Dooley; Edgar Chambers IV; Natnicha Bhumiratana



Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation (EC) No. 853\\/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council provides a legal basis permitting the use of antimicrobial treatments to remove surface contamination from poultry. This paper reports the results of research into the effects on natural microflora, pH, and sensorial characteristics achieved by dipping chicken legs (15 min, 18±1 °C) into solutions (wt\\/vol) of 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP),

Elena del Río; Mónica Panizo-Morán; Miguel Prieto; Carlos Alonso-Calleja; Rosa Capita



Retail Wastelands: Characteristics and Influential Factors of Food Deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying a census tract-level definition of food deserts, areas with limited access to affordable and healthy food, ERS has identified over 6,500 food desert tracts in the U.S. based on data from the 2000 Census of the Population. In this report, we examine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of these tracts to see how they differ from other tracts. We

Paula Dutko; Michele Ver Ploeg; Tracey L. Farrigan



Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.  


The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. PMID:23962381

Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Oydis; Verbeke, Wim



A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.  


Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA). PMID:23973565

Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia



Characteristics and Influential Factors of Food Deserts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USDA's Economic Research Service previously identified more than 6,500 food desert tracts in the United States based on 2000 Census and 2006 data on locations of supermarkets, supercenters, and large grocery stores. In this report, we examine the socioeco...

M. Ver Ploeg P. Dutko T. Farrigan



Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objective Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term (2-week), within-season temporal stability in retail food availability, prices, and quality. Design In-person observations of retail food stores at 2 time points, 2 weeks apart. Setting Southwest Chicago, IL. Sample 157 food stores. Main Outcome Measures Availability and prices of foods selected from the following food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, meats and beans, and dairy, as well as fresh produce quality. Analysis Temporal stability was tested for availability using a McNemar test and for price and quality using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results We found that measures of food availability and prices as well as fresh produce quality at stores were generally stable at the 2 time points. Conclusions and Implications This study suggests that a single observation may be sufficient to accurately characterize within-season food availability, food prices, and fresh produce quality.

Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda



Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.



Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention: The role of positive sensory experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

European consumers are skeptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if positive sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence

Klaus G. Grunert; Tino Bech-Larsen; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Øydis Ueland; Annika Åström



Sensory characteristics changes of red Grenache wines submitted to different oxygen exposures pre and post bottling.  


It is widely accepted that oxygen contributes to wine development by impacting its colour, aromatic bouquet, and mouth-feel properties. The wine industry can now also take advantage of engineered solutions to deliver known amounts of oxygen into bottles through the closures. This study was aimed at monitoring the influence of oxygen pick-up, before (micro-oxygenation, Mox) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on wine sensory evolution. Red Grenache wines were prepared either by flash release (FR) or traditional soaking (Trad) and with or without Mox during elevage (FR+noMox, FR+Mox, Trad+noMox, Trad+Mox). The rate of nano oxygenation was controlled by combining consistent oxygen transfer rate (OTR) closures and different oxygen controlled storage conditions. Wine sensory characteristics were analyzed by sensory profile, at bottling (T0) and after 5 and 10 months of ageing, by a panel of trained judges. Effects of winemaking techniques and OTR were analyzed by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering) and analysis of variance. Results showed that, at bottling, Trad wines were perceived more animal and FR wines more bitter and astringent. Mox wines showed more orange shade. At 5 and 10 months, visual and olfactory differences were observed according to the OTR levels: modalities with higher oxygen ingress were darker and fruitier but also perceived significantly less animal than modalities with lower oxygen. Along the 10 months of ageing, the influence of OTR became more important as shown by increased significance levels of the observed differences. As the mouth-feel properties of the wines were mainly dictated by winemaking techniques, OTR had only little impact on "in mouth" attributes. PMID:20103141

Caillé, Soline; Samson, Alain; Wirth, Jérémie; Diéval, Jean-Baptiste; Vidal, Stéphane; Cheynier, Véronique



Who wants food? Individual characteristics in raven yells  

PubMed Central

Discriminating between different individuals is considered as prerequisite for any forms of social knowledge. In birds, discriminating between conspecifics based on individual characteristics has been tested mainly in the auditory domain with territorial calls and songs for neighbour and kin discrimination but little is known about discriminating between signallers in food calls. Ravens utilize a large set of calls and show individually distinctive call repertoires. Moreover, they show advanced social tactics during foraging, suggesting that they are capable of dealing with conspecifics on an individual basis. When confronted with food that is difficult to access, ravens produce particular calls (‘haa’, yells); these calls attract other ravens and, thus, have been hypothesized to serve as ‘functionally referential signals’. We here examined whether ravens are able to differentiate between individuals on the basis of these food calls. We first analysed individual differences in call parameters, using 424 food calls recorded from 18 individually marked wild ravens in the Austrian Alps. We then tested 18 captive ravens for recognition of individual differences in food calls with playbacks, using a habituation-dishabituation design. We found evidence that food calls show individual call characteristics in fundamental frequency and intensity-related measurements providing ravens with the opportunity to respond according to these individually distinct features. Furthermore, ravens discriminated between unfamiliar ravens in the habituation-dishabituation experiment, indicating that they may discern individual differences. Our results suggest that raven food calls are individually distinct and that the birds may be capable of differentiating between food-calling individuals.

Boeckle, Markus; Szipl, Georgine; Bugnyar, Thomas



Effect of sire breed on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of lamb meat.  


Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of lamb meat were evaluated in crossbred ram lambs from Merino ewes and Oxford Down, Texel, Charollais, Suffolk and Merinolandschaf sires. The lambs were slaughtered at average age 119.2 days, live weight 34.6 kg and carcass weight 16.3 kg. Samples of M. longissimus lumborum et thoracis were used for measurements of pH values, electrical conductivity (EC), drip loss, contents of dry matter (DM), protein, intramuscular fat (IMF), ash, and hydroxyproline and for sensory analysis. The breed of sire significantly affected pH24 and 48 h postmortem, EC 24 h postmortem, protein content and juiciness (P<0.05). Significant negative correlations between pH48 and DM (-0.255) and pH48 and IMF (-0.258) were found (P<0.05). A significant positive correlation between EC48 and drip loss (0.366) was observed (P<0.05). Progeny of Charollais sires had meat of better quality than the others; the highest content of protein and IMF, the lowest drip loss and the best juiciness and texture. PMID:23896141

Jandasek, J; Milerski, M; Lichovnikova, M



A Comparison of the Nutritional Value, Sensory Qualities, and Food Safety of Organically and Conventionally Produced Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. William Lockeretz, Professor, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 12155 Given the significant increase in consumer interest in organic food products, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic produce. Studies comparing foods derived from organic and conventional growing systems were assessed for

Diane Bourn; John Prescott



Comparison of the microbiological, compositional, biochemical, volatile profile and sensory characteristics of three Italian PDO ewes’ milk cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three batches of three Italian ewes’ milk cheeses (Canestrato Pugliese, Fiore Sardo and Pecorino Romano), which were manufactured under the Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO), were compared for microbiological, compositional, biochemical, volatile profile and sensory characteristics. After ca. 1 year of ripening, the three cheeses had a complex microbial population, composed mainly of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB); several species

Raffaella Di Cagno; Jean Banks; Liz Sheehan; Patrick F. Fox; E. Y. Brechany; Aldo Corsetti; Marco Gobbetti



Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown Hydroponically at Ambient and Elevated CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine onion cultivars of four Allium species (Allium cepa, A. fistulosum, A. schoenoprasum, and A. tuberosum) were evaluated for use in Advanced Life Support (ALS) applications by hydroponic propagation in environmental growth chambers to evaluate the effect of elevated CO2 (1200 ppm) versus ambient CO2 (400 ppm) on biomass, phytochemical and folate levels, and sensory characteristics of scallions harvested at

Leslie Thompson; Ellen Peffley; Cary Green; Paul Paré; David Tissue


Effects of intramuscular fat levels on sensory characteristics of duck breast meat.  


We conducted a study to evaluate the effects of intramuscular fat levels on the sensory characteristics of duck breast meat. Combining duck genotypes (Muscovy, Pekin, and their crossbreed hinny and mule ducks) and feeding levels (overfeeding between 12 and 14 wk of age vs. ad libitum feeding) enabled us to obtain a wide range of lipid levels in breast muscle. The average values were between 2.55 and 6.40 g per 100 g of muscle. Breast muscle from overfed ducks showed higher lipid and lower water levels than breast muscle from ducks fed ad libitum. Muscle from the overfed ducks was also paler in color and exhibited greater yellowness and cooking loss values. Juiciness was judged lower and flavor more pronounced in overfed ducks. Muscovy ducks exhibited higher breast weight and lower lipid levels than the other genotypes. At the other extreme, Pekin ducks exhibited the highest lipid levels and the lowest breast weights; values for these criteria were intermediate in hinny and mule ducks. Breast muscle of Muscovy ducks was paler, less red, and more yellow than that of other genotypes. Breast muscle of Pekin ducks exhibited the lowest values for lightness, yellowness, and energy necessary to shear meat, as well as the highest cooking loss values, and was judged more tender, juicy and less stringy than that of other genotypes. In contrast, scores for breast muscle of Muscovy ducks were the lowest for tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and the highest for stringiness. Breast muscle of hinny and mule ducks scored the highest values for redness. Hinny ducks also scored the highest values for flavor. Genotype exerted a higher effect on the sensory quality of breast muscle than did feeding levels. Finally, increasing lipid levels in breast muscle increased lightness, yellowness, cooking loss, tenderness, and flavor, with correlation coefficients of 0.49, 0.47, 0.54, 0.43, and 0.28, respectively. However, breast meat color and tenderness were mainly influenced by genotype. PMID:16673772

Chartrin, P; Méteau, K; Juin, H; Bernadet, M D; Guy, G; Larzul, C; Rémignon, H; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Baéza, E



Role of sensory cues on food searching behavior of a captive Manta birostris (Chondrichtyes, Mobulidae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the first experimental research designed specifically for Manta birostris behavior. The authors attempted to learn about the feeding behavior and environmental cues influencing this behavior, as well as general cognitive ability. The preconditioned Manta's ability to identify food, on the basis of a fraction of the ordinary food signal complex, was tested. The opening of cephalic

Csilla Ari; João P. Correia



Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burger made from duck surimi-like material.  


Burgers were prepared using duck surimi-like material (DSLM) with polydextrose added (SL) and DSLM with sucrose-sorbitol added (SS), and the properties of these burgers were compared with those of burgers made of chicken meat (CB) and duck meat (DB). Quality characteristics such as chemical composition, cooking loss, diameter shrinkage, color, and texture were measured. The DB had a lower moisture content (55.58%) and higher fat content (21.44%) and cooking loss (11.01%) compared with other samples, whereas CB, SS, and SL did not differ significantly in moisture (65.21-66.10%) and fat (10.42-11.16%) content or cooking loss (5.32-6.15%). The SS and SL were positioned below CB and above DB in terms of hardness, chewiness, and springiness. Ten trained panelists assessed the burgers using quantitative descriptive analysis. Among the burgers, CB had the greatest brightness of color, hardness, springiness, and chewiness. The SS had greater sweetness than the other burgers. Both SL and SS had significantly less animalic odor, meaty flavor, oiliness, juiciness, and saltiness compared with DB. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burgers prepared from DSLM approached those of burgers made of chicken. PMID:22912469

Ramadhan, K; Huda, N; Ahmad, R



Measuring Willingness to Accept for GM Food by Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korean consumers' willingness to accept (WTA) for GM food are studied in this paper. This study compares hypothetical and nonhypothetical responses to choice experiment questions. We test for hypothetical bias in a choice experiment involving GM rice with differing characteristic attributes and multinomial logit model is applied to predict the estimated results. In general, hypothetical responses predicted higher probabilities of

Kim Tae-Kyun; Lee Hyun-Ji; Hong Na-Kyoung



Comparison of Pork Quality and Sensory Characteristics for Antibiotic Free Yorkshire Crossbreds Raised in Hoop Houses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare pork characteristics and to determine consumer acceptability of pork chops from antibiotic free Yorkshire crossbreds sired by Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY), Tamworth (TY) or Yorkshire (YY) boars and reared in hoop houses. The experiments were conducted at the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCA&TSU) Farm in Greensboro, NC and the Cherry Research Station Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) Alternative Swine Unit in Goldsboro, NC (source of antibiotic free Yorkshire sows used at both places). Twenty-four sows were artificially inseminated at each location in each of three trials. Litters were weaned at 4 wks old, and reared within deep-bedded outdoor hoop houses. To compare pork characteristics, 104 randomly selected animals were harvested at a USDA-inspected abattoir at approximately 200 d of age. Variables measured included pH, color score, L*, a*, b*, marbling score, drip loss, hot carcass weight, backfat thickness (BF), loin muscle area (LMA), and slice shear force. Sensory panel tests were also conducted at two time periods. The data was analyzed with GLM in SAS 9.01 including location, trial, and sire breed as fixed effects. Backfat thickness, LMA, color score and a* were different among breeding groups (p<0.05). The LBY pigs had thicker backfat and smaller LMA than the other breed types. The TY and YY had less backfat than all other breed groups. Color score was lower for YY than BY and LBY but intermediate for TY. The a* was lower for TY than other breeds except LBY which was intermediate. For one sensory panel test, YY pork was more preferred overall as well as for juiciness and texture compared to BY and LBY (p<0.05), but no impact of breed type was noted for the other test, with values similar for BY, LBY, TY and YY pork. This information may help small farmers make decisions about breed types to use for outdoor production.

Whitley, N.; Hanson, D.; Morrow, W.; See, M. T.; Oh, S.-H.



Sensory Evaluation of Traditional Products by Variety-Seekers and Food Neophobics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food preferences of humans are shaped by a number of factors, including variety-seeking and food neophobia. The study, conducted in two European regions, Ma?opolska in Poland and East Flanders in Belgium, tested eight traditional products from Ma?opolska with 193 East Flemish respondents and eight traditional products from East Flanders with 196 Ma?opolskan respondents. The first aim was to segment consumers

Renata Januszewska; Jacques Viaene



Chemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso coffee as affected by grinding and torrefacto roast.  


Grinding is a critical step in the preparation of espresso coffee (EC). The addition of sugar during the torrefacto roasting process could influence the degree of brittleness and grinding. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the grinding grades (coarse, fine, and very fine) in Arabica/Robusta 20:80, natural roasted (A20:R80), and Arabica/Robusta 20:80 with 50% Robusta torrefacto roasted (A20:R80 50% torrefacto) on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of EC in order to select the optimal espresso grinding grade. A higher percentage of coarse particles was found in A20:R80 ground coffee. In both ECs, the extraction of solids and soluble and aroma compounds increased inversely with particle size. Higher foam indices and extraction yields were found in A20:R80 50% torrefacto ECs probably due to the solubilization of caramelized sugar and melanoidins. It has been suggested that the range of an acceptable extraction yield could be extended to 25% in A20:R80 50% torrefacto ECs. In conclusion, the optimal grinding grade for the obtainment of an EC with A20:R80 was fine and that for A20:R80 50% torrefacto was coarse. PMID:14611167

Andueza, Susana; De Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción



Role of sensory cues on food searching behavior of a captive Manta birostris (Chondrichtyes, Mobulidae).  


This study reports on the first experimental research designed specifically for Manta birostris behavior. The authors attempted to learn about the feeding behavior and environmental cues influencing this behavior, as well as general cognitive ability. The preconditioned Manta's ability to identify food, on the basis of a fraction of the ordinary food signal complex, was tested. The opening of cephalic fins was considered a good indicator of feeding motivation level. The study subject animal used its biological clock to predict time and also associated a specific location with food, suggesting an ability to build up a cognitive map of its environment. Both underwater visual stimuli and olfactory stimuli had a very intense effect on food searching behavior over a 30 m distance, in contrast to visual signs from above the water surface. In addition, although an underwater visual signal resulted in a more intense response than from an olfactory signal, the specimen did not discriminate between different objects tested on the basis of visual sensation. It could therefore be suggested that food searching behavior of Mantas are governed by triggering stimuli, including smell or visual recognition, and modulated by the cognitive spatial map stored in their long-term memory. These findings will hopefully prove useful while devising protecting policies in the natural environment and/or while keeping these animals in captivity. Zoo Biol 27:294-304, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360625

Ari, Csilla; Correia, João P



Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.  


Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with regard to toxigenicity and pathogenicity determinants as well as presence of transferable antibiotic resistance. Nitrate and nitrite are still considered basically undesired in food. The main objections are based on their potential to form nitrosamines with carcinogenic potential. In view of new results from intensive research of NO, potential risks are opposed by positive effects on human health. PMID:22202868

Hammes, Walter P



Sensory information and associative cues used in food detection by wild vervet monkeys.  


Understanding animals' spatial perception is a critical step toward discerning their cognitive processes. The spatial sense is multimodal and based on both the external world and mental representations of that world. Navigation in each species depends upon its evolutionary history, physiology, and ecological niche. We carried out foraging experiments on wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, to determine the types of cues used to detect food and whether associative cues could be used to find hidden food. Our first and second set of experiments differentiated between vervets' use of global spatial cues (including the arrangement of feeding platforms within the surrounding vegetation) and/or local layout cues (the position of platforms relative to one another), relative to the use of goal-object cues on each platform. Our third experiment provided an associative cue to the presence of food with global spatial, local layout, and goal-object cues disguised. Vervets located food above chance levels when goal-object cues and associative cues were present, and visual signals were the predominant goal-object cues that they attended to. With similar sample sizes and methods as previous studies on New World monkeys, vervets were not able to locate food using only global spatial cues and local layout cues, unlike all five species of platyrrhines thus far tested. Relative to these platyrrhines, the spatial location of food may need to stay the same for a longer time period before vervets encode this information, and goal-object cues may be more salient for them in small-scale space. PMID:24045849

Teichroeb, Julie A; Chapman, Colin A



Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry.  


Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council provides a legal basis permitting the use of antimicrobial treatments to remove surface contamination from poultry. This paper reports the results of research into the effects on natural microflora, pH, and sensorial characteristics achieved by dipping chicken legs (15 min, 18+/-1 degrees C) into solutions (wt/vol) of 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP), 1200 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 2% citric acid (CA), 220 ppm peroxyacids (Inspexx 100; PA), and water. Samples were collected immediately after evisceration, subjected to the treatments listed or left untreated (control) and tested after 0, 1, 3 and 5 days of storage (3 degrees C+/-1 degrees C). For most microbial groups similar counts were observed on water-dipped and on untreated legs. All the chemical compounds were effective in reducing microbial populations throughout storage, with TSP, ASC and CA showing the strongest antimicrobial activity. The average reductions (mean+/-standard deviation) relative to untreated samples caused by chemical treatments when considering simultaneously all storage days ranged (log(10) cfu/g skin) from 0.53+/-0.83 (PA) to 1.98+/-0.62 (TSP) for mesophilic aerobic counts, from 0.11+/-0.89 (PA) to 1.27+/-1.02 (CA) (psychrotrophs), from 1.34+/-1.40 (PA) to 2.15+/-1.20 (CA) (Enterobacteriaceae), from 1.18+/-1.24 (PA) to 1.98+/-1.16 (CA) (coliforms), from 0.66+/-0.99 (PA) to 1.86+/-1.80 (TSP) (Micrococcaceae), from 0.54+/-0.74 (TSP) to 2.17+/-1.37 (CA) (enterococci), from 0.72+/-0.66 (TSP) to 2.08+/-1.60 (CA) (Brochothrix thermosphacta), from 0.78+/-1.02 (PA) to 1.99+/-0.96 (TSP) (pseudomonads), from 0.21+/-0.61 (PA) to 1.23+/-0.60 (TSP) (lactic acid bacteria), and from 1.14+/-0.89 (PA) to 1.45+/-0.61 (ASC) (moulds and yeasts). The microbial reductions throughout storage increased, decreased, or did not vary, in accordance with microbial group and chemical involved. Similar pH values were observed for untreated samples and for those dipped in PA and water on all sampling days. ASC-treated samples showed a lower pH than controls to day 1. TSP-treated legs exhibited the highest pH values and CA-treated ones the lowest, throughout storage. Hedonic evaluation (nine-point structured scale, untrained panellists) showed similar colour, smell and overall acceptability scores for dipped and untreated samples on day 0 and day 1. From day 3 sensorial attributes scored lower for untreated, PA- and water-dipped legs, as compared to legs treated with TSP, ASC and CA. Only for these three groups of samples were average scores higher than 6 (shelf-life limit value) observed by the end of storage. Results from the present study suggest that the treatments tested improve the microbial quality of chicken without adverse sensorial effects. PMID:17320231

del Río, Elena; Panizo-Morán, Mónica; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa



Fine as North Dakota wine: Sensory expectations and the intake of companion foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taste expectations can influence taste evaluations. It is not known, however, whether the environmental cues that influence taste expectations — such as suggestible names and brand labels — can have a referred impact on the intake volume of companion foods. Adult diners who ordered a prix-fixe restaurant meal were given a complimentary glass of wine that had been relabeled to

Brian Wansink; Collin R. Payne; Jill North



The rheology, microstructure and sensory characteristics of a gluten-free bread formulation enhanced with orange pomace.  


The present manuscript studied a previously optimised gluten-free bread formulation containing 5.5% orange pomace (OP) in relation to the batter characteristics (i.e. pre-baking), microstructure (of the flours, batter and bread) and sensory characteristics of the bread. Rheology, RVA and mixolab results illustrated that orange pomace improved the robustness of the gluten-free batter and decreased the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. This was confirmed from the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images, which showed potato starch granules to be more expanded in the control batter when compared to the sample containing orange pomace. Starch granules were also observed to be more enlarged and swollen in the CLSM bread images, suggesting a higher level of gelatinisation occurred in the control sample. Sensory analysis was carried out on the optimised and control bread; panellists scored the flavour, crumb appearance and overall acceptability of the OP-containing breads comparable to the control. PMID:24212437

O'Shea, Norah; Doran, Linda; Auty, Mark; Arendt, Elke; Gallagher, Eimear



Chemical parameters, biologically active polyphenols and sensory characteristics of some Italian organic wines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes 23 commercial Italian wines, made from organic grapes, by their chemical parameters, biologically active polyphenol concentrations and sensory analysis. Our data show inconsistent differences in the trans-resveratrol and p-coumaric acid contents in comparison with non-organic wine, with the exception of quercetin concentrations in Chianti samples. Furthermore, the chemical analyses and sensory data of organic wines did not

Anna Lante; Antonella Crapisi; Giovanna Lomolino; Paolo Spettoli



The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice-based expanded snacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of extrusion conditions, including feed rate (20–32%), feed moisture content (14–22%), screw speed (180–320 rpm), and barrel temperature (100–140 °C) on the physicochemical properties (density, expansion, water absorption index––WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) and sensory characteristics (hardness and crispness) of an expanded rice snack was investigated. Increasing feed rate results in extrudates with a higher expansion, lower

Qing-Bo Ding; Paul Ainsworth; Gregory Tucker; Hayley Marson



Quality and sensory characteristics of hard red wheat after residential storage for up to 32 y.  


Samples of hard red wheat packaged for long-term storage, ranging in age from 0 to 32 y, were obtained from donors in residential households. All samples had been stored under nonabusive conditions (7% to 10% moisture, 13 to 27 °C). Selected quality parameters of the wheat (moisture, thiamin, free fatty acids, flour extraction rate, bread loaf volume, and bread firmness) and sensory properties of bread made from the stored wheat (aroma, appearance, texture, flavor, overall liking, acceptance for use as part of the regular diet, and acceptance for use in emergency situations) were evaluated. Free fatty acids increased significantly from 0.897 to 11.8 ?mol/g, and flour extraction rate decreased significantly from 76.5% to 69.9% over time. None of the other quality parameters measured (moisture, thiamin, bread loaf volume, and bread firmness) were significantly correlated with wheat storage time. Panelists who frequently or occasionally consume whole wheat bread rated all breads made from the stored wheat with hedonic scores (9-point scale) of at least 6.4 (like slightly to moderately). Consumer ratings of bread texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were negatively correlated with storage time (P < 0.001); however, at least 70% of panelists indicated that they would consume the bread as part of their regular diet even after 32 y of wheat storage, while over 97% would do so in an emergency. These data indicate that wheat maintains nutritional quality and makes acceptable bread when stored up to 32 y at 13 to 27 °C and 7% to 10% moisture. Practical Application: Wheat stored for the purposes of disaster relief has the potential of being stored for extremely long periods of time, which may result in undesirable changes in milling and baking quality. Therefore, we tested wheat that had been stored under residential conditions for up to 32 y to determine its functional quality and consumer acceptability. Our results indicate that wheat of low moisture (7% to 10%) packaged in sealed cans and stored for up to 32 y at or below typical room temperature retains quality and can be made into bread that is well accepted by consumers. Thus, whole wheat has good long-term storage stability and can be recommended for emergency food supplies. PMID:21535720

Rose, Devin J; Ogden, Lynn V; Dunn, Michael L; Jamison, Rachel G; Lloyd, Michelle A; Pike, Oscar A



Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences.  


Bitterness and astringency are found in a variety of foods, including nuts, fruits, chocolate, tea, wine, and soymilk. In fruits and beverages, the taste of bitterness and the tactile sensation of astringency are elicited primarily by flavanol polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins). Variations in proanthocyanidin composition, such as polymer size, extent of galloylation, and formation of derivatives, affect both bitterness and astringency. In beverages, other factors also influence these sensations, including the pH and the levels of ethanol, sweetness, and viscosity. Similarly, foods eaten with beverages can influence astringency. For example, eating dark chocolate increases the astringency of red wine more than does milk chocolate. Individuals perceive astringency differently because of variations in salivary flow rates, and preferences for and acceptance of a product may vary tremendously among individuals; decreasing bitterness and/or astringency may not increase preference. Factors influencing bitterness, astringency, and individual preference decisions are discussed. PMID:15640499

Lesschaeve, Isabelle; Noble, Ann C



Structure, sensory and nutritional aspects of soluble-fibre inclusion in processed food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food industry relies increasingly on soluble fibre to formulate products with superior structural properties, mouthfeel and potential health benefits. In this paper, we have compiled experimental data from a wide range of high-solid foodstuffs in order to demonstrate the utility of fibre inclusion in such preparations. Recent studies have mapped out the structural properties of soluble-fibre polysaccharides (e.g., ?-carrageenan,

Leewah Koh; Bin Jiang; Stefan Kasapis; Check Woo Foo



Cognitive, sensory, and psychosocial characteristics in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.  


Forty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ages 2-61 years were given a neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive, sensory, and behavioral functioning. These tests included the Wechsler scales of intelligence, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency Test, D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS Sorting Test, Wide Range Achievement Test: Math and Reading Subtests, Purdue Pegboard, The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale, and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Parent Rating Scale. On the age appropriate Wechsler scale, the mean Verbal Comprehension was 81 (n = 36), Working Memory was 81 (n = 36), Perceptual Reasoning was 78 (n = 24) and Full Scale IQ was 75 (n = 26). Memory for a word list (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) was in the average range with a mean of 89 (n = 19). Fine motor speed was slow on the Purdue with mean scores 3-4 standard deviations below norms. All subjects were microsmic on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Of these 42 patients, only 6 were able to complete all auditory and visual tests; 52% were unable to complete the visual tests due to impaired vision. A wide range of behavioral issues were endorsed on questionnaires given to parents. Most had social skill deficits but no pattern of either externalizing or internalizing problems. We identify a characteristic neuro-behavioral profile in our cohort comprised of reduced IQ, impaired fine-motor function, and decreased olfaction. PMID:24194441

Brinckman, Danielle D; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Blumhorst, Catherine; Biesecker, Leslie G; Sapp, Julie C; Johnston, Jennifer J; Wiggs, Edythe A



Degradation of edible oil during food processing by ultrasound: electron paramagnetic resonance, physicochemical, and sensory appreciation.  


During ultrasound processing of lipid-containing food, some off-flavors can be detected, which can incite depreciation by consumers. The impacts of ultrasound treatment on sunflower oil using two different ultrasound horns (titanium and pyrex) were evaluated. An electron paramagnetic resonance study was performed to identify and quantify the formed radicals, along with the assessment of classical physicochemical parameters such as peroxide value, acid value, anisidine value, conjugated dienes, polar compounds, water content, polymer quantification, fatty acid composition, and volatiles profile. The study shows an increase of formed radicals in sonicated oils, as well as the modification of physicochemical parameters evidencing an oxidation of treated oils. PMID:22804736

Pingret, Daniella; Durand, Grégory; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Rockenbauer, Antal; Ginies, Christian; Chemat, Farid



Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen



National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.  


The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values, whereas steaks from the round had the greatest (P < 0.05) values. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared with top sirloin steaks. Retail top blade steaks and food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P < 0.05) consumer sensory panel ratings compared with the other steaks evaluated. Prime food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P < 0.05) for overall like, like tenderness, tenderness level, like juiciness, and juiciness level, whereas ungraded rib eye steaks received the lowest ratings (P < 0.05) for like tenderness and tenderness level. The WBS values for food service steaks were greater (P < 0.05) for the Select and ungraded groups compared with the Prime, Top Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred. PMID:23230117

Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W



Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) powder on chicken breast meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics.  


Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) was investigated on meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results showed that treatment of aqueous extract obtained from sprouted mung powder and mung powder have beneficial effect (P?sensory scores observed for marinated meat samples than control groups. PMID:24966439

Yogesh, K; Ali, Jamshed



Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Crackers (Kerupuk) Formulated with Surimi Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surimi powder can be used to substitute flour in the formulation of Indonesian crackers (kerupuk). Three different levels of surimi powder (10%, 20%, and 30%) were substituted in the flour used. Physicochemical analyses were conducted on four different kerupuk formulations. The resulting kerupuk were subjected to sensory evaluation using Indonesian school children, aged from 9 - 20 years as a

Nurul Huda; Aminah Abdullah; Abdul Salam Babji


Examining the Multi-Sensory Characteristics of Hands-On Science Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in science education demonstrates the importance and effectiveness of the hands-on approach in student learning. Activity- oriented instruction offers multi-modal opportunities for learning science. However, there is very little research on the sensory nature of hands-on science learning. How do science educators describe lab activities…

Klemm, E. Barbara; Plourde, Lee A.


Migration and sensory properties of plastics-based nets used as food-contacting materials under ambient and high temperature heating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall migration from a wide range of commercial plastics-based netting materials destined to be used as either meat or vegetable packaging materials into the fatty food simulant isooctane or the aqueous simulant distilled water, respectively, was studied. In addition, sensory tests of representative netting materials were carried out in bottled water in order to investigate possible development of off-odour\\/taste and

M. G. Kontominas; A. E. Goulas; A. V. Badeka; A. Nerantzaki



Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ?PD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier seeds, while grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of < -1.5 MPa versus vines with MD > -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a continuous relationship between physiological water status (stress) and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point that may be related to early season PD in controlling grape development as well as composition. Soils analyses revealed the preferred fruit was on vines in areas where soils were shallower rather than any definitive characteristic related to particle size distribution or nutrient availability, suggesting that in this vineyard soil available water is the major controlling factor.

Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard



The Nutritional Characteristics of a Contemporary Diet Based Upon Paleolithic Food Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The intent of the present study was to examine the nutritional characteristics of a contemporary diet based upon Paleolithic food groups and to determine how these characteristics may impact the risk of chronic disease. Methods: Nutritional software was employed to ascertain the macro and trace nutrient characteristics of a diet composed of commonly available modern foods, but devoid of

Loren Cordain


Characterization and classification of Japanese consumer perceptions for beef tenderness using descriptive texture characteristics assessed by a trained sensory panel.  


Meat tenderness is an important characteristic in terms of consumer preference and satisfaction. However, each consumer may have his/her own criteria to judge meat tenderness, because consumers are neither selected nor trained like an expert sensory panel. This study aimed to characterize consumer tenderness using descriptive texture profiles such as chewiness and hardness assessed by a trained panel. Longissimus muscles cooked at four different end-point temperatures were subjected to a trained sensory panel (n=18) and consumer (n=107) tenderness tests. Multiple regression analysis showed that consumer tenderness was characterized as 'low-chewiness and low hardness texture.' Subsequently, consumers were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to tenderness perceptions in each participant, and the two groups were characterized as 'tenderness is mainly low-chewiness' and 'tenderness is mainly low-hardness' for tenderness perception, respectively. These results demonstrate objective characteristics and variability of consumer meat tenderness, and provide new information regarding the evaluation and management of meat tenderness for meat manufacturers. PMID:24231677

Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Kitsunai, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yosuke; Hatori, Hikari; Muroya, Susumu; Nomura, Masaru; Miyaguchi, Yuji; Chikuni, Koichi



Protective action of Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 on vacuum-packaged raw beef. Effect on sensory and structural characteristics.  


Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 was examined for its effectiveness as protective culture in the biopreservation of vacuum-packaged fresh beef stored during 60 days at 2 degrees C. For this purpose, L. curvatus CRL705, producer of lactocin 705 and lactocin AL705, was inoculated on the meat surface (10(6)cfu g(-1)). This microorganism became the dominating population throughout the storage period controlling the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta and spoilage lactic acid bacteria naturally present on the meat. When the microstructural characteristics of the meat were evaluated using light microscopy, beef samples inoculated with the bioprotective culture showed a 10days delay for the appearance of tissue degradation signs. Sensory analysis demonstrated that beef samples treated with L. curvatus CRL705 only developed an "acid" off-flavor after 60 days of refrigerated storage, and no undesirable off-odors were found. Therefore, inoculation with this bacteriocinogenic strain would provide an additional hurdle to improve storage life of refrigerated vacuum-packaged beef without affecting its sensory and structural characteristics. PMID:20416799

Castellano, P; González, C; Carduza, F; Vignolo, G



Transglutaminase cross-linking effect on sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of Maillard reaction products from soybean protein hydrolysates.  


To improve the yield of Maillard peptides, a microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was used to increase the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in soybean protein hydrolysates by using a cross-linking reaction. The sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of corresponding Maillard Reaction Products (MSPC) was then evaluated. After cross-linking treatment the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in protein hydrolysates and the yield of Maillard peptides increased by 21.19% and 8.71%, respectively, which contributed to the improved mouthfulness of MSPC. The bitter amino acids were significantly decreased and the umami acids were markedly increased in MSPC. Volatile compounds identified by GC-MS analysis showed that the content of the important meaty flavour compounds (such as 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide) of MSPC were dramatically higher than that of MRPs from uncross-linking peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation, it was confirmed that MTGase cross-linking improved the flavour Characteristics and did not affect the antioxidant activity of MSPC. PMID:23017405

Song, Na; Tan, Chen; Huang, Meigui; Liu, Ping; Eric, Karangwa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin; Jia, Chengsheng



Food Safety Audits, Plant Characteristics, and Food Safety Technology Use in Meat and Poultry Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Food safety technology can increase a companys capacity to prevent a foodborne contamination. A food safety audita quality control tool in which an auditor observes whether a plants processing practices and technologies are compatible with good food afety...

M. Ollinger M. K. Muth S. A. Karbs Z. Choice



Effect of storage time and temperature on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial apricot jam.  


Storage conditions are important factors for jam quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability and sensorial profile of apricot jam during storage for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. For that purpose, special attention was paid to total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), colour, free amino acids (FAA), total sugars (TS) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The decreasing parameter for jam at the end of storage under 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C, respectively, were 16.81%, 34.30% and 56.01% for FAA, and 5.52%, 9.02% and 7.46% for TS; likewise, the increasing were 19.81%, 22.94% and 25.07% for TA, 3.15%, 4.08% and 4.47% for TSS, 15.96%, 112.76% and 150% for HMF. Jam stability was better at 5 °C than 25 °C and 37 °C. The interaction time-temperature factor had significant effects on pH, TS, FAA and HMF, unlike TA, TSS and sensorial profile. PMID:24128444

Touati, Noureddine; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Aguayo, Encarna; Louaileche, Hayette



Migration and sensory properties of plastics-based nets used as food-contacting materials under ambient and high temperature heating conditions.  


Overall migration from a wide range of commercial plastics-based netting materials destined to be used as either meat or vegetable packaging materials into the fatty food simulant isooctane or the aqueous simulant distilled water, respectively, was studied. In addition, sensory tests of representative netting materials were carried out in bottled water in order to investigate possible development of off-odour/taste and discoloration in this food simulant as a result of migration from the netting material. Sensory tests were supplemented by determination of the volatile compounds' profile in table water exposed to the netting materials using SPME-GC/MS. Test conditions for packaging material/food simulant contact and method of overall migration analysis were according to European Union Directives 90/128 (EEC, 1990) and 2002/72 (EEC, 2002). The results showed that for both PET and polyethylene-based netting materials, overall migration values into distilled water ranged between 11.5 and 48.5 mg l(-1), well below the upper limit (60 mg l(-1)) for overall migration values from plastics-packaging materials set by the European Union. The overall migration values from netting materials into isooctane ranged between 38.0 and 624.0 mg l(-1), both below and above the European Union upper limit for migration. Sensory tests involving contact of representative samples with table water under refluxing (100 degrees C/4 h) conditions showed a number of the netting materials produced both off-odour and/or taste as well as discoloration of the food simulant rendering such materials unfit for the packaging of foodstuffs in applications involving heating at elevated temperatures. GC/MS analysis showed the presence of numerous volatile compounds being produced after netting materials/water contact under refluxing conditions. Although it is extremely difficult to establish a clear correlation between sensory off-odour development and GC/MS volatile compounds' profile, it may be postulated that plastics oxidation products such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 2,6 di-tert-butylquinone may contribute to off-odour development using commercially bottled table water as a food simulant. Likewise, compounds such as carbon disulfide, [1,1'-biphenyl]-2-ol and propanoic acid, 2 methyl 1-(1,1-dimethyl)-2-methyl-1,3-propanediyl ester probably originating from cotton and rubber components of netting materials may also contribute to off-odour/taste development. PMID:16766462

Kontominas, M G; Goulas, A E; Badeka, A V; Nerantzaki, A



Characteristics and Influential Factors of Food Deserts. Report Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USDAs Economic Research Service previously identified approximately 6,500 food desert tracts in the United States based on 2000 Census and 2006 data on locations of supermarkets, supercenters, and large grocery stores. These food deserts are areas where p...

M. Ver Ploeg P. Dutko T. Farrigan



Effect of moderate inlet temperatures in ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk.  


The effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) on raw whole milk (3.5% fat) was evaluated to obtain processing conditions for the sterilization of milk. Ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments of 200 and 300MPa at inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75, and 85°C were compared with a UHT treatment (138°C for 4s) in terms of microbial inactivation, particle size and microstructure, viscosity, color, buffering capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to proteolysis, and sensory evaluation. The UHPH-treated milks presented a high level of microbial reduction, under the detection limit, for treatments at 300MPa with Ti of 55, 65, 75, and 85°C, and at 200MPa with Ti=85°C, and few survivors in milks treated at 200MPa with Ti of 55, 65, and 75°C. Furthermore, UHPH treatments performed at 300MPa with Ti=75 and 85°C produced sterile milk after sample incubation (30 and 45°C), obtaining similar or better characteristics than UHT milk in color, particle size, viscosity, buffer capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to protein hydrolysis, and lower scores in sensory evaluation for cooked flavor. PMID:24342690

Amador-Espejo, G G; Suàrez-Berencia, A; Juan, B; Bárcenas, M E; Trujillo, A J



Antimicrobial treatment of grapes using sodium hypochlorite in winemaking and its effects on the chemical and sensory characteristics of wines.  


This study was performed to examine the use of NaOCl as an alternative antimicrobial compound in winemaking because of the potential health problems that may arise as a result of the use of SO2. For this, the blank (non-treated), control (SO2-added), and sample (NaOCl-treated) wines were made, and microbial and chemical changes including sensory characteristics were analyzed during the fermentation periods. Treatment of grapes with NaOCl decreased the initial contaminating microbial population in grape must, resulting in higher growth of yeast and lactic acid bacteria. After 200 days of fermentation, the chemical analysis of sample wine revealed that it had higher ethanol content, redness (a*), and concentrations of fruity ester compounds and lower total acidity than the control. In the sensory analyses, the sample wine obtained a higher overall acceptability score (5.70) than the control (4.26). This result reveals that NaOCl can be used as an alternative to SO2 in winemaking for inhibiting the growth of contaminating microorganisms. PMID:22210609

Yoo, Ki Seon; Ahn, Ji Eun; Han, Jin Soo; Seo, Eunyoung; Otgonbayar, Gan-Erdene; Han, Nam Soo



Food Safety Audits, Plant Characteristics, and Food Safety Technology Use in Meat and Poultry Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety technology can increase a company’s capacity to prevent a foodborne contamination. A food safety audit—a quality control tool in which an auditor observes whether a plant’s processing practices and technologies are compatible with good food safety practices—can indicate how effectively food safety technology is being used. Fast food restaurants, grocery stores, and other major customers of meat and

Michael Ollinger; Mary K. Muth; Shawn A. Karns; Zanethia Choice



Tasco supplementation: effects on carcass characteristics, sensory attributes, and retail display shelf-life.  


Two hundred crossbred cattle (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) were supplemented with 2% Tasco (Ascophyllum nodosum) in a commercial finishing facility to evaluate marbling score, USDA quality grade, sensory traits, and retail display shelf life. Treatment animals (n = 100) received a steam-rolled corn (Zea mays)-based diet containing 2% Tasco meal (DM basis), for 14 d beginning at d 45 of the finishing period and again 14 d before slaughter. Control animals (n = 100) received a steam-rolled corn (Zea mays)-based diet without Tasco at identical feeding periods. Carcasses from Tasco-fed cattle exhibited greater marbling scores (P = 0.003) than controls. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.05) on sensory, shear, or purge attributes of striploin or inside round steaks with the exception of inside round steaks from Tasco animals having a greater initial tenderness (P = 0.03) and lower off-flavor score (P = 0.002) than control steaks. The LM samples from Tasco-fed cattle had a greater percentage of ether extractable fat (P = 0.001) and lower percentage of protein (P = 0.001) than controls. Inside round samples from treated animals exhibited a greater percentage of moisture (P = 0.03) than control steaks. Visual lean color of striploin steaks was not affected by Tasco supplementation (P = 0.26); however, steaks from Tasco-treated animals were more uniform and had less discoloration and browning than those from controls (P = 0.005, 0.04, and 0.05, respectively). Inside round visual scores and instrument values reflected similar treatment responses (P < 0.05), with a majority of the effects on muscle redness (CIE a*, hue angle) and measures of discoloration. Tasco steaks were generally more red and less discolored during extended postmortem aging and retail exposure (P < 0.05). The results from this study indicate that short-term supplementation of 2% Tasco meal in feedlot cattle increases carcass quality and prolonged retail shelf life. PMID:17296779

Braden, K W; Blanton, J R; Montgomery, J L; van Santen, E; Allen, V G; Miller, M F



Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham  

PubMed Central

The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)?×Duroc? (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa



Storage and packaging effects on sensory and color characteristics of ground beef.  


Effects of irradiation (2 kGy) of ground beef patties from trimmings stored aerobically for 0 or 6 days on lean color, odor, and sensory attributes were investigated. Beef trimings were coarse ground and split into 2 groups. Group one was fine ground, pattied, and packaged immediately; group-two was stored 6 days then fine ground, pattied, and packaged. Irradiated beef patties had greater (P<0.05) off-odors, and off-flavors, lower (P<0.05) CIE L(?), a(?) and b(?) and saturation indexes values (P<0.05) after four days of storage at 0±1 °C. Irradiation of patties produced from trimmings aged an extra 6 days resulted in increased (P<0.05) saturation indexes and b(?) values, but not off-odors when compared to non-aged and irradiated patties. Thus, the production of irradiated beef patties should utilize beef trimmings with the shortest postmortem aging time and a dose of less than 2 kGy to minimize discoloration and off-odors. PMID:22063115

Montgomery, J L; Parrish, F C; Olson, D G; Dickson, J S; Niebuhr, S



Prediction of compositional and sensory characteristics using RGB digital images and multivariate calibration techniques.  


In the present paper, the possibility to use the information contained in RGB digital images to gain a fast and inexpensive quantification of colour-related properties of food is explored. To this aim, we present an approach which consists, as first step, in condensing the colour related information contained in RGB digital images of the analysed samples in one-dimensional signals, named colourgrams. These signals are then used as descriptor variables in multivariate calibration models. The feasibility of this approach has been tested using as a benchmark a series of samples of pesto sauce, whose RGB images have been used to predict both visual attributes defined by a panel test and the content of various pigments (chlorophylls a and b, pheophytins a and b, ?-carotene and lutein). The possibility to predict correctly the values of some of the studied parameters suggests the feasibility of this approach for fast monitoring of the main aspect-related properties of a food matrix. The values of the squared correlation coefficient computed in prediction on a test set (R(Pred)(2)) for green and yellow hues were greater than 0.75, while R(Pred)(2) values greater than 0.85 were obtained for the prediction of total chlorophylls content and of chlorophylls/pheophytins ratio. The great flexibility of this blind analysis method for the quantitative evaluation of colour related features of matrices with an inhomogeneous aspect suggests that it is possible to implement automated, objective, and transferable systems for fast monitoring of raw materials, different stages of the manufacture and end products, not necessarily for the food industry only. PMID:22023857

Foca, Giorgia; Masino, Francesca; Antonelli, Andrea; Ulrici, Alessandro



Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.  


Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P < 0.01) compared with no odor. Actively sniffing banana odor did not significantly influence food intake (P = 0.68) or general appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors. PMID:24966408

Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A



Investigation of sensory and volatile characteristics of farmed and wild barramundi (Lates calcarifer) using gas chromatography-olfactometry mass spectrometry and descriptive sensory analysis.  


Australian aquacultured and wild-caught barramundi (Lates calcarifer) were obtained for sensory evaluation and analysis by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with simultaneous mass spectrometry. Aquacultured barramundi were sourced from commercial farms representing some typical Australian production methods: above-ground recirculation tank, in-ground lined pond, and in-ground earth pond cultivation. Wild barramundi were sourced from three river-mouth sites in Northern Australia: the Gulf of Carpentaria, the Arafura Sea in the Northern Territory, and the Coral Sea, Northern Queensland. Fish were filleted, minced into a homogeneous sample, and blast frozen for subsequent cooking and sensory and volatile analysis. Barramundi mince portions were grilled using a standardized method for sensory descriptive profiling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry analysis. Volatiles from grilled fish were collected using dynamic headspace, and the extracts were subjected to direct-intensity olfactometry analysis by trained assessors. More than 30 odor-active compounds were present in the barramundi extracts, mostly with the same odor-active compounds detected in both wild and aquacultured samples. On average, the perceived GC-O odor intensities of most aroma volatiles were higher in aquacultured samples. This was also reflected by instrumental data, where most volatiles were present at higher concentrations in the aquacultured samples. Additional "muddy", "earthy", and "musty" flavor notes perceived in the lined and earth pond aquacultured samples were related to the presence of 2-methyl isoborneol and geosmin in these samples. Multivariate modeling was used to relate the sensory, olfactometry, and instrumental data; overall, there was good agreement between the data sets. PMID:19824645

Frank, Damian; Poole, Sue; Kirchhoff, Stephanie; Forde, Ciarán



The effects of multiple antimicrobial interventions on processing, lipid, textural, instrumental color and sensory characteristics when used in a ground beef patty production system.  


The impact of multiple antimicrobial interventions on ground beef processing, lipid, textural, instrumental color and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Beef trimmings were treated with 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride followed by 10% trisodium phosphate (CT), 200-ppm chlorine dioxide followed by 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CLC), 200-ppm chlorine dioxide followed by 10% trisodium phosphate (CLT), or 2% lactic acid followed by 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (LC) and compared to an untreated control (C). Sensory panelists found LC and CT treatments similar (P>0.05) in grinding ability to C. By day 2 of display, CT, CLT and LC patties were redder (a(?); P<0.05) than C. Sensory panelists found CT patties redder (P<0.05) than C by day 2 of display. Sensory panelists found CT and CLT juicier than C. Therefore, the use of these multiple antimicrobial intervention agents on beef trimmings may improve sensory characteristics and shelf-life of ground beef patties. PMID:22063684

Jimenez-Villarreal, J R; Pohlman, F W; Johnson, Z B; Brown, A H



Lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics of a Spanish fermented dry-cured meat product (salchichón) with oregano essential oil used as surface mold inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superficial antifungal activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) in Spanish fermented dry-cured sausages (“salchichón”), and its effects on lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The surface application of OEO reduced mold contamination on the surface, without significantly affecting the drying process. To evaluate the intensity of lipolysis during the ripening process, the profile and content of free fatty

Ana María Martín-Sánchez; Clemencia Chaves-López; Esther Sendra; Estrella Sayas; Juana Fenández-López; José Ángel Pérez-Álvarez



Partitioning Characteristics of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Between Water and Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic organic pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been found ubiquitously\\u000a in the environment, including in tap water. For the first time, we studied PFOS sorption from water to foods (nine commonly\\u000a consumed vegetables, three meats, and cereals) at two temperatures to estimate the daily intake of PFOS attributable to cooking\\u000a and food preparation. The values

Feng Xiao; Matt F. Simcik; John S. Gulliver


Contribution to aroma characteristics of mutton process flavor from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sheep bone protein assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry.  


Changes in the aroma characteristics of mutton process flavors (MPFs) prepared from sheep bone protein hydrolysates (SBPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). Five attributes (muttony, meaty, roasted, mouthful, and simulate) were selected to assess MPFs. The results of DSA showed a distinct difference among the control sample MPF0 and other MPF samples with added SBPHs for different DHs of almost all sensory attributes. MPF5 (DH 25.92%) was the strongest in the muttony, meaty, and roasted attributes, whereas MPF6 (DH 30.89%) was the strongest in the simulate and roasted attributes. Thirty-six compounds were identified as odor-active compounds for the evaluation of the sensory characteristics of MPFs via GC-MS-O analysis. The results of correlation analysis among odor-active compounds, molecular weight, and DSA further confirmed that the SBPH with a DH range of 25.92-30.89% may be a desirable precursor for the sensory characteristics of MPF. PMID:23416288

Zhan, Ping; Tian, Honglei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liping



I'll Have What She's Having: The Impact of Model Characteristics on Children's Food Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigates children's use of social categories in their food selection. Across three studies, we presented preschoolers with sets of photographs that contrasted food-eating models with different characteristics, including model gender, race (Black, White), age (child or adult), and/or expression (acceptance or rejection of the…

Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Russell, Joshua W.; Lumeng, Julie C.



Characteristics of bilateral hand function in individuals with unilateral dystonia due to perinatal stroke: sensory and motor aspects.  


The authors assessed bilateral motor and sensory function in individuals with upper limb dystonia due to unilateral perinatal stroke and explored interrelationships of motor function and sensory ability. Reach kinematics and tactile sensation were measured in 7 participants with dystonia and 9 healthy volunteers. The dystonia group had poorer motor (hold time, reach time, shoulder/elbow correlation) and sensory (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) outcomes than the control group on the nondominant side. On the dominant side, only sensation (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) was poorer in the dystonia group compared with the control group. In the dystonia group, although sensory and motor outcomes were uncorrelated, dystonia severity was related to poorer stereognosis, longer hold and reach times, and decreased shoulder/elbow coordination. Findings of bilateral sensory deficits in dystonia can be explained by neural reorganization. Visual compensation for somatosensory changes in the nonstroke hemisphere may explain the lack of bilateral impairments in reaching. PMID:24396131

de Campos, Ana Carolina; Kukke, Sahana N; Hallett, Mark; Alter, Katharine E; Damiano, Diane L



Sensory characteristics of chronic non-specific low back pain: A subgroup investigation.  


It has been proposed that patients with chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) can be broadly classified based on clinical features that represent either predominantly a mechanical pain (MP) or non-mechanical pain (NMP) profile. The aim of this study was to establish if patients with CNSLBP who report features of NMP demonstrate differences in pain thresholds compared to those who report MP characteristics and pain-free controls. This study was a cross-sectional design investigating whether pressure pain threshold (PPT) and/or cold pain threshold (CPT) at three anatomical locations differed between patients with mechanical CNSLBP (n = 17) versus non-mechanical CNSLBP (n = 19 and healthy controls (n = 19) whilst controlling for confounders. The results of this study provide evidence of increased CPT at the wrist in the NMP profile group compared to both the MP profile and control subjects, when controlling for gender, sleep and depression (NMP versus MP group Odds Ratio (OR): 18.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5-133.1, p = 0.004). There was no evidence of lowered PPT at any site after adjustment for confounding factors. Those with an MP profile had similar pain thresholds to pain-free controls, whereas the NMP profile group demonstrated elevated CPT's consistent with central amplification of pain. These findings may represent different pain mechanisms associated with these patient profiles and may have implications for targeted management. PMID:24731602

O'Sullivan, Peter; Waller, Robert; Wright, Anthony; Gardner, Joseph; Johnston, Richard; Payne, Carly; Shannon, Aedin; Ware, Brendan; Smith, Anne



Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana



The Effect of Rheological Properties of Foods on Bolus Characteristics After Mastication  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effects of physical properties of foods on the changes of viscosity and mass as well as the particle size distribution after mastication. Method Twenty subjects with no masticatory disorders were recruited. Six grams of four solid foods of different textures (banana, tofu, cooked-rice, cookie) were provided, and the viscosity and mass after 10, 20, and 30 cycles of mastication and just before swallowing were measured. The physical properties of foods, such as hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness, were measured with a texture analyzer. Wet sieving and laser diffraction were used to determine the distribution of food particle size. Results When we measured the physical characteristics of foods, the cookie was the hardest food, and the banana exhibited marked adhesiveness. Tofu and cooked-rice exhibited a highly cohesive nature. As the number of mastication cycles increased, the masses of all foods were significantly increased (p<0.05), and the viscosity was significantly decreased in the case of banana, tofu, and cooked-rice (p<0.05). The mass and viscosity of all foods were significantly different between the foods after mastication (p<0.05). Analyzing the distribution of the particle size, that of the bolus was different between foods. However, the curves representing the particle size distribution for each food were superimposable for most subjects. Conclusion The viscosity and particle size distribution of the bolus were different between solid foods that have different physical properties. Based on this result, the mastication process and food bolus formation were affected by the physical properties of the food.

Hwang, Junah; Bae, Jung Hyun; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Byong Ki; Lee, Sook Young



The association of food characteristics and individual differences with ratings of craving and liking.  


Craving and liking are related to eating-related problems, but less is known about the association of specific food characteristics (e.g., sugar, fat) with craving/liking. The relation of individual differences in eating behavior with these craving and liking patterns is also relatively unknown. We examine the nomothetic impact of sugar, fat and processing on food craving and liking and the moderation of these effects by idiographic factors (e.g., Body Mass Index [BMI], hunger). One hundred and five overweight and obese women completed craving and liking ratings on 180 foods that differed in levels of sugar, fat and processing. Food craving was linked positively to fat content, but negatively to sugar. Food liking was associated negatively with sugar content and processing level. Addictive-like eating predicted elevated overall food craving and liking, and increased craving and liking for processed foods. Attempted restriction efforts were unrelated to craving and liking. BMI was associated with less craving for fattier foods and lower liking for the average food. Hunger was associated with increased craving for the average food. These findings highlight the role of fat in cravings and differences in craving and liking based on BMI, loss of control over eating, and hunger. These findings are relevant to theories of problematic eating and the development of eating-related interventions. PMID:24768936

Gearhardt, Ashley N; Rizk, Marianne T; Treat, Teresa A



Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy yogurt fermented with Bifidobacterium breve K-110, Streptococcus thermophilus 3781, or Lactobacillus acidophilus Q509011  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy yogurt fermented with Bifidobacterium breve K-110, Streptococcus thermophilus 3781, or Lactobacillus acidophilus Q509011 for 36 hr at 37°C were investigated and the soyasaponin metabolites of soy yogurt were measured. L. acidophilus reduced the pH of soy yogurt on day 0 to optimum level. After 36 hr, the Brix dropped to 8.48–9.12°Bx. The viable

Seo Young Chang; Dong-Hyun Kim; Myung Joo Han



Sensitivity and specificity of PLS-class modelling for five sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham using visible and near infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two objectives of this work were to evaluate near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) as a tool for on-line classification of dry-cured ham samples according to their sensory characteristics and propose a method for obtaining a set of qualified class models that enables accurate decisions to be taken. With these aims, 117 dry-cured ham samples were classified by expert judges

M. Cruz Ortiz; Luis Sarabia; Raquel García-Rey; M. Dolores Luque de Castro




Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has yielded conflicting results on consumer valuation of food safety characteristics. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to evaluate consumer responses to hypothetical apple products in a nationwide survey. Product characteristics include price, quality, pesticide use levels and the corresponding cancer risk, and type of government inspection. Consumers expressed a broad preference for reduced pesticide usage. Four

Gregory A. Baker



Effect of wild strains of Lactococcus lactis on the volatile profile and the sensory characteristics of ewes' raw milk cheese.  


The production of volatile compounds by wild strains of Lactococcus lactis used as starter cultures and their effect on the sensory characteristics of ewes' raw milk cheese were investigated. Sixteen vats of cheese were manufactured and ripened for 120 d in two experiments, each of them duplicated. In the first experiment, milk was inoculated with different ratios of four wild Lactococcus lactis strains, two producing and two not producing branched-chain volatile compounds, and in the second experiment with different ratios of a commercial starter culture and the two strains producing branched-chain volatile compounds. Cheese pH, proteolysis, and aminopeptidase activity increased when the strains producing branched-chain volatile compounds were inoculated at a higher rate. Fifty volatile compounds were identified in cheeses using a purge and trap system coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry apparatus. The relative abundances of 30 volatile compounds (8 alcohols, 5 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 12 esters, 1 sulfur compound, and 1 benzenic compound) were influenced by starter culture composition. 2-Methylpropanol, 3-methylbutanol, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, and isoamyl butyrate were always more abundant in the cheeses made with a higher level of L. lactis strains producing branched-chain volatile compounds. Flavor intensity was enhanced by a high level of L. lactis strains producing branched-chain volatile compounds in the first experiment, in which four wild L. lactis strains were used as starter culture, but not in the second experiment, in which a combination of two wild L. lactis strains and the commercial starter culture were used. Flavor quality, as judged by trained panelists, was impaired in both experiments by a high level of L. lactis strains producing branched-chain volatile compounds. PMID:12512589

Centeno, J A; Tomillo, F J; Fernández-García, E; Gaya, P; Nuñez, M



Functional and bioactive properties of rapeseed protein concentrates and sensory analysis of food application with rapeseed protein concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the use of rapeseed (Brassica napus) protein from oil industry waste for food applications, two rapeseed cultivars (Express, Lion) were pretreated to remove the hulls and oil. Rapeseed protein concentrates were then prepared by washing with 450ml\\/l isopropanol. A portion of each protein concentrate was steamed before undergoing isopropanol treatment to deactivate myrosinase. Deactivation of myrosinase

Yumiko Yoshie-Stark; Yoshiko Wada; Michael Schott; Andreas Wäsche



Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitterness and astringency are found in a variety of foods, including nuts, fruits, chocolate, tea, wine, and soymilk. In fruits and bever- ages, the taste of bitterness and the tactile sensation of astringency are elicited primarily by flavanol polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins). Variations in proanthocyanidin composition, such as polymer size, extent of galloylation, and formation of deriv- atives, affect

Isabelle Lesschaeve; Ann C Noble


Differentiation of aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of different grades using gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis.  


Two independent approaches, gas chromatography-olfactometry and sensory analysis, were used to evaluate and compare the aroma characteristics of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of four different grades. The aroma-active compounds responsible for the sensory attributes of pine- mushrooms were investigated based on the correlation between instrumental and sensory analyses through partial least-square regression. Piny, meaty, and floral attributes were strongly correlated with each other and were the most important descriptors for defining the pine-mushrooms of the highest grade, and they decreased as the grade decreased. Among 23 aroma-active compounds, (E)-2-decenal, alpha-terpineol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid ethyl ester contributed most to these attributes. On the other hand, the major aroma characteristics of the pine-mushrooms of the lowest grade were wet soil-like, alcohol, metallic, moldy, and fermented, and they decreased as the grade increased. These aroma characteristics were strongly associated with 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, and methional. PMID:17323969

Cho, In Hee; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Kim, Young-Suk



Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with the Location of Food Stores and Food Service Places  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: Names and addresses of places to buy food in Mississippi, North Carolina, Maryland, and Minnesota were obtained from respective departments of health and agriculture. Ad- dresses were geocoded to census tracts. Median house values were used to estimate neighborhood wealth, while the proportion of black residents was used to measure neighborhood racial segregation. Results: Compared to the poorest neighborhoods,

Kimberly Morland; Steve Wing; Ana Diez Roux; Charles Poole



Effect of incorporation of mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) powder on quality characteristics of Papad (Indian snack food).  


Papad is familiarly known as an Indian food adjunct or snack food. In this study, attempts have been made to increase the protein, minerals and crude fibre content of the papad with incorporation of Pleurotus sajor-caju powder to develop a novel snack food. Mushroom powder was added in different proportions with other ingredients of the papad and the prepared papad was subjected to physicochemical and sensorial analyses. Mushrooms pretreated with 1% potassium metabisulphite followed by whey treatment had better colour and reduced drying time. Drying at 50°C produced more amount of mushroom powder (350 ?) and had higher acceptability of rehydrated samples. The papad enriched with 20% mushroom powder showed increased values of protein (15.8%), minerals (38.87%) and crude fibre (218.18%) content and had maximum sensory score. Therefore, papad supplemented with oyster mushroom powder may help to reduce protein malnutrition, constipation and mineral deficiency disorders. PMID:22574961

Parab, D N; Dhalagade, J R; Sahoo, A K; Ranveer, R C



Sensory and consumer testing with children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many foods and beverages are developed specifically for children, and must be tested with children. Sensory or consumer tests for children must take into account the range of sensory and cognitive abilities of children from infancy to teen age. This review examines what type of sensory or consumer test may be conducted with children, at what age and for what

Jean-Xavier Guinard



Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.  


Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products. PMID:23575142

Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun



Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.  


The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (P<0.05; 0.70 log CFU/g) of Salmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (P<0.05) psychrotrophic growth. SDLA patties had more purge (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) subjective color scores. There were not large differences in sensory characteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05). PMID:23639886

Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A



Effect of processing flax in beef feedlot diets on performance, carcass characteristics, and trained sensory panel ratings.  


To assess the effects of flax addition and flax processing on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics, 128 yearling beef heifers (360 +/- 14 kg of initial BW) were blocked by weight and assigned randomly to feedlot diets that included no flax (control), whole flax (WHL), rolled flax (RLD; 1,300 microm), or ground flax (GRD; 700 microm). Heifers were fed a growth diet (31% corn, 30% corn silage, 18% barley malt pellets, 14% alfalfa, 4% linseed meal, and 3% supplement; DM basis) for 56 d, after which they were adapted to a finishing diet (79% corn, 7% corn silage, 7% alfalfa, 4.75% linseed meal, and 2.25% supplement; DM basis). In WHL, RLD, and GRD, flax replaced all linseed meal and partially replaced corn at 8% of diet DM. All diets provided 0.5 mg of melengestrol acetate, 2,000 IU of vitamin E, and 232 mg of monensin per heifer daily. Cattle were slaughtered by block after 96, 97, and 124 (2 blocks) d on feed. At 24 h postmortem, carcass data were collected, and a portion of the loin was removed, vacuum-packaged, and aged for 14 d. After aging, 2 steaks were removed from each loin for Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement, sensory panel evaluation, and fatty acid analysis (approximately 100 g of muscle was collected). Flax inclusion (WHL, RLD, and GRD vs. control) did not affect DMI (P = 0.79), fat thickness over the 12th rib (P = 0.32), or LM area (P = 0.23). Flax inclusion increased ADG (P = 0.006), G:F (P = 0.006), and USDA yield grade (P = 0.01). Flax processing (RLD and GRD vs. WHL) increased ADG (P = 0.05), G:F (P = 0.08), and apparent dietary NEm and NEg (P = 0.003). Muscle from heifers fed flax had greater phospholipid 18:3n-3 (P < 0.001), 20:5n-3 (P < 0.001), 22:5n-3 (P < 0.001), and 22:6n-3 (P = 0.02) fractions, and greater neutral lipid 18:3n-3 (P < 0.001). Feeding 8% flax to feedlot heifers increased gain and efficiency, and processing flax increased available energy and resulted in increased efficiency of gain. Feeding 8% flax also increased levels of n-3 fatty acids in fresh beef. PMID:16699112

Maddock, T D; Bauer, M L; Koch, K B; Anderson, V L; Maddock, R J; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Murphy, E J; Lardy, G P



Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.  


A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D



Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 °C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 °C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant ( EC, 1997; EEC, 1993). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [ 60Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected, since ATBC did not undergo chemical decomposition upon irradiation up to 25 kGy. Finally, specific migration decreased proportionally with increasing polarity of the food-simulating solvent.

Zygoura, Panagiota D.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G.



Nutritional and carbohydrate characteristics of wheat and chickpea based weaning foods.  


Weaning foods based on malted wheat and chickpea (MWF), popped wheat and chickpea (PWF), and roller dried wheat and chickpea (RWF) were prepared. The PWF and RWF were blended with 5% barley malt flour to formulate low bulk popped (PWFM) and roller dried (RWFM) foods. The amino acid contents, carbohydrate fractionation, pasting characteristics and in vivo carbohydrate digestibility of the foods were determined. Also the liver characteristics of weanling rats fed on the foods were assessed. The foods contained 17.0-18.3% protein, 1.7-3.7% fat, 67.1-67.5% available carbohydrates and 11.1-12.0% dietary fibre. The lysine content of the food proteins ranged from 4.2 to 4.6%. No appreciable difference in the amino acid contents among the different foods and also between the low bulk popped and roller dried foods (PWFM, RWFM) and their high bulk counterparts (PWF and RWF) were observed. The moisture content of the fresh livers of the animals fed on low bulk foods, namely MWF (60.9%), PWFM (63.9%), and RWFM (65.7%), were lower than the high bulk PWF (67.1%) and RWF (70.7%). A similar trend was recorded with respect to fresh and dry weight of the livers. The fractionation of the food carbohydrates by Sepharose CL 2B gel indicated partial hydrolysis of amylopectin fraction and increase in amylose fraction of starch of the MWF, PWFM and RWFM. The PWF also showed a prominent intermediate fraction. The Brabender viscograms of the RWF and PWF exhibited considerable cold paste viscosity, revealing the pregelatinised nature of the starch in these food, but the viscosities of MWF, PWFM and RWFM at 10% slurry concentration were too low to be recorded by the instrument throughout the heating and cooling cycle, probably due to the hydrolysis of their starch by the malt amylases. These observations show that blending about 5% cereal malt with high bulk weaning foods has advantages with respect to reduction in the dietary bulk by partial hydrolysis of carbohydrates, but does not alter their amino acid content significantly. PMID:12775367

Suhasini, A W; Malleshi, N G



Sodium metasilicate affects antimicrobial, sensory, physical, and chemical characteristics of fresh commercial chicken breast meat stored at 4° C for 9 days.  


The objectives of this study were to investigate antimicrobial properties of sodium metasilicate (SMS) on fresh boneless and skinless commercial broiler chicken breast fillets, and to ascertain effects of the treatments on sensory, chemical, and physical characteristics of the meat. Fillets were divided into 5 groups, weighed, treated with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% SMS marinades, vacuum tumbled at 172.32 kPa for 20 min, reweighed, packaged in styrofoam trays, stored at 4°C for 9 d, and analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 d for marination yield (d 0 only), pH, total psychrotrophic counts, water-holding capacity, purge loss, cooking yield, and objective texture, color, and sensory characteristics. Marination yield and water-holding capacity were similar (P > 0.05) among all SMS treatments and increased by 3 to 4% compared with that in control fillets. Fillets treated with at least 3% SMS had higher (P < 0.05) pH and cooking yields and lower (P < 0.05) purge loss (on d 9) compared with control fillets. The 3 and 4% SMS treatments retarded growth of psychrotrophic organisms for 1 additional day compared with control, 1, and 2% SMS-treated fillets. Color and texture measurements and sensory characteristics of the fillets were not adversely affected by the SMS treatments. The data in this study revealed that at least 3% SMS was necessary to retard growth of spoilage bacteria compared with untreated samples and samples treated with the USDA maximum allowable level of 2% SMS in poultry marinades. PMID:21489963

Huang, H; Williams, S K; Sims, C A; Simmone, A



Estimation of characteristic damage time of food materials in pulsed-electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on the electrical conductivity measurements is proposed to estimate the characteristic damage time (?) of a food material in pulsed-electric fields (PEF). Empirical dependencies of ? versus electric field intensity E are obtained for apple, carrot and potato tissues. The generalized electroporation theory accounting for the sphericity of biological cells and distribution of their geometric sizes gives

N. I Lebovka; M. I Bazhal; E Vorobiev



Measurement Characteristics of the Women’s Health Initiative Food Frequency Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) is the largest research program ever initiated in the United States with a focus on diet and health. Therefore, it is important to understand and document the measurement characteristics of the key dietary assessment instrument: the WHI food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).METHODS: Data are from 113 women screened for participation in the WHI in 1995.

Ruth E. Patterson; Alan R. Kristal; Lesley Fels Tinker; Rachel A. Carter; Mary Pat Bolton; Tanya Agurs-Collins



Effect of organic calcium supplements on the technological characteristic and sensory properties of gluten-free bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effect of individual and combined addition of two organic calcium supplements, calcium caseinate\\u000a and calcium citrate to the gluten-free formulation on selected technological parameters, calcium content and sensory quality\\u000a of bread was evaluated. Standard technological tests and texture analysis were performed on the gluten-free control and gluten-free\\u000a breads fortified with calcium. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA)

Urszula Krupa-Kozak; Agnieszka Troszy?ska; Natalia B?czek; Maria Soral-?mietana



Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics.  


Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ?21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility. PMID:23122168

Aravind, Nisha; Sissons, Mike; Fellows, Christopher M; Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot P



Effect of the gamma radiation dose rate on psychrotrophic bacteria, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken meat.  


Frozen samples of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) with skin were irradiated with gamma radiation doses of 0.0 kGy (control) and 3 kGy at 2 different radiation dose rates: 0.32 kGy/h (3 kGy) and 4.04 kGy/h (3 kGy). Batches of irradiated and control samples were evaluated during 11 d of refrigerated (2 ± 1 °C) storage for the following parameters: total psychrotrophic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), evaluation of objective color (L*, a*, and b*) and a sensory evaluation (irradiated odor, oxidized odor, pink and brown colors). No statistical difference (P > 0.05) was found amongst the TBARS values obtained for the MDCM samples irradiated with dose rates of 0.32 and 4.04 kGy/h. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the psychrotrophic bacterial count as from the 7th day of refrigerated storage, for the MDCM samples irradiated at the dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h. With respect to the attribute of oxidized odor, the samples irradiated with a dose rate of 0.32 kGy/h showed a stronger intensity and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the sample irradiated with a dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h on days 0 and 2 of refrigerated storage. Irradiation with a dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h (3 kGy) was shown to be the best condition for the processing of MDCM according to the evaluation of all the variables, under the conditions of this study. Practical Application:? The results obtained for the application of different dose rates of ionizing radiation to mechanically deboned chicken meat will provide the food industry with information concerning the definition of the best processing conditions to maximize the sensory and food quality. PMID:21535789

Brito, Poliana P; Azevedo, Heliana; Cipolli, Kátia M V A B; Fukuma, Henrique T; Mourão, Gerson B; Roque, Cláudio V; Miya, Norma T; Pereira, José L



Mercury biomagnification through food webs is affected by physical and chemical characteristics of lakes.  


Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern because the organic form, methyl Hg (MeHg), can biomagnify to harmful concentrations in fish, fish-eating wildlife, and humans. Food web transfer of MeHg has been explored using models of log MeHg versus relative trophic position (nitrogen isotopes, ?(15)N), but regression slopes vary across systems for unknown reasons. In this study, MeHg biomagnification was determined for 11 lake food webs in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and compared to physical and chemical lake characteristics using principal component and multiple regression analyses. MeHg biomagnification (regression slopes of log MeHg versus baseline-adjusted ?(15)N for fishes and invertebrates) varied significantly across lakes and was higher in systems with lower aqueous nutrient/MeHg/chloride scores. This is one of the largest, consistent data sets available on MeHg biomagnification through temperate lake food webs and the first study to use a principal component and multiple regression approach to understand how lake chemical and physical characteristics interact to affect biomagnification among systems. Overall, our results show that the magnitude of MeHg biomagnification through lake food webs is related to the chemical and physical characteristics of the systems, but the underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:24099312

Clayden, Meredith G; Kidd, Karen A; Wyn, Brianna; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; O'Driscoll, Nelson J



Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP.

Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun



Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Eggs Obtained from Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil, Dried Whitebait and/or Fructo-oligosaccharide  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the effects of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait as a source of ?-3 fatty acids (?-3 FA), which could be used to produce eggs enriched with ?-3 FA, and of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as a source of prebiotics on performance of hens (commercial Hy-Line Brown laying hens), and FA composition, internal quality, and sensory characteristics of the eggs. Dietary FOS increased egg weight. The amounts of ?-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the eggs from the hens fed the flaxseed oil alone or flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diets were higher than those of the control. Hedonic scores for off-flavor, fishy flavor, buttery taste and overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil+ dried whitebait were lower (p<0.05) than those of the control. Overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing soybean oil+dried whitebait was lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. However, all the sensory attributes of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil, dried whitebait and FOS were not significantly different from those of the control. These results confirmed that flaxseed oil increases the ALA content in the eggs and a combination of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait increases EPA and DHA in the eggs. Of significance was that addition of FOS to the flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diet improves the sensory characteristics of the eggs enriched with ?-3 FA.

Yi, Haechang; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M.; Shin, Sung Woo



Dose-response characteristics of methylphenidate on locomotor behavior and on sensory evoked potentials recorded from the VTA, NAc, and PFC in freely behaving rats  

PubMed Central

Background Methylphenidate (MPD) is a psychostimulant commonly prescribed for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The mode of action of the brain circuitry responsible for initiating the animals' behavior in response to psychostimulants is not well understood. There is some evidence that psychostimulants activate the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Methods The present study was designed to investigate the acute dose-response of MPD (0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg) on locomotor behavior and sensory evoked potentials recorded from the VTA, NAc, and PFC in freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent electrodes. For locomotor behavior, adult male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; n = 39) rats were given saline on experimental day 1 and either saline or an acute injection of MPD (0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) on experimental day 2. Locomotor activity was recorded for 2-h post injection on both days using an automated, computerized activity monitoring system. Electrophysiological recordings were also performed in the adult male WKY rats (n = 10). Five to seven days after the rats had recovered from the implantation of electrodes, each rat was placed in a sound-insulated, electrophysiological test chamber where its sensory evoked field potentials were recorded before and after saline and 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD injection. Time interval between injections was 90 min. Results Results showed an increase in locomotion with dose-response characteristics, while a dose-response decrease in amplitude of the components of sensory evoked field responses of the VTA, NAc, and PFC neurons. For example, the P3 component of the sensory evoked field response of the VTA decreased by 19.8% ± 7.4% from baseline after treatment of 0.6 mg/kg MPD, 37.8% ± 5.9% after 2.5 mg/kg MPD, and 56.5% ± 3.9% after 10 mg/kg MPD. Greater attenuation from baseline was observed in the NAc and PFC. Differences in the intensity of MPD-induced attenuation were also found among these brain areas. Conclusion These results suggest that an acute treatment of MPD produces electrophysiologically detectable alterations at the neuronal level, as well as observable, behavioral responses. The present study is the first to investigate the acute dose-response effects of MPD on behavior in terms of locomotor activity and in the brain involving the sensory inputs of VTA, NAc, and PFC neurons in intact, non-anesthetized, freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent electrodes.

Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum



Does Food Insecurity Affect Parental Characteristics and Child Behavior? Testing Mediation Effects  

PubMed Central

Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent’s self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity’s relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecurity’s relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures.

Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M. Matta; Kim, Youngmi



The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat  

PubMed Central

Ingredients such as ascorbic acid used to preserve redness of the raw meat, and carnosine and ribose used for flavor improvement have been incorporated into minced meats to increase consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible synergistic effect of ascorbic acid, carnosine, and ribose on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat. Samples included control (Co) ±1% carnosine (C), 0.1% ascorbic acid (A), 2% ribose (R) (w/w), and combinations of RC, RA, RCA in the same concentrations as the single ingredient samples. A trained sensory panel (n = 7) measured the intensity of the aromas and flavors of salty, sour, beef, and liver of the bison patties. A consumer acceptance panel (n = 59) evaluated color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of the patties. Hunterlab colorimetry, shear force, cook loss, and drip loss percentage were measured on the cooked patties, and color and pH on the raw patties. The sample containing 2% ribose (R), 1% carnosine (C), and 0.1% ascorbic acid (A) in combination (RCA) showed a significantly higher consumer acceptance for aroma, which could possibly be attributed to the high beef aroma intensity measured by the descriptive analysis panel. RCA had the highest color acceptance which may be related to the high a* value for the cooked sample. RCA also had high overall acceptance corresponding to “like slightly.” Raw and cooked color values, shear force, pH, cook loss and drip loss percentages, and aroma and flavor attribute intensities for RCA were not significantly different from the control sample. The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid may positively affect the aroma and color of minced bison meat leading to higher overall acceptability without compromising sensory and physico-chemical quality.

Aliani, Michel; Ryland, Donna; Williamson, Jennifer; Rempel, Natalie



Temporal Sensory Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sensory systems, in particular those of vision and hearing, are known to mimic some of the characteristics of a linear, temporal energy integrator. Experiments conducted on the project have demonstrated that the sense of touch is endowed with the same pro...

J. J. Zwislocki



Changes in physical characteristics, hematological parameters and nutrients and food intake during weight reduction in judoists  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied changes in physical characteristics: body composition; muscle and physical strength; hematological parameters;\\u000a and nutrients and food intake in 22 male college judoists who were losing weight purposefully. Nutritional parameters in blood,\\u000a such as triglycerides, decreased immediately before matches and rebounded after matches. Free fatty acid increased before\\u000a matches and returned to previous levels 10 days after matches. IgM

Shigeyoshi Kurakake; Takashi Umeda; Shigeyuki Nakaji; Kazuo Sugawara; Kazuo Saito; Yosuke Yamamoto



An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat.  


Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5%, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200 ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14%) and CA (5%) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14%), LA (5%), CA (5%) and ASC (1200 ppm) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the Campylobacter counts and a 2.5 to 3 log10 cfu/cm(2) reduction was observed within the shelf-life (3-5 days) of poultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14%) or CA (5%) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44 log10 cfu/cm(2), respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The 'colour' of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14%, w/v) and CA (5%, w/v) was significantly (P?0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The 'intensity of chicken odour' and the perception of 'salt' in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5%, w/v) were also significantly (P?0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14%, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14%) or CA (5%) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product. PMID:23973843

Meredith, H; Walsh, D; McDowell, D A; Bolton, D J



Effects of sensory education based on classroom activities for lower grade school children.  


This study is to verify the effects of sensory education based on classroom activities for 2(nd) and 3(rd) grade children. The hypothesis is that children who participated in sensory education would demonstrate positive changes in eating behaviors through sensory experiences. The sensory education program consists of 12 lessons. Twenty-six children were being recruited from one school in Changwon, Korea. Two control groups, one of which was the same age as the educated group and the other group of sixth graders, were selected by random sampling from the same school. Children answered a self-administered questionnaire. The parents (n = 20) of the children who participated in the program, took part in evaluating the program through self-administered questionnaires after the program ended. The questionnaire contained variables of general characteristics, education satisfaction, nutrition knowledge, eating attitude and behavior concerning unfamiliar foods. The score of nutrition knowledge was improved in educated children (P < 0.05). Food neophobia score towards unfamiliar foods (P < 0.05) was increased in educated children, but there are no changes in eating behaviors in all groups towards unfamiliar foods. In conclusion, sensory education is useful for having a positive eating attitude among children. Its consistent implementation could lead to healthier and well-balanced eating behaviors for children. PMID:23964323

Woo, Taejung; Lee, Kyung-Hea



Effects of sensory education based on classroom activities for lower grade school children  

PubMed Central

This study is to verify the effects of sensory education based on classroom activities for 2nd and 3rd grade children. The hypothesis is that children who participated in sensory education would demonstrate positive changes in eating behaviors through sensory experiences. The sensory education program consists of 12 lessons. Twenty-six children were being recruited from one school in Changwon, Korea. Two control groups, one of which was the same age as the educated group and the other group of sixth graders, were selected by random sampling from the same school. Children answered a self-administered questionnaire. The parents (n = 20) of the children who participated in the program, took part in evaluating the program through self-administered questionnaires after the program ended. The questionnaire contained variables of general characteristics, education satisfaction, nutrition knowledge, eating attitude and behavior concerning unfamiliar foods. The score of nutrition knowledge was improved in educated children (P < 0.05). Food neophobia score towards unfamiliar foods (P < 0.05) was increased in educated children, but there are no changes in eating behaviors in all groups towards unfamiliar foods. In conclusion, sensory education is useful for having a positive eating attitude among children. Its consistent implementation could lead to healthier and well-balanced eating behaviors for children.

Woo, Taejung



Clinical characteristics and sensitivity to food and inhalants among children with eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background To understand the clinical characteristics and the diagnostic procedures in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis and to evaluate the sensitivity of the patients to food and inhalant allergens. A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 children with eosinophilic esophagitis during the time period from January 2010 to January 2011. The clinical and epidemiological data were obtained using a questionnaire and medical chart analysis. The body mass index for age was used for the nutritional evaluation (via the Z score). The sensitivity to foods and inhalants was evaluated by performing a skin prick test and atopy patch test. Results Patients (35 in total, median age 10 years) with a diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis were evaluated. The most prevalent symptoms in the patients were vomiting (71.4%) and abdominal pain (51.4%). Endoscopic alterations were observed in 97.2% of the patients. A good nutritional state was observed in 82.8% of the children. The tests demonstrated the presence of food sensitivities and/or aeroallergens in 27 (77.1%) patients, whereas 8 (22.9%) patients did not test positive in any of the tests performed. Among the patients with positive tests, 24 (68.5%) exhibited sensitivity to aeroallergens and 16 (45.7%) were sensitive to foods. The comparison between the sensitive and insensitive groups displayed statistically significant results with respect to sex, symptom prevalence, and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Conclusions The patients evaluated in this study displayed clinical characteristics of eosinophilic esophagitis similar to those reported in the literature. The sensitivity to foods determined by the tests was less than that observed in prior studies; however, a marked sensitivity to aeroallergens was observed. The different allergen sensitivity profiles observed in this study suggests that, similar to asthma, the eosinophiic esophagitis disease may exhibit several phenotypes.



Food characteristics, long-term habituation and energy intake: Laboratory and field studies  

PubMed Central

Greater food variety is related to increased energy intake, and one approach to reduce food intake is to reduce food variety. The effects of varying the variety of foods at the dinner meal to reduce energy intake was assessed in laboratory and field experiments. Experiment 1 randomly assigned 31 overweight children to one of three conditions that provided one laboratory meal per day over a week. Conditions were the SAME macaroni and cheese, SIMILAR types of macaroni and cheese, or a VARIETY of high-energy-dense foods. On days 1 and 5 all children consumed the same macaroni and cheese meal. Results showed significant differences in energy consumed between SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY from day 1 to 5, with SAME and SIMILAR decreasing and VARIETY increasing energy intake. Trials to habituation, a potential mechanism for the variety effect, showed the same pattern of between group differences as energy intake. Experiment 2 randomly assigned 30 overweight children to conditions that provided the SAME, SIMILAR or VARIETY of high-energy-dense entrees along with a variety of low-energy-dense dinner entrees to eat in their homes for four weeks. Results showed significant between group differences in energy intake across weeks, with significant decreases over weeks for the SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY groups. The pattern of results across the experiments shows the same pattern of reduction in energy intake if children eat the same or similar characteristics of foods (types of macaroni and cheese), which may provide ideas about how to develop dietary variety prescriptions that can reduce intake and be tested in clinical trials.

Epstein, Leonard H.; Fletcher, Kelly D.; O'Neill, Jessica; Roemmich, James N.; Raynor, Hollie; Bouton, Mark E.



Flavor Characteristics of Hanwoo Beef in Comparison with Other Korean Foods  

PubMed Central

The present study identified volatile flavor components of Hanwoo longissimus muscle and other Korean foods (Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil) and their traits were compared in relation with flavor precursors that include fatty acids and protein degradation products. Hanwoo longissimus muscle was purchased from a commercial abattoir while the other foods were sampled from three separate households. The results showed totals of 68 (9.94 ?g/g), 60 (15.75 ?g/g), 49 (107.61 ?g/ml) and 50 (7.20 ?g/g) volatile components for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and Hanwoo beef longissimus, respectively (p<0.05). Aldehydes were the most predominant components in beef, but alcohols, acids and esters, and pyrazines are probably the major contributors to the flavor characteristics of other foods. SDS-PAGE revealed that beef longissimus muscle and Doenjang showed higher protein degradation than other foods which could be likely related to chiller ageing and ripening process. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids were approximately 50, 60, 41 and 5% for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and beef longissimus muscle, respectively. Based on the mechanism(s) of generation of the volatile compounds and the chemical composition of each food sample, differences and traits of volatile flavor components among the four food types are likely due to fatty acid profiles, proteolytic activity and processing conditions. Aroma intense compounds like pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds were limited in cooked beef in the current experimental condition (i.e., relatively low heating temperature). This suggests that higher heating temperature as in the case of roasting is needed for the generation of high aroma notes in meat. Furthermore, proteolytic activity and stability of fatty acids during ageing have a great influence on the generation of flavor components in cooked beef.

Van Ba, Hoa; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Inho, Hwang



Sodium diacetate and sodium lactate affect microbiology and sensory and objective characteristics of a restructured turkey breast product formulated with a fibrin cold-set binding system.  


Research was conducted to manufacture and evaluate a restructured turkey breast product using the Fibrimex cold-set binding system, sodium diacetate (NaD), and sodium lactate (NaL) and to ascertain effects of the treatments on proximate composition, pH, psychrotrophic organisms, water activity, onset of rancidity (TBA), thaw loss, cooking yields, and objective color, and sensory characteristics. Whole turkey breasts were cut into 5-cm-thick strips; treated with either water only (control), 1.5% NaL, 2.0% NaL, 0.1% NaD, 1.5% NaL + 0.1% NaD, or 2.0% NaL + 0.1% NaD; blended with Fibrimex ingredients; stuffed into casings; and stored at -30 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 mo. After each storage period, frozen chubs were tempered at 4 degrees C, sliced into 1-cm-thick steaks, packaged in retail trays, stored at 0 degrees C to simulate retail storage, and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d. Sodium diacetate used alone or in combination with NaL reduced (P < 0.05) growth of psychrotrophic organisms and had no adverse effects on water activity, pH, cooking yield, fat, moisture, protein, objective color, onset of rancidity, and sensory characteristics (juiciness, turkey flavor intensity, and tenderness). Panelists reported slight off-flavor in all steaks treated with NaL. Treating steaks with NaL alone or in combination with NaD resulted in increased (P < 0.05) ash content. Sodium lactate also functioned to minimize thaw loss in the frozen restructured turkey product. PMID:20181879

Mohammed Shafit, H; Williams, S K



A review of the oro-dento-facial characteristics of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (familial dysautonomia).  


The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunction of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III, known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, was first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include dental trauma; dental and soft tissue self-mutilation; normal dental age; normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth; smaller tooth size; different and disproportional tooth components; normal alveolar bone height; small jaws, mild crowding, and malocclusions. These persons have craniofacial morphology that is different from accepted norms but they resemble norms of their ethnic origin. The subjects can have gray, pale, shiny faces with an asymmetric suffering expression; frontal bossing, with eventual hypertelorism and narrow lips; a low-caries rate; drooling, and hypersalivation. They can have changes in salivary composition and content, which influences plaque and calculus and increases the risk of gingival and periodontal diseases. They also have difficulty in controlling oral muscles; a progressive decrease in number of tongue fungiform papillae, accompanied by lack of taste buds; and specific dysgeusia, but a normal sense of smell. PMID:22229594

Mass, Eliyahu



[A review of the oro-dento-facial characteristics of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (familial dysautonomia)].  


The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunction of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type Ill, known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, was first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include dental trauma; dental and soft tissue self-mutilation; normal dental age; normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth; smaller tooth size; different and disproportional tooth components; normal alveolar bone height; small jaws, mild crowding, and malocclusions. These persons have craniofacial morphology that is different from accepted norms but they resemble norms of their ethnic origin. The subjects can have gray, pale, shiny faces with an asymmetric suffering expression; frontal bossing, with eventual hypertelorism and narrow lips; a low caries rate; drooling, and hypersalivation. They can have changes in salivary composition and content, which influences plaque and calculus and increases the risk of gingival and periodontal diseases. They also have difficulty in controlling oral muscles; a progressive decrease in number of tongue fungiform papillae, accompanied by lack of taste buds; and specific dysgeusia, but a normal sense of smell. PMID:23697298

Mass, E



Effects of salt, BHA/BHT, and differing phosphate types on quality and sensory characteristics of beef longissimus muscles.  


USDA Select striploins (n = 20) were cut into thirds (anterior, medial, and posterior) and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Treatments included: (1) control (C); (2) 0.006% BHA (butylated hydroxyl anisole)/BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) (70%/30%) (BB); (3) 0.4% trisodiumphosphate (CT); (4) 0.4% sodiumtripolyphosphate with 0.5% salt (BH); (5) sodiumtripolyphosphate, 0.5% salt, and 0.006% BHA/BHT (70%/30%) (SB); (6) 0.2% sodiumtripolyphosphate, 0.2% trisodiumphosphate, and 0.5% salt (STB). Muscle sections were injected to 110% (10% pump) of their weight with their respective treatments. Inclusion of BHA/BHT allowed for lower mean oxidation values. Regardless of phosphate type, muscles treated with both phosphate and salt had lower retail purge (P < 0.05). Sensory panelists rated (P < 0.05) STB, SB, and BH to be juicier than all other treatments. These data suggest that inclusion of both salt and phosphate can enhance palatability, lower cook loss, and retail purge. PMID:19490343

Rowe, C W; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Baublits, R T; Johnson, Z B



Texture, sensory and swallowing characteristics of high-pressure-heat-treated pork meat gel as a dysphagia diet.  


To develop a soft meat product for a dysphagia diet, high-pressure technology was applied. Pressure-heat-treated ground pork meat (PH) was prepared from ground pork mixed with water (ground meat: water, 1:0.5 or 1:1) and salt (1.5%). PH-gels were made from these meat homogenates by treatment at 400 MPa for 20 min, followed by heat treatment. Heat-treated pork meat homogenates (H) were also prepared. The hardness and adhesiveness of the 1:1PH-gel was lower than those of the 1:1H-gel. The PH-gel scored higher in sensory evaluations of elasticity, smoothness and ease of swallowing. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the superior textural property of the 1:1PH-gel was caused by a network of myosin filaments. Videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing revealed that the 1:1PH-gel was easy to swallow and left little residue in the oropharynx. These results proved the utility of pressurization in creating a dysphagia meat diet. PMID:23313970

Tokifuji, Ai; Matsushima, Yasuyuki; Hachisuka, Kenji; Yoshioka, Keiko



Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.



Migration and sensory changes of packaging materials caused by ionising radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of packaging materials—in most cases plastics—generally lead to a formation of free radicals and ions, with secondary effects such as cross-linking as well as oxidative chain scission. These effects result in a formation of volatile radiolysis products which may induce off-odours in the polymers and may change the migration characteristics of packaging materials. Irradiation affect also polymer additives which change the specific migration behaviour of polymer additives and additive related decomposition products. Migration and sensory changes of pre-sterilised packaging materials have consequences on the quality of packaged goods and consumer's safety. Therefore, migration and sensory properties of packaging materials have specific regulations. Within this paper the effects of the formation of radiolysis products on overall migration, specific migration of food additives or radiolysis products as well as on sensory changes are discussed in view of current European food law.

Welle, Frank; Mauer, Alexandra; Franz, Roland



Alternative food preservation techniques, new technology in food preparation and appropriateness of food supply for the permanently manned space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

Whelan, R. H.



Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics, 2010-11.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An estimated 79 percent of households with children were food secure throughout the year in 2011, meaning that all the household members had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives. The remainder (nearly 21 percent) were food insecure...

A. Coleman-Jensen M. Nord W. McFall



Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics, 2010-11. Report Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An estimated 79 percent of households with children were food secure throughout the year in 2011, meaning that all the household members had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives. The remainder (nearly 21 percent) were food insecure...

A. Coleman-Jensen M. Nord W. McFall



Correlation of sensory bitterness in dairy protein hydrolysates: Comparison of prediction models built using sensory, chromatographic and electronic tongue data.  


Sensory evaluation can be problematic for ingredients with a bitter taste during research and development phase of new food products. In this study, 19 dairy protein hydrolysates (DPH) were analysed by an electronic tongue and their physicochemical characteristics, the data obtained from these methods were correlated with their bitterness intensity as scored by a trained sensory panel and each model was also assessed by its predictive capabilities. The physiochemical characteristics of the DPHs investigated were degree of hydrolysis (DH%), and data relating to peptide size and relative hydrophobicity from size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and reverse phase (RP) HPLC. Partial least square regression (PLS) was used to construct the prediction models. All PLS regressions had good correlations (0.78 to 0.93) with the strongest being the combination of data obtained from SEC and RP HPLC. However, the PLS with the strongest predictive power was based on the e-tongue which had the PLS regression with the lowest root mean predicted residual error sum of squares (PRESS) in the study. The results show that the PLS models constructed with the e-tongue and the combination of SEC and RP-HPLC has potential to be used for prediction of bitterness and thus reducing the reliance on sensory analysis in DPHs for future food research. PMID:24881533

Newman, J; Egan, T; Harbourne, N; O'Riordan, D; Jacquier, J C; O'Sullivan, M



Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.  


Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption. PMID:19648503

Coates, W; Ayerza, R



Formulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit-type cookies supplemented with fruit powders.  


Cashew apple and guava residues from fruit juice industry were prepared as dehydrated fruit powders and used at different levels of wheat flour substitution for cookies formulations. The effects of guava and cashew apple fruit powders supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the cookies were evaluated. The pH, fibre and protein content were significantly affected. Biscuits with 15 g and 20 g/100g cashew apple and guava fruit powders showed the highest scores for sensorial attributes, respectively. The supplementation seems to be suited for wheat flour substitution and it is possible to obtain cookies with value-added food ingredient within the standards. PMID:19455423

Uchoa, Ana Maria Athayde; Correia da Costa, José Maria; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Meira, Tatyane Ribeiro; Sousa, Paulo Henrrique Machado; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella



Influence of intramuscular fat content on the quality of pig meat — 1. Composition of the lipid fraction and sensory characteristics of m. longissimus lumborum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is part of a project which aimed to examine the influence of intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of pork. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of IMF level on the composition of the lipid fraction and on the sensory qualities of muscle longissimus lumborum (LL). Each of these experiments

X Fernandez; G Monin; A Talmant; J Mourot; B Lebret



Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.  


Abstract 1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments. PMID:24404997

Kirkpinar, F; Unlü, H B; Serdaro?lu, M; Turp, G Y



Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of frozen cooked rice by a rapid freezing process compared to homemade and aseptic packaged cooked rice.  


Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptance tests were conducted with frozen (FCR), homemade (HCR), and aseptic-packaged (ACR) cooked rice products from two cultivars-IM and SD. FCR was prepared using a rapid freezing process, which may provide consumers with a quality similar to that of HCR. The intensity of the flavors of roasted, glutinous rice, rice cake, and rice starch and the textures of glutinousness, moistness, chunkiness, adhesiveness, and squishiness were all greater in the FCR as compared to the HCR and ACR (p<0.05) in IM and SD cultivars. The differences in sensory characteristics between the FCR and ACR were larger than the equivalent differences between the FCR and HCR. Overall consumer acceptance ratings for FCR in overall aspect, appearance, aroma, and texture were not significantly different compared to those for HCR (p>0.05); however, in most cases these factors showed significant differences when compared with ACR (p<0.05). From partial least square regression analysis, cooked rice was positively related to sweet, transparency, glossiness, roasted, glutinousness, chunkiness, moistness, glutinous rice, adhesiveness, rice shape, rice starch, and squishiness attributes but negatively related to raw rice, old rice, old rice aroma, a particle feeling, off-aroma, white color, scatteredness, slickness, size of cooked rice, and firmness attributes. PMID:24471112

Kwak, Han Sub; Kim, Hye-Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Suk; Ahn, Yong Sik; Jung, Kyunghee; Jeong, Hyo-Young; Kim, Tae Hyeong



How Did Household Characteristics Affect Food Spending in 1980-88.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report looks at trends in U.S. per capital consumption of total food, food at home, and food away from home using the latest data from annual surveys of urban household food spending for 1980 to 1988. Actual household spending was adjusted to 1988 foo...

D. M. Smallwood J. R. Blaylock W. N. Blisard



Effects of electron-beam and gamma irradiation treatments on the microbial populations, respiratory activity and sensory characteristics of Tuber melanosporum truffles packaged under modified atmospheres.  


The effects of electron-beam or gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 kGy and 2.5 kGy of either one) on the microbial populations, respiratory activity and sensory characteristics of Tuber melanosporum packaged under modified atmospheres were monitored immediately after treatment, and subsequently every seven days during 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Treatments with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy reduced the total mesophilic aerobes counts respectively by 4.3 and 5.6 log cfu/g for electron-beam treatment, and by 6.4 and 6.6 log cfu/g for gamma irradiation. Other microbial groups studied (Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, lactic acid bacteria, mesophilic aerobic spores, molds and yeasts) were not detected after the treatments. A decrease in the respiratory activity was detected in all the irradiated batches, indicating that the carbon dioxide levels were lower and the oxygen levels higher than those of the non-irradiated ones. Two species of yeasts, Candida sake and Candida membranifaciens var. santamariae, survived the irradiation treatments and became the dominant microbial populations with counts of up to 7.0 log cfu/g. The growth of these microorganisms was visible on the surface of irradiated truffles from day 21 onwards, affecting the flavor and the general acceptability of the ascocarps. Moreover, a watery exudate was detected in the treated truffles from the third week onwards, so the application of irradiation treatments in doses equal to or above 1.5 kGy did not preserve the quality characteristics of T. melanosporum truffles beyond 28 days. PMID:21839373

Rivera, Carmen Susana; Venturini, María Eugenia; Marco, Pedro; Oria, Rosa; Blanco, Domingo



Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.  


Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo



Distribution of a folivorous lemur in relation to seasonally varying food resources: integrating quantitative and qualitative aspects of food characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to assess the relative importance of food availability and its quality for the spatial distribution of a folivorous lemur species, Lepilemur ruficaudatus, from the highly seasonal dry deciduous forest of Madagascar. Males and females of this species showed opposite changes of body mass and body condition during the dry and the wet season. Male

Jörg U. Ganzhorn



Food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy). Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo



Meat quality of kudu ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala ( Aepyceros melampus): The effect of gender and age on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of kudu and impala meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game meat has distinct sensory characteristics and favourable fatty acid profiles which differ between species. The SFA’s percentage was found to be higher in impala meat (51.12%) than kudu meat (34.87%) whilst the total PUFA was higher in kudu (38.88%) than impala (34.06%). Stearic acid (22.67%) was the major fatty acid in impala and oleic acid in kudu (24.35). Linoleic

L. C. Hoffman; A. C. Mostert; L. L. Laubscher



Quantitative sensory testing.  


Quantitative sensory testing is a reliable way of assessing large and small sensory nerve fiber function. Sensory deficits may be quantified and the data used in parametric statistical analysis in research studies and drug trials. It is an important addition to the neurophysiologic armamentarium, because conventional sensory nerve conduction tests only the large fibers. QST is a psychophysical test and lacks the objectivity of NCS. The results are subject to changes owing to distraction, boredom, mental fatigue, drowsiness, or confusion. When patients are consciously or unconsciously biased toward an abnormal QST result, no psychophysical testing can reliably distinguish these patients from those with organic disease. QST tests the integrity of the entire sensory neuraxis and is of no localizing value. Dysfunction of the peripheral nerves or central nervous system may give rise to abnormalities in QST. As is true for other neurophysiologic tests, QST results should always be interpreted in light of the patient's clinical presentation. Quantitative sensory testing has been shown to be reasonably reproducible over a period of days or weeks in normal subjects. Because longitudinal QST studies of patients in drug trials are usually performed over a period of several months to a few years, reproducibility studies on the placebo-control group should be included. For individual patients, more studies are needed to determine the maximum allowable difference between two QSTs that can be attributed to experimental error. The reproducibility of thermal thresholds may not be as good as that of vibration threshold. Different commercially available QST instruments have different specifications (thermode size, stimulus characteristics), testing protocols, algorithms, and normal values. Only QST instruments and their corresponding methodologies that have been shown to be reproducible should be used for research and patient care. The data in the literature do not allow conclusions regarding the superiority of any QST instruments. The future of QST is promising; however, many factors can affect QST results. As is true for other neurophysiologic tests, QST is susceptible to many extraneous factors and to misuse when not properly interpreted by the clinician. PMID:12795516

Siao, Peter; Cros, Didier P



Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and plasma glucose and urea in dogs fed a commercial dog food once or three times daily  

PubMed Central

Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and levels of glucose and urea in the plasma were determined in 8 dogs that received 2 different dog foods once or 3 times daily. One dog food (A) was 5 times more expensive than the other (B). Fecal pH and consistency, digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) were determined. Blood samples were taken from 30 min before to 60 min after a meal. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP, and fecal consistency were higher, and daily fecal excretion and fecal pH were lower when dogs were fed food A (P < 0.001). The feeding schedule had no effect on plasma glucose and urea. Neither feeding frequency nor food × frequency interactions was significant for the parameters studied.

Brambillasca, Sebastian; Purtscher, Frederick; Britos, Alejandro; Repetto, Jose L.; Cajarville, Cecilia



Seasonal variation in leaf characteristics and food selectionby larval noctuids on an evergreen Mediterranean shrub  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite year round availability of foliage, abundance of generalist noctuid larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in evergreen-dominated Mediterranean forests has a narrow, distinct spring peak. This restricted larval period has been suggested to result in part from avoidance of the nutritionally poor mature foliage, and preference for nutritionally superior spring-produced young leaves. This study examines this hypothesis by (i) documenting differences in nutritional characteristics between expanding (April) and mature (June) young leaves of the evergreen Mediterranean shrub Daphne laureola L. (Thymelaeaceae), and (ii) experimentally studying the feeding preferences of noctuid larvae for young leaves, old leaves (? 1 yr old), and developing fruits of this species in one south-eastern Spanish locality. Young leaves of D. laureola declined in nutrient concentration and specific dry mass from April to June. The responses of noctuid larvae, in terms of both relative preference and total consumption, to this seasonal variation in chemical and physical features of young leaves were also investigated. When noctuid larvae were simultaneously offered young leaves, old leaves and developing fruits, they exhibited similar preferences for young leaves and developing fruits, and rejected old leaves developed during the previous year. Noctuid larvae did not modify their consumption of young leaves relative to old leaves and developing fruits in response to seasonal changes. Food selection patterns exhibited by D. laureola noctuid herbivores, notably the rejection of old leaves in favour of young ones, are consistent with the hypothesis relating restricted larval periods of these generalist consumers with the low food value of the previous season leaves of evergreen Mediterranean plants.

Alonso, Conchita; Herrera, Carlos M.



Interplay between product characteristics, oral physiology and texture perception of cellular brittle foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard solid foods encompass a large variety of dry products as well as products with high water content. Most of these foods have a cellular structure, which is generally characterized by connected fairly rigid cell walls, enclosing a fluid material that may be liquid-like (fruit and vegetables) or a gas (mainly manufactured cellular foods). Typical for many hard solid products

Vliet van T; C. Primo Martin



Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary



Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun



Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational week 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. We used linear binomial regression with frequent versus rare use of organic food as outcome variable and characteristics of the respondent as independent variables. The outcome variable was derived from self-reported frequency of organic food use in six main food groups (milk/dairy, bread/cereal, eggs, vegetables, fruit and meat). Results Organic eggs and vegetables were the food items which were most frequently reported to be used "often" or "mostly". The proportion of women reporting frequent intake of organic food was 9.1% (n = 5754). This group included more women in the lower (<25 years) and higher (>40 years) age-groups, with normal or low body mass index, who were vegetarians, exercised regularly (3+times weekly), consumed alcohol and smoked cigarettes during pregnancy (p < 0.001 for all, except alcohol: p=0.044). Further, participants with frequent organic consumption included more women in the lower (?12 years) or higher (17 years +) category of educational attainment, women who were students or had a partner being a student, who belonged to the lowest household income group (both respondent and her partner earned <300 000 NOK), who entered the study 2005-2007, and who lived in an urban area (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions The socio-economic characteristics of pregnant Norwegian women with frequent organic consumption did not unambiguously follow those typically associated with better health, such as higher levels of education and income. Rather, lower household income, and both lowest and highest levels of education were associated with a higher prevalence of frequent organic consumption. The results indicate that personal and socio-economic characteristics are important covariates and need to be included in future studies of potential health outcomes related to organic food consumption during pregnancy.



Characteristic analysis for odor gas emitted from food waste anaerobic fermentation in the pretreatment workshop.  


Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, olfactometry, and other related methods were applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the characteristics of odorous gases in the pretreatment workshop. The composition of odorous gases emitted from municipal food waste was also investigated in this study. The results showed that the tested gases are mainly composed of aromatic gases, which account for 49% of the total volatile organic compounds (VOC) concentrations. The nitrogenous compounds comprise 15% of the total concentration and the other gases comprise the remaining 36%. The level of odor concentration ranged from 2523 odor units (OU) m(-3) to 3577 OU m(-3). The variation of the total chemical composition ranged from 19,725 microg m(-3) to 24,184 microg m(-3). Among the selected four sampling points, the discharge outlet was detected to have the highest concentration in terms of odor, total chemical, sulfur compounds, and aromatics. The correlation analysis showed that the odor concentrations were evidently related to the total chemical composition, sulfur compounds, and aromatics (P < 0.05, n = 5). The odor activity value analysis identified the top three compounds, hydrogen sulfide (91.8), ethyl sulfide (35.8), and trimethylamine (70.6), which contribute to air pollution complaint of waste materials. PMID:24282969

Di, Yanqiang; Liu, Jiemin; Liu, Jianguo; Liui, Siyuan; Yan, Luchun



Introduction to Food Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality and safety of the food supply. All food products require analysis as part of a quality management program throughout the development process (including raw ingredients), through production, and after a product is in the market. In addition, analysis is done of problem samples and competitor products. The characteristics of foods (i.e., chemical composition, physical properties, sensory properties) are used to answer specific questions for regulatory purposes and typical quality control. The nature of the sample and the specific reason for the analysis commonly dictate the choice of analytical methods. Speed, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness often are key factors in this choice. Validation of the method for the specific food matrix being analyzed is necessary to ensure usefulness of the method. Making an appropriate choice of the analytical technique for a specific application requires a good knowledge of the various techniques (Fig. 1.1). For example, your choice of method to determine the salt content of potato chips would be different if it is for nutrition labeling than for quality control. The success of any analytical method relies on the proper selection and preparation of the food sample, carefully performing the analysis, and doing the appropriate calculations and interpretation of the data. Methods of analysis developed and endorsed by several nonprofit scientific organizations allow for standardized comparisons of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of less standard procedures. Such official methods are critical in the analysis of foods, to ensure that they meet the legal requirements established by governmental agencies. Government regulations and international standards most relevant to the analysis of foods are mentioned here but covered in more detail in Chap. 2, and nutrition labeling regulations in the USA are covered in Chap. 3. Internet addresses for many of the organizations and government agencies discussed are given at the end of this chapter.

Nielsen, S. Suzanne


Changing household characteristics and the away-from-home food market: a censored equation system approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American consumer is obtaining more-and-more of his or her food at a restaurant, and that worries some people concerned with the Nation’s dietary health. To date, much of this concern seems to be directed at the fast food segment of the restaurant industry. This paper asks whether targeting one segment of the industry, such as fast food restaurants, is

Hayden Stewart; Steven T. Yen



Impact of fruit piece structure in yogurts on the dynamics of aroma release and sensory perception.  


The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria. PMID:23698054

Mesurolle, Joshua; Saint-Eve, Anne; Déléris, Isabelle; Souchon, Isabelle



Degradation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme, phenolic content, and physical and sensorial characteristics in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during blanching.  


The effects of water blanching treatment on peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content, color parameters [-a*/b* and hue (h degrees*)], texture (maximum shear force), and sensory attributes (color and texture, evaluated by a trained panel) of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) were studied at five temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C). Experimental results showed that all studied broccoli quality parameters suffered significative changes due to blanching treatments. The vegetal total phenolic content showed a marked decline. Degradation on objective color and texture measurements and alterations in sensorial attributes were detected. Correlations between sensory and instrumental measurements have been found. Under the conditions 70 degrees C and 6.5 min or 90 degrees C and 0.4 min, 90% of the initial peroxidase activity was reduced. At these conditions, no significant alterations were detected by panelists, and a small amount of phenolic content was lost (ca. 16 and 10%, respectively). The peroxidase inactivation and phenolic content degradation were found to follow first-order reaction models. The zero-order reaction model showed a good fit to the broccoli color (-a*/b* and h degrees*), texture, and sensory parameters changes. The temperature effect was well-described by the Arrhenius law. PMID:19441787

Gonçalves, Elsa M; Pinheiro, Joaquina; Alegria, Carla; Abreu, Marta; Brandão, Teresa R S; Silva, Cristina L M



[GMOs in food: risk assessment and management; scientific and regulatory characteristics].  


Genetic transformation constitutes a new tool for improvement of microorganisms, animals and plants used in food. Foreseeable risks are evoked, as well as management measures to avoid GMO unsuspected risks. Few risks are specific to GMOs. Present elements of french and european regulations concerning placing on the market and follow up GMOs and other novel foods are described. PMID:12669357

Casse, Francine; Hervieu, François



Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory 'Hardness' and 'Chewiness' Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994  

PubMed Central

Texture and ‘tenderness’ in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers’ satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of ‘chewiness’ (9-points) and ‘hardness’ (7-points) were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods.

Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Chikuni, Koichi



Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.??

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.



Dietary characteristics of complementary foods offered to Guatemalan infants vary between urban and rural settings.  


The objective of this study was to describe and compare the dietary variety, diversity, and origins of complementary foods given to urban and rural Guatemalan infants in the second semester of life. Dietary intake from a total of 128 infants of both sexes, aged 6.0 to 12.0 months on admission, from a low-income district of Guatemala City and a rural Mayan village was collected by means of 3 nonconsecutive 24-hour quantitative intake recalls and breast-feeding histories. We hypothesized that rural/urban, age, and sex differences would occur with respect to dietary variety and diversity scores and descriptive features at 7 levels, that is, animal or plant origin (animal, plant, both, or water); solids or semisolids vs soups and stews vs liquids; infant vs family foods; modern vs traditional foods; processed vs nonprocessed foods; commercial vs noncommercial foods; and fortified vs nonfortified foods. Overall dietary variety and diversity scores did not differ significantly between sampling areas or between sexes. Infants aged 9 to 12 months had a higher dietary variety and diversity than infants aged 6 to 9 months. Plant sources constituted a large part of the diet in both areas. Foods prepared specifically for infants, rather than for the household, were not common, although more common in the urban area than in the rural area. Commercial, processed, and fortified foods were commonly consumed in both settings. It can be concluded that although no geographical differences were seen in dietary variety or diversity, distinctions between types of selected and consumed foods were observed. PMID:19700034

Enneman, Anke; Hernández, Liza; Campos, Raquel; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W



Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation of wheat bread partially substituted with banana (Musa acuminata X balbisiana cv. Awak) pseudo-stem flour.  


The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability. PMID:23561142

Ho, Lee-Hoon; Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Azahari, Baharin



Effects of Culture, pH and Fat Concentration on Melting Rate and Sensory Characteristics of Probiotic Fermented Yellow Mombin (Spondias mombin L) Ice Creams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve fermented yellow mombin ice creams were produced with different starter cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus 74-2, L. acidophilus LAC 4 and yoghurt starter culture), final pH (4.5 and 5) and concentrations of added cream (5 and 10%). Probiotic culture stability, melting properties and sensory acceptance were evaluated in ice cream samples. The mixes were frozen and stored for 105 days at

C. S. Favaro-Trindade; J. C. de Carvalho Balieiro; P. Felix Dias; F. Amaral Sanino; C. Boschini



The effect of using a whey protein fat replacer on textural and sensory characteristics of low-fat vanilla ice cream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the texture of regular (12%), low fat (6%), and fat-free vanilla (0.5%) ice creams\\u000a by sensory and instrumental analyses. The low fat and fat free ice cream were prepared using a whey protein based fat replacer\\u000a (Simplesse\\u000a ®\\u000a 100) as the fat replacement ingredient. Two processing trials with continuous commercial-like process conditions

Tülay Özcan Yilsay; Lütfiye Yilmaz; Arzu Akpinar Bayizit



Quality Characteristics of Freeze-Dried Salmon Baby Food Purees During Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five combinations of baby food (puree; puree + pink salmon roe; puree + bone; puree + salmon oil; puree + oil + bone) were formulated from retort-processed sockeye (red) salmon puree base, freeze-dried; then evaluated for color, odor, ability to rehydrate, and storage stability. Baby food was retort-processed, freeze-dried, vacuum-packaged, then stored at 22°C for 4 months. Rehydration was best

F. A. Desantos; P. Bechtel; S. Smiley; M. S. Brewer



Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties.  


Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control with BHA/BHT (C), and (e) negative control (NC). Treatments L and LV decreased TPC at day 14 and day 16 when compared to control samples and reduced bacterial numbers up to 18 days. In addition, use of lactate and vinegar increased (P<0.05) acceptability and juiciness and reduced (P<0.05) off-flavor and rancidity when compared to control treatments at day 14. These results revealed that the L and LV sausage patties retained sensory acceptability and shelf-life quality from day 14 through day 17 as opposed to other treatments. Additionally, sausage patties with LV maintained redness and sensory quality throughout 17 days of shelf-life, as compared to other treatments that retained color and quality for 14 days. PMID:21195560

Bradley, E M; Williams, J B; Schilling, M W; Coggins, P C; Crist, C; Yoder, S; Campano, S G



Crispness: a critical review on sensory and material science approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many texture studies have been published on crispness because of the great interest of consumers towards crispy foods. This work reviews the existing literature on the topic, and especially the different approaches, instrumental and sensory, applied to study crispness. These studies result in a wide range of data but, because crispness is not a clearly defined sensory attribute, the conclusions

G Roudaut; C Dacremont; B Vallès Pàmies; B Colas; M Le Meste



Quantitative structure activity relationship modelling of peptides and proteins as a tool in food science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptides and proteins contribute to physical properties, biological activities and sensory characteristics of foods. Studies on the isolation and characterisation of peptides and proteins allow compilation of data sets on their structures and properties\\/activities. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) modelling provides methodology to find mathematical expressions for such relationships which may then be useful for estimating activities of any related

Are Hugo Pripp; Tomas Isaksson; Leszek Stepaniak; Terje Sørhaug; Ylva Ardö



Combination processes in food irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation is emerging as a potential method of food preservation. It is being used to extend the shelf life of raw and processed foods in many countries worldwide. Like all other methods of food preservation, irradiation has a number of limitations. Irradiation, when used alone, can cause the development of undesirable sensory and chemical changes in some foods, depending on

B. R. Thakur; R. K. Singh



Do Fast-Food Chains Price Discriminate on the Race and Income Characteristics of an Area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports tests for differences in prices charged by fast-food restaurants that serve markets with customers of widely divergent incomes and ethnic backgrounds. The data contain detailed prices on items sold at over 400 Burger King, Wendy's, KFC, and Roy Rogers restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania locations. I find significant differences in price based on the race and

Kathryn Graddy



Population Characteristics and Food Resource Utilization of Conus in the Galapagos Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two large collections of Conus from the Galapagos Islands permitted the analysis of size, sex ratio, and food of 4 of the estimated 13 species ofConus present in the islands. The species investigated were C. diadema, C. lucidus, C. tiaratus, and C. nux. Significantly unequal sex ratios were found in the samples of C. diadema, C. lucidus, and C. tiaratus,




Effect of product formula, information and consumer characteristics on the acceptance of a new snack food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acceptance of a new food `yosa' (fermented oat bran pudding, similar to flavored yogurt or porridge) was examined among young (n = 44) and elderly (n = 19) subjects. The samples were sweetened at low or high levels of sucrose and flavored with plum or wildberry jam (four combinations). The subjects rated the expected and actual pleasantness, purchase interest

Hely Tuorila; Åsa Andersson; Arja Martikainen; Hannu Salovaara



Use of pulsed electric field pre-treatment to improve dehydration characteristics of plant based foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional dehydration of fruits and vegetables affects their physical and biochemical status leading to shrinkage, change of colour, texture and taste. Alteration of the physical properties of foods with minimal influence on the quality could be a means of reducing drying time, minimising quality degradation and saving energy. Increasing consumer markets for minimally processed fruits and vegetables have prompted researchers

B. I. O. Ade-Omowaye; A. Angersbach; K. A. Taiwo; D. Knorr



Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.  


The "enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation" method was employed to obtain oxidized tallow. Nine beeflike flavours (BFs) were prepared through Maillard reaction with oxidized tallow and other ingredients. Volatile compounds of oxidized tallow and beeflike flavours were analysed by SPME/GC-MS. Six sensory attributes (meaty, beefy, tallowy, simulate, burnt and off-flavour) were selected to assess BFs. Thirty four odour-active compounds were identified to represent beef odour through GC-O analysis based on detection frequency method. GC-MS profiles of oxidized tallow were correlated with GC-O responses and sensory attributes of BFs using partial least squares regression modelling (PLSR). Twenty nine compounds were considered as the potential precursors of oxidized tallow. Among them, tetradecanoic acid, d-limonene, 1,7-heptandiol, 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, (Z)-4-undecenal, (Z)-4-decenal, (E)-4-nonenal and 5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone were unique products generated from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation of tallow, while hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, pentanal, acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-pentylfuran, ?-nonalactone, 2-undecenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal and (Z)-2-heptenal were common products generated from thermal oxidation of tallow. PMID:23270941

Shi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaoming; Song, Shiqing; Tan, Chen; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin



Building sensory receptors on the tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors and sensory neurons are required for the development of lingual sense organs. For example,\\u000a neurotrophin 3 sustains lingual somatosensory neurons. In the traditional view, sensory axons will terminate where neurotrophin\\u000a expression is most pronounced. Yet, lingual somatosensory axons characteristically terminate in each filiform papilla and\\u000a in each somatosensory prominence within a cluster of cells expressing the p75

Bruce Oakley; Martin Witt



[New food dye from sorghum grain hull and its toxicological characteristics].  


The chemical composition and biological action of a new food dyestuff separated from the grain sorhum film were studied. From 1 kg of the grain sorhum 169--248 g of the film are retrieved; and from this it is possible to obtain from 17 to 40 g of a flavonoid dyestuff that consists of cyanadine, quercitrol and pelargonidine. The dyestuff can be utilized in the food industry in preparing bisquit cream products, caramels and fruit starch jellies. Biological investigations with applied testing methods proved the dyestuff to be non-toxic: its introduction to animals for six months did not produce any morphological changes in the tissues of the liver, kidneys, thyroid and pancreatic glands, nor did it affect the content of glycogen in the hepatic tissues. PMID:629038

Olifson, L E; Osadchaia, N D; Cha?kovskaia, E V; Semchenko, Iu P



Antimicrobial characteristics of chitosans against food spoilage microorganisms in liquid media and mayonnaise.  


Four different kinds of chitosans were prepared by treating crude chitin with various NaOH concentrations. The antimicrobial activities of the chitosans were tested against four species of food spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Serratia liquefaciens, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii). The initial effect of the chitosans was biocidal, and counts of viable cells were significantly reduced. After an extended lag phase, some strains recovered and resumed growth. The activities of chitosan against these microorganisms increased with the concentration. Chitosan-50 was most effective against L. fructivorans, but inhibition of L. plantarum was greatest with chitosan-55. There was no significant difference among the chitosans in their antimicrobial activity against S. liquefaciens and Z. bailii. The addition of chitosan to mayonnaise significantly decreased the viable cell counts of L. fructivorans and Z. bailii during storage at 25 degrees C. These results suggest that chitosan can be used as a food preservative to inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms in mayonnaise. PMID:11791708

Oh, H I; Kim, Y J; Chang, E J; Kim, J Y



Influence of lake characteristics on the biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in lake trout food webs.  


The biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and major organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied using lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other food web organisms collected from 17 lakes in Canada and the northeastern United States between 1998 and 2001. Whole lake trout (n = 357) concentrations of the sum (Sigma) of 57 PCB congeners ranged between 1.67 and 2,890 ng/g wet weight (median 61.5 ng/g wet wt). Slimy sculpin had the highest mean concentrations of SigmaPCB of all forage fish (32-73 ng/g wet wt). Positive relationships between log (lipid wt) concentrations of PCB congener 153, PCB congener 52, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, or dieldrin and trophic level (determined using stable nitrogen isotope ratios) were found for most of the 17 food webs, indicating biomagnification of these PCBs and OCPs. The p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene had the highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of the 14 individual compounds studied, averaging 4.0 +/- 1.8 across the 17 lakes, followed by trans-nonachlor (3.6 +/- 1.5) and PCB congener 153 (3.4 +/- 1.2). Average TMFs for 14 individual PCBs or OCPs were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient, implying that the rate of accumulation along the food web is dependent on hydrophobicity and recalcitrance. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between TMFs of SigmaPCBs, hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, and lindane and lake area, latitude, and longitude, but not for 11 other PCBs or OCPs. Overall, the results of the present study show that biomagnification of PCBs and most OCPs, as measured by TMFs, is only weakly influenced by such factors as latitude and longitude. Exceptions are hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and hexachlorobenzene, which had generally greater TMFs in northern lakes, possibly due to lower rates of elimination and biotransformation in the food web. PMID:18444699

Houde, Magali; Muir, Derek C G; Kidd, Karen A; Guildford, Stephanie; Drouillard, Ken; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xiaowa; Whittle, D Michael; Haffner, Doug; Kling, Hedy



Expansion characteristics of a nutritious extruded snack food using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of screw speed (220–340 rpm), feed moisture (11.0–15.0%, wet basis) and feed rate (22.0–26.0 kg\\/h, wet basis) on the physical properties (i.e., bulk density, expansion, porosity) of a nutritionally balanced extruded snack food. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the responses were obtained. Responses were most affected by changes in

EmirAy?e ?zer; ?enol ?bano?lu; Paul Ainsworth; Cahide Ya?mur



Determination and residual characteristic of alkylphenols in household food detergents of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-ionic surfactants are mostly composed of alkylphenols for the ingredients of synthetic food detergents. Due to the ability to mimic hormones, it has been noticed that the exposures of alkylphenols might cause a variety of adverse effects. To assess the associate risks from possible exposures, concentrations of alkylphenols, including 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), technical nonylphenol isomers (t-NPS), and 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), in

Yi-Ping Pan; Shih-Wei Tsai



[Comparative characteristics of the antioxidants of plant origin introduced in fat emulsion foods].  


One of the methods of increasing the quality of fatty products is including in their composition antioxidants, which provide the time of their conservation and improvement of their biological value. From this point of view calls concern a new drug epigallocatechina gallate. On the basis of these studies the prospects of usage were shown epigallocatechina gallate in fatty products and the paths of further applying in creation of food products. PMID:17089564

Pecherskaia, N V; Ba?kov, V G; Kochetkova, A A; Bessonov, V V




Microsoft Academic Search

Across the nation, food service establishments using onsite wastewater treatment systems often experience pretreatment system and\\/or drain field performance problems. This study used statistical analysis of restaurant management practice and primary cuisine type to observe their influence on five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total fats, oils, and greases (FOG), total suspended solids (TSS), and daily flow. Twenty-eight Texas restaurants were

O. A. Garza; B. J. Lesikar; R. A. Persyn; A. L. Kenimer; M. T. Anderson


The Association between Socioeconomic Characteristics and Consumption of Food Items among Brazilian Industry Workers  

PubMed Central

Background. Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the work place using standardized forms. Results. 4818 workers were interviewed, aged 35.4 ± 10.7 years, 76.5% were men. The workers had an average of 8.7 ± 4.1 years of schooling and 25.4 ± 4.1?kg/m2 of BMI. Men and individuals with less than high school education were less likely to consume dairy products, fruits, and vegetables daily, even after control for confounding factors. Men consumed rice and beans daily more often than women. In comparison to workers aged 50–76 years, those under 30 years old consumed less fruits and green leafy vegetables daily. Conclusion. The food items consumed by Brazilian workers show that there are insufficient consumption according to the guidelines of healthy foods, particularly of dairy products, vegetables, and fruits.

Vinholes, Daniele B.; Melo, Ione M. F.; Machado, Carlos Alberto; de Castro Chaves, Hilton; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.



Sensory Conversion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

Medelius, Pedro


Meat quality of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (Aepyceros melampus): The effect of gender and age on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of kudu and impala meat.  


Game meat has distinct sensory characteristics and favourable fatty acid profiles which differ between species. The SFA's percentage was found to be higher in impala meat (51.12%) than kudu meat (34.87%) whilst the total PUFA was higher in kudu (38.88%) than impala (34.06%). Stearic acid (22.67%) was the major fatty acid in impala and oleic acid in kudu (24.35). Linoleic acid, C20:3n-6 and C22:6n-3 were higher in kudu while C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:5n-3 were higher in impala. The PUFA:SFA ratio for kudu (1.22) was higher than for impala (0.73) while impala had a higher n-6 PUFA's to n-3 PUFA ratio (3.76) than kudu (2.20). Kudu was higher in cholesterol (71.42±2.61mg/100gmuscle) than impala (52.54±2.73mg/100gmuscle). Sensory evaluation showed impala had a more intense game aroma and flavour while the initial juiciness of cooked samples of kudu was higher. The results show kudu and impala can be marketed for their unique flavours and aromas as well as being a healthy substitute for other red meats. PMID:20416629

Hoffman, L C; Mostert, A C; Laubscher, L L



Signaling by Sensory Receptors  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli.

Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy



Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia.  


In this review we explore the relationship between synaesthesia and sensory substitution and argue that sensory substitution does indeed show properties of synaesthesia. Both are associated with atypical perceptual experiences elicited by the processing of a qualitatively different stimulus to that which normally gives rise to that experience. In the most common forms of sensory substitution, perceptual processing of an auditory or tactile signal (which has been converted from a visual signal) is experienced as visual-like in addition to retaining auditory/tactile characteristics. We consider different lines of evidence that support, to varying degrees, the assumption that sensory substitution is associated with visual-like experiences. We then go on to analyse the key similarities and differences between sensory substitution and synaesthesia. Lastly, we propose two testable predictions: firstly that, in an expert user of a sensory substitution device, the substituting modality should not be lost. Secondly that stimulation within the substituting modality, but by means other than a sensory substitution device, should still produce sensation in the normally substituted modality. PMID:22885223

Ward, Jamie; Wright, Thomas



Microalgae as human food: chemical and nutritional characteristics of the thermo-acidophilic microalga Galdieria sulphuraria.  


The use of microalgae as a food source is still poorly developed because of the technical difficulties related to their cultivation and the limited knowledge about their chemical composition and nutritional value. The unicellular red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria has a very high daily productivity and its cultivation under acidic conditions avoided any bacterial contamination. G. sulphuraria can be cultured under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions: in this study a screening of 43 strains showed that in the latter case a duplication of biomass production was obtained. The proximate composition (protein, carbohydrates, fiber and lipids), the micronutrient content (carotenoids, phycobiliproteins, chlorophylls and vitamins) together with the antioxidant activity of the biomass produced by a selected strain of G. sulphuraria under both cultivation conditions were determined. Results showed that the material is rich in proteins (26-32%) and polysaccharides (63-69%) and poor in lipids. Under heterotrophic cultivation conditions, the lipid moiety mainly contained monounsaturated fatty acids. Among micronutrients, some B group vitamins are present, beta-carotene is the main carotenoid and phycobiliproteins are present under both cultivating conditions. G. sulphuraria proteins are strictly associated with polysaccharide components and therefore not digestible. In the second part of the work, an extraction protocol using Viscozyme L, a commercial enzymatic preparation containing a mixture of polysaccharidases, was developed which made G. sulphuraria proteins a good substrate for human gastrointestinal enzymes. All in all, the data suggested that G. sulphuraria biomass has a potential use as food ingredients both for protein-rich or insoluble dietary fibre-rich applications. The low concentration of lipids and the absence of green color make this microalgae source particularly useful for the addition to many food preparations. PMID:23104098

Graziani, Giulia; Schiavo, Simona; Nicolai, Maria Adalgisa; Buono, Silvia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino



Novel approaches and application of contemporary sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of the iron-fortified foods have been frequently listed as causes of unsuccessful iron fortification programs. An excellent prospect for improving consumer acceptance of iron-fortified foods is the incorporation of a thorough, organized, and unified approach to sensory evaluation practices into iron fortification programs for product optimization. The information gained from systematic sensory evaluation allows for the manipulation of the sensory attributes, and thus improvement of the sensory properties of the fortified food. However, iron fortification programs have not systematically measured the effect of fortification on the sensory quality of the food. Because sensory evaluation is an important criterion in successful iron fortification, an integrated approach is necessary. Therefore, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work closely with each other to select the most suitable sensory tests and methods. The objectives of this article are to: (1) critically review and discuss some traditional and contemporary approaches and applications of sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs, and (2) demonstrate the importance of incorporating a multidisciplinary, systematic sensory evaluation approach in iron fortification programs.

Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.; Guinard, Jean-Xavier



Spin versus fair speak in food labelling: A matter of taste?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article sheds new light on sensory elements in legal cases concerning misleading food labelling. It presents the findings of a qualitative review of 821 cases on misleading food labelling registered in 2002–2007 by the Danish food authorities. The cases show that sensory tends to be backgrounded by other arguments more easily verbalized. A taxonomy of the sensory dimensions of

Viktor Smith; Peter Møgelvang-Hansen; Grethe Hyldig



PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function. The changes in these specifications have no detrimental effect on the descriptions and parameters related to handling plutonium solids in the authorization basis. Because no parameters or sequences exceed the limits described in the authorization bases, no accident or abnormal conditions are affected. The specifications prescribed in this critical characteristics document do not represent an unreviewed safety question.





EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...


Suitability of Norwegian short-tail lambs, Norwegian dairy goats and Cashmere goats for meat production - Carcass, meat, chemical and sensory characteristics.  


Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (P<0.05) proteins and 13% higher (P<0.05) fat content than goat meats. Moreover, m. longissimus dorsi samples from lambs were less red (a(?)) (P<0.05) and had lower colour intensity (C) and wider hue angle (H) than that from goats. Meat from lambs and Cashmere goats had higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P<0.001), especially stearic acid and lower ones for total unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the meat from Norwegian goats. Sensory panellists scored lamb meat fattier, juicier and more tender than goat meats. Meat from Cashmere goats scored highest (P<0.05) in whiteness, and lowest (P<0.05) in both colour tone and colour intensity. It is concluded that, since C18:0 was the main contributor of SFA in meat from Norwegian lamb and Cashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability. PMID:22063606

Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T



Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. Objective A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. Design The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Results Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet.

Akesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjansdottir, Asa G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfalt, Elisabet



PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function.




A Transfer of Technology from Engineering: Use of ROC Curves from Signal Detection Theory to Investigate Information Processing in the Brain during Sensory Difference Testing  

PubMed Central

This article reviews a beneficial effect of technology transfer from Electrical Engineering to Food Sensory Science. Specifically, it reviews the recent adoption in Food Sensory Science of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a tool that is incorporated in the theory of signal detection. Its use allows the information processing that takes place in the brain during sensory difference testing to be studied and understood. The review deals with how Signal Detection Theory, also called Thurstonian modeling, led to the adoption of a more sophisticated way of analyzing the data from sensory difference tests, by introducing the signal-to-noise ratio, d?, as a fundamental measure of perceived small sensory differences. Generally, the method of computation of d? is a simple matter for some of the better known difference tests like the triangle, duo–trio and 2-AFC. However, there are occasions when these tests are not appropriate and other tests like the same–different and the A Not–A test are more suitable. Yet, for these, it is necessary to understand how the brain processes information during the test before d? can be computed. It is for this task that the ROC curve has a particular use.

Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael



Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.  


This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. PMID:24794619

Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco



Functional food science in Japan: state of the art.  


In 1984, a new science related to functional food was initiated by a National Project team under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education and Science. It was followed by a great many academic and industrial studies to occupy a central position in the field of food and nutritional sciences. In 1993, the Ministry of Health and Welfare established a policy of "Foods for Specified Health Uses" (FOSHU) by which health claims of some selected functional foods are legally permitted. Up to now (November 22. 1999), 167 FOSHU products have been born. Since the time (1984) when the concept of functional food" was proposed, it seems that the science in Japan has been progressing along, among others, a unique path of development. The uniqueness is seen in the development of functional foods by minimizing undesirable as well as maximizing desirable food factors. Hypoallergenic foods, developed from their materials by removing allergens, offer a good example. Another characteristic may be found in the field of sensory science which aims at elucidating a molecular logic of the senses of taste and smell in reference to their effects on physiological systems in the body. The paper discusses some characteristics of functional food science in Japan, with special emphasis on these topics. PMID:11216474

Arai, S



Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings

Frans J. Kok; Cees de Graaf



Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food.  


Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanuts (Arachis hypogoea), and mango (Mangifera indica) were processed separately and then combined, on the basis of their amino acid scores and energy content, into a complementary food for children of weaning age. The finger millet and kidney beans were processed by germination, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation. A mixture containing, on a dry matter basis, 65.2, 19.1, 8.0, and 7.7% of the processed finger millet, kidney beans, peanuts, and mango, respectively, gave a composite protein with an in vitro protein digestibility of 90.2% and an amino acid chemical score of 0.84. This mixture had an energy density of 16.3 kJ.g(-1) of dry matter and a decreased antinutrient content and showed a measurable improvement in the in vitro extractability for calcium, iron, and zinc. A 33% (w/v) pap made from a mix of the processed ingredients had an energy density of 5.4 kJ.g(-1) of pap, which is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of well-nourished children of 6-24 months of age at three servings a day and at the FAO average breast-feeding frequency. PMID:11982437

Mbithi-Mwikya, Stephen; Van Camp, John; Mamiro, Peter R S; Ooghe, Wilfried; Kolsteren, Patrick; Huyghebaert, Andre



Genomic characteristics comparisons of 12 food-related filamentous fungi in tRNA gene set, codon usage and amino acid composition.  


Filamentous fungi are widely exploited in food industry due to their abilities to secrete large amounts of enzymes and metabolites. The recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided an opportunity to explore the genomic characteristics of these food-related filamentous fungi. In this paper, we selected 12 representative filamentous fungi in the areas of food processing and safety, which were Aspergillus clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, Monascus ruber, Neurospora crassa, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei, and did the comparative studies of their genomic characteristics of tRNA gene distribution, codon usage pattern and amino acid composition. The results showed that the copy numbers greatly differed among isoaccepting tRNA genes and the distribution seemed to be related with translation process. The results also revealed that genome compositional variation probably constrained the base choice at the third codon, and affected the overall amino acid composition but seemed to have little effect on the integrated physicochemical characteristics of overall amino acids. The further analysis suggested that the wobble pairing and base modification were the important mechanisms in codon-anticodon interaction. In the scope of authors' knowledge, it is the first report about the genomic characteristics analysis of food-related filamentous fungi, which would be informative for the analysis of filamentous fungal genome evolution and their practical application in food industry. PMID:22305983

Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng



Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the\\u000a particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual\\u000a smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects\\u000a smoking behavior. The

Deirdre Lawrence; Brie Cadman; Allison C Hoffman



A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.



Sensory feedback system using interferential current for EMG prosthetic hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a new type of sensory feedback system for myoelectrically controlled biomimetic prosthetic hand. One of the characteristic features of the neuromuscular control system in man is the increase in the compliance around the joint with decreasing activity of the muscle. For the sensory feedback system we used interferential current that use two

Y. Sasaki; Y. Nakayama; M. Yoshida



Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne



Erythropoietin protects sensory axons against paclitaxel-induced distal degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paclitaxel causes a sensory polyneuropathy with characteristic features of distal axonal degeneration. Although the exact mechanisms underlying distal axonal degeneration are unknown, paclitaxel-induced axonal degeneration has been shown to be associated with an increase in detyrosinated tubulin. Here we show that recombinant human erythropoietin prevents axonal degeneration in sensory neurons in vitro and this effect is associated with downregulation of

Giorgia Melli; Christelene Jack; George L. Lambrinos; Mathias Ringkamp; Ahmet Höke



A Comparison between Older Persons with Down Syndrome and a Control Group: Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status and Sensori-Motor Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase in life expectancy within the general population has resulted in an increasing number of elderly adults with intellectual disability, and this is reflected in the increased life expectancy in persons with Down syndrome, currently about 56 years. The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristics, the functional status and…

Carmeli, Eli; Kessel, Shlomo; Merrick, Joav; Bar-Chad, Shmuel



Evaluation of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: physicochemical characteristics of low-fat turkey bologna.  


Evaluation of poultry protein isolate (PPI) as a food ingredient was carried out by substituting nonmeat ingredients such as soy protein isolate (SPI) or meat protein in turkey bologna. Two concentrations (1.5 and 2% dry weight basis) of PPI prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat were used in this study. Two control samples were prepared with 11 and 13% meat protein, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics of turkey bologna containing PPI were compared with those of control and SPI-containing samples. Batter strength was higher for 2% PPI and 13% meat protein control samples (control-2) compared with all other treatments. Cooking yield of the 11% meat protein control was significantly (P < 0.05) less compared with other treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the expressible moisture or purge loss among all the treatments. Control-2 showed lower L* values and was more reddish during refrigerated storage. Addition of protein isolates caused a significant increase (b* value varied between 11.48 and 12.52) in yellowness of products. Turkey bologna with added protein isolates showed significantly lower lipid oxidation as indicated by induced TBA reactive substance analysis. Results from this study suggest that SPI or meat protein could be replaced by PPI without negatively affecting product characteristics as evident from cooking yield and purge loss values. PMID:23155034

Omana, D A; Pietrasik, Z; Betti, M



Stimulus specificity but no dishabituation of sensory-specific satiety.  


Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) refers to the decrease of pleasure derived from a food with its consumption. In the current study it was examined whether SSS for a specific food can be dishabituated. To this end a total of 40 participants (10 males) received bite sized portions of a test food to repeatedly consume. This typically renders SSS for that food. After such established SSS, the participants ate a different test food repeatedly during a period of 10 min or played a computer game (i.e., Tetris), depending on the experimental condition. It was expected that the consumption of another food would induce dishabituation of SSS for the original test food. The participants indeed demonstrated SSS to the test food, but irrespective of condition this SSS proved stable. It is concluded that SSS is stimulus (i.e., food) specific but not subject to dishabituation. PMID:22343169

Havermans, Remco C



Time 2 tlk 2nite: Use of Electronic Media by Adolescents during Family Meals and Associations with Demographic Characteristics, Family Characteristics, and Foods Served.  


We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) for girls and older teens. In addition, higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) were also seen among those whose parents had low education levels or were black or Asian; having parental rules about media use significantly reduced these odds. Frequent mealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (P<0.05) and scores indicating less importance placed on mealtimes (P<0.001). Furthermore, frequent mealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (P<0.05). The ubiquitous use of mealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy. PMID:24361006

Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne



Separate and unequal: The influence of neighborhood and school characteristics on spatial proximity between fast food and schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSocial science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fast food restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school

Naa Oyo A. Kwate; Ji Meng Loh



Microbial Studies and Biochemical Characteristics of Controlled Fermented Afiyo- a Nigerian Fermented Food Condiment from Prosopis africana (Guill and Perr.) Taub  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: One hundred and fifteen bacterial strains isolated from fermenting Prosopis africana during a controlled production of okpehe, a Nigerian food-seasoning condiment most popular among the middle belt states of Nigeria were characterized as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, non-sporing Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli according to their differences in morphological, microscopic and biochemical characteristics using

Adenike A. O. Ogunshe; Mopelola O. Omotosho; A. D. V. Ayansina



Variation in trophic pathways and food web characteristics revealed by stable isotopes in an intermittent stream system of the Inukami River, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine variation in trophic pathways and the characteristics of food webs from organic matters to aquatic insects, we used stable isotopes to study an intermittent stream system of the Inukami River, Japan. The aquatic insects, including Glossosoma spp., Chironominae spp., Stenelmis spp., Rhyacophilla nigrocephala, and Hexatoma spp., were characterized by different feeding strategies. The ?C values for these species

Hyun-Seon Shin; Nozomi Amahashi; Lan Ao; Osamu Mitamura



Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.  


In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess. PMID:22929998

Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise



Sensory evaluation ratings and melting characteristics show that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert.  


Reducing dietary fat intake may lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. This study examined the feasibility of substituting okra gum for 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% milk fat in frozen chocolate dairy dessert. Fifty-six consumers evaluated the frozen dairy desserts using a hedonic scale. Consumers rated color, smell, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability characteristics of all products as acceptable. All ratings were similar among the products except for the aftertaste rating, which was significantly lower for chocolate frozen dairy dessert containing 100% milk-fat replacement with okra gum compared with the control (0% milk-fat replacement) (P<0.05). Whereas melting points of all products were similar, melting rates slowed significantly as milk-fat replacement with okra gum increased, suggesting that okra gum may increase the stability of frozen dairy desserts (P<0.05). Overall, this study shows that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert. PMID:16567157

Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; Costantino, Amanda C; Gunn, Laura H



Colour of fat, and colour, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of muscle from heifers offered alternative forages to grass silage in a finishing ration.  


The effect of type of silage offered to beef heifers during the finishing period on aspects of beef quality was determined. In two experiments, a diet based on grass silage (GS) was compared with a diet based on maize silage (MS) or whole-crop wheat silage (WCW). Compared to the GS-based diet, increasing the amount of MS linearly increased fat whiteness while the increase in fat whiteness due to WCW was dependent on the stage of crop maturity at harvesting. There was no effect of diet on muscle colour or on muscle pH measured at 48h post-mortem, drip loss, taste panel traits after 14days ageing or shear force values at 2, 7 or 14days ageing. The alternative silages decreased the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion and increased the linoleic:linolenic acid ratio in intramuscular lipid. It is concluded that type of silage affects fat colour and fatty acid composition of muscle but not the other muscle characteristics examined. PMID:23806853

Moloney, A P; Mooney, M T; Kerry, J P; Stanton, C; O'Kiely, P



Different beers with different hops. Relevant compounds for their aroma characteristics.  


Hop-derived aroma characteristics in beer are very important for the quality of beer. This study compared the differences of hop aroma characteristics and the compounds contained in beer by changing the variety of hops applying the idea of "food metabolomics" on the GC×GC/TOF-MS analysis data, to clarify which aroma compounds contribute to the differences of hop aroma profiles indicated by sensory descriptors. As a result, by focusing only on hop-derived compounds, 67 compounds were strongly correlated with one or more of the sensory descriptors. Furthermore, the odor descriptions of each key compound corresponded well to each sensory descriptor. Thus, these compounds are likely to be the key compounds explaining the differences of hop aroma characteristics in beer. This study led to the suggestion that understanding the relationship between the comprehensive nontarget analysis by GC×GC-TOF/MS and organoleptic evaluation using PCA is effective in estimating the key compounds. PMID:23627300

Inui, Takako; Tsuchiya, Fumihiko; Ishimaru, Mariko; Oka, Kaneo; Komura, Hajime



Methodological characteristics of the national dietary surveys carried out in the European Union as included in the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009 competent organisations in the European Union provided the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with data from the most recent national dietary survey at the level of individuals’ consumption. Twenty different Member States provided EFSA with data from 22 different national dietary surveys, with consumption figures for adults and, when available, for children. Member States’ dietary data were assembled

C. Merten; P. Ferrari; M. Bakker; A. Boss; Á. Hearty; C. Leclercq; O. Lindtner; C. Tlustos; P. Verger; J. L. Volatier; D. Arcella



Application of fuzzy set and neural network techniques in determining food process control set points  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy set and neural network techniques were used to determine food process control set points for producing products of certain desirable sensory quality. Fuzzy sets were employed to interpret sensory responses while neural networks were applied to model the relationships between process and sensory variables. Rice cake production was used as a model process. Product sensory attributes were evaluated by

S. Kupongsak; J. Tan



Effects of repeated consumption on sensory-enhanced satiety.  


Previous research has suggested that sensory characteristics of a drink modify the acute satiating effects of its nutrients, with enhanced satiety being evident when a high-energy drink was thicker and tasted creamier. The present study tested whether this modulation of satiety by sensory context was altered by repeated consumption. Participants (n 48) consumed one of four drinks mid-morning on seven non-consecutive days, with satiety responses being measured pre-exposure (day 1), post-exposure (day 6) and at a 1-month follow-up. The drinks combined two levels of energy (lower energy (LE), 326 kJ and higher energy, 1163 kJ) with two levels of satiety-predictive sensory characteristics (low sensory (LS) or enhanced sensory). Test lunch intake 90 min after drink consumption depended on both the energy content and sensory characteristics of the drink before exposure, but on the energy content alone after exposure and at the follow-up. The largest change was an increase in test meal intake over time in the LE/LS condition. The effects on intake were reflected in appetite ratings, with rated hunger and expected filling affected by sensory characteristics and energy content pre-exposure, but were largely determined by energy content post-exposure and at the follow-up. In contrast, a measure of expected satiety reflected sensory characteristics regardless of energy content on all the three test days. Overall, these data suggest that some aspects of the sensory modulation of satiety are changed by repeated consumption, with covert energy becoming more effective in suppressing appetite over time, but also suggest that these behavioural changes are not readily translated into expectations of satiety. PMID:24229713

Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Chambers, Lucy



Sensory evaluation of gluten-free breads assessed by a trained panel of celiac assessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest of food companies in research and development of substitute\\u000a products, which may exhibit higher sensory acceptability. Although specific gluten-free breads (GFBs) have been developed,\\u000a little is known about the sensory profile of such products. The purpose of the present study was to apply the sensory profiling\\u000a method to the six

E. Pagliarini; M. Laureati; V. Lavelli



Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.



Ultrastructure of Arthropod Sensory Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrastructure studies of the anterior sensory organs of the house fly larva (Musca domestica) are reported. Ultrastructure studies of the sensory setae and Haller's organ are reported for a hard tick Amblyomma americanum and a soft tick Argas arboreus. C...

R. C. Axtell



Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan



Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian


Foraging costs drive female resistance to a sensory trap  

PubMed Central

Male ornaments can evolve through the exploitation of female perceptual biases such as those involved in responding to cues from food. This type of sensory exploitation may lead to confusion between the male signals and the cues that females use to find/recognize food. Such interference would be costly to females and may be one reason why females evolve resistance to the male ornaments. Using a group of species of viviparous fish where resistance to a sensory trap has evolved, we demonstrate that females exposed to an ornament that resembles food have a diminished foraging efficiency, that this effect is apparent when foraging on a food item with which the ornament shares visual attributes, and that not all species are equally affected by such confusion. Our results lend support to the model of ornamental evolution through chase-away sexual conflict.

Garcia, Constantino Macias; Lemus, Yolitzi Saldivar



Sensory education program development, application and its therapeutic effect in children.  


There has recently been Increased interest in the emotional intelligence (EQ) of elementary school students, which is recognized as a more important value than IQ (intelligence quotient) for predict of their success in school or later life. However, there are few sensory education programs, available to improve the EQ of elementary school student's in Korea. This study was conducted to develop an educational program that reflects the characteristics and contents of traditional rice culture and verify the effects of those programs on the EQ of children. The program was developed based on the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation) model and participants were elementary school students in 3(rd) and 4(th) grade (n = 120) in Cheonan, Korea. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used. EQ scores pertaining to the basic sense group, culture group, and food group were significantly improved after the sensory educational program(P < 0.05), but no change was observed in the control group. These findings indicate that sensory education contributed to improving elementary school children's Emotional Intelligence (EI) and their actual understanding about Korean traditional rice culture. PMID:24611113

Kim, Mi-Hye; Chung, Hae-Kyung



Freshness assessment of cultured sea bream ( Sparus aurata) by chemical, physical and sensory methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality changes of cultured sea bream (Sparus aurata) stored in ice for a period of up to 23 days were determined by K and related values, sensory assessment and texture by texturometer. Sensory schemes, based on the Tasmanian Food Research Unit (TFRU) scheme for raw fish and on the Torry scheme for cooked fish were modified to be appropriate

C. Alasalvar; K. D. A. Taylor; A. Öksüz; T. Garthwaite; M. N. Alexis; K. Grigorakis



Phase-specific responses to different qualities of food in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: Developmental, morphological and reproductive characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitarious female adults are known to produce smaller hatchlings than those produced by gregarious adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. This study investigated developmental, morphological and reproductive responses to different qualities of food in hatchlings of different phases. Mortality was higher, the duration of nymphal development longer and adult body weight lighter with a low-quality food than a high-quality

Koutaro Maeno; Seiji Tanaka



Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.  


Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante



The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut  

PubMed Central

Background Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n?=?94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1?month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access.



Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.


Sensory Integration in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mental health. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mental health settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and

Barbara W. Posthuma



Frequency control of motor patterning by negative sensory feedback.  


The sensory system plays a key role in the generation of behavior by providing the nervous system with information about the environment and feedback about body movements such that motor output can continuously be adapted to changing circumstances. Although the effects of sensory organs on nervous system function have been demonstrated in many systems, the impact of sensory activity has rarely been studied in conditions in which motor output and sensory activity can interact as they do in behaving animals. In such situations, emergent properties may surface and govern the characteristics of the motor system. We studied the dynamics of sensorimotor interaction with a combination of electrophysiological experiments and computational modeling in the locust flight pattern generator, including its sensory components. The locust flight motor output is produced by a central pattern generator that interacts with phasic sensory feedback from the tegula, a proprioceptor that signals downstroke movement of the wing. We modeled the flight control system, and we tested the model predictions by replacing tegula feedback in the animal with artificial feedback through computer-controlled electric stimulation of the appropriate sensory nerves. With reference to the cycle frequency in the locust flight rhythm, our results show that motor patterns can be regulated via the variation of sensory feedback loops. In closed-loop conditions, tegula feedback strength determines cycle frequency in the model and the biological preparation such that stronger feedback results in lower frequencies. This regulatory mechanism appears to be a general emergent property of negative feedback systems. PMID:17728446

Ausborn, Jessica; Stein, Wolfgang; Wolf, Harald



Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ? the binding problem ? as well as how sensory perception develops.

Harvey, Joshua Paul



Integrated Sensory Response (ISR) Modeling: A New Methodology to Understand and Predict Sensory Attributes in Terms of Physical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(4):409-418 The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a tool that can assist in physical understanding and predictability of sensory from physical properties. Intriguing results have been obtained of graphical and mathematical ways of relating physical and perceived texture properties of several categories of baked foods with and without crispy layers. This led to a

G. J. van den Oever



Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio



Phenomenological dimensions of sensory gating.  


Contemporary sensory gating definitions are generally tied to the perceptual and attentional phenomenology described by McGhie and Chapman, including abnormalities in the quality of sensory input, heightened awareness of background noises, and poor selective attention reported by individuals with schizophrenia. Despite these explicit phenomenological origins, little is known about the experiential phenomena underlying contemporary operationalizations of the sensory gating construct, such as whether the construct is restricted to experiences associated with the modulation of sensory percepts includes selective attention and distractibility or even whether the construct is accessible via self-report. Because clarification of these issues has important implications for the development and testing of psychological theories and the study of psychopathology, a series of studies was conducted to (a) empirically identify the major dimensions of sensory gating-like perceptual and attentional phenomenology in healthy young adults and (b) develop a psychometrically sound self-report rating scale to capture these dimensions, the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). Factor analyses of Likert items measuring a broad range of sensory gating-like subjective experiences revealed 1 primary factor that encompassed anomalies of perceptual modulation (eg, perceptions of heightened stimulus sensitivity and sensory inundation) and 3 other factors measuring disturbances in the processes of focal and radial attention as well as exacerbation of sensory gating-like anomalies by fatigue and stress. Psychometrically, the SGI demonstrated strong reliability and validity. An empirically based conceptual demarcation of the sensory gating construct is offered, and directions for future research are described. PMID:20525773

Hetrick, William P; Erickson, Molly A; Smith, David A



Phenomenological Dimensions of Sensory Gating  

PubMed Central

Contemporary sensory gating definitions are generally tied to the perceptual and attentional phenomenology described by McGhie and Chapman, including abnormalities in the quality of sensory input, heightened awareness of background noises, and poor selective attention reported by individuals with schizophrenia. Despite these explicit phenomenological origins, little is known about the experiential phenomena underlying contemporary operationalizations of the sensory gating construct, such as whether the construct is restricted to experiences associated with the modulation of sensory percepts includes selective attention and distractibility or even whether the construct is accessible via self-report. Because clarification of these issues has important implications for the development and testing of psychological theories and the study of psychopathology, a series of studies was conducted to (a) empirically identify the major dimensions of sensory gating–like perceptual and attentional phenomenology in healthy young adults and (b) develop a psychometrically sound self-report rating scale to capture these dimensions, the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). Factor analyses of Likert items measuring a broad range of sensory gating–like subjective experiences revealed 1 primary factor that encompassed anomalies of perceptual modulation (eg, perceptions of heightened stimulus sensitivity and sensory inundation) and 3 other factors measuring disturbances in the processes of focal and radial attention as well as exacerbation of sensory gating–like anomalies by fatigue and stress. Psychometrically, the SGI demonstrated strong reliability and validity. An empirically based conceptual demarcation of the sensory gating construct is offered, and directions for future research are described.

Hetrick, William P.; Smith, David A.



Chemical and sensory properties of liquid beet sugar.  


Sensory analysis and headspace gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis of liquid sugars (sucrose) designated for food-industrial use were performed in order to elucidate which compounds are responsible for perceived off-odors and off-flavors in liquid sugar. The liquid sugar samples investigated had various kinds of off-odors and off-flavors that might influence the quality of any food product in which they might be used, such as a jam or a soft drink. The sensory scores for the different attributes and the levels of different volatile compounds as measured by GC were analyzed for correlation using partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. A link between sensory analysis and GC analysis was thereby established, and compounds critical for the odor and flavor were identified using MS (mass spectrometry). Approximately 10 compounds were found to be correlated with the defined sensory attributes. Among these compounds associated with the sensory attributes were dimethyl disulfide, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 4-methoxyphenol, and 2, 5-dimethylfuran. PMID:10552814

Pihlsgård, P; Larsson, M; Leufvén, A; Lingnert, H



Food neophobia, odor evaluation and exploratory sniffing behavior.  


Past research has shown that people who avoid new foods (neophobics) and people who approach new foods (neophilics) differ in their sensory ratings of food and odor stimuli. The possible role of sampling behaviors in these differences was assessed in two studies. Participants completed neophobia surveys, then rated the pleasantness of odors while wearing a device that measured sniffing behavior. Neophobics rated the odors as less pleasant and sniffed them less vigorously in both studies. The results of these studies provide further evidence for differences in the way that neophobics and neophilics respond to novel, food-like stimuli. Neophobia influences willingness to try novel foods, expected liking for these foods, food-associated sampling behaviors and post-sampling ratings of food-like stimuli. It is proposed that the responses of neophobics and neophilics will differ when little information about the sensory properties of foods are available, and that these differences will moderate as sensory information is acquired. PMID:9792731

Raudenbush, B; Schroth, F; Reilley, S; Frank, R A



The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat ovine and bovine Halloumi.  


Halloumi cheese is a popular cheese in Lebanon and the Middle East. Today, health-conscious consumers are demanding lower fat foods with sensory properties that are comparable to their full-fat counterparts. The objectives of this work were to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine and ovine Halloumi of different fat levels and to provide a baseline sensory profile for Halloumi cheese. Full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat samples were produced from ovine and bovine milks in 2 batches resulting in a total of 12 batches. The fat, protein, moisture, ash, pH, sodium, and calcium levels were determined and the instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Eleven trained panelists used quantitative descriptive analysis to profile the sensory attributes of the samples and an acceptability test was conducted with 84 panelists. The type of milk (ovine vs. bovine) significantly affected the moisture and protein contents, whereas fat level had a significant effect on moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents. Instrumental texture analysis revealed that the type of milk significantly affected adhesiveness, chewiness, and hardness, whereas the fat level affected chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. The sensory results of the trained panelists revealed that the ovine cheese was more yellow and harder than bovine cheese, whereas bovine cheese was squeakier. Low-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were also more yellow and harder than full-fat cheese, and full-fat cheese was more moist with no significant differences between the low-fat and reduced-fat varieties. Type of milk and fat level did not have any significant effect on fermented flavor, whey flavor, or saltiness. Bovine cheese received significantly higher scores on overall acceptability, texture acceptability, and significantly lower scores on the food action rating scale. Full-fat cheese obtained the highest score on overall acceptability, and texture acceptability decreased significantly with decreasing fat levels. PMID:19700674

Lteif, L; Olabi, A; Kebbe Baghdadi, O; Toufeili, I



"A little information excites us." Consumer sensory experience of Vermont artisan cheese as active practice.  


This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic - supposedly nonsensory - food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese. PMID:24681405

Lahne, Jacob; Trubek, Amy B



Cutaneous sensory disorder.  


Cutaneous sensory disorder (CSD) represents a heterogeneous clinical situation where the patient presents with either disagreeable skin sensations (ie, itching, burning, stinging) or pain (ie, allodynia) and/or negative sensory symptoms (ie, numbness, hypoaesthesia). These patients have no apparent diagnosable dermatologic or medical condition that explains the cutaneous symptom, and typically have negative findings upon medical workup. Skin regions that normally have a greater density of epidermal innervation tend to be more susceptible to the development of CSD. CSDs can affect any body region but generally tend to be confined to the face, scalp and perineum, and have been referred to in the literature with region-specific terms such as burning mouth syndrome, glossodynia and vulvodynia. Symptoms such as pruritus with unexplained hyperhidrosis may occur during sleep, as a result of heightened sympathetic tone. Sleep deprivation and insomnia can play a moderating role in CSD. Somatization and dissociation can play a central role in the pathogenesis of CSDs. A review of the literature suggests that CSDs represent a complex, and often poorly understood interplay between neurobiological factors associated with neuropathic pain, neuropathic itch and neurologic/neuropsychiatric states (eg, radiculopathies, stroke, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder). These neurologic/neuropsychiatric states can modulate pain and itch perception by potentially affecting the pain and itch pathways at a structural and/or functional level. PMID:24049969

Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K



Effect of food and tablet-dissolution characteristics on the bioavailability of linagliptin fixed-dose combination with metformin: evidence from two randomized trials.  


Objective: The objectives of the studies reported here were to determine the relative bioavailability of linagliptin and metformin when administered in a fixeddose combination (FDC) tablet with and without food, and to investigate the relative bioavailability of linagliptin and metformin FDC tablets from two treatment batches with different dissolution behavior. Methods: These studies were open-label, singledose, randomized, two-way crossover trials. After an overnight fast, healthy volunteers received an FDC tablet once (with/without food in the food-effect study; or from one of two batches with differing dissolution behavior in the tablet-dissolution study). On a separate visit, following a washout period of 35 days, participants received the alternative treatment. In the food-effect study the primary endpoints were maximum measured concentration in plasma (Cmax) for linagliptin and metformin, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 hours (AUC0-72) for linagliptin and from 0 to infinity (AUC0-inf) for metformin. In the tablet-dissolution study the primary endpoints were Cmax for both analytes, AUC0-72 for linagliptin, and from 0 to the time of the last quantifiable data point (AUC0-t) for metformin. Results: The administration of the FDC tablet with food had no influence on the relative bioavailability of linagliptin and metformin with regard to the extent of exposure as determined by AUC0-72 (linagliptin) and AUC0-inf (metformin) compared with FDC tablet administration while fasting. After food intake, peak plasma concentrations of linagliptin were slightly lowered (from 4.99 to 4.56 nmol L(-1)), but the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the geometric mean test/reference ratio was still located within the generally applied bioequivalence acceptance limits of 80 - 125%. The median time from dosing to the maximum concentration of linagliptin in plasma (tmax) was similar under both conditions. Administration with food reduced the rate of absorption of metformin indicated by a prolongation in median tmax (from 2 to 4 hours) and a decrease in Cmax by ~ 18%. There were no notable differences between the two treatment groups with respect to safety and tolerability. In the tablet-dissolution study, bioequivalence was demonstrated between linagliptin/metformin FDC tablets with normal and slower dissolution characteristics. For both linagliptin and metformin, the 90% CI of all pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were well within the bioequivalence acceptance limits of 80 - 125%. Tablets from both batches were well tolerated with no unexpected adverse events. Conclusions: Food did not have a relevant impact on the bioavailability of linagliptin from the FDC tablet. The effect of food on the metformin component was comparable to that previously demonstrated. Furthermore, differences in tablet-dissolution characteristics did not have an impact on the bioavailability of linagliptin or metformin from the FDC tablet. PMID:24755124

Metzmann, Katrin; Schnell, David; Jungnik, Arvid; Ring, Arne; Theodor, Rudolf; Hohl, Kathrin; Meinicke, Thomas; Friedrich, Christian



Genetic influences on oral fat perception and preference: Presented at the symposium "The Taste for Fat: New Discoveries on the Role of Fat in Sensory Perception, Metabolism, Sensory Pleasure and Beyond" held at the Institute of Food Technologists 2011 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, June 12, 2011.  


Research suggests that dietary fat is perceived not only by texture, but also by taste. However, the receptors for chemosensory response to fat have not been identified. We report on 2 genes,TAS2R38 and CD36, that may play a role in fat perception and preference in humans. TAS2R38 is a taste receptor for bitter thiourea compounds, including 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Nontasters of these compounds tend to be poor at discriminating fat in foods, even though they prefer higher fat versions of these foods. CD36, a fatty acid translocase expressed on multiple cell types including taste cells, plays a critical role in fat preferences in animals. In studies conducted in our laboratory with African-American adults, we identified a variant in the CD36 gene, rs1761667, that predicts oral responses to fat. Individuals who have the A/A genotype at this site tend to find Italian salad dressings creamier than those who have other genotypes at this site. In addition, A/A individuals report higher preferences for added fats, oils, and spreads (for example margarine). Assuming these data are confirmed in other populations, screening for CD36 genotype may provide helpful information to food companies for developing fat-modified products. PMID:22384968

Keller, Kathleen L



The effects of focal epileptic activity on regional sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling and postictal modulation of bilateral sensory processing.  


While it is known that cortical sensory dysfunction may occur in focal neocortical epilepsy, it is unknown whether sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling is also disrupted during epileptiform activity. Addressing this open question may help to elucidate both the effects of focal neocortical epilepsy on sensory responses and the neurovascular characteristics of epileptogenic regions in sensory cortex. We therefore examined bilateral sensory-evoked neurovascular responses before, during, and after 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 15 mmol/L, 1 ?L) induced focal neocortical seizures in right vibrissal cortex of the rat. Stimulation consisted of electrical pulse trains (16 seconds, 5 Hz, 1.2 mA) presented to the mystacial pad. Consequent current-source density neural responses and epileptic activity in both cortices and across laminae were recorded via two 16-channel microelectrodes bilaterally implanted in vibrissal cortices. Concurrent two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy was used to produce spatiotemporal maps of total, oxy-, and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration. Compared with control, sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling was altered during ictal activity, but conserved postictally in both ipsilateral and contralateral vibrissal cortices, despite neurovascular responses being significantly reduced in the former, and enhanced in the latter. Our results provide insights into sensory-evoked neurovascular dynamics and coupling in epilepsy, and may have implications for the localization of epileptogenic foci and neighboring eloquent cortex. PMID:23860375

Harris, Sam; Bruyns-Haylett, Michael; Kennerley, Aneurin; Boorman, Luke; Overton, Paul G; Ma, Hongtao; Zhao, Mingrui; Schwartz, Theodore H; Berwick, Jason



Studies on life history characteristics of Brachionus plicatilis O. F. Müller (Rotifera) in relation to temperature, salinity and food algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of temperature (18, 24, and 30°C), salinity (5–40 ppt, five intervals) and algal foods (Synechococcus sp., Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis, Dunaliella salina and Tetraselmis cordiformis) on the life table demography of six geographical Brachionus plicatilis sensu stricto clones, which had been identified according to the prevalent taxonomy and biometric analysis of B. plicatilis sensu lato, were studied. The results showed that

Xu Wang Yin; Wen Zhao



Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis.  


The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu



Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis  

PubMed Central

The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu



Sensory receptors in monotremes.  

PubMed Central

This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence of weak electric fields in water. Perhaps the electric sense is used to detect moving prey in moist soil.

Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A



Temperament and Sensory Features of Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3–7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Methods Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt & Carey, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (Carey & McDevitt, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three dimensional constructs of sensory features (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsivness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. Results The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Conclusions Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally associated with sensory response patterns. Shared mechanisms underlying sensory responsiveness, temperament, and social withdrawal may be fruitful to explore in future studies.

Brock, Matthew E.; Freuler, Ashley; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Poe, Michele D.; Sabatino, Antoinette



[Characteristics of E.coli O157 strains isolated in Poland from clinical material and food samples].  


E. coli belonging to the O157 serological group are among the organisms isolated most frequently out of all the so called entero-hemorrhagic E. coli strains (EHEC). Since several years they have been isolated also in Poland. The purpose of the present study was determination on selected phenotypic and genotypic properties of E. coli O157 strains isolated in our country from clinical material samples and from food. The serotype of the strains was determined, together with the following properties regarded as pathogenicity markers of verotoxic E. coli strains such as absence of beta-glucuronidase activity and sorbitol fermentation ability, as well as production of verotoxins SLT I and/or SLT II and entero-hemolysin. Besides that, by the PCR method the fragments of the genes coding for verotoxins, intimin and enterohaemolysin were amplified. The products of PCR were analysed by the restriction enzyme analysis (RFLP). All verotoxic E. coli O157 strains isolated in Poland were analysed by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA (PFGE). The studied group comprised E. coli O157 strains, among them 40 strains were isolated from human faeces and 5 from food. The remaining strains were the reference E. coli O157:H7 EDL 933 and G 5244 strains and strains from NIH collection. The obtained results showed that the tested strains were a very varying population. 21 of them (all isolated from food, 11 from faeces and 5 reference strains) belonged to serotype O157:H7, five were not peritrichous O157:NM and the remaining ones had other ciliary antigen than H7. All strains isolated from food, reference strains and only 3 O157:NM strains isolated from humans were verotoxic. The strains from food and two reference strains produced only SLT II, 2 of 3 strains isolated from humans and one reference strain also produced only SLT II and the other produced both verotoxins. Apart from these 13 verotoxic strains all remaining strains caused sorbitol fermentation. PMID:10222733

Szych, J; Paciorek, J; Cie?lik, A; Ka?uzewski, S



Salinibacter Sensory Rhodopsin  

PubMed Central

Halobacterium salinarum sensory rhodopsin I (HsSRI), a dual receptor regulating both negative and positive phototaxis in haloarchaea, transmits light signals through changes in protein-protein interactions with its transducer, halobacterial transducer protein I (HtrI). Haloarchaea also have another sensor pigment, sensory rhodopsin II (SRII), which functions as a receptor regulating negative phototaxis. Compared with HsSRI, the signal relay mechanism of SRII is well characterized because SRII from Natronomonus pharaonis (NpSRII) is much more stable than HsSRI and HsSRII, especially in dilute salt solutions and is much more resistant to detergents. Two genes encoding SRI homologs were identified from the genome sequence of the eubacterium Salinibacter ruber. Those sequences are distantly related to HsSRI (?40% identity) and contain most of the amino acid residues identified as necessary for its function. To determine whether those genes encode functional protein(s), we cloned and expressed them in Escherichia coli. One of them (SrSRI) was expressed well as a recombinant protein having all-trans retinal as a chromophore. UV-Vis, low-temperature UV-Vis, pH-titration, and flash photolysis experiments revealed that the photochemical properties of SrSRI are similar to those of HsSRI. In addition to the expression system, the high stability of SrSRI makes it possible to prepare large amounts of protein and enables studies of mutant proteins that will allow new approaches to investigate the photosignaling process of SRI-HtrI.

Kitajima-Ihara, Tomomi; Furutani, Yuji; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ihara, Kunio; Kandori, Hideki; Homma, Michio; Sudo, Yuki



Analysis of sensory data of Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena (ABTM) of different ageing by application of PARAFAC models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena is a typical Italian food product of protected denomination of origin, obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic bio-oxidation of cooked musts, and it is aged for at least 12 years in series of wooden casks. The product suitable for marketing is qualified by sensory examination on the whole of 13 sensory parameters.In this study, a

Marina Cocchi; Rasmus Bro; Caterina Durante; Daniela Manzini; Andrea Marchetti; Francesco Saccani; Simona Sighinolfi; Alessandro Ulrici



Sensory optimization by stochastic tuning.  


Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system's preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: The higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees



Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveExamine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)–accepting stores in Leon County, Florida.

Samantha Rigby; Angela F. Leone; HwaHwan Kim; Connie Betterley; Mary Ann Johnson; Hilda Kurtz; Jung Sun Lee



PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this paper is to identify: motivations and perceived barriers associated with food choices made by homebound older adults; whether motivations and perceived barriers vary according to social demographic characteristics; and whether motivations and perceived barriers are associated with dietary quality. Design This was an observational study using standard interview methods where participants were administered a questionnaire and completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Participants were interviewed in their homes. Participants 185 homebound older adults were included. Measurement Motivations were assessed using a modification of The Food Choice Questionnaire and perceived barriers were assessed using the Vailas Food Enjoyment Questionnaire. Participants answered questions regarding social demographic characteristics. Dietary quality measures of adequate intakes of calories, protein, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 were obtained from the three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results Mean age was 78.9; 80% were female; and 36% were African American. Key motivations in food choice included sensory appeal, convenience, and price. Key barriers included health, being on a special diet, and being unable to shop. These varied little by social demographics, except for age. Dietary quality varied according to different motivations and barriers. Conclusion Food choices are based upon a complex interaction between the social and environmental context, the individual, and the food. Efforts to change eating behaviors, especially community-based interventions involving self-management approaches, must carefully take into account individuals’ self-perceived motivations and barriers to food selection. Incorporating foods that are tasty, easy to prepare, inexpensive, and that involve caregivers are critical for successful interventions.




Cross-sensory modulation of primary sensory cortex is developmentally regulated by early sensory experience.  


The presence of cross-sensory influences on neuronal responses in primary sensory cortex has been observed previously using several different methods. To test this idea in rat S1 barrel cortex, we hypothesized that auditory stimuli combined with whisker stimulation ("cross-sensory" stimuli) may modify response levels to whisker stimulation. Since the brain has been shown to have a remarkable capacity to be modified by early postnatal sensory activity, manipulating postnatal sensory experiences would be predicted to alter the degree of cross-sensory interactions. To test these ideas, we raised rats with or without whisker deprivation and with or without postnatal exposure to repeated auditory clicks. We recorded extracellular responses under urethane anesthesia from barrel cortex neurons in response to principal whisker stimulation alone, to auditory click stimulation alone, or to a cross-sensory stimulus. The responses were compared statistically across different stimulus conditions and across different rearing groups. Barrel neurons did not generate action potentials in response to auditory click stimuli alone in any rearing group. However, in cross-sensory stimulus conditions the response magnitude was facilitated in the 0-15 ms post-whisker-stimulus epoch in all rearing conditions, whereas modulation of response magnitude in a later 15-30 ms post-whisker-stimulus epoch was significantly different in each rearing condition. The most significant cross-sensory effect occurred in rats that were simultaneously whisker deprived and click reared. We conclude that there is a modulatory type of cross-sensory auditory influence on normal S1 barrel cortex, which can be enhanced by early postnatal experiences. PMID:21325520

Ghoshal, Ayan; Tomarken, Andrew; Ebner, Ford



Surface Texture of Foods: Perception and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface texture is generally accepted as a key sensory factor of food materials and has great impact on consumers' perception and expectation of a food product. However, no authentic definition has been given in the literature for the term surface texture. Its real meaning is often rather confusing, varying from case to case and from person to person. A general

Jianshe Chen



Technological and microbiological aspects of traditional balsamic vinegar and their influence on quality and sensorial properties.  


The term "balsamic" is widespread and popular all over the world of vinegar and fancy foods; it is used generally to refer to vinegars and sauces with a sweet and sour taste. However, the original is the European Protected Denomination, registered as "Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale of Modena, or of Reggio Emilia" that should not be confused with the "Aceto Balsamico di Modena" very similar in the name, but completely different for technology, raw material, quality, and sensorial properties. Traditional balsamic vinegar is made by a peculiar procedure, that starts with a thermal concentration of freshly squeezed grape juice, followed by alcoholic and acetic fermentations and, finally, long aging in a wooden barrel set, by a procedure which requires a partial transfer of vinegar from cask to cask with the consequential blending of vinegars of different ages. In addition, water transfer occurs across the wood of the barrels, the result being an increase of solute concentration of the vinegar. The chemical and physical transformations of the vinegar are mainly directed by the low water activity of the vinegar. High-molecular polymeric compounds are the main and characteristic constituents of original and old traditional balsamic vinegar, and the major cause of its rheological and sensorial properties. PMID:19878859

Giudici, Paolo; Gullo, Maria; Solieri, Lisa; Falcone, Pasquale Massimiliano



A sensory bias has triggered the evolution of egg-spots in cichlid fishes.  


Although, generally, the origin of sex-limited traits remains elusive, the sensory exploitation hypothesis provides an explanation for the evolution of male sexual signals. Anal fin egg-spots are such a male sexual signal and a key characteristic of the most species-rich group of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. Males of about 1500 mouth-brooding species utilize these conspicuous egg-dummies during courtship--apparently to attract females and to maximize fertilization success. Here we test the hypothesis that the evolution of haplochromine egg-spots was triggered by a pre-existing bias for eggs or egg-like coloration. To this end, we performed mate-choice experiments in the basal haplochromine Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor, which manifests the plesiomorphic character-state of an egg-spot-less anal fin. Experiments using computer-animated photographs of males indeed revealed that females prefer images of males with virtual ('in-silico') egg-spots over images showing unaltered males. In addition, we tested for color preferences (outside a mating context) in a phylogenetically representative set of East African cichlids. We uncovered a strong preference for yellow, orange or reddish spots in all haplochromines tested and, importantly, also in most other species representing more basal lines. This pre-existing female sensory bias points towards high-quality (carotenoids-enriched) food suggesting that it is adaptive. PMID:22028784

Egger, Bernd; Klaefiger, Yuri; Theis, Anya; Salzburger, Walter



Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef) samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. Results As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7%) produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6%) produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5%) belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2%) contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. Conclusions The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals.



Electrical modeling of Piezoelectric ceramics for analysis and evaluation of sensory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectricity is an ability of some materials to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress. Piezoelectric ceramics are often used for sensory systems to monitor mechanical characteristics of structures through an electrical signal. Thus, to support system level analysis and evaluation of sensory systems, understanding and estimating the electrical behavior of piezoelectric ceramics with a minimum effort

Jina Kim; Benjamin L. Grisso; Jeong K. Kim; Dong Sam Ha; Daniel J. Inman



Increased hemodynamic response in the hippocampus, thalamus and prefrontal cortex during abnormal sensory gating in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDeficits in sensory gating are a common feature of schizophrenia. Failure of inhibitory gating mechanisms, shown by poor suppression of evoked responses to repeated auditory stimuli, has been previously studied using EEG methods. These methods yield information about the temporal characteristics of sensory gating deficits, but do not identify brain regions involved in the process. Hence, the neuroanatomical substrates of

Jason R. Tregellas; Deana B. Davalos; Donald C. Rojas; Merilyne C. Waldo; Linzi Gibson; Korey Wylie; Yiping P. Du; Robert Freedman



Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun



Proximal sensory neuropathies of the Leg.  


This article addresses the proximal sensory neuropathies of the leg, concentrating on those nerves that are purely sensory or have a predominately sensory onset. These include the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, the ilioinguinal nerve, the genitofemoral nerve, and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The obturator and femoral nerves are also summarily mentioned with respect to their sensory symptoms. PMID:10393758

Reid, V; Cros, D



Food Allergy  


Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your immune system ... Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Food Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Allergic reactions to food normally ...


Applications of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in Food Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decades, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties

Yiqun Huang; Lars J. Kangas; Barbara A. Rasco



An optometric approach to patients with sensory integration dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSensory integration dysfunction is a neurologic condition that can cause children to process environmental sensations in an inappropriate way. As a result, they may either seek out strong sensations or avoid even mild sensations. Some of the characteristics of these children may be hyperactivity, poor awareness of pain, high risk taking, listening to loud sounds, clumsiness, poor fine motor skills,

Christine L. Allison; Helen Gabriel; Darrell Schlange; Sara Fredrickson



Is fast food addictive?  


Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H



Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75°C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30°C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI ?ež 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

Pla?ek, V.; Svobodová, V.; Barton?´?ek, B.; Rosmus, J.; ?amra, M.



Study of sensory properties of emollients used in cosmetics and their correlation with physicochemical properties.  


Eight liquid emollients (mineral oil, sunflower oil, squalane, decyl oleate, isopropyl myristate, octyldodecanol, dimethicone, and cyclomethicone) were characterized by instrumental and sensory methods and evaluated to determine the relationship between sensory and instrumental measures. Sensory analysis was carried out by a panel of 14 assessors, who evaluated the following attributes: difficulty of spreading, gloss, residue, stickiness, slipperiness, softness, and oiliness. The physicochemical properties measured were spreadability (at one-half minute and at one minute), viscosity, and superficial tension. Data collected were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear partial least squares regression analysis (PLS). In consideration of their physicochemical characteristics, the studied emollients were sorted into three groups, in which the silicones distinctly separate from the rest. Sensory characteristics enabled the discrimination of four groups of emollients where, besides the two silicones, isopropyl myristate was also differentiated. PLS revealed that emollient sensory attributes could be well predicted by instrumental measurements. PMID:16116522

Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Solana, Gerardo



Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

Powrie, W. D.




Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture mechanics of food is a rational and useful branch of materials science which can yield information of more general interest. The critical stress intensity factor, KIC, is a valid replacement for the organoleptic (sensory) assessment of \\

Julian FV Vincent



[The medium chain fat acids. Content in food. Physiology, characteristics of metabolism and application in clinical practice].  


It is rational, according to biology laws and purposes for which cells use fatty acids, to distinguish between saturated (without double bonds in chain), monoene (with one bond), unsaturated (with 2 and 3 double bonds) and polyene (with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds) acids. The saturated and monoene fatty acids are mainly the substratum for oxygenation and working out of energy by cells. The unsaturated fatty acids are the substratum for formation of membranes. The polyene fatty acids are the predecessors of synthesis of eicosanoids and aminophosphotides. With subject to characteristics of metabolism and transfer in vivo, the fatty acids are subdivided into short chain C4 - C8 and medium chain C-10 - C-14 fatty acids. The etherification occurs with glycerin into "short" triglycerides which are not bounded with apoproteins. The long chain fatty acids form "long" triglycerides which in enterocytes are structured by apoprotein B-48 into composition of chylomicrons. It is possible to validly consider that difference in outflow from enterocytes to veins of portal system (which includes veins of omentum) of medium chain fatty acids in the form of short triglycerides can directly input into pathogenesis of syndrome of isolated omental obesity and metabolic syndrome. The another input into the mentioned conditions is the secretion through ductus thoracicus into large veins of greater systemic circulation of long chain fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in the content of chylomicrons. The omental obesity is the only specific symptom of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24340938

Arkhipovski?, A V; Titov, V N



Presynaptic inhibition of spinal sensory feedback ensures smooth movement.  


The precision of skilled movement depends on sensory feedback and its refinement by local inhibitory microcircuits. One specialized set of spinal GABAergic interneurons forms axo-axonic contacts with the central terminals of sensory afferents, exerting presynaptic inhibitory control over sensory-motor transmission. The inability to achieve selective access to the GABAergic neurons responsible for this unorthodox inhibitory mechanism has left unresolved the contribution of presynaptic inhibition to motor behaviour. We used Gad2 as a genetic entry point to manipulate the interneurons that contact sensory terminals, and show that activation of these interneurons in mice elicits the defining physiological characteristics of presynaptic inhibition. Selective genetic ablation of Gad2-expressing interneurons severely perturbs goal-directed reaching movements, uncovering a pronounced and stereotypic forelimb motor oscillation, the core features of which are captured by modelling the consequences of sensory feedback at high gain. Our findings define the neural substrate of a genetically hardwired gain control system crucial for the smooth execution of movement. PMID:24784215

Fink, Andrew J P; Croce, Katherine R; Huang, Z Josh; Abbott, L F; Jessell, Thomas M; Azim, Eiman



Building sensory receptors on the tongue.  


Neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors and sensory neurons are required for the development of lingual sense organs. For example, neurotrophin 3 sustains lingual somatosensory neurons. In the traditional view, sensory axons will terminate where neurotrophin expression is most pronounced. Yet, lingual somatosensory axons characteristically terminate in each filiform papilla and in each somatosensory prominence within a cluster of cells expressing the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), rather than terminating among the adjacent cells that secrete neurotrophin 3. The p75NTR on special specialized clusters of epithelial cells may promote axonal arborization in vivo since its over-expression by fibroblasts enhances neurite outgrowth from overlying somatosensory neurons in vitro. Two classical observations have implicated gustatory neurons in the development and maintenance of mammalian taste buds--the early arrival times of embryonic innervation and the loss of taste buds after their denervation in adults. In the modern era more than a dozen experimental studies have used early denervation or neurotrophin gene mutations to evaluate mammalian gustatory organ development. Necessary for taste organ development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor sustains developing gustatory neurons. The cardinal conclusion is readily summarized: taste buds in the palate and tongue are induced by innervation. Taste buds are unstable: the death and birth of taste receptor cells relentlessly remodels synaptic connections. As receptor cells turn over, the sensory code for taste quality is probably stabilized by selective synapse formation between each type of gustatory axon and its matching taste receptor cell. We anticipate important new discoveries of molecular interactions among the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and gustatory innervation that build the gustatory papillae, their specialized epithelial cells, and the resulting taste buds. PMID:16217619

Oakley, Bruce; Witt, Martin



Endocannabinoid Hedonic Hotspot for Sensory Pleasure: Anandamide in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Enhances ‘Liking’ of a Sweet Reward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabinoid drugs such as ?9-THC are euphoric and rewarding, and also stimulate food intake in humans and animals. Little is known about how naturally occurring endogenous brain cannabinoids mediate pleasure from food or other natural sensory rewards. The taste reactivity paradigm measures effects of brain manipulations on affective orofacial reactions to intraorally administered pleasant and unpleasant tastes. Here we tested

Stephen V Mahler; Kyle S Smith; Kent C Berridge



Food Allergies  


... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...


Food Allergy  


Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...


Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.  


Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure. PMID:18618404

Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela



Sensor Selection and Chemo-Sensory Optimization: Toward an Adaptable Chemo-Sensory System  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to “adapt” in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve.

Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard



Oxidative stability and sensory evaluation of microencapsulated flaxseed oil.  


Cold pressed flaxseed oil was microencapsulated by spray drying using an emulsion containing modified starch. The fatty acid composition, moisture, water activity, wettability, water holding capacity, water solubility, crystallinity, and particle size distribution of the microcapsules were determined. The stability of the microcapsules and the crude oil were assessed. An acceptance test was used for the sensory evaluation of a powdered supplement containing the microcapsules. The fatty acid composition was not significantly affected by the microencapsulation. The moisture, water activity, wettability, water solubility and crystallinity were appropriate for dry powders. The microcapsules had no cracks and showed better oxidative stability compared with the crude oil. Storage under vacuum prevented oxidation of the microcapsules. In sensory evaluation, all quality scores of the supplement containing microcapsules were mid-range or higher. The microencapsulation improved the oxidative stability of the oil and this procedure was satisfactorily applied in powdered food. PMID:23962202

Barroso, Ana Karina Mauro; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Freitas, Suely Pereira; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena Miguez da



Sensory Aids for the Blind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.


[Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

Farquhar, Carin; And Others


Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

Skapof, Jerome


Making Sense of Sensory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

Hendrix, Marie



Texture is a sensory property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realizing that texture is a sensory property gives proper orientation to facets of texture research. Following the breakthrough in the 1960s and 1970s in surfacing the multi-parameter nature of texture and in defining the general principles of texture acceptability, the field has essentially reverted to commodity work. This paper reviews briefly the state of knowledge and points out specific research

Alina Surmacka Szczesniak



The impact of fruit maturation on bioactive microconstituents, inhibition of serum oxidation and inflammatory markers in stimulated PBMCs and sensory characteristics of Koroneiki virgin olive oils from Messenia, Greece.  


Olive fruits from the Koroneiki cultivar (Olea europaea L.) grown in Messenia, Greece, were hand-picked from the same trees in progressive maturity stages, covering three months, and processed identically with a commercial olive mill and a three-phase decanter. Data on quality parameters, and antioxidant activity of the obtained oils were collected by employing the conventional analytical methods set by European Union Commission Regulation no. 61/2011. Additionally, the potential of oils' polar extract to inhibit total serum lipid oxidation and inflammatory markers in stimulated human mononuclear cells was assayed. The results showed that ripening caused an increase in monounsaturated and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as an increase in phenolic compounds - mainly hydroxytyrosol - and in squalene. The extracts' ferric reducing power was in line with the increase of phenolic compounds. In later stages of maturation, lipoprotein oxidation was less potent and the decrease of inflammatory markers in stimulated human mononuclear cells was more powerful. Sensory evaluation detected differences in oils' "bitter" attributes, while the analysis of oils' volatiles revealed quantitative differences. PMID:23727843

Kaliora, Andriana C; Artemiou, Anna; Giogios, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulos, Nick



Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict  

PubMed Central

Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

Arnqvist, Goran



An optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction and simultaneous quantification of 26 characteristic components with four structure types in functional foods from ginkgo seeds.  


An optimized method of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2)) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of 26 characteristic components covering four structure types (flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols) in ginkgo seeds (GSs). The UAE parameters (ultrasound power, time and solvent-to-material ratio) were optimized using a response surface methodology. This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of 26 compounds in Ginkgo biloba using UHPLC-TQ/MS(2); this analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) was successfully applied to ginkgo seed samples, and the analysis showed that GSs are rich in terpene lactones and could be selected as a healthy food resource. The results suggest that UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) might be able to be utilized as a tool for the quality assessment of samples from GSs or other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols as markers. PMID:24731329

Zhou, Guisheng; Yao, Xin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Zhang, Li; Jin, Chun; Qin, Yong; Duan, Jin-ao



Effect of PEF on Enzymes and Food Constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food quality is of key importance in food preservation, even more in the context of novel technologies. The search for alternative\\u000a methods to preserve foods is driven by the trends in consumption patterns. Consumers nowadays demand healthier, fresher, and\\u000a more natural foods, with high sensory and nutritional qualities, and at the same time with the highest degree of safety. Pulsed

Pilar Mafias; Antonio Vercet


‘One Receptor’ Rules in Sensory Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recent explosion in the characterization of different sensory systems, a general rule is emerging: only one type of sensory receptor molecule is expressed per receptor neuron. The visual system is no exception and, in most cases, photoreceptors express only one visual pigment per cell. However, the mechanisms underlying the exclusion of sensory receptors are poorly understood. As expression

Esteban O. Mazzoni; Claude Desplan; Arzu Çelik




EPA Science Inventory

The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...


Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois



Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of foods by fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology. Fermentation ensures not only increased shelf life and microbiological safety of a food but also may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria because of their unique metabolic characteristics are involved in many fermentation

Elizabeth Caplice; Gerald F Fitzgerald



Probing Food Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between a food’s structure and its properties\\/functionalities is of fundamental interest in food materials\\u000a science. The great expectation is to relate the functionality of a food material to the physico-chemical characteristics of\\u000a its ingredients and their geometric arrangement (i.e., structure formation). Functionalities of interest are either of chemical\\u000a (e.g., flavor release from a given matrix), physical\\/ mechanical (e.g.,

Martin Michel; Laurent Sagalowicz


Stable Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Live Benthic Foraminifera from the Okhotsk Sea: Effects of Oceanography, Food Supply, and Microhabitat Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoceanographic studies use benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes as proxies for interpretations of numerous parameters such as past oceanic circulation patterns, food supply, primary productivity, etc. However, only few studies have used live (rose Bengal-stained) populations to reliably calibrate stable isotope characteristics to bottom water and sediment chemistry of the surrounding environment. We report results from a study in the Okhotsk Sea, a region characterized by extreme climatic and oceanographic settings. Not only does this marginal basin of the NW-Pacific experience the southermost extent of seasonal ice cover in the entire Northern Hemisphere, it also shows extremely high primary productivity. These boundary conditions lead many to consider the Okhotsk Sea both as a modern analog for ecological and oceanographic conditions in ocean basins during past and a sensitive recorder of potential future climate change in high latitudes. We compare results of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the most abundant taxa to oxygen isotopic compositions of bottom water and carbon isotopes of bottom water DIC, nutrient inventories from the water column and productivity proxy-data from sediment surface profiles (chlorines, TOC, biogenic opal). Multicorer samples from the upper 10 cm at 15 sites were taken from a variety of settings with water depths ranging from less than 100 m to more than 3200 m. Results obtained show a wide range of interspecific carbon isotope values exceeding 2 per mil variability within neighbouring samples. Minimum values occur in deep endobenthic groups like Globobulima spp., whereas species living in a relatively wide depth range like V. sadonica or U. peregrina exhibit intermediate values between -0.7 and -1 per mil. Most measurements conducted to address intraspecific variability remain within a narrow range of less than 0.4 per mil. However, we do observe vertical trends with both increasing and decreasing carbon isotope gradients within the sediment column. Obtained carbon isotope values from both living and dead specimen of widely used the Cibicides spp. group stay within the range of bottom water DIC, with no systematic negative phytodetritus- effect occuring throughout the sample set despite etremely pronounced seasonality in organic matter supply on most sites. Combined with a proxy-dataset about primary productivity, we give an evaluation of benthic-pelagic coupling and the impact on benthic species adaption to the pronounced subarctic seasonal cycle and the strongly pulsed food fluxes to the ocean floor.

Lembke-Jene, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Bubenshchikova, N.; Erlenkeuser, H.; Dullo, W.



Stable Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Live Benthic Foraminifera from the Okhotsk Sea: Effects of Oceanography, Food Supply and Microhabitat Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoceanographic studies use benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes as proxies for interpretations of numerous parameters such as past oceanic circulation patterns, food supply, primary productivity, etc. However, only few studies have used live (rose Bengal-stained) populations to reliably calibrate stable isotope characteristics to bottom water and sediment chemistry of the surrounding environment. We report data from a study in the Okhotsk Sea, a region characterized by extreme climatic and oceanographic settings. Not only does this marginal basin of the NW-Pacific experience the southermost extent of seasonal ice cover in the entire Northern Hemisphere, it also shows extremely high primary productivity. These boundary conditions lead many to consider the Okhotsk Sea both as a modern analog for ecological and oceanographic conditions in ocean basins during past and a sensitive recorder of potential future climate change in high latitudes. We compare results of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the most abundant taxa to oxygen isotopic compositions of bottom water and carbon isotopes of bottom water DIC, nutrient inventories from the water column and productivity proxy-data from sediment surface profiles (chlorines, TOC, biogenic opal). Multicorer samples from the upper 10 cm at 15 sites were taken from a variety of settings with water depths ranging from less than 100 m to more than 3200 m. Results obtained show a wide range of interspecific carbon isotope values exceeding 2 per mil variability within neighbouring samples. Minimum values occur in deep endobenthic groups like Globobulima spp., whereas species living in a relatively wide depth range like V. sadonica or U. peregrina exhibit intermediate values between -0.7 and -1 per mil. Most measurements conducted to address intraspecific variability remain within a narrow range of less than 0.4 per mil. However, we do observe vertical trends with both increasing and decreasing carbon isotope gradients within the sediment column. Obtained carbon isotope values from both living and dead specimen of widely used the Cibicides spp. group stay within the range of bottom water DIC, with no systematic negative phytodetritus-effect occuring throughout the sample set despite etremely pronounced seasonality in organic matter supply on most sites. Combined with a proxy-dataset about primary productivity, we give an evaluation of benthic-pelagic coupling and the impact on benthic species adaption to the pronounced subarctic seasonal cycle and the strongly pulsed food fluxes to the ocean floor.

Lembke-Jene, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Bubenshchikova, N.; Erlenkeuser, H.



Increased Hemodynamic Response in the Hippocampus, Thalamus and Prefrontal Cortex During Abnormal Sensory Gating in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective Deficits in sensory gating are a common feature of schizophrenia. Failure of inhibitory gating mechanisms, shown by poor suppression of evoked responses to repeated auditory stimuli, have been previously studied using EEG methods. These methods yield information about the temporal characteristics of sensory gating deficits, but do not identify brain regions involved in the process. Hence, the neuroanatomical substrates of poor sensory gating in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of sensory gating deficits in schizophrenia. Methods Twelve patients with schizophrenia and 12 healthy comparison subjects were scanned at 3 Tesla while performing a sensory gating task developed for fMRI. P50 EEG evoked potential recordings from a paired-stimulus conditioning-test paradigm were obtained from the same subjects. Results Compared to healthy comparison subjects, patients with schizophrenia exhibited greater activation in the hippocampus, thalamus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the fMRI sensory gating task. No group difference was observed in the superior temporal gyrus. Schizophrenia subjects also showed decreased P50 suppression as measured with EEG. Hemodynamic response in the fMRI measure was positively correlated with test/conditioning ratios from the EEG sensory gating measure. Conclusions Poor sensory gating in schizophrenia is associated with dysfunction of an apparent network of brain regions, including the hippocampus, thalamus and DLPFC. Greater activation of these regions is consistent with evidence for diminished inhibitory function in schizophrenia.

Tregellas, Jason R.; Davalos, Deana B.; Rojas, Donald C.; Waldo, Merilyne C.; Gibson, Linzi; Wylie, Korey; Du, Yiping P.; Freedman, Robert



Morphology of Electroreceptive Sensory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of electroreceptive organs in lampreys and their larvae, different fishes, aquatic amphibians, and monotreme\\u000a mammals is described. The sense organs vary from superficial end buds in lampreys, to ampullary organs and tuberous organs\\u000a in many fishes and amphibians, to specialized mucous glands in the monotremes. The sensory cells are quite different. Some\\u000a have a bundle of apical microvilli,

Jørgen Mørup Jørgensen


Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper


VESTA Viticulture Course: Sensory Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Viticulture and Enology Science and Technology Alliance, offers presentations and slides from the lectures of VIN 266: Sensory Evaluation. From the presenter, Ray Johnson, the three lectures included are: Enhancing Winetasting: Decanting, Enhancing Winetasting: Glassware, and Winetasting Methodology Basic Techniques. Users must have Microsoft's Silverlight installed to view the presentations, which vary in length from about 6 minutes to 16 minutes.



Sensory Augmentation for the Blind  

PubMed Central

Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people.

Karcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; Konig, Peter



Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.



From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for…

Lynch, Meghan



Descriptive Characteristics and Health Outcomes of the Food by Prescription Nutrition Supplementation Program for Adults Living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical effects and potential benefits of nutrition supplementation interventions for persons living with HIV remain largely unreported, despite awareness of the multifaceted relationship between HIV infection and nutrition. We therefore examined descriptive characteristics and nutritional outcomes of the Food by Prescription (FBP) nutrition supplementation program in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Methods Demographic, health, and anthropometric data were gathered from a retrospective cohort of 1,017 non-pregnant adult patients who enrolled into the FBP program at a Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) site in Nyanza Province between July 2009 and July 2011. Our primary outcome was FBP treatment success defined as attainment of BMI>20, and we used Cox proportional hazards to assess socio-demographic and clinical correlates of FBP treatment success. Results Mean body mass index was 16.4 upon enrollment into the FBP program. On average, FBP clients gained 2.01 kg in weight and 0.73 kg/m2 in BMI over follow-up (mean 100 days), with the greatest gains among the most severely undernourished (BMI <16) clients (p<0.001). Only 13.1% of clients attained a BMI>20, though 44.5% achieved a BMI increase ?0.5. Greater BMI at baseline, younger age, male gender, and not requiring highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were associated with a higher rate of attainment of BMI>20. Conclusion This study reports significant gains in weight and BMI among patients enrolled in the FBP program, though only a minority of patients achieved stated programmatic goals of BMI>20. Future research should include well-designed prospective studies that examine retention, exit reasons, mortality outcomes, and long-term sustainability of nutrition supplementation programs for persons living with HIV.

Nagata, Jason M.; Cohen, Craig R.; Young, Sera L.; Wamuyu, Catherine; Armes, Mary N.; Otieno, Benard O.; Leslie, Hannah H.; Dandu, Madhavi; Stewart, Christopher C.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Weiser, Sheri D.



Pathological features of ganglioradiculitis (sensory neuropathy) in two dogs.  


Canine ganglioradiculitis (sensory neuropathy) was examined pathologically in two dogs (dog Nos. 1 and 2). The affected dogs had 1 and 2 years clinical courses from the onset, respectively. As common clinical signs, both cases showed progressive ataxia, difficulty in prehending food, visual deficit, and several sensory abnormalities. Gross observation after tissue fixation revealed whitish discoloration in the dorsal column of the spinal cords. The histological lesions were mainly distributed in the spinal dorsal roots, ganglions, and dorsal columns. In the spinal dorsal roots and ganglions, there were striking myelin loss, mild infiltration of mononuclear cells, and proliferation of small spindle cells. In the dorsal funiculus, there were moderate to severe diffuse myelin-loss and axonal degeneration. Immunohistochemistry for substance P (SP) revealed marked reduction of SP-immunopositive granules in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of affected dogs. By immunohistochemistry, CD3-positive cells were observed in the dorsal roots of dog No. 2, while CD3-positive cells were rare in those of dog No. 1. In the spinal ganglion of dog No. 1 there were many CD3- and MHC class II-positive cells. By indirect immunofluorescence assay using sera from affected dogs, no autoantibodies against canine nerve tissues were detected. The clinicopathological features of the present cases are almost consistent with those in previous reports of canine sensory neuropathies, while the etiology remains unclear. PMID:18176020

Funamoto, Miwako; Nibe, Kazumi; Morozumi, Motoji; Edamura, Kazuya; Uchida, Kazuyuki



Assessing food neophobia: the role of stimulus familiarity.  


The present study assesses the effects of food familiarity on food ratings of neophobics and neophilics by having them sample and evaluate familiar and novel foods. Level of neophobia was assessed using the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS). Participants rated their familiarity with each food, their willingness to try the foods and expected liking for the foods, as well as their actual liking for the foods after they were sampled. Willingness to try the foods again in the future, and the amount of food sampled were also assessed. Evaluations of the foods were more positive for familiar vs. unfamiliar foods across all study participants. The responses of neophobics and neophilics were similar for familiar foods, but differed when the foods were unfamiliar, with neophobics making more negative evaluations. Neophobics and neophilics differed least in their liking ratings of the stimuli that were made after the foods were actually sampled, and differed most in their ratings of willingness to try the foods. It is concluded that neophobics have different expectancies about unfamiliar foods, and that these expectancies influence food sampling and rating behaviors. The neophobic's negative attitude toward an unfamiliar food may be ameliorated, but is not eliminated, once sensory information about the food is obtained. PMID:10097030

Raudenbush, B; Frank, R A



Improving Oral Communication Skills of Students in Food Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication activities about food evaluation were incorporated into food preparation courses. Oral reports replaced quizzes and an oral presentation replaced the final exam. A rubric was developed to help students evaluate ingredient functions, procedures, techniques, temperatures, and sensory evaluation. Oral report scores, self-evaluations,…

Reitmeier, C. A.; Svendsen, L. K.; Vrchota, D. A.



Capsaicin and sensory neurones: a historical perspective.  


Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red pepper has become not only a "hot" topic in neuroscience but its new target-related unique actions have opened the door for the drug industry to introduce a new chapter of analgesics. After several lines of translational efforts with over 1,000 patents and clinical trials, the 8% capsaicin dermal patch reached the market and its long-lasting local analgesic effect in some severe neuropathic pain states is now well established. This introductory chapter outlines on one hand the historical background based on the author's 50 years of experience in this field and on the other hand emphasizes new scopes, fascinating perspectives in pharmaco-physiology, and molecular pharmacology of nociceptive sensory neurons. Evidence for the effect of capsaicin on C-polymodal nociceptors (CMH), C-mechanoinsensitive (CHMi), and silent C-nociceptors are listed and the features of the capsaicin-induced blocking effects of nociceptors are demonstrated. Common and different characteristics of nociceptor-blocking actions after systemic, perineural, local, intrathecal, and in vitro treatments are summarized. Evidence for the misleading conclusions drawn from neonatal capsaicin pretreatment is presented. Perspectives opened from cloning the capsaicin receptor "Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1" (TRPV1) are outlined and potential molecular mechanisms behind the long-lasting functional, ultrastructural, and nerve terminal-damaging effects of capsaicin and other TRPV1 agonists are summarized. Neurogenic inflammation and the long-list of "capsaicin-sensitive" tissue responses are mediated by an unorthodox dual sensory-efferent function of peptidergic TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals which differ from the classical efferent and sensory nerve endings that have a unidirectional role in neuroregulation. Thermoregulatory effects of capsaicin are discussed in detail. It is suggested that since hyperthermia and burn risk due to enhanced noxious heat threshold are the major obstacles of some TRPV1 antagonists, they could be overcome. The special "multisteric" gating function of the TRPV1 cation channel provides the structural ground for blocking chemical activation of TRPV1 without affecting its responsiveness to physical stimuli. A new chapter of potential analgesics targeting nociceptors is now already supported for pain relief in persistent pathological pain states. PMID:24941663

Szolcsányi, János



Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: implications for in-mouth sensory properties.  


Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency. PMID:23289627

McRae, Jacqui M; Schulkin, Alex; Kassara, Stella; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A



Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.  


The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M



The CCHamide 1 receptor modulates sensory perception and olfactory behavior in starved Drosophila.  


The olfactory response of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to food odor is modulated by starvation. Here we show that this modulation is not restricted to food odors and their detecting sensory neurons but rather increases the behavioral response to odors as different as food odors, repellents and pheromones. The increased behavioral responsiveness is paralleled by an increased physiological sensitivity of sensory neurons regardless whether they express olfactory or ionotropic receptors and regardless whether they are housed in basiconic, coeloconic, or trichoid sensilla. Silencing several genes that become up-regulated under starvation confirmed the involvement of the short neuropeptide f receptor in the starvation effect. In addition it revealed that the CCHamide-1 receptor is another important factor governing starvation-induced olfactory modifications. PMID:24067446

Farhan, Abu; Gulati, Jyotasana; Gro?e-Wilde, Ewald; Vogel, Heiko; Hansson, Bill S; Knaden, Markus



Yield Stress in Foods: Measurements and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the presence of true yield stress has been debated, it has been accepted as an engineering reality. Now, yield stress is routinely measured and used in the food industry not only for basic process calculations and manufacturing practices, but also as a test for sensory and quality indices and to determine the effect of composition and manufacturing procedures on

Adriano Sun; Sundaram Gunasekaran



Middle East food safety perspectives.  


Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24415527

Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S



Culture of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons  

PubMed Central

Olfactory sensory neurons, located in the nasal epithelium, detect and transmit odorant information to the central nervous system. This requires that these neurons form specific neuronal connections within the olfactory bulb and express receptors and signaling molecules specific for these functions. This protocol describes a primary olfactory sensory neuron culture technique that allows in vitro investigation of olfactory sensory neuron differentiation, axon outgrowth, odorant receptor expression and function. Olfactory epithelium is obtained from the nasal cavity and enzymatically treated to reduce stroma tissue. Dissociated olfactory sensory neurons are cultured directly on a layer of cortical astrocytes to support their survival. Using this method, cultured olfactory sensory neurons maintain their bipolar morphology and express odorant signal transduction molecules which are specific for olfactory sensory neurons.

Gong, Qizhi



The evolution of fidelity in sensory systems.  


We investigate the effect that noise has on the evolution of measurement strategies and competition in populations of organisms with sensory systems of differing fidelities. We address two questions motivated by experimental and theoretical work on sensory systems in noisy environments: (1) How complex must a sensory system be in order to face the need to develop adaptive measurement strategies that change depending on the noise level? (2) Does the principle of competitive exclusion for sensory systems force one population to win out over all others? We find that the answer to the first question is that even very simple sensory systems will need to change measurement strategies depending on the amount of noise in the environment. Interestingly, the answer to the second question is that, in general, at most two populations with different fidelity sensory systems may co-exist within a single environment. PMID:18407294

Sornborger, Andrew T; Adams, Malcolm R



Ecological constraints on sensory systems: compound eye size in Daphnia is reduced by resource limitation.  


Eye size is an indicator of visual capability, and macroevolutionary patterns reveal that taxa inhabiting dim environments have larger eyes than taxa from bright environments. This suggests that the light environment is a key driver of variation in eye size. Yet other factors not directly linked with visual tasks (i.e., non-sensory factors) may influence eye size. We sought to jointly investigate the roles of sensory (light) and non-sensory factors (food) in determining eye size and ask whether non-sensory factors could constrain visual capabilities. We tested environmental influences on eye size in four species of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, crossing bright and dim light levels with high and low resource levels. We measured absolute eye size and eye size relative to body size in early and late adulthood. In general, Daphnia reared on low resources had smaller eyes, both absolutely and relatively. In contrast to the dominant macroevolutionary pattern, phenotypic plasticity in response to light was rarely significant. These patterns of phenotypic plasticity were true for overall diameter of the eye and the diameter of individual facets. We conclude that non-sensory environmental factors can influence sensory systems, and in particular, that resource availability may be an important constraint on visual capability. PMID:24865992

Brandon, Christopher S; Dudycha, Jeffry L



Effects of the applications of oil drip onto surface and of the use of a temperature of 35°C for 4days on some physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.  


The effects of: a) applications of oil drip (from aged salted pork fat) onto dry-cured ham surface and b) application of a temperature of 35°C for 4days after 234days of processing (HTST treatment) were evaluated. The oil application reduced moisture, proteolysis and white film in semimembranosus, microbial counts in adductor and the intensity of hollow extent, toasted flavour, adhesiveness, pastiness (in semimembranosus) and chewiness (in semimembranosus and biceps femoris) and increased the intensity of nutty flavour (in both muscles), aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking (in semimembranosus). The HTST did not affect any ham characteristics. PMID:24906185

Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J



Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides\\u000a insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in\\u000a the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the\\u000a risk

Joseph R Sharkey; Wesley R Dean; Cassandra M Johnson



A general equation for sensory magnitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the majority of experiments on sensory response, S. S. Stevens’s power law provides a satisfactory description of the\\u000a relationship between stimulus and sensory magnitudes. In its original form, it has proved to be inaccurate near the absolute\\u000a threshold, when the sense organ is not in a neutral state of adaptation, when sensory noise is present, or when the sense

William H. Atkinson; S. S. Stevens



Idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. A case report.  


Idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy is a rare clinical condition characterized by sensory disturbances on the face. Its symptoms may be permanent or temporary and a wide variety of diagnostic procedures is usually required to establish the diagnosis. Frequently, it is the first manifestation of a systemic disorder. In the majority of cases causal treatment is not possible, even though patients with trigeminal sensory neuropathy should be carefully monitored by physicians. PMID:24166572

Szczudlik, P; Kierdaszuk, B; Bako?, L; Maj, E; Kami?ska, A



Sensory changes after tongue reduction for macroglossia.  


We report sensory changes after tongue reduction by the Harada-Enomoto method for macroglossia in a 20-year-old woman with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Sensory tests were performed before surgery and 1 week and 2 months after surgery. We assessed the static tactile threshold, vibration sense, static 2-point discrimination, pain threshold, and taste. No sensory loss of any category tested was observed after tongue reduction. PMID:22901656

Matsumoto, Kanako; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Jinno, Shigeharu; Omura, Ken



Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

Peters, Richard Alan, II



Nicotinic filtering of sensory processing in auditory cortex  

PubMed Central

Although it has been known for decades that the drug nicotine can improve cognitive function, the nature of its effects and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Nicotine activates nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) that normally are activated by endogenous ACh, presumably “hijacking” the cholinergic contribution to multiple cognitive functions, notably attention. Thus, studying nicotine's effects helps to better understand a commonly used drug as well as functions of nAChRs. Moreover, nicotinic agonists are being developed to treat a variety of disorders that involve attention-related or age-related cognitive dysfunction. Studies have shown that nicotine can enhance processing of attended stimuli and/or reduce processing of distracters; that is, nicotine enhances attentional filtering. To examine potential mechanisms within sensory cortex that may contribute to cognitive functions, here we describe nicotinic actions in primary auditory cortex, where well-characterized neural “filters”—frequency receptive fields—can be exploited to examine nicotinic regulation of cortical processing. Using tone-evoked current-source density (CSD) profiles, we show that nicotine produces complex, layer-dependent effects on spectral and temporal processing that, broadly speaking, enhance responses to characteristic frequency (optimal) stimuli while simultaneously suppressing responses to spectrally distant stimuli. That is, nicotine appears to narrow receptive fields and enhances processing within the narrowed receptive field. Since basic cortical circuitry and nAChR distributions are similar across neocortex, these findings may generalize to neural processing in other sensory regions, and to non-sensory regions where afferent inputs are more difficult to manipulate experimentally. Similar effects across sensory and non-sensory cortical circuits could contribute to nicotinic enhancement of cognitive functions.

Metherate, Raju; Intskirveli, Irakli; Kawai, Hideki D.



Cross-sensory transfer of sensory-motor information: visuomotor learning affects performance on an audiomotor task, using sensory-substitution  

PubMed Central

Visual-to-auditory sensory-substitution devices allow users to perceive a visual image using sound. Using a motor-learning task, we found that new sensory-motor information was generalized across sensory modalities. We imposed a rotation when participants reached to visual targets, and found that not only seeing, but also hearing the location of targets via a sensory-substitution device resulted in biased movements. When the rotation was removed, aftereffects occurred whether the location of targets was seen or heard. Our findings demonstrate that sensory-motor learning was not sensory-modality-specific.?We conclude that novel sensory-motor information can be transferred between sensory modalities.

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Novick, Itai; Arbel, Roni; Abboud, Sami; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Vaadia, Eilon; Amedi, Amir



Food Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\

Robert Gottlieb; Anupama Joshi



Related Links — Measures of the Food Environment

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has launched an online mapping tool that locates food deserts. The Food Desert Locator also provides data on population characteristics where residents have limited access to affordable and nutritious foods, including low-income communities. The tool can be used to help advocates expand the availability of nutritious foods in these areas.


Receiver Operating Characteristics Analyses of Food and Drug Administration-Cleared Serological Assays for Natural Rubber Latex-Specific Immunoglobulin E Antibody  

PubMed Central

Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of Food and Drug Administration (510K)-cleared natural rubber latex (NRL)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody immunoassays have not been performed using well-characterized skin-testing reagents. Sera were collected from 311 subjects (131 latex puncture skin test [PST] positive and 180 PST negative). All masked, coded sera were analyzed for latex-specific IgE antibodies in the Diagnostic Products Corporation microplate AlaSTAT, HYCOR HY-TEC RAST, and Pharmacia-Upjohn CAP System RAST FEIA (CAP). Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using GraphRoc for Windows software to construct and analyze ROC curves in relation to the subjects' PST status and the results of the immunoassays. The ROC areas under the curve (AUCs) ± standard error based on PST for the three diagnostic tests were 0.858 ± 0.024, 0.869 ± 0.024, and 0.924 ± 0.017, respectively, for AlaSTAT, CAP, and HY-TEC. The HY-TEC system had a significantly greater AUC based on PST than those observed for AlaSTAT (P < 0.05) and CAP (P < 0.05) analyses. When the diagnostic tests were probed as to the cutoffs giving maximal diagnostic efficiency compared to PST, CAP and AlaSTAT yielded values of <0.35 kU of allergen IgE (kUA)/liter and <0.35 kU/liter while the HY-TEC assay yielded 0.11 kU/liter. The diagnostic efficiencies based on PST in our cohort at these cutoffs were 87.1, 88.1, and 88.7%, respectively. The HY-TEC assay had a significantly greater AUC than CAP and AlaSTAT using PST as a diagnostic discriminator in our cohort. When the HY-TEC system was probed at its maximally efficient cutoff (0.11 kU/liter) versus HYCOR's recommended cutoff of 0.05 kU/liter, a loss of sensitivity of 8.4% was observed with a gain in specificity of 19.5%.

Biagini, Raymond E.; Krieg, Edward F.; Pinkerton, Lynne E.; Hamilton, Robert G.



Receiver operating characteristics analyses of Food and Drug Administration-cleared serological assays for natural rubber latex-specific immunoglobulin E antibody.  


Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of Food and Drug Administration (510K)-cleared natural rubber latex (NRL)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody immunoassays have not been performed using well-characterized skin-testing reagents. Sera were collected from 311 subjects (131 latex puncture skin test [PST] positive and 180 PST negative). All masked, coded sera were analyzed for latex-specific IgE antibodies in the Diagnostic Products Corporation microplate AlaSTAT, HYCOR HY-TEC RAST, and Pharmacia-Upjohn CAP System RAST FEIA (CAP). Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using GraphRoc for Windows software to construct and analyze ROC curves in relation to the subjects' PST status and the results of the immunoassays. The ROC areas under the curve (AUCs) +/- standard error based on PST for the three diagnostic tests were 0.858 +/- 0.024, 0.869 +/- 0.024, and 0.924 +/- 0.017, respectively, for AlaSTAT, CAP, and HY-TEC. The HY-TEC system had a significantly greater AUC based on PST than those observed for AlaSTAT (P < 0.05) and CAP (P < 0.05) analyses. When the diagnostic tests were probed as to the cutoffs giving maximal diagnostic efficiency compared to PST, CAP and AlaSTAT yielded values of <0.35 kU of allergen IgE (kU(A))/liter and <0.35 kU/liter while the HY-TEC assay yielded 0.11 kU/liter. The diagnostic efficiencies based on PST in our cohort at these cutoffs were 87.1, 88.1, and 88.7%, respectively. The HY-TEC assay had a significantly greater AUC than CAP and AlaSTAT using PST as a diagnostic discriminator in our cohort. When the HY-TEC system was probed at its maximally efficient cutoff (0.11 kU/liter) versus HYCOR's recommended cutoff of 0.05 kU/liter, a loss of sensitivity of 8.4% was observed with a gain in specificity of 19.5%. PMID:11687455

Biagini, R E; Krieg, E F; Pinkerton, L E; Hamilton, R G



Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.  


Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system. PMID:24509431

Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I



Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons  

PubMed Central

Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.



Food allergies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food\\u000a proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies,\\u000a implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young\\u000a children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in

Paula F. G. O’Leary; Fergus Shanahan



Functional and nutritional evaluation of supplementary food formulations.  


Two type of ready to eat supplementary food formulations were developed by roller drying based on wheat, soy protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, and green gram flour and were fortified with vitamins and minerals to meet the one third of the Recommended daily allowance (RDA). The supplementary food formulations contained 20-21% protein, 370-390 kcal of energy and 2,300 ?g of ?-carotene per 100 g serving. The physico-chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. The chemical score indicated that sulphur containing amino acids were the first limiting in both the formulations. The calculated nutritional indices, essential amino acid index, biological value, nutritional index and C-PER were higher for formula II. Rat bioassay showed higher PER (2.3) for formula II compared to formula I (2.1). The bioaccessibility of iron was 23%. Sensory studies indicated that the products were acceptable with a shelf life of 1 year under normal storage condition. However, the formulations were nutritionally better than only cereal based supplementary food formulations available commercially. The product could be served in the form of porridge with water/milk or in the form of small laddu. PMID:24425921

Khanam, Anjum; Chikkegowda, Rashmi Kumkum; Swamylingappa, Bhagya



State of expectancy modulates the neural response to visual food stimuli in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human brain imaging studies demonstrate distributed activation of limbic, paralimbic and sensory systems to food and food-associated cues. Activity in this circuit may be modulated by internal factors, such as hunger, and cognitive factors. Anticipation to eat is one such factor, which likely impacts consummatory behavior. Here, the neural substrates of food expectancy were identified in 10 healthy male participants

Saima Malik; Francis McGlone; Alain Dagher



An evaluation of the role of sensory drive in the evolution of lake Malawi cichlid fishes.  


Although the cichlids of Lake Malawi are an important model system for the study of sensory evolution and sexual selection, the evolutionary processes linking these two phenomena remain unclear. Prior works have proposed that evolutionary divergence is driven by sensory drive, particularly as it applies to the visual system. While evidence suggests that sensory drive has played a role in the speciation of Lake Victoria cichlids, the findings from several lines of research on cichlids of Lake Malawi are not consistent with the primary tenets of this hypothesis. More specifically, three observations make the sensory drive model implausible in Malawi: (i) a lack of environmental constraint due to a broad and intense ambient light spectrum in species rich littoral habitats, (ii) pronounced variation in receiver sensory characteristics, and (iii) pronounced variability in male courtship signal characteristics. In the following work, we synthesize the results from recent studies to draw attention to the importance of sensory variation in cichlid evolution and speciation, and we suggest possible avenues of future research. PMID:22779029

Smith, Adam R; van Staaden, Moira J; Carleton, Karen L



Sensory segmentation with coupled neural oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of sensory segmentation that is based on the generation and processing of temporal tags in the form of oscillations, as suggested by the Dynamic Link Architecture. The model forms the basis for a natural solution to the sensory segmenta- tion problem. It can deal with multiple segments, can integrate different cues and has the potential for

Christoph von der Malsburg; Joachim M. Buhmann



Evolution of sensory configurations for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evolutionary design synthesis methodology was introduced with special concern for the design and optimization of distributed embodied systems. Its efficacy was validated in a case study on the design of collective sensory configurations for intelligent vehicles. Candidate sensory configurations were tested in sample traffic scenarios simulated in an embodied and sensor-based simulator, and in more abstracted and computationally efficient

Yizhen Zhang; Alcherio Martinoli; Erik K. Antonsson; Ross D. Olney



Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

Metherate, Raju



Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation.  


Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, visual rehabilitation, and multisensory processes. PMID:24759484

Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir



Schizophrenia, Sensory Gating, and Nicotinic Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of human and animal investigations has suggested that altered expression and function of the ?7-nicotinic cholinergic receptor may be responsible for the auditory sensory gating deficit characterized in schizophrenia patients and their relatives as diminished suppression of an auditory-evoked response (P50) to repeated stimuli. This finding, in conjunction with evidence for familial transmission of this sensory gating deficit,

Lawrence E. Adler; Ann Olincy; Merilyne Waldo; Josette G. Harris; Jay Griffith; Karen Stevens; Karen Flach; Herbert Nagamoto; Paula Bickford; Sherry Leonard; Robert Freedman



Sensory Perception and Communication in Electric Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electric fish of the Amazon Basin and Nile River are equipped with electric-generator-receiver organs for both sensory perception and communication. These fish are superbly adapted for life in turbulent, muddy streams and, therefore, provide and excellent illustration of the input of environmental information into central nervous systems via specialized sensory windows.

Patricia J. DeCoursey (University of South Carolina;)



A housefly sensory-motor integration laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly Musca domestica that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration of sensory information that mediate the behaviors.

Edwin R. Griff (University of Cincinnati Biological Sciences); Thomas C. Kane (University of Cincinnati)



Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESPoisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after

Angelo Moretto; Marcello Lotti



Trigeminal sensory neurons of the sea lamprey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular recordings were made from neurons of the trigeminal sensory ganglia of young adult sea lampreys. Receptive fields were mapped, and four classes of sensory cells were identified. Touch cells gave rapidly adapting responses to indentation of the skin. Pressure cells gave slowly adapting responses to indentation of the skin. Pit organ cells gave slowly adapting responses to mechanical stimulation

Gary Matthews; Warren O. Wickelgren



Allergen–Induced Sensory Neuroplasticity in Airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the influence of allergic inflammation in airway sensory innervation. We conclude that allergic inflammation in the guinea pig leads to both an increase in excitability, as manifested by an increase in the mechanical sensitivity of the airway nerve endings, and an induction of substance P production in airway sensory neurons. The data are consistent with the hypothesis

Bradley J. Undem; Dawn D. Hunter; Mark Liu; Angela Oakragly; Axel Fischer



Neurophysiological Diagnosis of Acquired Sensory Ganglionopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 29 patients with chronic progressive ganglionopathy of different etiology. Neurophysiological abnormalities were dominated by a widespread decrease in sensory nerve action potential amplitudes, which involved both upper and lower limb nerves, even in patients with asymmetrical or patchy clinical presentation. This impairment of sensory nerve conduction, reflecting a nonlength-dependent pattern of peripheral axon degeneration, should be considered the

Giuseppe Lauria; Davide Pareyson; Angelo Sghirlanzoni



Innovative analytical tools to characterize prebiotic carbohydrates of functional food interest.  


Functional foods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functional food or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functional food ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functional food formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and they are critically reviewed. PMID:23420135

Corradini, Claudio; Lantano, Claudia; Cavazza, Antonella



Food as a vehicle for transmission of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.  


Contaminated food continues to be the principal vehicle for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) to humans. A large number of foods, including those associated with outbreaks (alfalfa sprouts, fresh produce, beef, and unpasteurized juices), have been the focus of intensive research studies in the past few years (2003 to 2006) to assess the prevalence and identify effective intervention and inactivation treatments for these pathogens. Recent analyses of retail foods in the United States revealed E. coli O157:H7 was present in 1.5% of alfalfa sprouts and 0.17% of ground beef but not in some other foods examined. Differences in virulence patterns (presence of both stx1 and stx2 genes versus one stx gene) have been observed among isolates from beef samples obtained at the processing plant compared with retail outlets. Research has continued to examine survival and growth of STEC in foods, with several models being developed to predict the behavior of the pathogen under a wide range of environmental conditions. In an effort to develop effective strategies to minimize contamination, several influential factors are being addressed, including elucidating the underlying mechanism for attachment and penetration of STEC into foods and determining the role of handling practices and processing operations on cross-contamination between foods. Reports of some alternative nonthermal processing treatments (high pressure, pulsed-electric field, ionizing radiation, UV radiation, and ultrasound) indicate potential for inactivating STEC with minimal alteration to sensory and nutrient characteristics. Antimicrobials (e.g., organic acids, oxidizing agents, cetylpyridinium chloride, bacteriocins, acidified sodium chlorite, natural extracts) have varying degrees of efficacy as preservatives or sanitizing agents on produce, meat, and unpasteurized juices. Multiple-hurdle or sequential intervention treatments have the greatest potential to minimize transmission of STEC in foods. PMID:17969631

Erickson, Marilyn C; Doyle, Michael P



Food Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a IgE-mediated food allergies are part of a spectrum of adverse reactions to foods including immune and nonimmune mechanisms.\\u000a Anaphylaxis is the most serious and life-threatening manifestation of food allergy. Asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and\\u000a urticaria\\/angioedema also result from IgE-mediated reactions to foods. Not only ingestion of an allergenic food, but inhalation\\u000a of food allergens may cause reactions. There are many

Oscar L. Frick


Food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise.

Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.



F Food insecurity in Canadian households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives This article examines the prevalence of food insecurity in Canada, the characteristics of people most likely to live in households lacking sufficient funds for food, and several related health problems. Data source

Janet Che; Jiajian Chen



Thermoelectricity and noncellular sensory transduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sharks and rays possess electrosensors that provide environmental data assisting such tasks as prey detection and mate location. These organs are also incredibly sensitive to minute changes in temperature, and their reaction to temperature is unlike any other thermoreceptor known in nature. We have collected samples of the extracellular gel that fills the electrosensitive organs, and, while characterizing its material properties, we have found an average thermopower of roughly 300 microvolts/Kelvin. We will discuss the implications of these data in terms of a novel, noncellular mode of sensory transduction, in which a thermal fluctuation is translated into an electrical stimulus by the gel. We will also contrast the gel to more established thermoelectric materials.

Brown, Brandon



Integration of Multidisciplinary Sensory Data:  

PubMed Central

The paper provides an overview of neuroinformatics research at Yale University being performed as part of the national Human Brain Project. This research is exploring the integration of multidisciplinary sensory data, using the olfactory system as a model domain. The neuroinformatics activities fall into three main areas: 1) building databases and related tools that support experimental olfactory research at Yale and can also serve as resources for the field as a whole, 2) using computer models (molecular models and neuronal models) to help understand data being collected experimentally and to help guide further laboratory experiments, 3) performing basic neuroinformatics research to develop new informatics technologies, including a flexible data model (EAV/CR, entity-attribute-value with classes and relationships) designed to facilitate the integration of diverse heterogeneous data within a single unifying framework.

Miller, Perry L.; Nadkarni, Prakash; Singer, Michael; Marenco, Luis; Hines, Michael; Shepherd, Gordon



Food Allergy  


... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... length) }} Forward {{/if}} What's New in NIAID Food Allergy Research New Mouse Model Developed for Eosinophilic Esophagitis ...


Food additives  


... appealing Direct additives may be man-made or natural. Natural additives include: Adding herbs or spices to foods ... appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, bring out the taste ...


Space Food.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-...



Surface texture of foods: perception and characterization.  


Surface texture is generally accepted as a key sensory factor of food materials and has great impact on consumers' perception and expectation of a food product. However, no authentic definition has been given in the literature for the term surface texture. Its real meaning is often rather confusing, varying from case to case and from person to person. A general consensus is that surface texture is a multi-parameter sensory factor composed of those surface-related features which can be perceived by visual, tactile handfeel, and tactile mouthfeel senses. A list of such surface-related features has been produced in this review, and of those, topographical properties are probably the most intensively investigated features in literature and are discussed in detail in this paper. The surface texture of a food can be characterized by either sensory panel tests or by physical instrument tests. The former uses panellists (trained or untrained) for sensory assessment, while the latter applies physical techniques to characterize the surface. While sensory tests are widely used for studies on consumers' perception and preference of foods, instrumental characterization uses one or few parameters to define a surface (either qualitatively or quantitatively). Physical techniques used for surface characterization are categorized into two groups: surface contacting and non-surface contacting. The former include tribometer, surface force apparatus, contact profilometry, atomic force microscopy, friction force microscopy, etc. Non-surface contacting techniques include gloss metre, fiber optic reflectometer, angle-resolved light scattering apparatus, surface glistening points method, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, etc. The principles and application examples of these techniques were discussed in this review. PMID:17653982

Chen, Jianshe



[Food allergy or food intolerance?].  


Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management. PMID:24834642

Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C



Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.


Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.



Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)



Food Sources

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.


Food Scorecard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy


Metabolomic profiles and sensory attributes of edamame under various storage duration and temperature conditions.  


Its high nutritional content and sensory characteristics make edamame a popular vegetable bean. However, because of its short shelf-life, it is important to optimize the storage conditions to maintain its quality during distribution to consumers. We focused on storage conditions to investigate the temporal changes in the metabolic profiles and sensory characteristics of edamame during transportation from the site of harvest to the site of purchase/consumption. We conducted metabolomic analysis and sensory evaluation tests of edamame stored for different lengths and at different temperatures. Charged metabolites were profiled by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, and free sugars were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In comparison to the gradual decrease in its sensory characteristics over time, the changes in metabolite profiles manifested four different patterns. In particular, changes in amino acid levels were related to sensory attributes. The downstream metabolites of shikimate as well as phospholipids and gamma-aminobutyric acid increased with increasing storage temperatures. PMID:20593783

Sugimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Hajime; Otomo, Kazuko; Ito, Masanori; Onuma, Hiromi; Suzuki, Asako; Sugawara, Maki; Abe, Shinobu; Tomita, Masaru; Soga, Tomoyoshi



Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts.  


Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder. PMID:24359124

Moritz, Steffen; Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp



Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.  


One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role. PMID:23220697

Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter



Parent Reports of Sensory Experiences of Preschool Children With and Without Autism: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

This study describes children’s “sensory experiences”, generates parents’ perceptions and explanations of these experiences, and compares these experiences across children with and without autism. Parents of 66 preschoolers (29 typically-developing; 37 with autism) were interviewed using a Critical Incident Technique. Parents described a situation where their child had a “good” sensory experience, a situation where their child had a “bad” sensory experience, and their own perception of how these situations felt to the child. The most common unpleasant experiences for both groups related to sound; the most common pleasant experiences involved touch and movement. Children with autism were reported to have more extreme and/or unusual experiences, and negative food-related experiences than typically-developing peers. Parental explanations for children’s responses focused on qualities of the child, stimulus, and/or context. Many parents had difficulty understanding the concept of sensory experiences. Parents of children with autism were more likely to recognize elements in their children’s experiences as being sensory, and likely to attribute these responses to aspects of autism. Parents’ positive response to the interview itself was an unexpected result with clinical relevance.

Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.; Schultz, Beth; Watson, Linda R.; McComish, Cara S.



Flies require bilateral sensory input to track odor gradients in flight  

PubMed Central

Summary Fruit flies make their living on the fly in search of attractive food odors. To maintain forward flight, flies balance the strength of self-induced bilateral visual motion [1] and bilateral wind cues [2], but it is unknown whether they use bilateral olfactory cues to track odors in flight. Tracking an odor gradient requires comparisons across two spatially separated chemosensory organs and has been observed in several walking insects [3–5], including Drosophila [6]. The olfactory antennae are separated by a fraction of a millimeter, and most sensory neurons project bilaterally and symmetrically activate the first-order olfactory relay [7, 8], both of which would seem to constrain the capacity for bilateral sensory comparisons. Are fruit flies nonetheless able to track an odor gradient during flight? Using a modified flight simulator that enables maneuvers in the yaw axis [9], we found that flies readily steer directly toward a laterally positioned odor plume. This capability is abolished by occluding sensory input to one antenna. Mechanosensory input from the Johnston’s organ and olfactory input from the third antennal segment cooperate to direct small angle yaw turns up the plume gradient. We additionally show that sensory signals from the left antenna contribute disproportionately more to odor tracking than the right, providing further evidence of sensory lateralization in invertebrates [10–13].

Duistermars, Brian J.; Chow, Dawnis M.; Frye, Mark A.



Interference of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil on the growth and some physiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil, the inhibitory effect of the oil on the cell viability of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods, and the influence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the oil on some physiological attributes of these strains. GC–MS analysis showed that carvacrol (57.71%) was the most prevalent

Jefferson Carneiro de Barros; Maria Lúcia da Conceição; Nelson Justino Gomes Neto; Ana Caroliny Vieira da Costa; José Pinto Siqueira; Irinaldo Diniz Basílio; Evandro Leite de Souza



Application of the Dynamic Gastric Model to evaluate the effect of food on the drug release characteristics of a hydrophilic matrix formulation.  


Characterisation of the effect of food on the bio-performance of modified and extended release dosage forms can be very challenging due to the need to replicate the dynamic biochemical conditions of the human gut as well as the complex physical processing modalities under fed state. Classical compendial methods are useful for testing the quality of pharmaceutical dosage forms but typically have limitations in the accurate prediction of food-effect in-vivo. Preliminary evaluation of the Dynamic Gastric Model (DGM) shows that it can provide substantially more detailed mechanistic information on dosage form properties compared to conventional compendial testing. The potential effect of food on the drug release and physical properties of a hydrophilic matrix formulation containing a model drug, hydrochlorothiazide, was studied using compendial methods, bio-relevant media and the DGM (in combination with an off-line intestinal model). Whilst the compendial methods with biorelevant media provided good correlation with the dissolution rates observed using the DGM/intestinal model under simulated fasted state, the quantification of simulated fed state performance changes was much more challenging using the compendial methods. Classical compendial studies using biorelevant FeSSIF and FaSSIF media could not readily discern differences in dissolution performance under fasted and fed states; however, the DGM could detect significant changes in both physical properties as well as drug release performance under fed state processing. PMID:24657141

Chessa, S; Huatan, H; Levina, M; Mehta, R Y; Ferrizzi, D; Rajabi-Siahboomi, A R



Somatosensory evoked potentials, sensory nerve potentials and sensory nerve conduction in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine patients from six families with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I and control subjects were included in this study. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was derived from a neurological examination and compared with neurophysiological test findings. Further, sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCV) were compared with the motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV). Five patients whom peaks of N11\\/N13 complex

M. Aramideh; J. E. Hoogendijk; C. M. Aalfs; F. E. Posthumus Meyjes; M. Visser; B. W. Ongerboer De Visser



Bubble-included chocolate: relating structure with sensory response.  


Bubbles impart a very unique texture, chew, and mouth-feel to foods. However, little is known about the relationship between structure of such products and consumer response in terms of mouth-feel and eating experience. The objective of this article is to investigate the sensory properties of 4 types of bubble-containing chocolates, produced by using different gases: carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, and argon. The structure of these chocolates were characterized in terms of (1) gas hold-up values determined by density measurements and (2) bubble size distribution which was measured by undertaking an image analysis of X-ray microtomograph sections. Bubble size distributions were obtained by measuring bubble volumes after reconstructing 3D images from the tomographic sections. A sensory study was undertaken by a nonexpert panel of 20 panelists and their responses were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The results show that chocolates made from the 4 gases could be divided into 2 groups on the basis of bubble volume and gas hold-up: the samples produced using carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide had a distinctly higher gas hold-up containing larger bubbles in comparison with those produced using argon and nitrogen. The sensory study also demonstrated that chocolates made with the latter were perceived to be harder, less aerated, slow to melt in the mouth, and having a higher overall flavor intensity. These products were further found to be creamier than the chocolates made by using carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide; the latter sample also showed a higher intensity of cocoa flavor. PMID:17995803

Haedelt, J; Beckett, S T; Niranjan, K



Sensory Complications in Patients after Scalp Mass Excision and Its Anatomical Considerations  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the incidence of postsurgical sensory complications in patients with scalp masses and classify the locations of them from a surgical standpoint according to anatomical considerations. Methods A total of 121 patients who underwent surgery for scalp mass were included in this study. The authors reviewed medical records and preoperative radiologic images. We investigated the complications related to sensory changes after procedure. Enrolled patients have been divided into three groups. Group A included patients with tumors above the superior nuchal line (SNL), Group B with tumors within the trapezius muscle area and patients who had tumors on the lateral trapezius muscle area were assigned to Group C. We compared the incidence related to postoperative sensory complications and summarized their additional treatments for these with clinical outcome. Results There were 12 patients (10%) with sensory complications related on the mass excision site (Group A: 1 patient, Group B: 2 patients, Group C: 9 patients). Six patients were affected with lesser occipital nerve (LON), 2 patients on greater occipital nerve (GON) and 4 patients on GON and LON. Over 6 months after surgery, two of the twelve patients with sensory complications did not have complete recovered pain in spite of proper medications and local chemical neurolysis with 1.0% lidocaine and dexamethasone. Conclusion Occipital neuropathy should be considered as a complication related excision of scalp mass. The sensory complications are more frequent in Group C because of the anatomical characteristics of the occipital nerves and there were no statistical difference for other variables.

Yang, Jin Seo; Cho, Yong Jun; Kang, Suk Hyung



Understanding foods as soft materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods make up some of the most complex examples of soft condensed matter (SCM) with which we interact daily. Their complexity arises from several factors: the intricacy of components, the different aggregation states in which foods are encountered, and the multitude of relevant characteristic time and length scales. Because foodstuffs are governed by the rules of SCM physics but with

Raffaele Mezzenga; Peter Schurtenberger; Adam Burbidge; Martin Michel



The Great Lakes Food Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

Baker, Marjane L.



Goiter and Laryngeal Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm3, with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm3. The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population.

Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T.



Primary reactions of sensory rhodopsins  

PubMed Central

The first steps in the photocycles of the archaeal photoreceptor proteins sensory rhodopsin (SR) I and II from Halobacterium salinarum and SRII from Natronobacterium pharaonis have been studied by ultrafast pump/probe spectroscopy and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The data for both species of the blue-light receptor SRII suggests that their primary reactions are nearly analogous with a fast decay of the excited electronic state in 300–400 fs and a transition between two red-shifted product states in 4–5 ps. Thus SRII behaves similarly to bacteriorhodopsin. In contrast for SRI at pH 6.0, which absorbs in the orange part of the spectrum, a strongly increased fluorescence quantum yield and a drastically slower and biexponential decay of the excited electronic state occurring on the picosecond time scale (5 ps and 33 ps) is observed. The results suggest that the primary reactions are controlled by the charge distribution in the vicinity of the Schiff base and demonstrate that there is no direct connection between absorption properties and reaction dynamics for the retinal protein family.

Lutz, I.; Sieg, A.; Wegener, A. A.; Engelhard, M.; Boche, I.; Otsuka, M.; Oesterhelt, D.; Wachtveitl, J.; Zinth, W.



Nutrition, sensory evaluation, and performance analysis of hydrogenated frying oils.  


The Food and Drug Administration now requires labeling of trans fats on nutrition labels, a decision that has created a push to reformulate deep-fat frying oils. Prior to the passage of this law, frying oils contained trans fats because trans fats made the oils more stable and thus allowing for longer frying usage. In the present study, oil performance, sensory evaluation and nutritional analysis was conducted on trans fat-free oils through a 10-day degradation process using French fries to break down the oil. The goal of the study was to test oil stability and nutrition analysis and to learn consumer preference between trans fat and trans fat-free oils. Sensory evaluation indicated a preference for fries composed from trans fat-free oil mixtures. The most stable oils were also combination oils. Based on these findings, industry representatives considering using the trans fat-free frying oils should consider using blended oils instead, which met customers' taste preference and minimized oil rancidity and usage. PMID:19919512

Hack, Danielle M; Bordi, Peter L; Hessert, S William



Sensory attributes of dishes containing shrimp paste with different concentrations of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides.  


The shrimp paste called belacan is a traditional umami taste condiment extensively used in Malaysia that is rich in glutamate and 5'-nucleotides. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides of various types of foods prepared with belacan and to measure their sensory attributes. The concentration of free glutamic acid found in different brands of belacan was 180-530mg/100g and in local dishes 601-4207mg/100g. The total amount of 5'-nucleotides in belacan samples ranged from 0.85 to 42.25?g/g. A Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) using a list of 17 sensory attributes showed a good correlation between belacan concentration in the final food and a range of positive sensory attributes, except for bitter, sweet, sour taste and astringency. Belacan also contains bitter, sweet and sour compounds that change the positive attributes of belacan at higher concentrations. The highest aroma attributes were linked to nasi goreng belacan (belacan fried rice) while the highest flavour attributes were found in sambal belacan. There was a 32 folds significant increase of umami attributes with the addition of belacan to final foods. The optimum amount of belacan was 0.45% for asam pedas (tamarind flavoured dish with belacan), 18% for sambal belacan (chilli belacan), 1.5-2.5% for kangkong goreng belacan (stir fried water convolous with belacan), and 2% for nasi goreng belacan. PMID:20600418

Jinap, S; Ilya-Nur, A R; Tang, S C; Hajeb, P; Shahrim, K; Khairunnisak, M



Pulmonary Delivery of Nicotine Pyruvate: Sensory and Pharmacokinetic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetic and subjective responses to a prototype nicotine pyruvate (NP) aerosol generation system. In nine healthy adult daily cigarette smokers, plasma nicotine levels and subjective responses were assessed after double-blind administration of 10 inhalations of: NP (10 ?g\\/puff, 20 ?g\\/puff, and 30 ?g\\/puff); Nicotrol\\/Nicorette nicotine vapor inhaler (NV) cartridge; and placebo (room

Jed E. Rose; James E. Turner; Thangaraju Murugesan; Frédérique M. Behm; Murray Laugesen



Honey—its characteristics, sensory aspects, and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey is a natural, sweet, syrupy fluid collected by bees from nectar of flowers. The pleasant aroma and taste of this viscous liquid ranging in color from pale yellow to dark amber varies according to geographical and seasonal conditions. Its use as a sweetener is well known in different parts of the world. In early history, honey occupied a very

A. R. Aparna; D. Rajalakshmi



Sensory Characteristics of Threadfin Bream (Nemipterus japonicus) Hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) spray-dried hydro-lysate was prepared using Alcalase at predetermined optimum hydrolysis conditions consisting of pH 8.5, 60°C, 2% enzyme, and 2 h hydrolysis. The hydrolysate was evaluated for its preferred concentration in rice porridge. Its acceptability was compared with sauces and enzyme-treated rice and vegetable hydrolysate. The preferred concentration in rice porridge was found to be 3%

I. Normah; B. Jamilah; N. Saari; Yaakob B. Che Man



Neurophysiological Effects of Early Sensory Restriction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Severe restriction of early sensory experience in dogs produces striking abnormalities in their behavior at maturity. There have been no studies, however, of the neurophysiological effects of early restriction. An exploratory study was therefore carried o...

R. Melzack S. K. Burns



P50 Sensory Gating in Infants  

PubMed Central

Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations.

Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn



Sensory circumventricular organs in health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized brain structures located around the third and fourth ventricles. They differ\\u000a from the rest of the brain parenchyma in that they are highly vascularised areas that lack a blood–brain barrier. These neurohaemal\\u000a organs are classified as “sensory”, when they contain neurons that can receive chemical inputs from the bloodstream. This\\u000a review focuses on the sensory

Sílvia Sisó; Martin Jeffrey; Lorenzo González



Sensory study in restaurant interior design  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to five senses, sight, smell, taste, hearing, and haptic, sight receives the most attention in restaurant interior design; however, the other senses are significant as well. Since taste is impossible to deliver through interior design, this thesis focuses on the other four senses, which are sight, smell, hearing and haptic, in regard to restaurant sensory design.\\u000aTo impart sensory

Xue Yu



P50 sensory gating in infants.  


Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations. PMID:24430259

Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn



Research on sensory interaction in the Soviet Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet research on sensory interaction is reviewed under the headings of changes in sensory response under accessory stimulation; some conditions affecting sensory interaction; some theory of sensory interaction (discussion of contiguity, neural excitation, leveling and accentuation, intracentral mediation, ionic balance, autonomic nervous system, green receptors, modification of primary conditions, and conditioning). It is concluded that the 24 years of research

Ivan D. London



Clinical and neurophysiologic characterization of an European family with hereditary sensory neuropathy, paroxysmal cough and gastroesophageal reflux.  


In 2002, Spring et al reported a family with an autosomal dominant form of hereditary sensory neuropathy; patients also presented adult onset of gastroesophageal reflux and cough. Since then, no further families have been described. Objective: To study a new Portuguese family with these characteristics. Method: To describe the clinical and neurophysiologic characteristics of one family with features of sensory neuropathy associated with cough and gastroesophageal erflux. Results: Three of five siblings presented a similar history of paroxysmal cough (5th decade). About a decade later they experienced numbness and paraesthesia in the feets and in all cases there was evidence of an axonal sensory neuropathy. A history of gastroesophageal reflux of variable severity and age of onset was also present. Discussion: Molecular genetic studies have demonstrated genetic heterogeneity between the hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 subtypes. The identification of these families is of major importance because further work is required to identify the underlying genetic defect. PMID:24760089

Barros, Pedro; Morais, Hugo; Santos, Catarina; Roriz, José; Coutinho, Paula



Cortical Gating of Oropharyngeal Sensory Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Somatosensory evoked potentials provide a measure of cortical neuronal activation in response to various types of sensory stimuli. In order to prevent flooding of the cortex with redundant information various sensory stimuli are gated cortically such that response to stimulus 2 (S2) is significantly reduced in amplitude compared to stimulus 1 (S1). Upper airway protective mechanisms, such as swallowing and cough, are dependent on sensory input for triggering and modifying their motor output. Thus, it was hypothesized that central neural gating would be absent for paired-air puff stimuli applied to the oropharynx. Twenty-three healthy adults (18–35 years) served as research participants. Pharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEPs) were measured via 32-electrode cap (10–20 system) connected to SynAmps2 Neuroscan EEG System. Paired-pulse air puffs were delivered with an inter-stimulus interval of 500?ms to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences found for the amplitudes S1 and S2 for any of the four component PSEP peaks. Mean gating ratios were above 0.90 for each peak. Results supports our hypothesis that sensory central neural gating would be absent for component PSEP peaks with paired-pulse stimuli delivered to the oropharynx. This may be related to the need for constant sensory monitoring necessary for adequate airway protection associated with swallowing and coughing.

Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.



The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort. — Measures of the Food Environment

Keegan TH, Hurley S, Goldberg D, Nelson DO, Reynolds P, Bernstein L, Horn-Ross PL, Gomez SL. The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort.


Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN



Food poisoning  


... by common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli. ... cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants ...


Sensory Impairments and Autism: A Re-Examination of Causal Modelling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory impairments are widely reported in autism, but remain largely unexplained by existing models. This article examines Kanner's causal reasoning and identifies unsupported assumptions implicit in later empirical work. Our analysis supports a heterogeneous causal model for autistic characteristics. We propose that the development of a…

Gerrard, Sue; Rugg, Gordon



Information for Decision Making and Stimulus Identification is Multiplexed in Sensory Cortex  

PubMed Central

In recordings from anterior piriform cortex (APC) in awake behaving mice we find that neuronal firing early in the olfactory pathway simultaneously conveys fundamentally different information: odor value – is the odor rewarded? - and identity - what is the smell? Thus, this sensory system performs early multiplexing of information reflecting stimulus–specific characteristics with that used for decision-making.

Gire, David H.; Whitesell, Jennifer D.; Doucette, Wilder; Restrepo, Diego



The role of physical injury in motor and sensory conversion symptoms: a systematic and narrative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Conversion symptoms are currently conceptualized as physical symptoms induced by psychological trauma, conflict, or stress. Historical accounts also included physical injury as an important precipitant. We aimed to determine (a) the frequency of reported physical injury prior to onset in published studies of patients with motor or sensory conversion symptoms and (b) the clinical characteristics of patients in whom

Jon Stone; Alan Carson; Hosakere Aditya; Robin Prescott; Mohammad Zaubi; Charles Warlow; Michael Sharpe



Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.



Autonomic reactivity to sensory stimulation in psychopathic, neurotic, and normal juvenile delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that lowered reactivity and\\/or more rapid adaptation to sensory inputs is a primary characteristic in psychopaths, 19 psychopathic, 21 neurotic, and 26 normal juvenile delinquents were identified by a behavior checklist and were presented with 21 successive tone stimuli while skin conductance and heart rate (HR) were being monitored. Results indicate that psychopaths gave significantly lower

Thomas D. Borkovec



Facial nerve sensory responses recorded from the geniculate ganglion of Gallus gallus var. domesticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular responses of single sensory afferent cell bodies were recorded from the geniculate ganglion of the chicken following chemical, mechanical and thermal stimulation of the oral cavity using glass coated tungsten microelectrodes. Forty eight chemoreceptive units were identified from the anterior and posterior palate, and from the anterior mandibular area of the lower jaw. Their response characteristics to tyrode

Michael J. Gentle



Introducing a traditional dairy product Ke?: Chemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties and fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, it was aimed to determine the chemical, biochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics and fatty acid composition of Ke?, traditionally produced in Bolu province in Turkey. The information on production of 'Ke?' was collected from Bolu province in Turkey. Moreover, 20 samples were taken from the local bazaars in different periods in Bolu. These samples were taken to

Hayri Co?kun; T. Ako?lu; M. Fatih; Mustafa Kiralan; Ali Bayrak



Inconsistent Access to Food and Cardiometabolic Disease: The Effect of Food Insecurity  

PubMed Central

Food insecurity is defined as limited or uncertain ability to acquire nutritionally adequate and safe foods in socially acceptable ways. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has divided food insecurity into two categories: low food security and very low food security. Low food security is characterized by irregular access to food, binge eating when food is available, overconsumption of energy-dense foods, obesity, and even type 2 diabetes. This type of food insecurity occurs in impoverished urban areas of high-income countries such as the United States. In contrast, very low food security is distinctly different from low food security and can lead to undernutrition and frank starvation. Very low food security is found in developing countries in both rural areas and urban slums. In these countries, food insecurity is often exacerbated by natural disasters and climate changes that compromise food availability. With a focus on the social, economic, and behavioral factors that promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease in food insecure households in the United States, this review will first define the key terms and concepts associated with food insecurity. Then, the characteristics of food insecure households and the relationship to cardiometabolic disease will be discussed. Finally, the cardiac consequences of food insecurity in developing countries will be briefly described.

Castillo, Darleen C.; Ramsey, Natalie LM; Yu, Sophia SK; Ricks, Madia; Courville, Amber B.; Sumner, Anne E.



Revealing the lifestyles of local food consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing trend is recognised in some consumers specifically choosing to buy locally produced food. This has already led to some changes in food production and distribution systems. As a systems construct, lifestyles are a suitable approach to examine the characteristics of the people leading this counter-trend in food purchasing. Using data from a national study of New Zealanders we

Rob Lawson; Miranda Mirosa


Formulation of Extruded Snack Food (Gum Based Cereal–Pulse Blend): Optimization of Ingredients Levels Using Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyse the effect of corn flour, green gram flour, xanthan, guar gum, arabic gum and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the sensory and objective (expansion ratio) attributes of an extruded snack food. A rotatable central-composite design was used to develop models for the sensory and objective responses. The experiments were run at 160°C with

Sushma Thakur; D. C Saxena



Food pleasantness affects visual selective attention.  


Fundamental to adaptive behaviour is the ability to select environmental objects that best satisfy current needs and preferences. Here we investigated whether temporary changes in food preference influence visual selective attention. To this end, we exploited the fact that when a food is eaten to satiety its motivational value and perceived pleasantness decrease relative to other foods not eaten in the meal, an effect termed sensory-specific satiety. A total of 26 hungry participants were fed until sated with one of two palatable foods. Before and after selective satiation, participants rated the pleasantness of the two foods and then viewed the same as stimuli on a computer screen while attention was assessed by a vi