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1

Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products  

PubMed Central

Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

2013-01-01

2

Sensory Characteristics in ASD  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we review evidence regarding differences in the types of sensory experiences of persons with ASD with respect to both unisensory and multisensory processing. We discuss selfreports, carer questionnaires as well as perceptual processing differences found in the laboratory. Incoming information is processed through one or more of our senses and fundamental differences in the processing of information from any sensory modality or combination of sensory modalities are likely to have cascading effects on the way individuals with ASD experience the world around them, effects that can have both positive and negative impact on a individual with ASD’s quality of life. PMID:21264053

Stewart, Mary E.; Russo, Natalie; Banks, Jennifer; Miller, Louisa; Burack, Jacob A.

2009-01-01

3

Consumer expectations, liking and willingness to pay for specialty foods: Do sensory characteristics tell the whole story?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Region of origin of food products affects consumer valuation in two different ways. First, origin can act as a quality cue hinting to other characteristics of the good. Secondly, origin can affect directly the value of food due to its symbolic or affective role. This study was carried out in order to investigate the direct effect of geographical origin

Gianluca Stefani; Donato Romano; Alessio Cavicchi

2006-01-01

4

Sensory Evaluation of Food Cooked in Iron Utensils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cooking food in iron utensils on sensory attributes was investigated. Hamburger patties and applesauce were cooked in an iron utensil and in a glass utensil with 4 replications. A 16-member trained sensory panel evaluated sensory attributes of the foods using an 8-point intensity rating scale. Duplicate samples of raw and cooked foods were dried, ashed, and analyzed

H. C. Brittin

1998-01-01

5

Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

6

S:Sensory&Food Mechanisms for Sensing Fat in Food in the Mouth  

E-print Network

low energy content, and thus for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Keywords: fat texture, foodS:Sensory&Food Quality Mechanisms for Sensing Fat in Food in the Mouth Presented at the Symposium Pleasure and Beyond" held at the Institute of Food Technologists 2011 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, La., U

Rolls, Edmund T.

7

Using sensory properties of food to trigger swallowing: a review.  

PubMed

The effect of food consistency on swallowing function has been widely studied, and it is well recognized that by delaying the flow of the food bolus, thickened liquids can help in the management of swallowing dysfunction. However, fewer studies have been carried out on the impact of food sensory properties and related liking on swallowing function. This paper reviews the role of taste, olfaction, and trigeminal perceptions on swallowing function and highlights the need for a deeper investigation of this aspect of patient diet modification. PMID:24915399

Loret, C

2015-01-01

8

Using Sensory Properties of Food to Trigger Swallowing: A Review  

PubMed Central

The effect of food consistency on swallowing function has been widely studied, and it is well recognized that by delaying the flow of the food bolus, thickened liquids can help in the management of swallowing dysfunction. However, fewer studies have been carried out on the impact of food sensory properties and related liking on swallowing function. This paper reviews the role of taste, olfaction, and trigeminal perceptions on swallowing function and highlights the need for a deeper investigation of this aspect of patient diet modification. PMID:24915399

Loret, C.

2015-01-01

9

Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods  

PubMed Central

Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that reduce the viscosity, increase the solubility, impart desirable sensory characteristics, and potentially avoid excessive energy and nutrient thinning. PMID:23516115

Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane

2013-01-01

10

Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage  

PubMed Central

How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) 10 trained assessors evaluated the intensity of 30 coffee attributes after roasting at the 9th and 18th month of storage, respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed reduction in the sensory qualities of coffee beverages after 9 months storage of roasted coffee beans. The positive associated odor and flavor attributes decreased in their intensity, whereas the negative associated odor and flavor attributes increased significantly (P < 0.05). After 18 months of storage, the rancid odor and flavor which indicate oxidation processes were even considerably perceivable. Consequently, we can assume that changes in sensory quality characteristics of roasted and vacuum-packed coffee beans during storage are possible. PMID:24804030

Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen

2013-01-01

11

Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp. PMID:25190862

Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva

2014-09-01

12

Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.  

PubMed

Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology. PMID:22870229

Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D; Drea, Christine M

2012-01-01

13

Sight or Scent: Lemur Sensory Reliance in Detecting Food Quality Varies with Feeding Ecology  

PubMed Central

Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology. PMID:22870229

Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D.; Drea, Christine M.

2012-01-01

14

Food-Scientific Characteristics of Buckwheat Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have undertaken this study to clarify a molecular basis for the quality characteristics of buckwheat and its products from food-scientific aspects including nutrition and palatability. This paper presents some food-scientific characteristics of buckwheat products in relation to nutrition and palatability.

Kiyokazu IKEDA; Rie ARAI; Jun FUJIWARA; Yuya ASAMI; Ivan KREFT

15

Sensorial Contribution and Formation Pathways of Thiols in Foods: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1990s, more than 300 publications have been devoted to the organoleptic relevance of thiols in foods (meats, wines, fruits). The available data about their physicochemical and sensorial properties, occurrence in foods, and potential formation pathways are compiled in this article.

Catherine Vermeulen; Laurence Gijs; Sonia Collin

2005-01-01

16

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg?1, respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg?1) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 23 factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1–9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name “mutton” in some markets would adversely affect prospects. PMID:25493184

Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

2014-01-01

17

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg(-1), respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg(-1)) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 2(3) factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets would adversely affect prospects. PMID:25493184

Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

2014-11-01

18

Objective and quantitative definitions of modified food textures based on sensory and rheological methodology  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients who suffer from chewing and swallowing disorders, i.e. dysphagia, may have difficulties ingesting normal food and liquids. In these patients a texture modified diet may enable that the patient maintain adequate nutrition. However, there is no generally accepted definition of ‘texture’ that includes measurements describing different food textures. Objective Objectively define and quantify categories of texture-modified food by conducting rheological measurements and sensory analyses. A further objective was to facilitate the communication and recommendations of appropriate food textures for patients with dysphagia. Design About 15 food samples varying in texture qualities were characterized by descriptive sensory and rheological measurements. Results Soups were perceived as homogenous; thickened soups were perceived as being easier to swallow, more melting and creamy compared with soups without thickener. Viscosity differed between the two types of soups. Texture descriptors for pâtés were characterized by high chewing resistance, firmness, and having larger particles compared with timbales and jellied products. Jellied products were perceived as wobbly, creamy, and easier to swallow. Concerning the rheological measurements, all solid products were more elastic than viscous (G?>G?), belonging to different G? intervals: jellied products (low G?) and timbales together with pâtés (higher G?). Conclusion By combining sensory and rheological measurements, a system of objective, quantitative, and well-defined food textures was developed that characterizes the different texture categories. PMID:20592965

Wendin, Karin; Ekman, Susanne; Bülow, Margareta; Ekberg, Olle; Johansson, Daniel; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Stading, Mats

2010-01-01

19

Sensory-specific satiety is affected more by volume than by energy content of a liquid food  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a food is consumed, its perceived pleasantness declines compared to that of other foods. This phenomenon, referred to as sensory-specific satiety, contributes to the termination of eating, along with other factors. This study tested whether the change in ratings of pleasantness after consuming a food is related to either the amount of food that is consumed or to its

Elizabeth A. Bell; Liane S. Roe; Barbara J. Rolls

2003-01-01

20

SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF DIVERSE RICE CULTIVARS AS INFLUENCED BY GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

21

Effect of the Partial Substitution of Soy Proteins by Highly Methyl-esterified Pectin on Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectin can be used as a natural emulsifier in food formulations. In this study, textured soybean protein (TSP), used as an emulsifier in commercial sausages, was partially replaced by a mixture containing pectin and isolated soybean proteins, which were either extruded (EXT) or not extruded (MIX), and the chemical and sensory characteristics of samples were evaluated after 60 days of

C. M. Pereira; M. F. Marques; M. K. Hatano; I. A. Castro

2010-01-01

22

Instrumental and sensory quality characteristics of blueberry fruit from twelve cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We compared the instrumental and sensory quality characteristics of blueberry fruit from ten highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, Chanticleer, Weymouth, Hannah’s Choice, Duke, Bluecrop, Coville, Berkeley, Bluegold, Elliott and Lateblue) and two rabbiteye (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) cultivars...

23

Probiotic fermented Sausage: Viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the

M. Rouhi; A. M. Mortazavian

2011-01-01

24

Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in certain microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory parameters of kefir were studied during refrigerated storage. Kefir batches were prepared using 1% and 5% added kefir grains, and samples for analysis were taken 24 h after inoculation and then after 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage at 5±1 °C. After fermentation for 24 h after inoculation, lactobacilli and

A. Irigoyen; I. Arana; M. Castiella; P. Torre; F. C. Ibáñez

2005-01-01

25

Effect of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) oil as fumigant on stored sorghum: physical characteristics, sensory quality and germination.  

PubMed

The Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) oil (JMO) was effective as fumigant against Sitophilus oryzae in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The observations on the effect of JMO treatment at a dose of 166.6 microliters/l of space to grains stored for 3 months in desiccators at 28 +/- 5 degrees C showed non significant (P approximately 0.05) effect on grain hardness, grain density and per cent water absorption. The cooking quality evaluated in terms of cooking time required for boiling of grains was also not significantly affected. The JMO treated samples of boiled sorghum scored significantly lower values for sensory quality characteristics viz. taste, aroma and overall acceptability compared to untreated samples. No effect of JMO on seed germination was observed. As sensory quality is lowered by use of JMO, the technique can only be recommended for seed sorghum preservation, not food. PMID:7584160

Singh, M; Srivastava, S; Srivastava, R P

1995-08-01

26

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and food sensory properties: potential and challenges.  

PubMed

Modern omics disciplines dealing with food flavor focus the analytical efforts on the elucidation of sensory-active compounds, including all possible stimuli of multimodal perception (aroma, taste, texture, etc.) by means of a comprehensive, integrated treatment of sample constituents, such as physicochemical properties, concentration in the matrix, and sensory properties (odor/taste quality, perception threshold). Such analyses require detailed profiling of known bioactive components as well as advanced fingerprinting techniques to catalog sample constituents comprehensively, quantitatively, and comparably across samples. Multidimensional analytical platforms support comprehensive investigations required for flavor analysis by combining information on analytes' identities, physicochemical behaviors (volatility, polarity, partition coefficient, and solubility), concentration, and odor quality. Unlike other omics, flavor metabolomics and sensomics include the final output of the biological phenomenon (i.e., sensory perceptions) as an additional analytical dimension, which is specifically and exclusively triggered by the chemicals analyzed. However, advanced omics platforms, which are multidimensional by definition, pose challenging issues not only in terms of coupling with detection systems and sample preparation, but also in terms of data elaboration and processing. The large number of variables collected during each analytical run provides a high level of information, but requires appropriate strategies to exploit fully this potential. This review focuses on advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and analytical platforms combining two-dimensional gas chromatography with olfactometry, chemometrics, and quantitative assays for food sensory analysis to assess the quality of a given product. We review instrumental advances and couplings, automation in sample preparation, data elaboration, and a selection of applications. PMID:25354891

Cordero, Chiara; Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Bicchi, Carlo

2015-01-01

27

Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran.  

PubMed

Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking. PMID:25473511

Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Kristensen, Mette; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Raben, Anne; Kehlet, Ursula

2014-09-01

28

Influences of thermal and gustatory characteristics on sensory and motor aspects of swallowing.  

PubMed

Two sets of experiments were conducted to examine the effects of two sensory modalities, temperature and taste, of foods on perceptual and motor aspects of swallowing in 20 young, healthy subjects (10 subjects for each experiment). A tasteless and odorless thickening agent was the basic testing material. The first experiment compared the swallowing of foods at four temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C to 50 degrees C. Food at 50 degrees C was more acceptable for swallowing than at 5 degrees C, 20 degrees C, or 35 degrees C. The suprahyoid muscles were less active during swallowing food at 50 degrees C compared with swallowing food at the other three temperatures. The second experiment compared foods with the five basic taste qualities (sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness, and umami) with a tasteless food (dissolved in distilled water) to examine the influence of gustatory sensation. The sweet and tasteless foods were somewhat more acceptable for swallowing than the sour and bitter foods. However, none of the foods differentially altered the motor parameters of swallowing. Interactive influences of temperature and gustatory sensations of foods on swallowing are discussed. PMID:16544093

Miyaoka, Yozo; Haishima, Keiko; Takagi, Masamichi; Haishima, Hiroyuki; Asari, Jin; Yamada, Yoshiaki

2006-01-01

29

What Determines Wine Prices: Objective vs. Sensory Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hedonic technique is applied to wines. In the price equation we include objective characteristics appearing on the label, as well as sens- ory characteristics and a grade assigned by expert tasters. We have three almost identically structured data sets (two on Bordeaux wines, and one on Burgundy wines). The results are used to make comparisons between two of the

Sébastien Lecocqyand; Michael Visserz

30

Comparing the Sensory Characteristics of Doughnuts Made With Trans-Fat-Free Canola Shortening, Trans-Fat-Free Palm Shortening, and Trans-Fat Vegetable\\/Soybean Shortening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the adverse health effects associated with consuming trans-fats, foodservice companies continue to reduce\\/eliminate the amount of trans-fats used to prepare doughnuts and other foods. People eat doughnuts because they like the taste, however, meaning companies must reduce\\/eliminate trans-fats in a manner that has minimal impact on consumer preference. This study evaluated the sensory characteristics of doughnuts fried in

Peter L. Bordi Jr; Kimberly S. Snyder; S. William Hessert Jr

2010-01-01

31

Influence of dietary linseed and sunflower oil on sensory characteristics of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effects of dietary linseed and sunflower oil on the sensory characteristics of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets. Rainbow trout were fed a diet containing either 2.5% or 5% of linseed or sunflower oil or 5% mixture of both oils (2.5% of each). Control group received a commercial feed mixture. A selected and trained panel carried

Z. Drobná; J. Zelenka; E. Mrkvicová; D. Kladroba

32

Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy ( P<0.05), while the alcohols and furan groups were increased by irradiation. Different odor patterns were observed among samples using electronic nose system analysis. Gamma-irradiated samples showed better sensory score and the quality was sustained during storage. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

Kim, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo

2004-02-01

33

Effect of oxygen on volatile and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon during secondary shelf life.  

PubMed

The oxidation of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during secondary shelf life was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) and sensory tests, with the support of multivariate statistical analyses such as OPLS-DA loading plot and PCA score plot. Four different oxidation conditions were established during a 1-week secondary shelf life. Samples collected on a regular basis were analyzed to determine the changes of volatile chemicals, with sensory characteristics evaluated through pattern recognition models. During secondary shelf life the separation among collected samples depended on the degree of oxidation in wine. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl decanoate, nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, 2-furancarboxylic acid, dodecanoic acid, and phenylacetaldehyde were determined to be associated with the oxidation of the wine. PCA sensory evaluation revealed that least oxidized wine and fresh wine was well-separated from more oxidized wines, demonstrating that sensory characteristics of less oxidized wines tend toward "fruity", "citrous", and "sweetness", while those of more oxidized wines are positively correlated with "animal", "bitterness", and "dairy". The study also demonstrates that OPLS-DA and PCA are very useful statistical tools for the understanding of wine oxidation. PMID:21954937

Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Bo-Sik; Park, Hyun-Jin

2011-11-01

34

Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

2010-01-01

35

SWIMMING PATTERN AS AN INDICATOR OF THE ROLES OF COPEPOD SENSORY SYSTEMS IN THE RECOGNITION OF FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

The roles of copepod sensory systems in the recognition of food were investigated using the 'Bugwatcher', a video-computer system designed to track and describe quantitatively the swimming patterns of aquatic organisms. Copepods acclimated, or non-acclimated to a chemosensory sti...

36

Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10kGy. After irradiation, Hunter’s color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other

Jae Hyun Kim; Hyun Joo Ahn; Hong Sun Yook; Kyong Soo Kim; Moon Soo Rhee; Gi Hyung Ryu; Myung Woo Byun

2004-01-01

37

Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

2012-01-01

38

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk. PMID:20105517

Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

2010-02-01

39

Retail Wastelands: Characteristics and Influential Factors of Food Deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying a census tract-level definition of food deserts, areas with limited access to affordable and healthy food, ERS has identified over 6,500 food desert tracts in the U.S. based on data from the 2000 Census of the Population. In this report, we examine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of these tracts to see how they differ from other tracts. We

Paula Dutko; Michele Ver Ploeg; Tracey L. Farrigan

2012-01-01

40

Formulation of new food products using peanut flour and evaluation of their physical and sensory properties.  

E-print Network

??Using partially defatted peanut flour, two new products were formulated and analyzed for physical and sensory properties to determine ingredient functionality and consumer acceptability. Peanut… (more)

Howard, Brandy Martin

2008-01-01

41

Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. In relation to a standard bread formulation without fish flour, the addition of fish flour to bread formulations resulted in products with not only higher contents of protein, essential fatty acids, and minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, but also lower contents of carbohydrates. The breads with fish flour received sensory acceptance better than or as good as that of a bread formulation without fish flour. Hence, the addition of fish processing residue to breads is a way to provide essential nutrients to the population through a well-accepted, accessible, and low-cost product. PMID:25190890

Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

2014-09-01

42

Processing and sensory characteristics of cooked roast beef: effect of breed, age, gender and storage conditions.  

PubMed

Two separate experiments investigated the effect of breed (Bos indicus, Bos indicus×and Bos taurus), gender/age and chilled and frozen storage on the processing characteristics of roasts made from inside rounds (semimembranosus, adductor and gracilis muscles). Roasts were injected with a salt/phosphate brine and cooked to an internal temperature of 63 °C. Freezing the meat increased purge lost from the raw meat. Country of origin had no significant effect on cook yield. Sensory evaluations with a US consumer panel indicated only slight sensory differences due to country of origin and breed but a significant effect from storage regime. Tenderness comparisons between breeds were confounded by country of origin and indicated that roast beef from inside rounds from Brahman cattle had lower WBS values than roast beef made from inside rounds from British cattle. Although breed and age/gender often significantly affected processing characteristics of the roasts, differences were small and would have little practical or economic importance for selecting the type of meat for this market sector. PMID:22061749

Boles, J A; Swan, J E

2002-12-01

43

Effects of olfactory dysfunction on sensory evaluation and preparation of foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of olfactory dysfunction on behavior during sensory evaluation and self-preparation, as well as on sensory perception and pleasantness of green tea and coffee. We compared the intensities of overall odor, flavor, and bitter taste, respectively, and the pleasantness ratings for three different concentrations of green teas and coffees between three groups:

Han-Seok Seo; Thomas Hummel

2009-01-01

44

Effect of thermosonication on physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of ayran during storage.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine whether thermosonication extends the shelf life of ayran, an acidic milk drink. The effect of thermosonication at different temperatures (60, 70 and 80 °C) and times (1, 3 and 5 min) on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, and sensorial properties of ayran during storage were investigated. According to the results, thermosonication applied at 60 °C decreased lower the bacteria counts, although the Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus counts decreased as the temperature and time increased. The yeast and mold levels in samples treated with thermosonication were <1 log CFU mL(-1) during storage period. The ayran samples had non-Newtonian behavior, and the consistency coefficients of the thermosonicated samples were significantly higher than that of the heat-treated samples. Regarding serum separation, the most effective thermosonication treatment was applied at 70 °C for 3 min. The sensory properties of the thermosonicated samples were better than the thermal-treated samples after storage. PMID:25190646

Erkaya, Tuba; Ba?lar, Mehmet; ?engül, Mustafa; Ertugay, Mustafa Fatih

2015-03-01

45

Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

46

Early experience with sensory properties of food and caloric consequences: Implications for food intake and body weight regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homeostatic regulation of food intake is one of the most pressing challenges to an organism. Certain foods may, unpredictably, provide either an overabundance or a deficit of energy and nutrients. The present series of experiments examines the influence of associations between taste stimuli and nutritive or nonnutritive consequences on food intake and body weight regulation following both short- and

Alicia Marie Doerflinger

2005-01-01

47

Carcass, meat quality, and sensory characteristics of heavy body weight pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).  

PubMed

Carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and sensory attributes were evaluated in late-finishing barrows and gilts, weighing between 100 to 130 kg of BW, fed 0, 5, or 7.4 mg/kg of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) for the final 21 to 28 d before slaughter. Carcass data were collected from carcasses from barrows and gilts (n = 168), and all primal cuts from the right sides of these carcasses were fabricated to calculate primal yields as a percentage of the HCW. Subjective (National Pork Producers Council and Japanese) color, firmness, and marbling scores were determined on the LM of each loin and the semimembranosus muscle (SM) of the ham, whereas the moisture, extractable lipid, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and trained sensory evaluations (juiciness, tenderness, and pork flavor) were measured on the LM samples only. Gilts produced heavier (P < 0.05) HCW than barrows, whereas feeding RAC increased (P < 0.05) HCW over pigs fed diets devoid of RAC. Carcasses from gilts also had greater (P < 0.02) primal cut and lean cut (P < 0.01) yields than barrows, and dietary inclusion of 5 mg/kg of RAC increased (P < 0.05) total boneless cut and lean cut yields when compared with carcass from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC. Warner-Bratzler shear forces values were greater (P < 0.05) in the LM of gilts than barrows, but only juiciness scores were greater (P < 0.03) in LM chops from barrows than gilts. The LM from barrows had greater intramuscular lipid (P < 0.001) than the LM from gilts, and even though the LM from pigs fed 5 mg/kg of RAC had greater (P < 0.04) WBSF values than the LM from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC, including RAC in the late-finishing diets for 21 or 28 d did not affect sensory panel rating or percentages of moisture and intramuscular lipid. In summary, addition of RAC in the late-finishing diet improved carcass and primal cut yields when it was fed at 5 and 7.4 mg/kg without altering pork quality traits regardless of whether RAC was fed for 21 or 28 d. PMID:18765853

Fernández-Dueñas, D M; Myers, A J; Scramlin, S M; Parks, C W; Carr, S N; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K

2008-12-01

48

Blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis) as an ingredient in pasta: free radical scavenging activity, sensory and cooking characteristics evaluation.  

PubMed

The effects of semolina enrichment with blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis) at three different levels (1, 2 and 3 g/100 g of semolina) on the colour, cooking properties, firmness, free radical scavenging activity and sensory characteristics of pasta are reported. Microalgae addition resulted in higher swelling index and lower cooking loss than the control sample. A significant increase in pasta firmness was evidenced with an increase of added microalgae due to structural reinforcement. In addition to colouring, the use of A. platensis (2 g/100 g of semolina) can enhance the sensory quality and nutraceutical potential as evaluated by free radical scavenging activity of pasta. PMID:21568819

Zouari, Nacim; Abid, Mouna; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Ayadi, M A; Zorgui, Lazhar; Ayadi, Moez; Attia, Hamadi

2011-12-01

49

Effect of the partial substitution of soy proteins by highly methyl-esterified pectin on chemical and sensory characteristics of sausages.  

PubMed

Pectin can be used as a natural emulsifier in food formulations. In this study, textured soybean protein (TSP), used as an emulsifier in commercial sausages, was partially replaced by a mixture containing pectin and isolated soybean proteins, which were either extruded (EXT) or not extruded (MIX), and the chemical and sensory characteristics of samples were evaluated after 60 days of storage at 4 °C. Responses such as oxidation measured by PV and TBARS, hardness, color, pH and sensory characteristics were compared with those of a commercial sausage (CON). The mixture containing highly methyl-esterified pectin, textured soybean proteins and isolated soybean proteins, as emulsifier agent, reduced the hardness (EXT: 21.69±0.98 and MIX: 20.17 ±2.76 N) and the pH (EXT: 5.46±0.03 and MIX: 5.29±0.01) of the samples and increased the concentration of peroxides (EXT: 0.10±0.01 and MIX: 0.15 ±0.01 meq/kg) when compared with samples formulated only with TSP (28.57 ± 2.54 N, pH of 6.92±0.04 and PV = 0.07 ± 0.01 meq/ kg). These effects were likely caused by the anionic character of the emulsifier. However, no sensory difference was observed between the sausages containing highly methyl-esterified pectin, textured soybean proteins and isolated soybean proteins submitted to the extrusion process (EXT) and the control sausages, suggesting that the formulation proposed in this study can be a potential alternative for the further development of sausages that have functional properties or are free of artificial additives. PMID:21339158

Pereira, C M; Marques, M F; Hatano, M K; Castro, I A

2010-10-01

50

Seeing with sound? exploring different characteristics of a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device.  

PubMed

Sensory substitution devices convert live visual images into auditory signals, for example with a web camera (to record the images), a computer (to perform the conversion) and headphones (to listen to the sounds). In a series of three experiments, the performance of one such device ('The vOICe') was assessed under various conditions on blindfolded sighted participants. The main task that we used involved identifying and locating objects placed on a table by holding a webcam (like a flashlight) or wearing it on the head (like a miner's light). Identifying objects on a table was easier with a hand-held device, but locating the objects was easier with a head-mounted device. Brightness converted into loudness was less effective than the reverse contrast (dark being loud), suggesting that performance under these conditions (natural indoor lighting, novice users) is related more to the properties of the auditory signal (ie the amount of noise in it) than the cross-modal association between loudness and brightness. Individual differences in musical memory (detecting pitch changes in two sequences of notes) was related to the time taken to identify or recognise objects, but individual differences in self-reported vividness of visual imagery did not reliably predict performance across the experiments. In general, the results suggest that the auditory characteristics of the device may be more important for initial learning than visual associations. PMID:22208131

Brown, David; Macpherson, Tom; Ward, Jamie

2011-01-01

51

Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.  

PubMed

The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p?

Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

2014-09-01

52

Carnobacterium species: effect of metabolic activity and interaction with Brochothrix thermosphacta on sensory characteristics of modified atmosphere packed shrimp.  

PubMed

The importance of carnobacteria as spoilage microorganisms or potential protective cultures in food is not resolved, and little is known about their metabolism during growth in specific products. This study used chromatographic techniques including GC-MS and HPLC to evaluate the spoilage metabolism of Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, and Carnobacterium mobile. Metabolic activity was studied in cooked and peeled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) shrimp at 5 degrees C as carnobacteria has been anticipated to contribute to spoilage of shrimp products. C. divergens and C. maltaromaticum caused sensory spoilage of shrimps and generated ammonia, tyramine, and various alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. The effects of Carnobacterium species on the growth and metabolism of Brochothrix thermosphacta were also evaluated, but metabiosis between the two groups of bacteria was not observed. C. mobile and a specific cluster of C. maltaromaticum isolates (cluster L) did not cause sensory spoilage of shrimp. PMID:19127732

Laursen, Birgit Groth; Leisner, Jørgen Johannes; Dalgaard, Paw

2006-05-17

53

Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.  

PubMed

Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists. PMID:21535620

Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

2010-01-01

54

Effect of product composition on sensory characteristics of acidified milk products  

E-print Network

The sensory properties of sour creams with different concentrations of milk fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), and diacetyl were evaluated by consumer taste panel. The data was analyzed by Response Surface Methodology to find combinations of ingredients...

Lai, Pao-Hsueh

1993-01-01

55

Sensory Characteristics and Related Volatile Flavor Compound Profiles of Different Types of Whey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the flavor of liquid whey, 11 samples ofwheyrepresentingawiderangeoftypesweresourced from cheese and casein-making procedures, either in- dustrial or from pilot-plant facilities. Whey samples were assessed for flavor by descriptive sensory evalua- tion and analyzed for headspace volatile composition by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR- MS). The sensory data clearly distinguished between the samples in relation tothe processes of manufacture;

F. J. Gallardo-Escamilla; A. L. Kelly; C. M. Delahunty

2005-01-01

56

Quality characteristics and lutein bioavailability from maize and vegetable-based health food.  

PubMed

Health food (ready-mix) was prepared from maize and vegetables a source of lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and studied for its quality characteristics (moisture sorption isotherm, sensory, microbiological, chemical composition, and storage stability) on storage at varying temperatures for 3 months and L+Z bioavailability in mice. Results revealed a decrease in the L+Z level (4.70, 9.24, and 13.85%) of ready-mix stored at 4, 27, and 37°C, respectively. Critical relative humidity and critical moisture content of the product was 64% and 12.24%, respectively. The product is well accepted and was not affected adversely during storage. L+Z bioavailability from ready-mix in mice was higher in plasma (29.4%), liver (58.7%), and eye (14.6%) than control (mice received diet with purified L). To conclude, L+Z in the ready-mix is stable and more bioavailable than control. These findings may help in understanding the importance of simple food processing to improve L bioavailability under its deficient condition among an elderly population. PMID:24670117

Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Baskaran, Vallikannan

2014-06-01

57

Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, ?-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of ?-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel. PMID:25319201

Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Sipos, László

2014-11-01

58

Effect of flour particle size on microstructural, rheological and physico-sensory characteristics of bread and south Indian parotta.  

PubMed

Wheat flour fractioned by sieving into four different particle size fractions namely finer fractions (<75 and 75-118 ?m), coarser fractions (118-150 and >150 ?m) were analyzed for their chemical, rheological, bread & parotta making characteristics. The finer fractions had lower ash, higher dry gluten, damaged starch and sodium dodecysulphate (SDS)-sedimentation value than the coarser fractions. The flour from finer fractions gave bread with best sensory and textural attributes. The parottas from finer fractions showed significantly higher sensory scores for colour, texture, layers, mouthfeel and overall quality score than the coarser fractions. In the micrograph of finer flour fractions, higher number of loosened single starch granules than the aggregates of starch and protein matrix were seen as compared to coarser fractions. These studies indicate that the flour from the finer fractions produce higher quality bread, parotta owing to the presence of higher damaged starch content, quantity and quality of protein in these fractions than coarser fractions. PMID:25477689

Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Soumya, C; Indrani, D; Rao, G Venkateswara

2014-12-01

59

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

2012-08-01

60

Effect of Inclusion of Salmon Roe on Characteristics of Salmon Baby Food Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree +chunks, puree +pink row, puree +pink row +chunks, puree +red row, puree +red roe +chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristi...

61

National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.  

PubMed

The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values, whereas steaks from the round had the greatest (P < 0.05) values. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared with top sirloin steaks. Retail top blade steaks and food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P < 0.05) consumer sensory panel ratings compared with the other steaks evaluated. Prime food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P < 0.05) for overall like, like tenderness, tenderness level, like juiciness, and juiciness level, whereas ungraded rib eye steaks received the lowest ratings (P < 0.05) for like tenderness and tenderness level. The WBS values for food service steaks were greater (P < 0.05) for the Select and ungraded groups compared with the Prime, Top Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred. PMID:23230117

Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

2013-02-01

62

Aroma characteristic and volatile profiling of carrot varieties and quantitative role of terpenoid compounds for carrot sensory attributes.  

PubMed

The aroma characteristics and volatile profiles of 14 carrot varieties were investigated by sensory evaluations and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry volatile analyses. The sensory map obtained by principal components analysis showed that the sensory attributes comprised 3 categories: sour/green, overall carrot/harsh/ink-like, and fruity/fresh/sweet. The Kuroda type is characterized by lower intensities of overall carrot/harsh/ink-like and fruity/fresh/sweet notes. Furthermore, volatile profiling indicated that this type did not have significantly higher amounts of volatiles. Partial least squares regression analysis determined the quantitative contributions to ink-like, harsh, and fruity carrot aromas; monoterpenes had significant positive correlations with these attributes, while bisabolene isomers had negative correlations. The aroma attribute intensity and contents of volatiles and nutritional compounds are relatively low in the Kuroda type than in other carrot types. This type may be useful for reducing carrot harshness during the development of new carrots with good eating qualities. PMID:24245899

Fukuda, Tomohiko; Okazaki, Keiki; Shinano, Takuro

2013-11-01

63

Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ?PD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier seeds, while grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of < -1.5 MPa versus vines with MD > -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a continuous relationship between physiological water status (stress) and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point that may be related to early season PD in controlling grape development as well as composition. Soils analyses revealed the preferred fruit was on vines in areas where soils were shallower rather than any definitive characteristic related to particle size distribution or nutrient availability, suggesting that in this vineyard soil available water is the major controlling factor.

Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

2014-05-01

64

Sensory and Hedonic Characteristics of Juice of Sea Buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Origins and Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juices of six sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., tyrni in Finnish; Sanddorn in German) elite genotypes, representing different origins or hybrids, were evaluated for concentrations of chemical constituents, sensory attributes, and overall pleasantness with or without addition of sugar. The sugar (glucose+fructose) concentrations ranged from 0.37 to 4.58 g per 100 g berries, while titratable acidity as citric acid varied

Xurong Tang; Niina Kälviäinen; Hely Tuorila

2001-01-01

65

Applicability of vacuum impregnation to modify physico-chemical, sensory and nutritive characteristics of plant origin products--a review.  

PubMed

Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

Radziejewska-Kubzdela, El?bieta; Biega?ska-Marecik, Ró?a; Kido?, Marcin

2014-01-01

66

Effect of storage time and temperature on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial apricot jam.  

PubMed

Storage conditions are important factors for jam quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability and sensorial profile of apricot jam during storage for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. For that purpose, special attention was paid to total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), colour, free amino acids (FAA), total sugars (TS) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The decreasing parameter for jam at the end of storage under 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C, respectively, were 16.81%, 34.30% and 56.01% for FAA, and 5.52%, 9.02% and 7.46% for TS; likewise, the increasing were 19.81%, 22.94% and 25.07% for TA, 3.15%, 4.08% and 4.47% for TSS, 15.96%, 112.76% and 150% for HMF. Jam stability was better at 5 °C than 25 °C and 37 °C. The interaction time-temperature factor had significant effects on pH, TS, FAA and HMF, unlike TA, TSS and sensorial profile. PMID:24128444

Touati, Noureddine; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Aguayo, Encarna; Louaileche, Hayette

2014-02-15

67

Effect of diet, slaughter weight and sex on instrumental and sensory meat characteristics in rabbits.  

PubMed

The effect of the fattening diet, slaughter weight and sex on meat quality was studied in a total of 156 hybrid rabbits. After weaning, rabbits were divided into three groups of 52 animals each (50% male and 50% female), that were allocated for three weeks to one of three commercial diets containing low (14.28%, A), medium (18.04%, B) and high (20.48%, C) fibre content with decreasing energy levels. Animals were slaughtered at 2.0 and 2.3kg after the consumption of a common pre-slaughter non-medicated concentrate and pH, colour, water-holding capacity (WHC), Warner-Bratzler shear test and sensory analysis were all measured. Meat from animals fed with low fibre and high energy was the least luminous. Rabbits slaughtered at 2.0kg showed more yellowness than at 2.3kg at 0min. In both traits, these differences did not prevail after 15min of blooming. Globally, meat from males was more coloured than that of the females, both at 0 and 15min of blooming. No significant differences were found for pH, WHC or shear test for the individual effects. In the sensory analysis, rabbit and grass odours were more intense at 2.0kg than at 2.3kg of slaughter weight. PMID:20416607

Carrilho, M C; Campo, M M; Olleta, J L; Beltrán, J A; López, M

2009-05-01

68

Effect of moderate inlet temperatures in ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk.  

PubMed

The effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) on raw whole milk (3.5% fat) was evaluated to obtain processing conditions for the sterilization of milk. Ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments of 200 and 300 MPa at inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C were compared with a UHT treatment (138 °C for 4s) in terms of microbial inactivation, particle size and microstructure, viscosity, color, buffering capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to proteolysis, and sensory evaluation. The UHPH-treated milks presented a high level of microbial reduction, under the detection limit, for treatments at 300 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C, and at 200 MPa with Ti = 85 °C, and few survivors in milks treated at 200 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, and 75 °C. Furthermore, UHPH treatments performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C produced sterile milk after sample incubation (30 and 45 °C), obtaining similar or better characteristics than UHT milk in color, particle size, viscosity, buffer capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to protein hydrolysis, and lower scores in sensory evaluation for cooked flavor. PMID:24342690

Amador-Espejo, G G; Suàrez-Berencia, A; Juan, B; Bárcenas, M E; Trujillo, A J

2014-02-01

69

Acquired hedonic and sensory characteristics of odours: Influence of sweet liker and propylthiouracil taster status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated pairings of novel food-related odours with sweet tastes can result in enduring changes in sweetness of the odour alone, but have less consistent effects on odour liking. Variation in ability to taste propylthiouracil (PROP) might account for this, since PROP supertasters (ST) have been reported both to experience stronger sweetness intensity and to be more likely to dislike sweetness

Martin R. Yeomans; John Prescott; Natalie J. Gould

2009-01-01

70

Migration and sensory properties of plastics-based nets used as food-contacting materials under ambient and high temperature heating conditions.  

PubMed

Overall migration from a wide range of commercial plastics-based netting materials destined to be used as either meat or vegetable packaging materials into the fatty food simulant isooctane or the aqueous simulant distilled water, respectively, was studied. In addition, sensory tests of representative netting materials were carried out in bottled water in order to investigate possible development of off-odour/taste and discoloration in this food simulant as a result of migration from the netting material. Sensory tests were supplemented by determination of the volatile compounds' profile in table water exposed to the netting materials using SPME-GC/MS. Test conditions for packaging material/food simulant contact and method of overall migration analysis were according to European Union Directives 90/128 (EEC, 1990) and 2002/72 (EEC, 2002). The results showed that for both PET and polyethylene-based netting materials, overall migration values into distilled water ranged between 11.5 and 48.5 mg l(-1), well below the upper limit (60 mg l(-1)) for overall migration values from plastics-packaging materials set by the European Union. The overall migration values from netting materials into isooctane ranged between 38.0 and 624.0 mg l(-1), both below and above the European Union upper limit for migration. Sensory tests involving contact of representative samples with table water under refluxing (100 degrees C/4 h) conditions showed a number of the netting materials produced both off-odour and/or taste as well as discoloration of the food simulant rendering such materials unfit for the packaging of foodstuffs in applications involving heating at elevated temperatures. GC/MS analysis showed the presence of numerous volatile compounds being produced after netting materials/water contact under refluxing conditions. Although it is extremely difficult to establish a clear correlation between sensory off-odour development and GC/MS volatile compounds' profile, it may be postulated that plastics oxidation products such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 2,6 di-tert-butylquinone may contribute to off-odour development using commercially bottled table water as a food simulant. Likewise, compounds such as carbon disulfide, [1,1'-biphenyl]-2-ol and propanoic acid, 2 methyl 1-(1,1-dimethyl)-2-methyl-1,3-propanediyl ester probably originating from cotton and rubber components of netting materials may also contribute to off-odour/taste development. PMID:16766462

Kontominas, M G; Goulas, A E; Badeka, A V; Nerantzaki, A

2006-06-01

71

Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham.  

PubMed

The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)?×Duroc? (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

2014-08-01

72

Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham  

PubMed Central

The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)?×Duroc? (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

2014-01-01

73

Fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of lamb carcasses from Britain and Spain.  

PubMed

Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in M. Longissimus was measured in four groups of lambs representing two Spanish breeds: Rasa Aragonesa (RA) and Merino (ME) and two British lamb types: the Welsh Mountain breed (WM), whose carcasses were purchased in Spain and typical early lambs (EL) purchased in Britain. The lambs grown in Spain were concentrate fed and slaughtered at a lighter weight and lower age than those grown in Britain. The British lamb carcasses purchased in Spain were of a similar weight to the Spanish lambs but were lighter than the lamb carcasses purchased in Britain. The British lambs were grass fed. Relationships between fatty acid (FA) composition and sensory attributes were examined following sensory testing of all lambs by both British and Spanish taste panels. The production system was shown to be more important than breed in determining FA composition. British lambs had higher percentages, within total fatty acids, of 18:0, 18:3 (n-3) and long chain polyunsaturated n-3 FA and lower percentages of 18:2 (n-6) and long chain polyunsaturated n-6 FA than Spanish lambs. These differences were due to the different feeding systems used. The amounts of these FA in muscle (mg/100 g) were also different between the British and Spanish groups, not only because the British lambs had more total fat. For both taste panels, odour and flavour intensity were positively correlated with the amounts and percentages of 18:0 and 18:3 and negatively correlated with those of 18:2. This was explained by the fact that both panels gave higher odour and flavour intensity scores to the grass-fed British lamb with high 18:3 levels and lower scores to the concentrate-fed Spanish lamb with high 18:2 levels. However, 18:0 and 18:3 were positively correlated with flavour quality and overall appraisal for the British panel and negatively for the Spanish panel. Conversely, 18:2 was a positive contributor to flavour and overall preference for the Spanish panel and was negative for the British panel. The results show that the production system affects muscle fatty acid composition and the flavour of lamb. However, people's preference is determined to a large extent by their past experience. PMID:22060790

Sañudo, C; Enser, M E; Campo, M M; Nute, G R; María, G; Sierra, I; Wood, J D

2000-04-01

74

Slaughter plant location, USDA quality grade, external fat thickness, and aging time effects on sensory characteristics of beef loin strip steak.  

PubMed

A boneless beef strip loin (IMPS #180) was fabricated from each of 320 carcasses to study the effects of slaughter plant location, quality grade, fat thickness, and aging time on beef tenderness and palatability. Carcasses were selected for fat thickness (< .5 cm or > or = .5 cm fat thickness) and USDA quality grade (Select or Low Choice) from two slaughter facilities (IBP, Inc., Garden City, KS or Excel Inc., Plainview, TX), and the strips were aged for either 7 or 14 d. Aging steaks 14 d improved all sensory traits and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) values regardless of all other main effects (P < .05). Steaks from Choice carcasses that were processed in Kansas had higher initial and sustained tenderness ratings than steaks from carcasses that were processed in Texas or Select steaks from Kansas after 7 d of aging (P < .05). However, aging for 14 d removed differences from all sensory characteristics of steaks from Kansas and Texas. All sensory scores for steaks from carcasses that graded Choice were higher than those from carcasses that graded Select (P < .05). The USDA quality grade did not affect WBS values, and fat thickness did not affect sensory characteristics or WBS values (P > .05). Therefore, aging beef strip loin steaks for 14 compared with 7 d improved sensory score and decreased WBS values, but fat thickness had no effect on the palatability of loin strip steaks processed under these conditions. PMID:9078481

Miller, M F; Kerth, C R; Wise, J W; Lansdell, J L; Stowell, J E; Ramsey, C B

1997-03-01

75

Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

2010-01-01

76

Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds are important constituents of food products of plant origin. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavour, astringency, and colour. In addition, the presence of phenolic compounds on the diet is beneficial to health due to their chemopreventive activities against carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, mainly due to their antioxidant activities. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Héctor Rodríguez; José Antonio Curiel; José María Landete; Blanca de las Rivas; Félix López de Felipe; Carmen Gómez-Cordovés; José Miguel Mancheño; Rosario Muñoz

2009-01-01

77

The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1  

PubMed Central

Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ?10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when ?-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

2013-01-01

78

Ground beef patties prepared from brisket, flank and plate have unique fatty acid and sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that unique ground beef products could be formulated from brisket, flank, and plate primals. Primals were taken from 4 USDA Select carcasses from conventionally produced cattle, selected at random in a commercial packing plant. Lean and fat trims were separated, and ground beef was formulated from each primal to contain 10, 20, or 30% total fat. Brisket patties contained higher proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids and less saturated fatty acids than flank patties. There were no differences in n-6 or n-3 fatty acids across primal type or fat level. After cooking, brisket patties had higher bloody/serumy and fat-like descriptor values than flank patties. Plate patties generated higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles than patties from the brisket or flank. Brisket patties generally had higher amounts of pleasant headspace volatiles whereas the plate relied more heavily on Maillard-derived volatiles than flank patties. We conclude that individual primals can be used to formulate ground beef with unique compositional and flavor characteristics. PMID:25616056

Blackmon, Terronica; Miller, Rhonda K; Kerth, Chris; Smith, Stephen B

2015-05-01

79

Manipulating Digestion with Foods Designed to Change the Physical Characteristics of Digesta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore how foods can be designed to modulate digestion and to promote health by changing the physical properties of digesta. The physical characteristics of digesta are discussed along with their impact on the physiology of digestion with special reference to sites where these characteristics are likely to influence digestive efficiency. Evidence is reviewed regarding the effects of supplementation with

Roger G. Lentle; Patrick W. M. Janssen

2010-01-01

80

Pyrolysis and gasification of food waste: Syngas characteristics and char gasification kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of syngas from the pyrolysis and gasification of food waste has been investigated. Characteristic differences in syngas properties and overall yields from pyrolysis and gasification were determined at two distinct high temperatures of 800 and 900°C. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior were evaluated in terms of syngas flow rate, hydrogen flow rate, output power, total syngas yield, total hydrogen yield,

I. I. Ahmed; A. K. Gupta

2010-01-01

81

Sorption Characteristics of “Food Fibers” in Secondary Products of Processing of Vegetable Raw Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some structural-sorption characteristics of a series of secondary products (wastes) obtained in processing of vegetable raw materials, such as wheat straw, buckwheat peel, sunflower husk, and beet pulp, containing fibrous cellulose skeleton (“food fibers”), were determined. The effect of chemical and mechano-chemical modification of these products on the characteristics of their pore structure and sorption activity with respect to organic

S. S. Stavitskaya; T. I. Mironyuk; V. V. Strelko

2001-01-01

82

The association of food characteristics and individual differences with ratings of craving and liking.  

PubMed

Craving and liking are related to eating-related problems, but less is known about the association of specific food characteristics (e.g., sugar, fat) with craving/liking. The relation of individual differences in eating behavior with these craving and liking patterns is also relatively unknown. We examine the nomothetic impact of sugar, fat and processing on food craving and liking and the moderation of these effects by idiographic factors (e.g., Body Mass Index [BMI], hunger). One hundred and five overweight and obese women completed craving and liking ratings on 180 foods that differed in levels of sugar, fat and processing. Food craving was linked positively to fat content, but negatively to sugar. Food liking was associated negatively with sugar content and processing level. Addictive-like eating predicted elevated overall food craving and liking, and increased craving and liking for processed foods. Attempted restriction efforts were unrelated to craving and liking. BMI was associated with less craving for fattier foods and lower liking for the average food. Hunger was associated with increased craving for the average food. These findings highlight the role of fat in cravings and differences in craving and liking based on BMI, loss of control over eating, and hunger. These findings are relevant to theories of problematic eating and the development of eating-related interventions. PMID:24768936

Gearhardt, Ashley N; Rizk, Marianne T; Treat, Teresa A

2014-08-01

83

Effects of electron-beam irradiation on the shelf life, microbial populations and sensory characteristics of summer truffles ( Tuber aestivum) packaged under modified atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two doses of electron-beam irradiation (1.5 kGy and 2.5 kGy) on the microbial populations (total mesophilic aerobes, Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, molds and yeasts) and sensory characteristics of Tuber aestivum packaged under modified atmospheres were monitored immediately after treatment, and weekly during 42 days of storage at 4 °C. Treatment with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy reduced the pseudomonads populations by 4.3

Carmen Susana Rivera; Domingo Blanco; Pedro Marco; Rosa Oria; María Eugenia Venturini

2011-01-01

84

Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.  

PubMed

Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products. PMID:23575142

Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

2013-04-01

85

Chemical composition, techno-functional and sensory properties and effects of three dietary fibers on the quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage.  

PubMed

This study determined the effects of three dietary fibers namely, VITACEL LC200 powdered cellulose (LC200), barley beta-glucan concentrate (BBC), and VITACEL KF500 potato fiber (KF500), on the techno-functional and sensory properties and quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage. The findings revealed interesting functional properties for LC200 fiber. This fiber displayed high water binding capacity (WBC) and oil binding capacity (OBC), values of 16.2 g/g and 10.2 g/g, respectively, which are higher than reported for most fruit and vegetable fiber concentrates. The application of LC200 improved the masticability and elasticity of beef sausage formulations and minimized their hardness and production costs without negatively affecting their sensory properties. Overall, the findings demonstrate the potential functional and economic utility of LC200 fiber as a promising source of dietary fiber. PMID:24013695

Ktari, Naourez; Smaoui, Slim; Trabelsi, Imen; Nasri, Moncef; Ben Salah, Riadh

2014-01-01

86

Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. PMID:25465558

Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

2015-01-01

87

Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time. PMID:12423921

Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-02-15

88

Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.  

PubMed

A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

2013-09-01

89

Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics  

PubMed Central

A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

2013-01-01

90

Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 °C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 °C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (EC, 1997; EEC, 1993). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [60Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected, since ATBC did not undergo chemical decomposition upon irradiation up to 25 kGy. Finally, specific migration decreased proportionally with increasing polarity of the food-simulating solvent.

Zygoura, Panagiota D.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G.

2011-08-01

91

PREDICTION OF COLOR, TENDERNESS, AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF STEAKS BY VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY. A FEASIBILITY STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Color, texture and sensory attributes of 24 beef carcasses at 2, 4, 8, 14, and 21 days post mortem were predicted by visible/near infrared (visible/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy in 400-1080 nm region. Predicting the Hunter a*, b*, and E* values yielded the coefficient of determination (R**2) in cal...

92

The market for genetically modified foods: consumer characteristics and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis was used to explore consumer preferences for food products that are the product of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The results of a cluster analysis indicated that consumers fell into three homogeneous groups based on their preference for a branded, low-priced, or GMO-free product. There were some differences between the segments based on the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education,

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

93

Evaluation of nutritional composition, sensory and physical property of home processed weaning food based on low cost locally available food materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objectives of this study are to develop low cost weaning food for the economically disadvantaged nursing mothers and also to prevent protein energy malnutrition among the infants in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The blends (sweet potato and soybean flour) were prepared (homogenously) in the ratio of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 of sweet potato and soybean respectively.

O. S. Ijarotimi; F. Ashipa

2006-01-01

94

Sodium metasilicate affects antimicrobial, sensory, physical, and chemical characteristics of fresh commercial chicken breast meat stored at 4° C for 9 days.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate antimicrobial properties of sodium metasilicate (SMS) on fresh boneless and skinless commercial broiler chicken breast fillets, and to ascertain effects of the treatments on sensory, chemical, and physical characteristics of the meat. Fillets were divided into 5 groups, weighed, treated with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% SMS marinades, vacuum tumbled at 172.32 kPa for 20 min, reweighed, packaged in styrofoam trays, stored at 4°C for 9 d, and analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 d for marination yield (d 0 only), pH, total psychrotrophic counts, water-holding capacity, purge loss, cooking yield, and objective texture, color, and sensory characteristics. Marination yield and water-holding capacity were similar (P > 0.05) among all SMS treatments and increased by 3 to 4% compared with that in control fillets. Fillets treated with at least 3% SMS had higher (P < 0.05) pH and cooking yields and lower (P < 0.05) purge loss (on d 9) compared with control fillets. The 3 and 4% SMS treatments retarded growth of psychrotrophic organisms for 1 additional day compared with control, 1, and 2% SMS-treated fillets. Color and texture measurements and sensory characteristics of the fillets were not adversely affected by the SMS treatments. The data in this study revealed that at least 3% SMS was necessary to retard growth of spoilage bacteria compared with untreated samples and samples treated with the USDA maximum allowable level of 2% SMS in poultry marinades. PMID:21489963

Huang, H; Williams, S K; Sims, C A; Simmone, A

2011-05-01

95

Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during 6 months of dietary energy restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine characteristics of craved foods in relation to dietary energy restriction (ER) with high (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets.Design:Assessments of food cravings before and during a randomized controlled trial of HG and LG diets provided for 6 months.Subjects:Thirty-two healthy, overweight women aged 20–42 years.Measurements:Self-reported food cravings and dietary intake, body weight, weight history and measures of eating

C H Gilhooly; S K Das; J K Golden; M A McCrory; G E Dallal; E Saltzman; F M Kramer; S B Roberts

2007-01-01

96

Mercury biomagnification through food webs is affected by physical and chemical characteristics of lakes.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern because the organic form, methyl Hg (MeHg), can biomagnify to harmful concentrations in fish, fish-eating wildlife, and humans. Food web transfer of MeHg has been explored using models of log MeHg versus relative trophic position (nitrogen isotopes, ?(15)N), but regression slopes vary across systems for unknown reasons. In this study, MeHg biomagnification was determined for 11 lake food webs in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and compared to physical and chemical lake characteristics using principal component and multiple regression analyses. MeHg biomagnification (regression slopes of log MeHg versus baseline-adjusted ?(15)N for fishes and invertebrates) varied significantly across lakes and was higher in systems with lower aqueous nutrient/MeHg/chloride scores. This is one of the largest, consistent data sets available on MeHg biomagnification through temperate lake food webs and the first study to use a principal component and multiple regression approach to understand how lake chemical and physical characteristics interact to affect biomagnification among systems. Overall, our results show that the magnitude of MeHg biomagnification through lake food webs is related to the chemical and physical characteristics of the systems, but the underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:24099312

Clayden, Meredith G; Kidd, Karen A; Wyn, Brianna; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

2013-11-01

97

Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Eggs Obtained from Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil, Dried Whitebait and/or Fructo-oligosaccharide  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the effects of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait as a source of ?-3 fatty acids (?-3 FA), which could be used to produce eggs enriched with ?-3 FA, and of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as a source of prebiotics on performance of hens (commercial Hy-Line Brown laying hens), and FA composition, internal quality, and sensory characteristics of the eggs. Dietary FOS increased egg weight. The amounts of ?-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the eggs from the hens fed the flaxseed oil alone or flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diets were higher than those of the control. Hedonic scores for off-flavor, fishy flavor, buttery taste and overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil+ dried whitebait were lower (p<0.05) than those of the control. Overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing soybean oil+dried whitebait was lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. However, all the sensory attributes of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil, dried whitebait and FOS were not significantly different from those of the control. These results confirmed that flaxseed oil increases the ALA content in the eggs and a combination of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait increases EPA and DHA in the eggs. Of significance was that addition of FOS to the flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diet improves the sensory characteristics of the eggs enriched with ?-3 FA. PMID:25050046

Yi, Haechang; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M.; Shin, Sung Woo

2014-01-01

98

Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP. PMID:25049698

Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

2012-01-01

99

Effect of the gamma radiation dose rate on psychrotrophic bacteria, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and sensory characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken meat.  

PubMed

Frozen samples of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) with skin were irradiated with gamma radiation doses of 0.0 kGy (control) and 3 kGy at 2 different radiation dose rates: 0.32 kGy/h (3 kGy) and 4.04 kGy/h (3 kGy). Batches of irradiated and control samples were evaluated during 11 d of refrigerated (2 ± 1 °C) storage for the following parameters: total psychrotrophic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), evaluation of objective color (L*, a*, and b*) and a sensory evaluation (irradiated odor, oxidized odor, pink and brown colors). No statistical difference (P > 0.05) was found amongst the TBARS values obtained for the MDCM samples irradiated with dose rates of 0.32 and 4.04 kGy/h. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the psychrotrophic bacterial count as from the 7th day of refrigerated storage, for the MDCM samples irradiated at the dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h. With respect to the attribute of oxidized odor, the samples irradiated with a dose rate of 0.32 kGy/h showed a stronger intensity and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the sample irradiated with a dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h on days 0 and 2 of refrigerated storage. Irradiation with a dose rate of 4.04 kGy/h (3 kGy) was shown to be the best condition for the processing of MDCM according to the evaluation of all the variables, under the conditions of this study. Practical Application:? The results obtained for the application of different dose rates of ionizing radiation to mechanically deboned chicken meat will provide the food industry with information concerning the definition of the best processing conditions to maximize the sensory and food quality. PMID:21535789

Brito, Poliana P; Azevedo, Heliana; Cipolli, Kátia M V A B; Fukuma, Henrique T; Mourão, Gerson B; Roque, Cláudio V; Miya, Norma T; Pereira, José L

2011-03-01

100

Spatial-temporal modeling of neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and food stores.  

PubMed

The literature on food stores, neighborhood poverty, and race/ethnicity is mixed and lacks methods of accounting for complex spatial and temporal clustering of food resources. We used quarterly data on supermarket and convenience store locations from Nielsen TDLinx (Nielsen Holdings N.V., New York, New York) spanning 7 years (2006-2012) and census tract-based neighborhood sociodemographic data from the American Community Survey (2006-2010) to assess associations between neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and food store distributions in the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) of 4 US cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and San Francisco, California). We fitted a space-time Poisson regression model that accounted for the complex spatial-temporal correlation structure of store locations by introducing space-time random effects in an intrinsic conditionally autoregressive model within a Bayesian framework. After accounting for census tract-level area, population, their interaction, and spatial and temporal variability, census tract poverty was significantly and positively associated with increasing expected numbers of supermarkets among tracts in all 4 MSAs. A similar positive association was observed for convenience stores in Birmingham, Minneapolis, and San Francisco; in Chicago, a positive association was observed only for predominantly white and predominantly black tracts. Our findings suggest a positive association between greater numbers of food stores and higher neighborhood poverty, with implications for policy approaches related to food store access by neighborhood poverty. PMID:25515169

Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua L; Peterson, Marc; Rummo, Pasquale; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

2015-01-15

101

Effects of UV irradiation in a continuous turbulent flow UV reactor on microbiological and sensory characteristics of cow's milk.  

PubMed

The dairy industry under current pasteurization conditions (15 s at 72°C) and sanitary standards achieves a safe product with excellent quality. In an ever-competitive market there is still a need to improve product quality and extend shelf life of dairy products to increase competitiveness and open up new markets. In an attempt to test the effect of UV irradiation on microbiota of fluid milk, a continuous flow UV system at 254 nm was used to treat 3.5 and 2% fat milk at two UV doses (880 and 1,760 J liter(-1)). Milk was obtained from three processors, and two lots from each processor were assessed. To assess the impact on the most descriptive native microbiota in pasteurized milk after UV illumination, the product was held at two storage temperatures (4 and 7°C) and tested weekly for 5 weeks for aerobic plate counts (psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria), laboratory pasteurization counts, aerobic sporeformers, coliform organisms, and titratable acidity. Microbial counts for all tested microorganisms were lower in UV-treated milk when compared with control throughout storage at 4 and 7°C in both 3.5 and 2% fat milk. Sensory analysis indicated that there is a sensory defect associated with UV treatment at the wavelength used. PMID:23212017

Rossitto, P V; Cullor, J S; Crook, J; Parko, J; Sechi, P; Cenci-Goga, B T

2012-12-01

102

Sensory properties of fruit skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory characteristics of fruit skins were determined for a range of produce including large fruit (apples, pears, and tomatoes) and small fruit (grapes, strawberries, blueberries, and cherry tomatoes). These results provided a context within which to study the sensory properties of skins from novel kiwifruit (Actinidia). The kiwifruit skins ranged from the edible skins of grape-sized Actinidia arguta through

Rachel L. Amos

2007-01-01

103

The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat  

PubMed Central

Ingredients such as ascorbic acid used to preserve redness of the raw meat, and carnosine and ribose used for flavor improvement have been incorporated into minced meats to increase consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible synergistic effect of ascorbic acid, carnosine, and ribose on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat. Samples included control (Co) ±1% carnosine (C), 0.1% ascorbic acid (A), 2% ribose (R) (w/w), and combinations of RC, RA, RCA in the same concentrations as the single ingredient samples. A trained sensory panel (n = 7) measured the intensity of the aromas and flavors of salty, sour, beef, and liver of the bison patties. A consumer acceptance panel (n = 59) evaluated color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of the patties. Hunterlab colorimetry, shear force, cook loss, and drip loss percentage were measured on the cooked patties, and color and pH on the raw patties. The sample containing 2% ribose (R), 1% carnosine (C), and 0.1% ascorbic acid (A) in combination (RCA) showed a significantly higher consumer acceptance for aroma, which could possibly be attributed to the high beef aroma intensity measured by the descriptive analysis panel. RCA had the highest color acceptance which may be related to the high a* value for the cooked sample. RCA also had high overall acceptance corresponding to “like slightly.” Raw and cooked color values, shear force, pH, cook loss and drip loss percentages, and aroma and flavor attribute intensities for RCA were not significantly different from the control sample. The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid may positively affect the aroma and color of minced bison meat leading to higher overall acceptability without compromising sensory and physico-chemical quality. PMID:24804026

Aliani, Michel; Ryland, Donna; Williamson, Jennifer; Rempel, Natalie

2013-01-01

104

Clinical characteristics and sensitivity to food and inhalants among children with eosinophilic esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Background To understand the clinical characteristics and the diagnostic procedures in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis and to evaluate the sensitivity of the patients to food and inhalant allergens. A cross-sectional study was performed in 35 children with eosinophilic esophagitis during the time period from January 2010 to January 2011. The clinical and epidemiological data were obtained using a questionnaire and medical chart analysis. The body mass index for age was used for the nutritional evaluation (via the Z score). The sensitivity to foods and inhalants was evaluated by performing a skin prick test and atopy patch test. Results Patients (35 in total, median age 10 years) with a diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis were evaluated. The most prevalent symptoms in the patients were vomiting (71.4%) and abdominal pain (51.4%). Endoscopic alterations were observed in 97.2% of the patients. A good nutritional state was observed in 82.8% of the children. The tests demonstrated the presence of food sensitivities and/or aeroallergens in 27 (77.1%) patients, whereas 8 (22.9%) patients did not test positive in any of the tests performed. Among the patients with positive tests, 24 (68.5%) exhibited sensitivity to aeroallergens and 16 (45.7%) were sensitive to foods. The comparison between the sensitive and insensitive groups displayed statistically significant results with respect to sex, symptom prevalence, and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Conclusions The patients evaluated in this study displayed clinical characteristics of eosinophilic esophagitis similar to those reported in the literature. The sensitivity to foods determined by the tests was less than that observed in prior studies; however, a marked sensitivity to aeroallergens was observed. The different allergen sensitivity profiles observed in this study suggests that, similar to asthma, the eosinophiic esophagitis disease may exhibit several phenotypes. PMID:24443803

2014-01-01

105

Effect of ingredients on sensory profile of idli.  

PubMed

Idli is a traditional fermented food and is consumed in India and Srilanka. The objective of the present study is to select the ingredients for optimum desirable product characteristics and to identify the optimum ratios of ingredients and fermentation time with respect to sensory attributes using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The sensory attributes included were color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality. Preliminary trials were conducted using five variants of rice and common black gram dhal before framing a model using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). From the study it was found that a desirable score of 0.7439 was obtained for sensory attributes of idli made with the ratio of 3: 1.475 for IR20 idli rice and ADT3 variety black gram (with husk removed after soaking) fermented for 10.2 h. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helped to discriminate the samples and attributes within the data matrix, depending upon their inter relationships. PMID:25190832

Durgadevi, Manoharan; Shetty, Prathapkumar H

2014-09-01

106

Flavor Characteristics of Hanwoo Beef in Comparison with Other Korean Foods  

PubMed Central

The present study identified volatile flavor components of Hanwoo longissimus muscle and other Korean foods (Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil) and their traits were compared in relation with flavor precursors that include fatty acids and protein degradation products. Hanwoo longissimus muscle was purchased from a commercial abattoir while the other foods were sampled from three separate households. The results showed totals of 68 (9.94 ?g/g), 60 (15.75 ?g/g), 49 (107.61 ?g/ml) and 50 (7.20 ?g/g) volatile components for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and Hanwoo beef longissimus, respectively (p<0.05). Aldehydes were the most predominant components in beef, but alcohols, acids and esters, and pyrazines are probably the major contributors to the flavor characteristics of other foods. SDS-PAGE revealed that beef longissimus muscle and Doenjang showed higher protein degradation than other foods which could be likely related to chiller ageing and ripening process. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids were approximately 50, 60, 41 and 5% for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and beef longissimus muscle, respectively. Based on the mechanism(s) of generation of the volatile compounds and the chemical composition of each food sample, differences and traits of volatile flavor components among the four food types are likely due to fatty acid profiles, proteolytic activity and processing conditions. Aroma intense compounds like pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds were limited in cooked beef in the current experimental condition (i.e., relatively low heating temperature). This suggests that higher heating temperature as in the case of roasting is needed for the generation of high aroma notes in meat. Furthermore, proteolytic activity and stability of fatty acids during ageing have a great influence on the generation of flavor components in cooked beef. PMID:25049583

Van Ba, Hoa; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Inho, Hwang

2012-01-01

107

The perceptual characteristics of voice-hallucinations in deaf people: insights into the nature of subvocal thought and sensory feedback loops.  

PubMed

The study of voice-hallucinations in deaf individuals, who exploit the visuomotor rather than auditory modality for communication, provides rare insight into the relationship between sensory experience and how "voices" are perceived. Relatively little is known about the perceptual characteristics of voice-hallucinations in congenitally deaf people who use lip-reading or sign language as their preferred means of communication. The existing literature on hallucinations in deaf people is reviewed, alongside consideration of how such phenomena may fit into explanatory subvocal articulation hypotheses proposed for auditory verbal hallucinations in hearing people. It is suggested that a failure in subvocal articulation processes may account for voice-hallucinations in both hearing and deaf people but that the distinct way in which hallucinations are experienced may be due to differences in a sensory feedback component, which is influenced by both auditory deprivation and language modality. This article highlights how the study of deaf people may inform wider understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations and subvocal processes generally. PMID:16510696

Atkinson, Joanna R

2006-10-01

108

The Perceptual Characteristics of Voice-Hallucinations in Deaf People: Insights into the Nature of Subvocal Thought and Sensory Feedback Loops  

PubMed Central

The study of voice-hallucinations in deaf individuals, who exploit the visuomotor rather than auditory modality for communication, provides rare insight into the relationship between sensory experience and how “voices” are perceived. Relatively little is known about the perceptual characteristics of voice-hallucinations in congenitally deaf people who use lip-reading or sign language as their preferred means of communication. The existing literature on hallucinations in deaf people is reviewed, alongside consideration of how such phenomena may fit into explanatory subvocal articulation hypotheses proposed for auditory verbal hallucinations in hearing people. It is suggested that a failure in subvocal articulation processes may account for voice-hallucinations in both hearing and deaf people but that the distinct way in which hallucinations are experienced may be due to differences in a sensory feedback component, which is influenced by both auditory deprivation and language modality. This article highlights how the study of deaf people may inform wider understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations and subvocal processes generally. PMID:16510696

Atkinson, Joanna R.

2006-01-01

109

Rural and Urban Differences in the Associations between Characteristics of the Community Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the relationship between measures of the household and retail food environments and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in both urban and rural environmental contexts. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Data for FV intake and other characteristics were collected via survey instrument and geocoded to the objective food

Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.

2011-01-01

110

Marination with natural curing ingredients, storage time, and serving temperature effects on the sensory characteristics of forage-finished or commercially-sourced beef roasts.  

PubMed

Beef inside round roasts (n=144) were cut from rounds obtained from both forage-finished cattle (n=72) and commercially-sourced beef (n=72). Roasts were portioned to weigh 0.45-0.68kg each. Each roast was then randomly assigned one of the following treatments: control, injected-no cure, or injected-cured. Additionally, roasts were assigned a serving temperature (hot or cold) and storage treatments (0d or 28d post cooking). Roasts from forage-fed beef had a more red interior color and higher shear values, and also retained more brine than commercially-sourced beef (P<0.05). Curing roasts improved TBARS values in roasts served hot and significantly reduced sensory warmed-over and grassy flavors (P<0.05). Marinating forage-finished beef roasts significantly improves tenderness and flavor characteristics. PMID:22118983

McMurtrie, K E; Kerth, C R; Bratcher, C L; Curtis, P A; Smith, B

2012-03-01

111

Effect of live weight and sex on physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of Merino lamb meat.  

PubMed

Forty-eight lamb carcasses were divided into four groups (n=12) according to slaughter weight (24 and 29kg) and sex (male and female). Colour, pH, moisture, and intramuscular fat were not affected (p>0.05) by slaughter weight or sex. With respect to fatty acid composition, slaughter weight had significant effects on C12:0 (p<0.01), C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 n-9 (p<0.05) in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. The percentage of C12:0 and C14:0 decreased as slaughter weight increased, while C16:0 increased. In Semimembranosus (SM) m., only C18:3 n-3 and C20:2 n-6 were affected (p<0.001) by slaughter weight. Total PUFA in LL m. was greater (p<0.01) in females than in males. Although in general, sensorial quality was not significantly affected by slaughter weight or sex, meat from lighter lambs (24kg) had greater general acceptability than meat from heavier lambs (29kg). PMID:22063837

Tejeda, Juan Florencio; Peña, Ramón E; Andrés, Ana I

2008-12-01

112

Modulation, individual variation and the role of lingual sensory afferents in the control of prey transport in the lizard Pogona vitticeps.  

PubMed

Most organisms feed on a variety of food items that may differ dramatically in their physical and behavioural characteristics (e.g. mobility, mass, texture, etc.). Thus the ability to modulate prey transport behaviour in accordance with the characteristics of the food appears crucial. Consequently, prey reduction and transport movements must be adjusted to the natural variation in material properties of the food, between and within feeding sequences and transport cycles. Here we describe an investigation of (1) the ability of the agamid lizard Pogona vitticeps to modulate prey transport kinematics when feeding on a range of food items differing in their physical characteristics and (2) the role of sensory feedback in controlling jaw and tongue movements by bilateral transection of the lingual trigeminal sensory afferents. Our findings demonstrate that P. vitticeps modulates the kinematics of its feeding behaviour in response to the mechanical demands imposed by different food types. In addition, transection of the trigeminal sensory afferents has an effect on the movements of jaws and tongue during transport, and increases the duration of transport cycles needed to process a given food type. However, after transection, transport cycles were still different for different food types suggesting that other sources of sensory information are also used to modulate prey transport in the lizard P. vitticeps. PMID:18552296

Schaerlaeken, Vicky; Herrel, Anthony; Meyers, J J

2008-07-01

113

Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

2012-08-01

114

Effect of selected dairy starter cultures on microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of swine and venison (Dama dama) nitrite-free dry-cured sausages.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the evaluation of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture of dairy origin in the production of nitrite-free low-acid fermented venison (Dama dama) sausage (salame di daino) produced in a small-scale plant in Umbria (Italy), and their effect on microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the products. Salame di daino was obtained with two different processes: with and without the addition of selected LAB starter cultures. Microbial counts of Enterobacteriaceae, coliform organisms and Pseudomonas spp. were lower in salami made with the addition of starter cultures. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, and Listeria monocytogenes after the first week of ripening were only detected from control salami. Control salami were paler and harder, whereas those made with the addition of starter cultures were slightly saltier, juicier and in general more acceptable. Selected dairy-origin starter (SDS) cultures did prevent the growth of both indicators of food safety and of process hygiene and increased the acceptability of full-ripened salami. PMID:22032919

Cenci-Goga, B T; Rossitto, P V; Sechi, P; Parmegiani, S; Cambiotti, V; Cullor, J S

2012-03-01

115

Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This entire issue is devoted to the problem of producing enough food for the world population and of distributing it equitably. Areas covered include reports on the latest agricultural research, biological research concerned with more efficient photosynthesis, nutrition, and the world social structure, politics, and economics of food. (MA)

Science, 1975

1975-01-01

116

Sensory characteristics of spoilage and volatile compounds associated with bacteria isolated from cooked and peeled tropical shrimps using SPME-GC-MS analysis.  

PubMed

The spoilage potential of six bacterial species isolated from cooked and peeled tropical shrimps (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Serratia liquefaciens-like, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium alterfunditum-like and Vagococcus penaei sp. nov.) was evaluated. The bacteria were inoculated into shrimps, packaged in a modified atmosphere and stored for 27 days at 8 °C. Twice a week, microbial growth, as well as chemical and sensory changes, were monitored during the storage period. The bacteria mainly involved in shrimp spoilage were B. thermosphacta, S. liquefaciens-like and C. maltaromaticum whose main characteristic odours were cheese-sour, cabbage-amine and cheese-sour-butter, respectively. The volatile fraction of the inoculated shrimp samples was analysed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method showed that the characteristic odours were most likely induced by the production of volatile compounds such as 3-methyl-1-butanal, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methyl-1-butanal, 2,3-heptanedione and trimethylamine. PMID:21531471

Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Lalanne, Valérie; Macé, Sabrina; Cornet, Josiane; Cardinal, Mireille; Sérot, Thierry; Dousset, Xavier; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques

2011-06-30

117

Food intake, growth rate, food conversion and food choice in broilers fed on diets high in rapeseed meal and pea meal, with observations on sensory evaluation of the resulting poultry meat.  

PubMed

1. Experiments were done to measure the effects of 100 and 200 g/kg of either pea meal or low glucosinolate, low erucic acid rapeseed meal on food intake and growth, food choice and meat organoleptic quality in broiler chickens. 2. The test diets were formulated to be iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous with a soy-wheat control diet. In all diets, lysine was fixed at 11.0 g/kg and all other indispensable amino acids were present in excess of requirements. 3. Food intake was little affected by the inclusion of 100 g/kg of pea meal in the diet but 200 g/kg of peas caused a decrease. Rapeseed produced a decrease in food intake at both dietary concentrations. 4. Weight gain was similarly affected, but food conversion from d 0 to d 42 was little affected by the inclusion of either peas or rapeseed. 5. Absolute breast muscle weight was affected by diet but there was no significant difference in breast weight as a proportion of total body weight. 6. From d 7 onwards, selection against the pea-containing diet approached statistical significance. Between d 7 and d 14, birds ate almost twice as much of the control as of the pea-containing diet. Birds offered a rapeseed meal diet ate similar amounts of that and the control diet. 7. The breast meat from birds given 200 g rapeseed/kg was the only meat identified as different but no strong aversion was expressed by the tasting panel. PMID:15484727

McNeill, L; Bernard, K; MacLeod, M G

2004-08-01

118

Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

Whelan, R. H.

1985-01-01

119

The effect of marbling and subcutaneous fat on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of beef strip loin steaks  

E-print Network

in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high-oxygen barrier (HOB) film and stored at 4+ice in the dark for up to 6 or 28 days, respectively. In a second experiment, beef strip loins of U. S. Choice were fabricated into steaks with subcutaneous fat present... characteristics of beef strip loin steaks packaged and stored in pVC or HOB film. Microbial distributions were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. on PVC-wrapped samples and by Lactobacillus spp. on samples packaged in HOB film by the end of the storage periods. Nean...

Correale, Karen Kross

2012-06-07

120

Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire

Hanne Torjusen; Anne Lise Brantsæter; Margaretha Haugen; Geir Lieblein; Hein Stigum; Gun Roos; Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen; Helle Margrete Meltzer

2010-01-01

121

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption. PMID:19648503

Coates, W; Ayerza, R

2009-11-01

122

Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. Economic Information Bulletin Number 56  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-four percent of U.S. households with children were food secure throughout 2007, meaning that they had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members. Nearly 16 percent of households with children were food insecure sometime during the year, including 8.3 percent in which children were food insecure…

Nord, Mark

2009-01-01

123

Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.  

PubMed

This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (P<0.05) cooking loss and reduced (P<0.05) emulsion stability in the gel/emulsion systems. Incorporation of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel produced a decrease (P<0.05) of lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values and an increase (P<0.05) of yellowness (b*) as compared to the other samples. The effect of adding seaweed on the texture parameters of low-salt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix. PMID:20374797

Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

2010-03-01

124

Improvement of Cencibel red wines by oxygen addition after malolactic fermentation: study on color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to check whether a micro-oxygenation technique applied after malolactic fermentation could improve the quality of Cencibel red wines. For that purpose, the color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics during the micro-oxygenation treatment have been considered. The phenolic compounds more affected by the oxygen addition were hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin], flavonols (glycosilated forms), and anthocyanins-related pigments. The fact that the concentration of pyranoanthocyanins and hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins was higher in treated red wines is closely related to their color stabilization. As a consequence, higher values of the yellow and red component of the color (b* and a*, respectively) were also observed in micro-oxygenated red wines. Red wine aroma quality was also improved in treated wines. A significant decrease in herbaceous notes, bitterness, acidity, and astringency was found, as well as higher scores of red fruits, plum, liquorice, and spicy attributes in oxygen-added red wines. PMID:22642478

Cejudo-Bastante, Maria Jesús; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Pérez-Coello, Maria Soledad

2012-06-13

125

Effects of electron-beam and gamma irradiation treatments on the microbial populations, respiratory activity and sensory characteristics of Tuber melanosporum truffles packaged under modified atmospheres.  

PubMed

The effects of electron-beam or gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 kGy and 2.5 kGy of either one) on the microbial populations, respiratory activity and sensory characteristics of Tuber melanosporum packaged under modified atmospheres were monitored immediately after treatment, and subsequently every seven days during 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Treatments with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy reduced the total mesophilic aerobes counts respectively by 4.3 and 5.6 log cfu/g for electron-beam treatment, and by 6.4 and 6.6 log cfu/g for gamma irradiation. Other microbial groups studied (Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, lactic acid bacteria, mesophilic aerobic spores, molds and yeasts) were not detected after the treatments. A decrease in the respiratory activity was detected in all the irradiated batches, indicating that the carbon dioxide levels were lower and the oxygen levels higher than those of the non-irradiated ones. Two species of yeasts, Candida sake and Candida membranifaciens var. santamariae, survived the irradiation treatments and became the dominant microbial populations with counts of up to 7.0 log cfu/g. The growth of these microorganisms was visible on the surface of irradiated truffles from day 21 onwards, affecting the flavor and the general acceptability of the ascocarps. Moreover, a watery exudate was detected in the treated truffles from the third week onwards, so the application of irradiation treatments in doses equal to or above 1.5 kGy did not preserve the quality characteristics of T. melanosporum truffles beyond 28 days. PMID:21839373

Rivera, Carmen Susana; Venturini, María Eugenia; Marco, Pedro; Oria, Rosa; Blanco, Domingo

2011-10-01

126

Sensory analysis of lipstick.  

PubMed

Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained. PMID:21272038

Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

2011-06-01

127

Seasonal variation in leaf characteristics and food selectionby larval noctuids on an evergreen Mediterranean shrub  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite year round availability of foliage, abundance of generalist noctuid larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in evergreen-dominated Mediterranean forests has a narrow, distinct spring peak. This restricted larval period has been suggested to result in part from avoidance of the nutritionally poor mature foliage, and preference for nutritionally superior spring-produced young leaves. This study examines this hypothesis by (i) documenting differences in nutritional characteristics between expanding (April) and mature (June) young leaves of the evergreen Mediterranean shrub Daphne laureola L. (Thymelaeaceae), and (ii) experimentally studying the feeding preferences of noctuid larvae for young leaves, old leaves (? 1 yr old), and developing fruits of this species in one south-eastern Spanish locality. Young leaves of D. laureola declined in nutrient concentration and specific dry mass from April to June. The responses of noctuid larvae, in terms of both relative preference and total consumption, to this seasonal variation in chemical and physical features of young leaves were also investigated. When noctuid larvae were simultaneously offered young leaves, old leaves and developing fruits, they exhibited similar preferences for young leaves and developing fruits, and rejected old leaves developed during the previous year. Noctuid larvae did not modify their consumption of young leaves relative to old leaves and developing fruits in response to seasonal changes. Food selection patterns exhibited by D. laureola noctuid herbivores, notably the rejection of old leaves in favour of young ones, are consistent with the hypothesis relating restricted larval periods of these generalist consumers with the low food value of the previous season leaves of evergreen Mediterranean plants.

Alonso, Conchita; Herrera, Carlos M.

2000-07-01

128

Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

2012-01-01

129

Modulation of prey capture kinematics and the role of lingual sensory feedback in the lizard Pogona vitticeps.  

PubMed

Most organisms feed on a variety of prey that may differ dramatically in their physical and behavioural characteristics (e.g. mobility, mass, texture, etc.). Thus the ability to modulate prey capture behaviour in accordance with the characteristics of the food appears crucial. In animals that use rapid tongue movements to capture prey (frogs and chameleons), the coordination of jaws and tongue is based on visual cues gathered prior to the prey capture event. However, most iguanian lizards have much slower tongue-based prey capture systems suggesting that sensory feedback from the tongue may play an important role in coordinating jaw and tongue movements. We investigated the modulation of prey capture kinematics in the agamid lizard Pogona vitticeps when feeding on a range of food items differing in their physical characteristics. As the lizard is a dietary generalist, we expected it to be able to modulate its prey capture kinematics as a function of the (mechanical) demands imposed by the prey. Additionally, we investigated the role of lingual sensory feedback by transecting the trigeminal sensory afferents. Our findings demonstrated that P. vitticeps modulates its prey capture kinematics according to specific prey properties (e.g. size). In addition, transection of the trigeminal sensory nerves had a strong effect on prey capture kinematics. However, significant prey type effects and prey type by transection effects suggest that other sources of sensory information are also used to modulate the prey capture kinematics in P. vitticeps. PMID:17368008

Schaerlaeken, Vicky; Meyers, Jay J; Herrel, Anthony

2007-01-01

130

Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only

Seung Hee Lee; Megan T. Rowan; Lisa M. Powell; Sara Newman; Ann Carroll Klassen; Kevin D. Frick; Jennifer Anderson; Joel Gittelsohn

2010-01-01

131

Characteristics of food-allergic patients placing them at risk for a fatal anaphylactic episode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergy is a growing public health and food safety concern. Twelve million Americans—4% of the population—suffer from\\u000a the disease, and the prevalence is increasing. There is no cure for food allergy; strict avoidance is the only way to prevent\\u000a a reaction. Food allergy is a major cause of anaphylaxis, a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that results\\u000a in an

Anne Muñoz-Furlong; Christopher C. Weiss

2009-01-01

132

Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods and\\/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and\\/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functional food and supplement users. The present study compared Dutch functional food and supplement

Nynke de Jong; Marga C. Ocké; Hester A. C. Branderhorst; Roland Friele

2003-01-01

133

Effect of low-dose irradiation and refrigeration on the microflora, sensory characteristics and biogenic amines of Atlantic horse mackerel ( trachurus trachurus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) were gamma irradiated at 1 and 3 kGy, and stored in ice for 23 days. Quality changes during ice storage at 0±1 °C were followed by sensory analysis and the determination of total viable count, histamine, cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, agmatine, spermidine, trimethylamine and volatile basic nitrogen contents. The control lot had a sensory shelf life of

Rogério Mendes; Helena Alves Silva; Maria Leonor Nunes; José Manuel Abecassis Empis

2005-01-01

134

Physiology&Behavior,Vol.29. pp. 409-417.PergamonPress, 1982.Printedin the U.S.A. How Sensory Properties of Foods Affect  

E-print Network

Properties of Foods Affect Human Feeding Behavior BARBARA J. ROLLS, EDWARD A. ROWE AND EDMUND T. ROLLS Received 6 March 1982 ROLLS, B. J., E. A. ROWE AND E. T. ROLLS. How sensoryproperties offoods affect with a single type of food. This has been found in an experiment in which normal weight subjects were offered

Rolls, Edmund T.

135

Impact of Gram-negative bacteria in interaction with a complex microbial consortium on biogenic amine content and sensory characteristics of an uncooked pressed cheese.  

PubMed

The impact of Gram-negative bacteria on sensory characteristics and production of volatile compounds as well as biogenic amines (BA) in the core of an uncooked pressed type model cheese was investigated in the presence of a defined complex microbial consortium. Eleven strains of Gram-negative bacteria, selected on the basis of their biodiversity and in vitro BA-production ability, were individually tested in a model cheese. Four out of 6 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter freundii UCMA 4217, Klebsiella oxytoca 927, Hafnia alvei B16 and Proteus vulgaris UCMA 3780) reached counts close to 6 log CFU g?¹ in the model cheese. In core of cheeses inoculated with Gram-negative bacteria, only slight differences were observed for microbial counts (Enterococcus faecalis or Lactobacillus plantarum count differences below 1 log CFU g?¹), acetate concentration (differences below 200 mg kg?¹) and texture (greater firmness) in comparison to control cheeses. Cheese core colour, odour and volatile compound composition were not modified. Although ornithine, the precursor of putrescine, was present in all cheeses, putrescine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16 and never exceeded 2.18 mmol kg?¹ cheese dry matter. Cadaverine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16, K. oxytoca 927, Halomonas venusta 4C1A or Morganella morganii 3A2A but at lower concentrations (<1.05 mmol kg?¹ cheese dry matter), although lysine was available. Only insignificant amounts of the detrimental BA histamine and tyramine, as well as isopentylamine, tryptamine or phenylethylamine, were produced in the cheese model by any of the Gram-negative strains, including those which produced these BA at high levels in vitro. PMID:22265286

Delbès-Paus, Céline; Pochet, Sylvie; Helinck, Sandra; Veisseire, Philippe; Bord, Cécile; Lebecque, Annick; Coton, Monika; Desmasures, Nathalie; Coton, Emmanuel; Irlinger, Françoise; Montel, Marie-Christine

2012-05-01

136

Comparison of sensory specific satiety and sensory specific desires to eat in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment is to compare sensory specific satiety (SSS) and sensory specific desire to eat (SSD), which can be described as general wanting for certain taste categories and go beyond specific foods, in children and adults and their impact on subsequent food choices. Eighty-seven children (10.3±0.6 years) and 49 adults (31.0±2.0 years) participated in the study. Sweet

Annemarie Olsen; Christian Ritz; Ditte L. Hartvig; Per Møller

2011-01-01

137

Characteristics and Determinants of Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses the persistence of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. Although pervasive poverty and low agricultural\\u000a productivity are important factors in understanding food insecurity in the region, broader global processes are examined.\\u000a It is argued therefore that, while poverty undermines individual and household access to sufficient food through market purchase,\\u000a land inequalities, corruption, structural adjustment programs, civil conflict, HIV\\/AIDS

Paul Mkandawire; Nathaniel D. Aguda

138

Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

Nord, Mark

2009-01-01

139

Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City  

PubMed Central

The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods. PMID:21359162

LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

2011-01-01

140

Selected Gelling Agents in Canned Dog Food Affect Nutrient Digestibilities and Fecal Characteristics of Ileal Cannulated Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effects of gelling agents in canned dog food on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Dogs were fed canned diets with either no gelling agent (control) or one of three gelling agents, wheat starch, a guar gum\\/carrageenan mixture (50:50), and a locust bean meal (LBM)\\/ carrageenan mixture (50:50) incorporated at two levels (0.2 and 0.5% of

Lisa Karr-Lilienthal; N. R. Merchen; Christine Grieshop; Marianne Smeets-Peeters; G. C. Fahey Jr.

2002-01-01

141

Introduction to Food Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality and safety of the food supply. All food products require analysis as part of a quality management program throughout the development process (including raw ingredients), through production, and after a product is in the market. In addition, analysis is done of problem samples and competitor products. The characteristics of foods (i.e., chemical composition, physical properties, sensory properties) are used to answer specific questions for regulatory purposes and typical quality control. The nature of the sample and the specific reason for the analysis commonly dictate the choice of analytical methods. Speed, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness often are key factors in this choice. Validation of the method for the specific food matrix being analyzed is necessary to ensure usefulness of the method. Making an appropriate choice of the analytical technique for a specific application requires a good knowledge of the various techniques (Fig. 1.1). For example, your choice of method to determine the salt content of potato chips would be different if it is for nutrition labeling than for quality control. The success of any analytical method relies on the proper selection and preparation of the food sample, carefully performing the analysis, and doing the appropriate calculations and interpretation of the data. Methods of analysis developed and endorsed by several nonprofit scientific organizations allow for standardized comparisons of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of less standard procedures. Such official methods are critical in the analysis of foods, to ensure that they meet the legal requirements established by governmental agencies. Government regulations and international standards most relevant to the analysis of foods are mentioned here but covered in more detail in Chap. 2, and nutrition labeling regulations in the USA are covered in Chap. 3. Internet addresses for many of the organizations and government agencies discussed are given at the end of this chapter.

Nielsen, S. Suzanne

142

Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

143

Evaluation of the Nutrient and Sensory Properties of Multimixes and Porridges Made from Maize, Soybean, and Plantain for Use as Complementary Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is part of a series of exploratory works on the use of cheap and locally available staples to improve the Nigerian traditional complementary foods. The proximate, some mineral, and vitamin compositions of composite flours formulated from maize, soybean, and plantain landrace or hybrid were evaluated. The processing included sprouting maize for 48 h, boiling soybean for 1 h,

N. M. Nnam; G. T. Baiyeri

2008-01-01

144

Feeding characteristics of an amoeba (Lobosea: Naegleria) grazing upon cyanobacteria: food selection, ingestion and digestion progress.  

PubMed

Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates has been widely studied in aquatic environments, but data on the grazing of amoebae, are still scarce. From the water samples of Dianchi Lake (Kunming, Yunnan Province, China), we isolated an amoeba, designated as Naegleria sp. strain W2, which had potent grazing effects on some kind of cyanobacteria. The food selection mechanism and the digestion process of the amoeba were investigated in batch experiments. Predation experiments showed that filamentous cyanobacteria (e.g., Anabaena, Cylindrospermum, Gloeotrichia, and Phormidium) were readily consumed, with clearance rates ranging from 0.332 to 0.513 nL amoeba(-1) h(-1). The tight threads (Oscilltoria) and aggregates (Aphanizomenon) could not be ingested; however, their sonicated fragments were observed inside food vacuoles, suggesting that their morphologies prevent them from being ingested. Live video microscopy noted that unicellular Chroococcaceae (e.g., Synechococcus, Aphanocapsa, and Microcystis) were excreted after ingestion, indicating that food selection takes place inside food vacuoles. To determine whether the tastes or the toxins prevented them from being digested, heat-killed cells were retested for predation. Digestion rates and ingestion rates of the amoebae for filamentous cyanobacteria were estimated from food vacuole content volume. Through a "cold-chase" method, we found that the food vacuole contents declined exponentially in diluted amoebae cells, and digestion rates were relatively constant, averaging about 1.5% food vacuole content min(-1) at 28 degrees Celsius. Ingestion strongly depended on the satiation status of the amoebae, starved amoebae fed at higher rates compared with satiated amoebae. Our results suggest that the food selection and food processing mechanisms of the amoeba are similar to those of interception feeding flagellates; however, filamentous cyanobacteria cannot obtain a refuge under the grazing pressure of phagotrophic amoebae, which may widen our knowledge on the grazing of protists. PMID:16598635

Xinyao, Liu; Miao, Shi; Yonghong, Liao; Yin, Gao; Zhongkai, Zhang; Donghui, Wen; Weizhong, Wu; Chencai, An

2006-04-01

145

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.?? PMID:9576536

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

146

Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The "rate" of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (?(15)N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to ?(15)N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes (?(15)N; ?(13)C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. PMID:22982939

Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xioawa; Whittle, Mike; Swanson, Heidi K; Johnston, Tom; Guildford, Stephanie

2012-11-01

147

Ultrasound Applications in Food Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food scientists today are focused on the development of not only microbiologically safe products with a long storage life, but, at the same time, products that have fresh-like characteristics and a high quality in taste, flavor, and texture. This focus is based on the needs of the consumer, which is one of the main reasons for constant research in the so-called area of emerging technologies. Traditionally, thermal treatments have been used to produce safe food products. Pasteurization of juice, milk, beer, and wine is a common process in which the final product has a storage life of some weeks (generally under refrigeration). However, vitamins, taste, color, and other sensorial characteristics are decreased with this treatment. High temperature is responsible for these effects and can be observed in the loss of nutritional components and changes in flavor, taste, and texture, often creating the need for additives to improve the product.

Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Mobbs, Tamara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

148

Do Fast-Food Chains Price Discriminate on the Race and Income Characteristics of an Area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports tests for differences in prices charged by fast-food restaurants that serve markets with customers of widely divergent incomes and ethnic backgrounds. The data contain detailed prices on items sold at over 400 Burger King, Wendy's, KFC, and Roy Rogers restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania locations. I find significant differences in price based on the race and

Kathryn Graddy

1997-01-01

149

Feeding Characteristics of an Amoeba ( Lobosea : Naegleria ) Grazing Upon Cyanobacteria: Food Selection, Ingestion and Digestion Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates has been widely studied in aquatic environments, but data on the grazing of amoebae, are still scarce. From the water samples of Dianchi Lake (Kunming, Yunnan Province, China), we isolated an amoeba, designated as Naegleria sp. strain W2, which had potent grazing effects on some kind of cyanobacteria. The food selection mechanism and the

Liu Xinyao; Shi Miao; Liao Yonghong; Gao Yin; Zhang Zhongkai; Wen Donghui; Wu Weizhong; An Chencai

2006-01-01

150

Characteristics of loyal customers for trade chains in the German food retailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper customer loyalty will be examined with the help of budget ratios (budget shares). We address the question whether sociodemographic groups differ in their shopping behavior and their store loyalty. Loyalty is analyzed with regard to the ten largest food retail chains in Germany in 2002. It is shown that the loyalty of customers depends on the lifecycle

Gotz Olearius; Jutta Roosen

2009-01-01

151

Sensory and non-sensory factors and the concept of externality in obese subjects.  

PubMed

9 obese and 9 normal subjects performed a psychophysical task in which food- or non-food-related stimuli were briefly flashed tachistoscopically at a speed and intensity near the visual threshold. A signal was presented on one-half the trials and noise only on the other one-half of the trials. Using signal detection theory methodology, separate measures of sensory sensitivity (d') and response bias (beta) were calculated. No differences were noted between obese and normal subjects on measures of sensory sensitivity but significant differences on response bias. Obese subjects had consistently lower response criteria than normal ones. Analysis for subjects categorized by whether they were restrained or unrestrained eaters gave findings identical to those for obese and normal. The importance of using a methodology that separates sensory and non-sensory factors in research on obesity is discussed. PMID:6622165

Gardner, R M; Brake, S J; Reyes, B; Maestas, D

1983-08-01

152

Crispness: a critical review on sensory and material science approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many texture studies have been published on crispness because of the great interest of consumers towards crispy foods. This work reviews the existing literature on the topic, and especially the different approaches, instrumental and sensory, applied to study crispness. These studies result in a wide range of data but, because crispness is not a clearly defined sensory attribute, the conclusions

G Roudaut; C Dacremont; B Vallès Pàmies; B Colas; M Le Meste

2002-01-01

153

Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

PubMed Central

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues. PMID:21624149

2011-01-01

154

Food security and marine capture fisheries: characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic contamination, coastal degradation and climate change. Looking towards 2050, the question is how fisheries governance, and the national and international policy and legal frameworks within which it is nested, will ensure a sustainable harvest, maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and adapt to climate change. This paper looks at global fisheries production, the state of resources, contribution to food security and governance. It describes the main changes affecting the sector, including geographical expansion, fishing capacity-building, natural variability, environmental degradation and climate change. It identifies drivers and future challenges, while suggesting how new science, policies and interventions could best address those challenges. PMID:20713390

Garcia, Serge M.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

2010-01-01

155

Physicochemical characteristics of food lipids and proteins at fluid-fluid interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we are concerned with adsorption, structure, morphology, and dynamic properties of food dairy proteins (?-casein, caseinate, and whey protein isolate (WPI)) and water-insoluble lipids (monopalmitin and monoolein) at the air-water and oil-water interfaces. Combined surface chemistry (surface film balance and dynamic tensiometry) and microscopy (Brewster angle microscopy (BAM)) techniques have been used to determine the adsorption, structure,

J. M. Rodríguez Patino; C. Carrera Sánchez; M. Ce Judo Fernández; J. M. Navarro García

2003-01-01

156

Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction  

PubMed Central

The concept of food addiction (FA) is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO) matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-? and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight), the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat) and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg) was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium), fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat), omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity. PMID:25558907

Pedram, Pardis; Sun, Guang

2014-01-01

157

Landscape-Scale Hydrologic Characteristics Differentiate Patterns of Carbon Flow in Large-River Food Webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to conserve, restore, or otherwise manage large rivers and the services they provide are hindered by limited understanding\\u000a of the functional dynamics of these systems. This shortcoming is especially evident with regard to trophic structure and energy\\u000a flow. We used natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen isotopes to examine patterns of material flow in ten large-river food\\u000a webs characterized

David J. Hoeinghaus; Kirk O. Winemiller; Angelo A. Agostinho

2007-01-01

158

Influence of lake characteristics on the biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in lake trout food webs.  

PubMed

The biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and major organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied using lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other food web organisms collected from 17 lakes in Canada and the northeastern United States between 1998 and 2001. Whole lake trout (n = 357) concentrations of the sum (Sigma) of 57 PCB congeners ranged between 1.67 and 2,890 ng/g wet weight (median 61.5 ng/g wet wt). Slimy sculpin had the highest mean concentrations of SigmaPCB of all forage fish (32-73 ng/g wet wt). Positive relationships between log (lipid wt) concentrations of PCB congener 153, PCB congener 52, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, or dieldrin and trophic level (determined using stable nitrogen isotope ratios) were found for most of the 17 food webs, indicating biomagnification of these PCBs and OCPs. The p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene had the highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of the 14 individual compounds studied, averaging 4.0 +/- 1.8 across the 17 lakes, followed by trans-nonachlor (3.6 +/- 1.5) and PCB congener 153 (3.4 +/- 1.2). Average TMFs for 14 individual PCBs or OCPs were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient, implying that the rate of accumulation along the food web is dependent on hydrophobicity and recalcitrance. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between TMFs of SigmaPCBs, hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, and lindane and lake area, latitude, and longitude, but not for 11 other PCBs or OCPs. Overall, the results of the present study show that biomagnification of PCBs and most OCPs, as measured by TMFs, is only weakly influenced by such factors as latitude and longitude. Exceptions are hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and hexachlorobenzene, which had generally greater TMFs in northern lakes, possibly due to lower rates of elimination and biotransformation in the food web. PMID:18444699

Houde, Magali; Muir, Derek C G; Kidd, Karen A; Guildford, Stephanie; Drouillard, Ken; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xiaowa; Whittle, D Michael; Haffner, Doug; Kling, Hedy

2008-10-01

159

Hormonal and Dietary Characteristics in Obese Human Subjects with and without Food Addiction.  

PubMed

The concept of food addiction (FA) is a potentially important contributing factor to the development of obesity in the general population; however, little is known about the hormonal and dietary differences between obesity with and without FA. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore potential biomarkers, including various hormones and neuropeptides, which regulate appetite and metabolism, and dietary components that could potentially differentiate obesity with and without FA. Of the 737 adults recruited from the general Newfoundland population, 58 food-addicted and non-food-addicted overweight/obese individuals (FAO, NFO) matched for age, sex, BMI and physical activity were selected. A total of 34 neuropeptides, gut hormones, pituitary polypeptide hormones and adipokines were measured in fasting serum. We found that the FAO group had lower levels of TSH, TNF-? and amylin, but higher levels of prolactin, as compared to NFO group. The total calorie intake (per kg body weight), the dietary intake of fat (per g/kg body weight, per BMI and per percentage of trunk fat) and the percent calorie intake from fat and carbohydrates (g/kg) was higher in the FAO group compared to the NFO group. The FAO subjects consumed more sugar, minerals (including sodium, potassium, calcium and selenium), fat and its components (such as saturated, monounsaturated and trans fat), omega 3 and 6, vitamin D and gamma-tocopherol compared to the NFO group. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating possible differences in hormonal levels and micro-nutrient intakes between obese individuals classified with and without food addiction. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which FA could contribute to obesity. PMID:25558907

Pedram, Pardis; Sun, Guang

2014-01-01

160

Lack of effect of menthol level and type on smokers' estimated mouth level exposures to tar and nicotine and perceived sensory characteristics of cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

Menthol can reduce sensory irritation and it has been hypothesised that this could result in smokers of mentholated cigarettes taking larger puffs and deeper post-puff inhalations thereby obtaining higher exposures to smoke constituents than smokers of non-mentholated cigarettes. The aim of our study was to use part-filter analysis methodology to assess the effects of cigarette menthol loading on regular and occasional smokers of mentholated cigarettes. We measured mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and investigated the effects of mentholation on smokers' sensory perceptions such as cooling and irritation. Test cigarettes were produced containing no menthol and different loadings of synthetic and natural l-menthol at 1 and 4mg ISO tar yields. A target of 100 smokers of menthol cigarettes and 100 smokers who predominantly smoked non-menthol cigarettes from both 1 and 4mg ISO tar yield categories were recruited in Poland and Japan. Each subject was required to smoke the test cigarette types of their usual ISO tar yield. There were positive relationships between menthol loading and the perceived 'strength of menthol taste' and 'cooling' effect. However, we did not see marked menthol-induced reductions in perceived irritation or menthol-induced increases in mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine. PMID:22634246

Ashley, Madeleine; Dixon, Mike; Sisodiya, Ajit; Prasad, Krishna

2012-08-01

161

Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.  

PubMed

Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. PMID:25109863

Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

2014-09-01

162

Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia.  

PubMed

In this review we explore the relationship between synaesthesia and sensory substitution and argue that sensory substitution does indeed show properties of synaesthesia. Both are associated with atypical perceptual experiences elicited by the processing of a qualitatively different stimulus to that which normally gives rise to that experience. In the most common forms of sensory substitution, perceptual processing of an auditory or tactile signal (which has been converted from a visual signal) is experienced as visual-like in addition to retaining auditory/tactile characteristics. We consider different lines of evidence that support, to varying degrees, the assumption that sensory substitution is associated with visual-like experiences. We then go on to analyse the key similarities and differences between sensory substitution and synaesthesia. Lastly, we propose two testable predictions: firstly that, in an expert user of a sensory substitution device, the substituting modality should not be lost. Secondly that stimulation within the substituting modality, but by means other than a sensory substitution device, should still produce sensation in the normally substituted modality. PMID:22885223

Ward, Jamie; Wright, Thomas

2014-04-01

163

Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p?0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

2002-03-01

164

A sensory integration therapy program on sensory problems for children with autism.  

PubMed

The study was planned to investigate the effect of a sensory integration therapy program on sensory problems of children with autism. This study was conducted at the Trakya University Training and Research Center for Mentally and Physically Handicapped Children in Turkey. The children were separated into two groups, each comprising 15 children between 7 and 11 years of age with autism, according to DSM-IV criteria. The children in each group were assessed initially on a checklist, Sensory Evaluation Form for Children with Autism, developed to evaluate sensory characteristics of children with autism, and at the end of the study, participants were assessed again on the checklist. Statistically significant differences between groups indicated that the sensory integration therapy program positively affected treated children. PMID:18556898

Fazlio?lu, Ye?im; Baran, Gulen

2008-04-01

165

With whom to dine? Ravens' responses to food-associated calls depend on individual characteristics of the caller  

PubMed Central

Upon discovering food, common ravens, Corvus corax, produce far-reaching ‘haa’ calls or yells, which are individually distinct and signal food availability to conspecifics. Here, we investigated whether ravens respond differently to ‘haa’ calls of known and unknown individuals. In a paired playback design, we tested responses to ‘haa’ call sequences in a group containing individually marked free-ranging ravens. We simultaneously played call sequences of a male and a female raven in two different locations and varied familiarity (known or unknown to the local group). Ravens responded strongest to dyads containing familiar females, performing more scan flights above and by perching in trees near the respective speaker. Acoustic analysis of the calls used as stimuli showed no sex-, age- or familiarity-specific acoustic cues, but highly significant classification results at the individual level. Taken together, our findings indicate that ravens respond to individual characteristics in ‘haa’ calls, and choose whom to approach for feeding, i.e. join social allies and avoid dominant conspecifics. This is the first study to investigate responses to ‘haa’ calls under natural conditions in a wild population containing individually marked ravens. PMID:25598542

Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

2015-01-01

166

Sensory-specific satiety in obese and normal-weight women1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sensory-specific satiety has been found to play an important role in food choice and meal termination, and it might be a factor contributing to obesity. Objective: We hypothesized that obese and normal-weight people have different sensitivities to sensory-specific satiety for high-fat foods. Design: Sensory-specific satiety was measured in 21 obese (x body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2): 33.1) and

Harriette M Snoek; Linda Huntjens; Leo J van Gemert; Cees de Graaf; Hugo Weenen

167

Sensory-specific satiety in obese and normal-weight women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sensory-specific satiety has been found to play an important role in food choice and meal termination, and it might be a factor contributing to obesity. Objective: We hypothesized that obese and normal-weight people have different sensitivities to sensory-specific satiety for high-fat foods. Design: Sensory-specific satiety was measured in 21 obese [ body mass index (BMI; in kg\\/m2): 33.1] and

H. M. Snoek; L. Huntjens; Gemert van L. J; Graaf de C; H. Weenen

2004-01-01

168

Signaling by Sensory Receptors  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

2012-01-01

169

Novel approaches and application of contemporary sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of the iron-fortified foods have been frequently listed as causes of unsuccessful iron fortification programs. An excellent prospect for improving consumer acceptance of iron-fortified foods is the incorporation of a thorough, organized, and unified approach to sensory evaluation practices into iron fortification programs for product optimization. The information gained from systematic sensory evaluation allows for the manipulation of the sensory attributes, and thus improvement of the sensory properties of the fortified food. However, iron fortification programs have not systematically measured the effect of fortification on the sensory quality of the food. Because sensory evaluation is an important criterion in successful iron fortification, an integrated approach is necessary. Therefore, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work closely with each other to select the most suitable sensory tests and methods. The objectives of this article are to: (1) critically review and discuss some traditional and contemporary approaches and applications of sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs, and (2) demonstrate the importance of incorporating a multidisciplinary, systematic sensory evaluation approach in iron fortification programs.

Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

2003-01-01

170

Whisker sensory system - from receptor to decision.  

PubMed

One of the great challenges of systems neuroscience is to understand how the neocortex transforms neuronal representations of the physical characteristics of sensory stimuli into the percepts which can guide the animal's decisions. Here we present progress made in understanding behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of a highly efficient sensory apparatus, the rat whisker system. Beginning with the 1970s discovery of "barrels" in the rat and mouse brain, one line of research has focused on unraveling the circuits that transmit information from the whiskers to the sensory cortex, together with the cellular mechanisms that underlie sensory responses. A second, more recent line of research has focused on tactile psychophysics, that is, quantification of the behavioral capacities supported by whisker sensation. The opportunity to join these two lines of investigation makes whisker-mediated sensation an exciting platform for the study of the neuronal bases of perception and decision-making. Even more appealing is the beginning-to-end prospective offered by this system: the inquiry can start at the level of the sensory receptor and conclude with the animal's choice. We argue that rats can switch between two modes of operation of the whisker sensory system: (1) generative mode and (2) receptive mode. In the generative mode, the rat moves its whiskers forward and backward to actively seek contact with objects and to palpate the object after initial contact. In the receptive mode, the rat immobilizes its whiskers to optimize the collection of signals from an object that is moving by its own power. We describe behavioral tasks that rats perform in these different modes. Next, we explore which neuronal codes in sensory cortex account for the rats' discrimination capacities. Finally, we present hypotheses for mechanisms through which "downstream" brain regions may read out the activity of sensory cortex in order to extract the significance of sensory stimuli and, ultimately, to select the appropriate action. PMID:22683381

Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

2013-04-01

171

Sensory integration therapies for children with developmental and behavioral disorders.  

PubMed

Sensory-based therapies are increasingly used by occupational therapists and sometimes by other types of therapists in treatment of children with developmental and behavioral disorders. Sensory-based therapies involve activities that are believed to organize the sensory system by providing vestibular, proprioceptive, auditory, and tactile inputs. Brushes, swings, balls, and other specially designed therapeutic or recreational equipment are used to provide these inputs. However, it is unclear whether children who present with sensory-based problems have an actual "disorder" of the sensory pathways of the brain or whether these deficits are characteristics associated with other developmental and behavioral disorders. Because there is no universally accepted framework for diagnosis, sensory processing disorder generally should not be diagnosed. Other developmental and behavioral disorders must always be considered, and a thorough evaluation should be completed. Difficulty tolerating or processing sensory information is a characteristic that may be seen in many developmental behavioral disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental coordination disorders, and childhood anxiety disorders. Occupational therapy with the use of sensory-based therapies may be acceptable as one of the components of a comprehensive treatment plan. However, parents should be informed that the amount of research regarding the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy is limited and inconclusive. Important roles for pediatricians and other clinicians may include discussing these limitations with parents, talking with families about a trial period of sensory integration therapy, and teaching families how to evaluate the effectiveness of a therapy. PMID:22641765

Zimmer, Michelle; Desch, Larry

2012-06-01

172

Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment.  

PubMed

Maari is a spontaneously fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds in West African countries. This type of product is considered to be safe, being consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the fermentation the human pathogen Bacillus cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two production sites of Maari. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial (AMB) counts in raw materials were of 10(5)cfu/ml in DW, and ranged between 6.5×10(3) and 1.2×10(4)cfu/g in potash, 10(9)-10(10)cfu/g in seed mash during fermentation and 10(7) - 10(9) after sun drying. Fifty three out of total 290 AMB isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato by use of ITS-PCR and grouped into 3 groups using PCR fingerprinting based on Escherichia coli phage-M13 primer (M13-PCR). As determined by panC gene sequencing, the isolates of B. cereus belonged to PanC types III and IV with potential for high cytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of glpF, gmk, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi revealed that the M13-PCR group 1 isolates were related to B. cereus biovar anthracis CI, while the M13-PCR group 2 isolates were identical to cereulide (emetic toxin) producing B. cereus strains. The M13-PCR group 1 isolates harboured poly-?-D-glutamic acid capsule biosynthesis genes capA, capB and capC showing 99-100% identity with the environmental B. cereus isolate 03BB108. Presence of cesB of the cereulide synthetase gene cluster was confirmed by PCR in M13-PCR group 2 isolates. The B. cereus harbouring the cap genes were found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product, while the remaining isolates (PanC type IV) were detected in ash, at 48-72h fermentation and in the final product. This work sheds light on the succession and pathogenic potential of B. cereus species in traditional West African food condiment and clarifies their phylogenetic relatedness to B. cereus biovar anthracis. Future implementation of GMP and HACCP and development of starter cultures for controlled Maari fermentations will help to ensure a safe product. PMID:25528535

Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou; Larsen, Nadja; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jespersen, Lene

2015-03-01

173

Food texture analysis in the 21st century  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study of food texture encompasses sensory, physiological, and structural aspects. Research in this area must be multidisciplinary in nature, accounting for consumer perception and acceptability, rheology, and structural aspects. This brief review of the field covers sensory panels, instrumenta...

174

Time 2 tlk 2nite: use of electronic media by adolescents during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and foods served.  

PubMed

We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) for girls and older teens. In addition, higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) were also seen among those whose parents had low education levels or were black or Asian; having parental rules about media use significantly reduced these odds. Frequent mealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (P<0.05) and scores indicating less importance placed on mealtimes (P<0.001). Furthermore, frequent mealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (P<0.05). The ubiquitous use of mealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy. PMID:24361006

Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2014-07-01

175

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

176

[Multiple emulsions; bioactive compounds and functional foods].  

PubMed

The continued appearance of scientific evidence about the role of diet and/or its components in health and wellness, has favored the emergence of functional foods which currently constitute one of the chief factors driving the development of new products. The application of multiple emulsions opens new possibilities in the design and development of functional foods. Multiple emulsions can be used as an intermediate product (food ingredient) into technological strategies normally used in the optimization of the presence of bioactive compounds in healthy and functional foods. This paper presents a summary of the types, characteristics and formation of multiple emulsions, possible location of bioactive compounds and their potential application in the design and preparation of healthy and functional foods. Such applications are manifested particularly relevant in relation to quantitative and qualitative aspects of lipid material (reduced fat/calories and optimization of fatty acid profile), encapsulation of bioactive compounds mainly hydrophilic and sodium reduction. This strategy offers interesting possibilities regarding masking flavours and improving sensory characteristics of foods. PMID:24160194

Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

2013-01-01

177

[Hygienic characteristics of food hydrolysates made from small ocean fish and krill].  

PubMed

A study was made of the biological value of acid and enzymatic hydrolysates from capelin, luminous anchovy and krill. Hydrolysates were obtained with the use of protosubtilin G-10-X or hydrochloric acid. The products were found to contain 39 to 64% of "crude" protein, with about 40% of total nitrogen belonging to non-protein one, 0.47-2.07% of lipids, 29.7-54.3% of mineral substances including 26.6-52.4% of sodium chloride. All the hydrolysates were limited in tryptophan, the deficiency being more demonstrable in acid hydrolysates. Enzymatic hydrolysate from luminous anchovy was rich in sulfur-containing amino acids (score 112%), whereas the remaining products were marked by their deficiency (score 53-90%). The products were rich in lysine, leucine, isoleucine, and aromatic amino acids. The anabolic efficacy was discovered to be the highest for enzymatic hydrolysate from luminous anchovy, exceeding the analogous characteristics for casein. The biological value of hydrolysate from capelin and krill was lower than that of casein. This was supported by the amino acid analysis data. The assimilability of all hydrolysates was established as fairly high. Hydrolysates are employed for manufacturing broth bricks and pastes. PMID:4082514

Solomko, G I; Prudnikova, L V; Prokopenko, O V; Orlova, T A

1985-01-01

178

Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.  

PubMed

Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65?years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. PMID:24973509

Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

2014-10-01

179

Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

2012-01-01

180

The biomechanics of sensory organs Sanjay P. Sane1,  

E-print Network

The biomechanics of sensory organs Sanjay P. Sane1,Ã? and Matthew J. McHenry Ã? National Centre filter of the sensory input. This biomechanical filtering is readily apparent in the case of several of the mechan- osensory organs, it is necessary to conduct focused studies on the biomechanical characteristics

McHenry, Matt

181

Nutrient intakes and characteristics of normal weight, female military personnel consuming foods reduced in fat or energy content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional implications of consuming reduced fat or reduced energy foods (RED) were examined in 50 women who were participating in a larger study of iron status while enrolled in the U.S. Army Medical Department Officer Basic Course. The subjects recorded their food intake for a 7-day period. Reduced fat or reduced energy foods were identified as foods labeled “reduced-calorie,

J. E. Arsenault; A. D. Cline

2000-01-01

182

Chemosensory burst coding by mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.  

PubMed

The capabilities of any sensory system are ultimately constrained by the properties of the sensory neurons: the ability to detect and represent stimuli is limited by noise due to spontaneous activity, and optimal decoding in downstream circuitry must be matched to the nature of the encoding performed at the input. Here, we investigated the firing properties of sensory neurons in the accessory olfactory system, a distinct sensory system specialized for detection of socially relevant odors. Using multielectrode array recording, we observed that sensory neurons are spontaneously active and highly variable across time and trials and that this spontaneous activity limits the ability to distinguish sensory responses from noise. Sensory neuron activity tended to consist of bursts that maintained remarkably consistent statistics during both spontaneous activity and in response to stimulation with sulfated steroids. This, combined with pharmacological and genetic intervention in the signal transduction cascade, indicates that sensory transduction plays a role in shaping overall spontaneous activity. These findings indicate that as-yet unexplored characteristics of the sensory transduction cascade significantly constrain the representation of sensory information by vomeronasal neurons. PMID:21525370

Arnson, Hannah A; Holy, Timothy E

2011-07-01

183

Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.  

PubMed

The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives. PMID:25432627

Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

2014-11-29

184

A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

2012-08-01

185

Food perception and food liking with age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: elderly, sensory acuity taste, olfaction, irritation, compensation, just noticeable difference (JND), conjoint analysis, integrated product conceptThe elderly population is rapidly growing worldwide. Food intake and also body weight both tend to involuntarily decrease in people aged 65 years or older. Since weight loss in later life is associated with frailty and increased morbidity, adequate dietary intake has been recognized

S. Kremer

2006-01-01

186

Human sensory subsystems emulator.  

PubMed

Last year this author presented his design for a computerized human nervous system function emulator for use in an android robot. This paper describes that emulator's sensory subsystems in more detail and adds new functions. Topics covered include sensor types, signal conditioning, data handling in the afferent pathways and interpretation of sensory information. Physiological sensory modalities (including: temperature, pressure, acceleration, humidity, sound and light stimuli) as well as nonphysiological (including: magnetic, radio, infrared, ultrasound and satellite GPS) are elucidated. The relationship of a primitive stimulus (i.e.: heat) to a high level sensation (i.e.: pain) is explored. PMID:11347421

Frenger, P

2001-01-01

187

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES  

E-print Network

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES ANNUAL REPORT OF SPONSORED RESEARCH PROJECTS AND SERVICE of Agricultural and Food Sciences was engaged in sponsored research and development activities amounting to 2 nutrition, ecological landscape design, environment, food safety, food sensory analysis, human nutrition

Shihadeh, Alan

188

Neuromorphic sensory systems.  

PubMed

Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. PMID:20493680

Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

2010-06-01

189

Differences in Food Patterns at Breakfast by Sociodemographic Characteristics among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Eating breakfast is considered an important determinant of a healthy lifestyle. This study explores the different food patterns of breakfast for adults aged 18–65 in the United States.Methods. Data are from the 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, n = 15,641. Dietary assessment method used was the 24-h recall. Nutrient differences among the breakfast food patterns as

Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Barry M Popkin; Terri Carson

2000-01-01

190

Associations between characteristics of the home food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Early childhood is critical to the development of lifelong food habits. Given the high proportion of children with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, identification of modifiable factors associated with higher consumption may be useful in developing interventions to address this public health issue. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the home food environment that are associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of Australian preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with 396 parents of 3 to 5 year-old children attending 30 preschools within the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Children's fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using a valid and reliable subscale from the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Associations were investigated between children's fruit and vegetable intake and characteristics of the home food environment including parental role-modeling, parental providing behaviour, fruit and vegetable availability, fruit and vegetable accessibility, pressure to eat, family eating policies and family mealtime practices. Characteristics of the home food environment that showed evidence of an association with children's fruit and vegetable consumption in simple regression models were entered into a backwards stepwise multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression analysis used generalised linear mixed models, controlled for parental education, household income and child gender, and was adjusted for the correlation between children's fruit and vegetable consumption within a preschool. Results The multiple regression analysis found positive associations between children's fruit and vegetable consumption and parental fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.005), fruit and vegetable availability (p = 0.006) and accessibility (p = 0.012), the number of occasions each day that parents provided their child with fruit and vegetables (p < 0.001), and allowing children to eat only at set meal times all or most of the time (p = 0.006). Combined, these characteristics of the home food environment accounted for 48% of the variation in the child's fruit and vegetable score. Conclusions This study identified a range of modifiable characteristics within the home food environment that are associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among preschool children. Such characteristics could be considered potential targets for interventions to promote intake among children of this age. PMID:22177136

2011-01-01

191

Verification of retail food outlet location data from a local health department using ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology: assessing differences by neighborhood characteristics.  

PubMed

Obtaining valid and accurate data on community food environments is critical for research evaluating associations between the food environment and health outcomes. This study utilized ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology to validate a food outlet retail list obtained from an urban local health department in Baltimore, Maryland in 2009. Ten percent of outlets (n=169) were assessed, and differences in accuracy were explored by neighborhood characteristics (96 census tracts) to determine if discrepancies were differential or non-differential. Inaccuracies were largely unrelated to a variety of neighborhood-level variables, with the exception of number of vacant housing units. Although remote-sensing technologies are a promising low-cost alternative to direct observation, this study demonstrated only moderate levels of agreement with ground-truthing. PMID:22818588

Rossen, Lauren M; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

2012-09-01

192

Effects of grain processing and dietary lipid source on performance, carcass characteristics, plasma fatty acids, and sensory properties of steaks from finishing cattle.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of grain processing and lipid addition to finishing diets on cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Eighty Hereford x Angus steers (384 kg +/- 17 kg of BW) were fed diets containing steam-flaked corn (SFC) or dry-rolled corn (DRC) with and without the addition of tallow (SFC/Fat and DRC/Fat) or steam-flaked corn with ground flaxseed (SFC/Flax). Ribeye steaks from steers fed SFC, SFC/Fat, or SFC/ Flax were used to evaluate the effects of fat source on meat quality. Cattle fed SFC and SFC/Fat tended to have greater ADG, G:F, HCW, and USDA yield grade, compared with those fed DRC and DRC/Fat (P < 0.10). Steaks from steers fed SFC/Flax developed a detectable off-flavor (P < 0.05) compared with steaks from steers fed SFC and SFC/Fat, and steaks from steers fed SFC retained desirable color longer than those from steers fed SFC/Flax (P < 0.05). Feeding SFC/Flax increased deposition of alpha-linolenic acid in muscle tissue compared with feeding SFC or SFC/Fat (P < 0.01). Dietary treatment did not cause differences in tenderness, juiciness, or flavor intensity. Ground flaxseed can replace tallow in finishing diets without loss in performance, but flax may affect flavor and color stability of beef. Feeding flaxseed can effectively alter composition of carcass tissues to yield beef that is high in n-3 fatty acids. PMID:17911237

LaBrune, H J; Reinhardt, C D; Dikeman, M E; Drouillard, J S

2008-01-01

193

Phase-specific responses to different qualities of food in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: Developmental, morphological and reproductive characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitarious female adults are known to produce smaller hatchlings than those produced by gregarious adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. This study investigated developmental, morphological and reproductive responses to different qualities of food in hatchlings of different phases. Mortality was higher, the duration of nymphal development longer and adult body weight lighter with a low-quality food than a high-quality

Koutaro Maeno; Seiji Tanaka

2011-01-01

194

[The individual characteristics of dogs with a free choice of the probability and value of food reinforcement].  

PubMed

The tactics of choice between two feeders after changing the probability and quality of food reinforcement in one of them was studied in 4 freely behaving dogs. The conditioned stimulus was not changed. It was shown that choice tactics differed between the dogs even under conditions of equal 100% probability of food reinforcement in both the feeders. Decrease in probability of presentation of higher-quality food in one of the feeders increased the incidence of choice of this feeder only in one dog. This dog was characterized by a higher rate of the dynamic stereotype conditioning in response to the number of presentations of cups with food in each feeder. The dogs preferred the constant reinforcement when food in the two feeders was of the same quality but presented with different probability. PMID:9273788

Preobrazhenski?, L A

1997-01-01

195

Sparsity and Compressed Coding in Sensory Systems  

PubMed Central

Considering that many natural stimuli are sparse, can a sensory system evolve to take advantage of this sparsity? We explore this question and show that significant downstream reductions in the numbers of neurons transmitting stimuli observed in early sensory pathways might be a consequence of this sparsity. First, we model an early sensory pathway using an idealized neuronal network comprised of receptors and downstream sensory neurons. Then, by revealing a linear structure intrinsic to neuronal network dynamics, our work points to a potential mechanism for transmitting sparse stimuli, related to compressed-sensing (CS) type data acquisition. Through simulation, we examine the characteristics of networks that are optimal in sparsity encoding, and the impact of localized receptive fields beyond conventional CS theory. The results of this work suggest a new network framework of signal sparsity, freeing the notion from any dependence on specific component-space representations. We expect our CS network mechanism to provide guidance for studying sparse stimulus transmission along realistic sensory pathways as well as engineering network designs that utilize sparsity encoding. PMID:25144745

Barranca, Victor J.; Kova?i?, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

2014-01-01

196

The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut  

PubMed Central

Background Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n?=?94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1?month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access. PMID:22720722

2012-01-01

197

Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

2011-12-01

198

Sensory education program development, application and its therapeutic effect in children  

PubMed Central

There has recently been Increased interest in the emotional intelligence (EQ) of elementary school students, which is recognized as a more important value than IQ (intelligence quotient) for predict of their success in school or later life. However, there are few sensory education programs, available to improve the EQ of elementary school student's in Korea. This study was conducted to develop an educational program that reflects the characteristics and contents of traditional rice culture and verify the effects of those programs on the EQ of children. The program was developed based on the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation) model and participants were elementary school students in 3rd and 4th grade (n = 120) in Cheonan, Korea. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used. EQ scores pertaining to the basic sense group, culture group, and food group were significantly improved after the sensory educational program(P < 0.05), but no change was observed in the control group. These findings indicate that sensory education contributed to improving elementary school children's Emotional Intelligence (EI) and their actual understanding about Korean traditional rice culture. PMID:24611113

Chung, Hae-Kyung

2014-01-01

199

Preference and satiety : short- and long-term studies on food acceptance, appetite control and food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes experiments studying the impact of nutritionally modified foods on food acceptance and appetite control. The major outcomes of the studies relate to (1) predictive validity of laboratory sensory tests on food consumption, (2) effects of macronutrient and energy content manipulations on long-term food acceptance and appetite control, and (3) effects of repeated food consumption, variety and changes

L. H. Zandstra

2000-01-01

200

Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian

201

Recording Sensory Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2007-01-01

202

Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

2010-01-01

203

Foraging costs drive female resistance to a sensory trap.  

PubMed

Male ornaments can evolve through the exploitation of female perceptual biases such as those involved in responding to cues from food. This type of sensory exploitation may lead to confusion between the male signals and the cues that females use to find/recognize food. Such interference would be costly to females and may be one reason why females evolve resistance to the male ornaments. Using a group of species of viviparous fish where resistance to a sensory trap has evolved, we demonstrate that females exposed to an ornament that resembles food have a diminished foraging efficiency, that this effect is apparent when foraging on a food item with which the ornament shares visual attributes, and that not all species are equally affected by such confusion. Our results lend support to the model of ornamental evolution through chase-away sexual conflict. PMID:22298856

Garcia, Constantino Macías; Lemus, Yolitzi Saldívar

2012-06-01

204

Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

205

Sensory Integration in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mental health. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mental health settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and

Barbara W. Posthuma

1983-01-01

206

Rheological characteristics of cold thickened beverages containing xanthan gum-based food thickeners used for Dysphagia diets.  

PubMed

Cold beverages are commonly thickened with commercial gum-based food thickeners for consumption by patients with dysphagia. In this study, the rheological properties of a thickened water and five thickened beverages (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, whole milk, and a sport drink) that were prepared with four commercial instant xanthan gum-based thickeners (coded A-D) were investigated at a 3% thickener concentration. All thickened samples showed high shear-thinning behavior with yield stress at the serving temperature of 8°C. The magnitudes of apparent viscosity (?a,50), consistency index (K), storage modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G'') of the thickened beverages, except for water, with food thickener A were significantly higher compared with other thickeners (B, C, and D) (P<0.05). The largest increases in K values for thickened beverages were observed at 1-hour storage, and at longer times their K values, except for milk, remained approximately constant. Rheological parameters demonstrated statistically significant differences in flow and dynamic behaviors between the cold thickened beverages prepared with the xanthan gum-based food thickeners (P<0.05), indicating that their rheological properties are strongly influenced by the dispersing medium, the type of food thickener, and storage time. In particular, appropriately selecting a commercial food thickener for preparing thickened beverages seems to be of importance for managing dysphagia. PMID:25441963

Cho, Hyun M; Yoo, Byoungseung

2015-01-01

207

Relating microstructure, sensory and instrumental texture of processed oat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a part of a larger project aiming to produce new, healthy, and tasty food ingredients from oat. Germination and different heating processes can be used to improve the texture and flavour of cereals. In this study effects of germination and wet and dry heating on the microstructure, instru- mental structure and sensory properties of two oat varieties

Marjatta Salmenkallio-Marttila; Raija-Liisa Heiniö; Olavi Myllymäki; Martina Lille; Karin Autio; Kaisa Poutanen

2004-01-01

208

Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

2014-05-01

209

Development of probiotic dairy beverages: rheological properties and application of mathematical models in sensory evaluation.  

PubMed

Strawberry-flavored probiotic dairy beverages (2% vol/vol Lactobacillus acidophilus) were produced using 0, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80% (vol/vol) whey in their formulations. Mathematical models (survival analysis, minimal significant difference, and mean global acceptance) were used to identify the optimal (sensorially) whey concentration in probiotic beverages. Fifty-five consumers evaluated acceptance of the beverages using hybrid 9-point hedonic scales. In addition, Lb. acidophilus were enumerated and pH was determined. Rheological behavior is an important characteristic for the processing and sensory acceptance of dairy beverages, varying with the presence of additives, fermentation process (time, bacterial strain), and whey concentrations used. All beverages presented minimal counts of 8 log cfu/mL of Lb. acidophilus, and pH ranged from 4.09 to 4.14. Increasing the whey content increased the fragility of the gel structure, probably because of the replacement of casein by whey proteins, once the concentrations of other ingredients in formulation were fixed. Whey content had a significant effect on acceptance of the probiotic dairy beverages; beverages with whey contents greater than 65% resulted in lower acceptance by consumers. The model of mean global acceptance presented 2 solutions with high sensory scores: beverages with 12 and 65% whey, the latter being of interest because it allows greater use of the whey by-product. The Weibull distribution presented a prediction of whey concentration of 49%, with higher sensory acceptance. The methodologies used in this research were shown to be useful in determining the constituents of food formulations, especially for whey-based probiotic beverages. PMID:23102956

Castro, W F; Cruz, A G; Bisinotto, M S; Guerreiro, L M R; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A; Cunha, R L; Deliza, R

2013-01-01

210

Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ? the binding problem ? as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

Harvey, Joshua Paul

2013-01-01

211

Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

2014-01-01

212

Microhistological characteristics of selected aquatic plants of Florida, with techniques for the study of manatee food habits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was initiated in 1978 to develop a technique of identifying and quantifying the digestive tract contents of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and to serve as a manual for the identification and analysis of ingesta collected from manatee carcasses salvaged in Florida. This report includes key microhistological characters found useful in identifying fragments of 83 plant species and three invertebrate groups. Many species of aquatic and wetland plants and invertebrates are available to manatees in Florida as potential foods.

Hurst, L.A.; Beck, C.A.

1988-01-01

213

Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis  

PubMed Central

The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

2014-01-01

214

Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveExamine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)–accepting stores in Leon County, Florida.

Samantha Rigby; Angela F. Leone; HwaHwan Kim; Connie Betterley; Mary Ann Johnson; Hilda Kurtz; Jung Sun Lee

215

Another unique river: A consideration of some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile River in northwestern Ethiopia in relationship to their aquatic food resources.  

PubMed

Aquatic food resources are important components of many modern human hunter-gatherer diets and yet evidence attesting to the widespread exploitation of this food type appears rather late in the archaeological record. While there are times when, for example, the capture of fish and shellfish requires sophisticated technology, there are other cases when the exact ecological attributes of an individual species and the particulars of its environment make it possible for these foods to be incorporated into the human diet with little or no tool use and only a minimal time investment. In order to better understand the full set of variables that are considered in these sorts of foraging decisions, it is necessary to detail the attributes of each particular aquatic environment. We discuss here some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile and Blue Rivers in the Horn of Africa. Unlike typical perennial rivers, these 'temporary' rivers flow only during a brief but intense wet season; during the much longer dry season, the rivers are reduced to a series of increasingly disconnected waterholes, and the abundant and diverse fish and mollusk populations are trapped in ever smaller evaporating pools. The local human population today utilizes a number of diverse capture methods that range from simple to complex, and vary according to the size and depth of the waterhole and the time of the year. When we view the particular characteristics of an individual river system, we find that each river is 'unique' in its individual attributes. The Horn of Africa is believed to be along the route that modern humans followed on their migration out of Africa, and it is likely that the riverine-based foraging behaviors of these populations accompanied our species on its movement into the rest of the Old World. PMID:25017504

Kappelman, John; Tewabe, Dereje; Todd, Lawrence; Feseha, Mulugeta; Kay, Marvin; Kocurek, Gary; Nachman, Brett; Tabor, Neil; Yadeta, Meklit

2014-12-01

216

"A little information excites us." Consumer sensory experience of Vermont artisan cheese as active practice.  

PubMed

This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic - supposedly nonsensory - food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese. PMID:24681405

Lahne, Jacob; Trubek, Amy B

2014-07-01

217

Cortical oscillations and sensory predictions.  

PubMed

Many theories of perception are anchored in the central notion that the brain continuously updates an internal model of the world to infer the probable causes of sensory events. In this framework, the brain needs not only to predict the causes of sensory input, but also when they are most likely to happen. In this article, we review the neurophysiological bases of sensory predictions of "what' (predictive coding) and 'when' (predictive timing), with an emphasis on low-level oscillatory mechanisms. We argue that neural rhythms offer distinct and adapted computational solutions to predicting 'what' is going to happen in the sensory environment and 'when'. PMID:22682813

Arnal, Luc H; Giraud, Anne-Lise

2012-07-01

218

Sensory integration and praxis patterns in children with autism.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. We sought to characterize sensory integration (SI) and praxis patterns of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discern whether these patterns relate to social participation. METHOD. We extracted Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) and Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) scores from clinical records of children with ASD ages 4-11 yr (N = 89) and used SIPT and SPM standard scores to describe SI and praxis patterns. Correlation coefficients were generated to discern relationships among SI and praxis scores and these scores' associations with SPM Social Participation scores. RESULTS. Children with ASD showed relative strengths in visual praxis. Marked difficulties were evident in imitation praxis, vestibular bilateral integration, somatosensory perception, and sensory reactivity. SPM Social Participation scores were inversely associated with areas of deficit on SIPT measures. CONCLUSION. Children with ASD characteristically display strengths in visuopraxis and difficulties with somatopraxis and vestibular functions, which appear to greatly affect participation. PMID:25553746

Roley, Susanne Smith; Mailloux, Zoe; Parham, L Diane; Schaaf, Roseann C; Lane, Christianne Joy; Cermak, Sharon

2015-01-01

219

Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef) samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. Results As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7%) produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6%) produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5%) belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2%) contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. Conclusions The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals. PMID:22397509

2012-01-01

220

Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

221

DESCRIPTIVE SENSORY ANALYSIS OF YELLOW CUPCAKES PREPARED WITH NUTRITIVE AND HIGH INTENSITY SWEETENERS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Availability of acceptable, high quality reduced-in-sugar foods may reduce simple carbohydrate and calorie consumption. Modified foods that closely match sensory attributes of standard products are most acceptable. Splenda (sucralose/maltodextrin blend) provides sweetness with fewer calories than ...

222

Campylobacter spp.--a significant microbiological hazard in food. I. Characteristics of Campylobacter species, infection source, epidemiology.  

PubMed

Campylobacter spp. is one of the main etiological factors of gastrointestinal diseases in people manifesting as alimentary infections. The microorganism is isolated 3-4 times more frequently in case of alimentary infections that other enteropathogenes, i.e. Salmonella or E. coli. Campylobacter spp. is a component of ordinary intestinal microflora in many animal species, including slaughter animals. Birds are one of the most important reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. With a relatively high internal body temperature at around 42 degrees C, they are the appropriate environment for those bacteria, which show special thermal requirements. Wide presence of Campylobacter spp. in animal population causes the risk of contamination of food products such as raw meat and milk as well as water. PMID:19459452

Wysok, B; Uradzi?ski, J

2009-01-01

223

Sensory receptors in monotremes.  

PubMed Central

This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence of weak electric fields in water. Perhaps the electric sense is used to detect moving prey in moist soil. PMID:9720114

Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

1998-01-01

224

Rheological Principles for Food Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food scientists are routinely confronted with the need to measure physical properties related to sensory texture and processing needs. These properties are determined by rheological methods, where rheology is a science devoted to the deformation and flow of all materials. Rheological properties should be considered a subset of the textural properties of foods, because the sensory detection of texture encompasses factors beyond rheological properties. Specifically, rheological methods accurately measure "force," "deformation," and "flow," and food scientists and engineers must determine how best to apply this information. For example, the flow of salad dressing from a bottle, the snapping of a candy bar, or the pumping of cream through a homogenizer are each related to the rheological properties of these materials. In this chapter, we describe fundamental concepts pertinent to the understanding of the subject and discuss typical examples of rheological tests for common foods. A glossary is included as Sect. 30.6 to clarify and summarize rheological definitions throughout the chapter.

Daubert, Christopher R.; Foegeding, E. Allen

225

Sensory Optimization by Stochastic Tuning  

PubMed Central

Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system’s preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit, and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: the higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics, and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

2013-01-01

226

Salinibacter Sensory Rhodopsin  

PubMed Central

Halobacterium salinarum sensory rhodopsin I (HsSRI), a dual receptor regulating both negative and positive phototaxis in haloarchaea, transmits light signals through changes in protein-protein interactions with its transducer, halobacterial transducer protein I (HtrI). Haloarchaea also have another sensor pigment, sensory rhodopsin II (SRII), which functions as a receptor regulating negative phototaxis. Compared with HsSRI, the signal relay mechanism of SRII is well characterized because SRII from Natronomonus pharaonis (NpSRII) is much more stable than HsSRI and HsSRII, especially in dilute salt solutions and is much more resistant to detergents. Two genes encoding SRI homologs were identified from the genome sequence of the eubacterium Salinibacter ruber. Those sequences are distantly related to HsSRI (?40% identity) and contain most of the amino acid residues identified as necessary for its function. To determine whether those genes encode functional protein(s), we cloned and expressed them in Escherichia coli. One of them (SrSRI) was expressed well as a recombinant protein having all-trans retinal as a chromophore. UV-Vis, low-temperature UV-Vis, pH-titration, and flash photolysis experiments revealed that the photochemical properties of SrSRI are similar to those of HsSRI. In addition to the expression system, the high stability of SrSRI makes it possible to prepare large amounts of protein and enables studies of mutant proteins that will allow new approaches to investigate the photosignaling process of SRI-HtrI. PMID:18566451

Kitajima-Ihara, Tomomi; Furutani, Yuji; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ihara, Kunio; Kandori, Hideki; Homma, Michio; Sudo, Yuki

2008-01-01

227

Electrical modeling of Piezoelectric ceramics for analysis and evaluation of sensory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piezoelectricity is an ability of some materials to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress. Piezoelectric ceramics are often used for sensory systems to monitor mechanical characteristics of structures through an electrical signal. Thus, to support system level analysis and evaluation of sensory systems, understanding and estimating the electrical behavior of piezoelectric ceramics with a minimum effort

Jina Kim; Benjamin L. Grisso; Jeong K. Kim; Dong Sam Ha; Daniel J. Inman

2008-01-01

228

Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

Kalpidou, Maria

2012-01-01

229

Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies  

PubMed Central

Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

2013-01-01

230

A sensory bias has triggered the evolution of egg-spots in cichlid fishes.  

PubMed

Although, generally, the origin of sex-limited traits remains elusive, the sensory exploitation hypothesis provides an explanation for the evolution of male sexual signals. Anal fin egg-spots are such a male sexual signal and a key characteristic of the most species-rich group of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. Males of about 1500 mouth-brooding species utilize these conspicuous egg-dummies during courtship--apparently to attract females and to maximize fertilization success. Here we test the hypothesis that the evolution of haplochromine egg-spots was triggered by a pre-existing bias for eggs or egg-like coloration. To this end, we performed mate-choice experiments in the basal haplochromine Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor, which manifests the plesiomorphic character-state of an egg-spot-less anal fin. Experiments using computer-animated photographs of males indeed revealed that females prefer images of males with virtual ('in-silico') egg-spots over images showing unaltered males. In addition, we tested for color preferences (outside a mating context) in a phylogenetically representative set of East African cichlids. We uncovered a strong preference for yellow, orange or reddish spots in all haplochromines tested and, importantly, also in most other species representing more basal lines. This pre-existing female sensory bias points towards high-quality (carotenoids-enriched) food suggesting that it is adaptive. PMID:22028784

Egger, Bernd; Klaefiger, Yuri; Theis, Anya; Salzburger, Walter

2011-01-01

231

Sensory Tricks in Primary Cervical Dystonia Depend on Visuotactile Temporal Discrimination  

PubMed Central

A characteristic feature of primary cervical dystonia is the presence of “sensory tricks” as well as the impairment of temporal and spatial sensory discrimination on formal testing. The aim of the present study was to test whether the amount of improvement of abnormal head deviation due to a sensory trick is associated with different performance of temporal sensory discrimination in patients with cervical dystonia. We recruited 32 patients with cervical dystonia. Dystonia severity was assessed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. Patients were rated according to clinical improvement to a sensory trick and assigned to 1 of the following groups: (1) no improvement (n = 6), (2) partial improvement (n = 17), (3) complete improvement (n = 9). Temporal discrimination thresholds were assessed for visual, tactile, and visuotactile modalities. Disease duration was shorter (P = .026) and dystonia severity lower (P = .033) in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the group with partial improvement to sensory tricks. A significant effect for group and modality and a significant interaction between group × modality were found, with lower visuotactile discrimination thresholds in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the other groups. In primary cervical dystonia, a complete resolution of dystonia during a sensory trick is associated with better visuotactile discrimination and shorter disease duration compared with patients with less effective sensory tricks, which may reflect progressive loss of adaptive mechanisms to basal ganglia dysfunction. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society PMID:23283764

Kägi, Georg; Katschnig, Petra; Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ruge, Diane; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P

2013-01-01

232

Mineral Water Taste Attributes Evaluated By Sensory Panel And Electronic Tongue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the current research was to determine relationships between sensory evaluation and measurement results obtained by electronic tongue for mineral waters. Furthermore, the purpose was to predict the sensory characteristics of the mineral waters measured by the electronic tongue and to determine taste differences that cannot be detected by the sensory evaluation. Two mineral waters were definitely different from the others according to the sensory attributes based on profile analysis. With the electronic tongue measurements the PCA and CDA analysis were found to be able to discriminate mineral waters having chemical composition similar to each other. Very good correlation was found between the sensory attributes and the electronic tongue measurements. However, the results of the measurements performed with the electronic tongue showed a more accurate discrimination of the different mineral waters than the sensory evaluation.

Kovacs, Zoltan; Sipos, Laszlo; Kantor, David B.; Kokai, Zoltan; Fekete, Andras

2009-05-01

233

The limits and motivating potential of sensory stimuli as reinforcers for autistic children.  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the reinforcing properties, limits, and motivating potentials of sensory stimuli with autistic children. In the first phase of the study, four intellectually retarded autistic children were exposed to three different types of sensory stimulation (vibration, music, and strobe light) as well as edible and social reinforcers for ten-second intervals contingent upon six simple bar pressing responses. In the second phase, the same events were used as reinforcers for correct responses in learning object labels. The results indicated that: (a) sensory stimuli can be used effectively as reinforcers to maintain high, durable rates of responding in a simple pressing task; (b) ranked preferences for sensory stimuli revealed a unique configuration of responding for each child; and (c) sensory stimuli have motivating potentials comparable to those of the traditional food and social reinforcers even when training receptive language tasks. PMID:7298542

Ferrari, M; Harris, S L

1981-01-01

234

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

235

Sensory Ecology, Winter 2011 Stuart Thompson  

E-print Network

vision in mate selection in fishes Adaptations for seeing at very low light levels The role of visual on the adaptations of sensory systems to aquatic life and on the importance of sensory systems to the ecology will study the role of sensory adaptations in behavior and ecology. TOPICS The sensory world The kinds

236

The Efficacy of Sensory Integration Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report on the status of research which has been de- signed to determine the effectiveness of occupational and physical therapy using sensory integration (SI) procedures. Sensory integration efficacy is the extent to which sensory integra- tion procedures have proven to be beneficial. (A reference list of sensory integration efficacy studies is available from

Sharon A. Cermak; Anne Henderson

237

Treatment of Diabetic Sensory Polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  No current disease-modifying treatments have been shown definitively in randomized clinical trials to reduce or reverse diabetic\\u000a sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). It is increasingly recognized that individuals with “prediabetes” or impaired glucose regulation\\u000a can already have a “small-fiber” neuropathy, or mild DSP, in which sensory axons of both small and larger diameter are damaged.\\u000a Small-fiber neuropathy is frequently associated with

Lindsay Zilliox; James W. Russell

2011-01-01

238

Applications of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in Food Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decades, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties

Yiqun Huang; Lars J. Kangas; Barbara A. Rasco

2007-01-01

239

Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

1972-01-01

240

Is fast food addictive?  

PubMed

Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

2011-09-01

241

Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma  

PubMed Central

Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

2012-01-01

242

Electronic noses in food analysis.  

PubMed

Gas sensor array technology combined with multivariate data processing methods as artificial neural network has been demonstrated to have a promising potential for rapid non-destructive analysis of food quality. It may be applicable in quality control of raw material, food processing or products. This technique cannot completely replace reference methods like the use of sensory panels as the technique requires a frequent calibration against some valid reference method. As with all new techniques there remain some basic problems to be solved concerning sample handling and instrumental performance. The emerging research activity in the development of chemical sensors including hardware and software combined with applied research makes it realistic to expect applications with this technique implemented on-line in the food industry in near future. In particular, promising applications on meat seem to be within the field of spoilage, off-flavor, sensory analysis and fermentation processes. PMID:11548159

Haugen, J E

2001-01-01

243

Crispy and crunchy textures: a critical evaluation of rigid foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The textural attributes of crispness and crunchiness are important factors in the enjoyment of many foods, but they are defined differently among dictionaries, consumers, and researchers. Sensory, mechanical, and acoustic methods have been used to provide data on crispness and crunchiness. Sensory...

244

Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

Powrie, W. D.

1984-01-01

245

Fungal volatiles as indicators of food and feeds spoilage.  

PubMed

Fungal growth leads to spoilage of food and animal feeds and to formation of mycotoxins and potentially allergenic spores. Fungi produce volatile compounds, during both primary and secondary metabolism, which can be used for detection and identification. Fungal volatiles from mainly Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium have been characterized with gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and sensory analysis. Common volatiles are 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-methylfuran, ethyl acetate, and the malodorous 2-methyl-isoborneol and geosmin. Volatile sesquiterpenes can be used for taxonomic classification and species identification in Penicillium, as well as to indicate mycotoxin formation in Fusarium and Aspergillus. Developments in sensor technology have led to the construction of "electronic noses" (volatile compound mappers). Exposure of different nonspecific sensors to volatile compounds produces characteristic electrical signals. These are collected by a computer and processed by multivariate statistical methods or in an artificial neural network (ANN). Such systems can grade cereal grain with regard to presence of molds as efficiently as sensory panels evaluating grain odor. Volatile compound mapping can also be used to predict levels of ergosterol and fungal colony-forming units in grain. Further developments should make it possible to detect individual fungal species as well as the degree of mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feeds. PMID:10441446

Schnürer, J; Olsson, J; Börjesson, T

1999-01-01

246

An optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction and simultaneous quantification of 26 characteristic components with four structure types in functional foods from ginkgo seeds.  

PubMed

An optimized method of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2)) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of 26 characteristic components covering four structure types (flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols) in ginkgo seeds (GSs). The UAE parameters (ultrasound power, time and solvent-to-material ratio) were optimized using a response surface methodology. This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of 26 compounds in Ginkgo biloba using UHPLC-TQ/MS(2); this analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) was successfully applied to ginkgo seed samples, and the analysis showed that GSs are rich in terpene lactones and could be selected as a healthy food resource. The results suggest that UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) might be able to be utilized as a tool for the quality assessment of samples from GSs or other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols as markers. PMID:24731329

Zhou, Guisheng; Yao, Xin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Zhang, Li; Jin, Chun; Qin, Yong; Duan, Jin-ao

2014-09-01

247

Presynaptic inhibition of spinal sensory feedback ensures smooth movement  

PubMed Central

The precision of skilled movement depends on sensory feedback and its refinement by local inhibitory microcircuits. One specialized set of spinal GABAergic interneurons forms axo-axonic contacts with the central terminals of sensory afferents, exerting presynaptic inhibitory control over sensory-motor transmission. The inability to achieve selective access to the GABAergic neurons responsible for this unorthodox inhibitory mechanism has left unresolved the contribution of presynaptic inhibition to motor behavior. We used Gad2 as a genetic entry point to manipulate the interneurons that contact sensory terminals, and show that activation of these interneurons in mice elicits the defining physiological characteristics of presynaptic inhibition. Selective genetic ablation of Gad2-expressing interneurons severely perturbs goal-directed reaching movements, uncovering a pronounced and stereotypic forelimb motor oscillation, the core features of which are captured by modeling the consequences of sensory feedback at high gain. Our findings define the neural substrate of a genetically hard-wired gain control system crucial for the smooth execution of movement. PMID:24784215

Fink, Andrew J. P.; Croce, Katherine R.; Huang, Z. Josh; Abbott, L. F.; Jessell, Thomas M.; Azim, Eiman

2014-01-01

248

Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

249

Is it the plate or is it the food? Assessing the influence of the color (black or white) and shape of the plate on the perception of the food placed on it  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our perception of food is affected by the sensory properties of the food itself, together with our expectations about the food and other contextual factors. The latter are especially relevant in the restaurant setting, where appearance factors, such as the presentation of the food on the plates can dramatically affect food liking and consumption. However, to date, not much emphasis

Betina Piqueras-Fiszman; Jorge Alcaide; Elena Roura; Charles Spence

250

Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to "adapt" in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID:22319492

Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

2011-01-01

251

Sensory Neuronopathy and Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Sensory neuronopathies (SNs) are a specific subgroup of peripheral nervous system diseases characterized by primary degeneration of dorsal root ganglia and their projections. Multifocal sensory symptoms often associated to ataxia are the classical features of SN. Several different etiologies have been described for SNs, but immune-mediated damage plays a key role in most cases. SN may herald the onset of some systemic autoimmune diseases, which further emphasizes how important the recognition of SN is in clinical practice. We have thus reviewed available clinical, neurophysiological, and therapeutic data on autoimmune disease-related SN, namely, in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, and celiac disease. PMID:22312482

Martinez, Alberto R. M.; Nunes, Marcelo B.; Nucci, Anamarli; França, Marcondes C.

2012-01-01

252

99Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (NFSC) Graduate Catalogue 201415  

E-print Network

, Human Nutrition, Nutrition Epidemiology, Food Chemistry, Food Microbiology, Food Safety, and Sensory, and toxic elements in humans. Prerequisite: NFSC 274. NFSC 315 Advanced Nutrition: Vitamins 3.0; 3 cr in humans. Prerequisite: NFSC 274. NFSC 395 Graduate Seminar in Nutrition and Food Science 1.0; 1 cr. NFSC

253

Food irradiation and sterilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

Josephson, Edward S.

254

Descriptive Characteristics and Health Outcomes of the Food by Prescription Nutrition Supplementation Program for Adults Living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical effects and potential benefits of nutrition supplementation interventions for persons living with HIV remain largely unreported, despite awareness of the multifaceted relationship between HIV infection and nutrition. We therefore examined descriptive characteristics and nutritional outcomes of the Food by Prescription (FBP) nutrition supplementation program in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Methods Demographic, health, and anthropometric data were gathered from a retrospective cohort of 1,017 non-pregnant adult patients who enrolled into the FBP program at a Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) site in Nyanza Province between July 2009 and July 2011. Our primary outcome was FBP treatment success defined as attainment of BMI>20, and we used Cox proportional hazards to assess socio-demographic and clinical correlates of FBP treatment success. Results Mean body mass index was 16.4 upon enrollment into the FBP program. On average, FBP clients gained 2.01 kg in weight and 0.73 kg/m2 in BMI over follow-up (mean 100 days), with the greatest gains among the most severely undernourished (BMI <16) clients (p<0.001). Only 13.1% of clients attained a BMI>20, though 44.5% achieved a BMI increase ?0.5. Greater BMI at baseline, younger age, male gender, and not requiring highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were associated with a higher rate of attainment of BMI>20. Conclusion This study reports significant gains in weight and BMI among patients enrolled in the FBP program, though only a minority of patients achieved stated programmatic goals of BMI>20. Future research should include well-designed prospective studies that examine retention, exit reasons, mortality outcomes, and long-term sustainability of nutrition supplementation programs for persons living with HIV. PMID:24646586

Nagata, Jason M.; Cohen, Craig R.; Young, Sera L.; Wamuyu, Catherine; Armes, Mary N.; Otieno, Benard O.; Leslie, Hannah H.; Dandu, Madhavi; Stewart, Christopher C.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Weiser, Sheri D.

2014-01-01

255

Making Sense of Sensory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

Hendrix, Marie

2010-01-01

256

Effect of PEF on Enzymes and Food Constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food quality is of key importance in food preservation, even more in the context of novel technologies. The search for alternative\\u000a methods to preserve foods is driven by the trends in consumption patterns. Consumers nowadays demand healthier, fresher, and\\u000a more natural foods, with high sensory and nutritional qualities, and at the same time with the highest degree of safety. Pulsed

Pilar Mafias; Antonio Vercet

257

The Emphasis Is on Integration, Not Sensory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a response to a critique of studies on the use of sensory integration therapy with mentally retarded persons, the article criticizes the original authors for finding fault with the theory of sensory integration rather than reviewing research on sensory integration. (DB)

Kimball, Judith G.

1988-01-01

258

Exploring Sensory Integrative Treatment in Chronic Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the efficacy of sensory integrative treatment of the psychiatric status and physical functioning of patients with chronic schizophrenia is reported. Patients were involved in sequenced sensory integrative treatment over a seventeen week period. Significant improvement was found in scores of the NOSIE-30 as well as on some of the usual idicators of sensory integrative status: thumb-finger opposition,

Judith E. Reisman; Anne B. Blakeney

1991-01-01

259

USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

260

Sensory gardens: Assessing their design and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the design and use of sensory gardens by evaluating their zones and how they are utilized. Preliminary site studies were undertaken in 14 sensory gardens around the UK, followed by more detailed data collection at two case-study sites. The aim was to discover features that enable user behaviours and use of spaces in sensory gardens. The data

Hazreena Hussein

2010-01-01

261

Effect of gender, diet and storage time on the physical properties and sensory quality of sea urchin ( Evechinus chloroticus) gonads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the objective assessment of sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus) gonad characteristics was developed using descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. The influence of gender, diet, and storage under chilled conditions, on the sensory quality (appearance, odour, taste, flavour, texture, and aftertaste) of the gonads was investigated. Gender was found to be the major factor impacting on the

K. Phillips; P. Bremer; P. Silcock; N. Hamid; C. Delahunty; M. Barker; J. Kissick

2009-01-01

262

Predicting sensory attributes of different chicory hybrids using physico-chemical measurements and visible\\/near infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicory (witloof) is a typically Belgian vegetable appreciated for its slightly bitter taste. Up until now no measurements exist to objectively quantify the sensory characteristics of chicory. Taste and texture of nine different chicory hybrids were analyzed by sensory and instrumental analysis (three-point bending test, high performance anion exchange with pulsed amperometric detection, high performance liquid chromatography and visible\\/near infrared

Isabelle M. François; Hanne Wins; Saskia Buysens; Christof Godts; Elke Van Pee; Bart Nicolaï; Maurice De Proft

2008-01-01

263

Sensory fusion in Physarum polycephalum and implementing multi-sensory functional computation.  

PubMed

Surface electrical potential and observational growth recordings were made of a protoplasmic tube of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum in response to a multitude of stimuli with regards to sensory fusion or multisensory integration. Each stimulus was tested alone and in combination in order to evaluate for the first time the effect that multiple stimuli have on the frequency of streaming oscillation. White light caused a decrease in frequency whilst increasing the temperature and applying a food source in the form of oat flakes both increased the frequency. Simultaneously stimulating P. polycephalum with light and oat flake produced no net change in frequency, while combined light and heat stimuli showed an increase in frequency smaller than that observed for heat alone. When the two positive stimuli, oat flakes and heat, were combined, there was a net increase in frequency similar to the cumulative increases caused by the individual stimuli. Boolean logic gates were derived from the measured frequency change. PMID:24695059

Whiting, James G H; de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Adamatzky, Andrew

2014-05-01

264

Response Properties of a Sensory Hair Excised from Venus's Flytrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicellular sensory hairs were excised from the leaf of Venus's flytrap, and the sensory cells were identified by a destructive dissection tech- nique. The sensory layer includes a radially symmetrical rosette of 20-30 ap- parently identical cells, and the sensory cells are organized in a plane normal to the long axis of the sensory hair. The sensory cells were probed

R. M. Benolken; S. L. JACOBSON

1970-01-01

265

Mechanical-Acoustic and Sensory Evaluations of Corn Starch-Whey Protein Isolate Extrudates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To study the mechanism that relates sensory perception of brittle food foams to their mechanical and acoustic properties during crushing, corn starch was extruded with four levels (0, 6, 12, and 18%) of whey protein isolate (WPI) and two levels of in-barrel moisture (23 and 27%). Texture of the exp...

266

Structurally complex habitat and sensory adaptations mediate the behavioural responses of a desert rodent  

E-print Network

Structurally complex habitat and sensory adaptations mediate the behavioural responses of a desert of a rocky desert rodent, the common spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus), to gain insight into how structural artificial food patches to compare the foraging response of free-ranging common spiny mice in a habitat

Dayan, Tamar

267

[The local sensory neurons of the small intestine in the turtle (an intravital study)].  

PubMed

Morphological statics and dynamics of living sensory neurons and their dendrites were studied by means of automatic television image analyser in steppe turtle small intestine. Values of quantitative characteristics (squares of the terminal plaques and neuron body receptor zone, summary square of dendritic elements and specific density of the receptor innervations zone were obtained. Dynamics of terminal receptor plaques mechanical mobility was qualitatively characterized. Significant heterogeneity of local sensory neutrons and their dendrites structural organisation was demonstrated. Polymorphism was suggested to be the expression of sensory neurons functional heterogeneity. PMID:8925043

Lukashin, V G

1995-01-01

268

Cooking quality and sensorial properties of noodle supplemented with oat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of oat flour addition (10, 20, 30, and 40%) on the quality characteristics of noodle were investigated. Noodles were\\u000a evaluated in terms of cooking quality, color, chemical, and sensory properties. As oat flour level increased, protein, crude\\u000a fat, ash, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Mg contents of noodles increased. Oat flour caused increases in cooking loss of noodles. Sensory\\u000a and

Emine Aydin; Duygu Gocmen

2011-01-01

269

Differences in sensory ecology contribute to resource partitioning in the bats Myotis bechsteinii and Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coexisting animal species frequently differ in resource use in at least one niche dimension and thus avoid competition. While\\u000a a range of morphological differences that lead to differentiation in animals' mechanical access to food have been identified,\\u000a the role of sensory differences in within-guild niche differentiation has received less attention. We tested the hypothesis\\u000a that differences in sensory access to

Björn M. Siemers; Susan M. Swift

2006-01-01

270

Altered visual sensory fusion in children with reading difficulties.  

PubMed

Reading is a multi-sensory and multi-cognitive task, and its difficulties (e.g., dyslexia) are not a unitary disorder. There are probably a variety of manifestations that relate to the actual site of impairment. A randomized, pre-test/post-test nonequivalent-groups design was conducted over 4 months with three groups aged between 6 and 8 years. One group comprised 76 participants (34 boys, 42 girls) with reading difficulties and altered sensory fusion (RD+ASF), a second group was made up of 123 students (59 boys, 64 girls) with reading difficulties but without altered sensory fusion (RD), and a third group comprised 81 participants (39 boys, 42 girls) who were young readers (RL) without reading delay, paired with the RD group on reading level. The experimental groups received intervention in the skills of control, stimulus recognition, and phonological awareness during a 4-month period. Both pre-test and post-test measures of errors in reading mechanics and reading routes (word and pseudo-word) were obtained. Poorer results in mechanics and reading routes of the RD+ASF group suggest that the effectiveness of the intervention depended on the characteristics of the groups and on the presence of sensory fusion deficits in the RD students. PMID:25375826

González-Castro, P; Rodríguez, C; Núñez, J C; Vallejo, G; González-Pienda, J A

2014-12-01

271

VESTA Viticulture Course: Sensory Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Viticulture and Enology Science and Technology Alliance, offers presentations and slides from the lectures of VIN 266: Sensory Evaluation. From the presenter, Ray Johnson, the three lectures included are: Enhancing Winetasting: Decanting, Enhancing Winetasting: Glassware, and Winetasting Methodology Basic Techniques. Users must have Microsoft's Silverlight installed to view the presentations, which vary in length from about 6 minutes to 16 minutes.

2010-11-09

272

Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.  

PubMed

The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. PMID:25542775

Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

2015-04-01

273

Characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from meat and milk products of different origins and association with food producing animals as main contamination sources.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC contaminated foodstuff. Food producing animals constitute important reservoirs of STEC and serve as source of food contamination. In this study, we have analyzed 593 foodborne STEC strains for their serotypes and for nine virulence genes (stx1, stx1c, stx1d, stx2, stx2b, stx2e, stx2g, E-hly and eae). The 593 STEC strains grouped into 215 serotypes, and 123 serotypes (57.2%) were represented each by only one STEC isolate. Fifteen serotypes (7.0%) were attributed to 198 (33.3%) of the 593 STEC strains. The foodborne STEC were grouped into different categories in relation to the species of the food producing animal (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, red deer, wild-boar and hare). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant similarities between the animal origin of the food and the virulence markers of foodborne STEC. Significant associations (p<0.001) were found for stx1 and for stx2 with bovine meat and milk products. The stx2e gene was significantly (p<0.001) associated with STEC from pork and wild boar meat. Stx1c and stx2b genes were significantly (p<0.001) more frequent in STEC from deer meat, as well as from meat and milk products derived from sheep and goats. Using logistic regression models we detected significant (p<0.01) combinations between stx1, stx2 and E-hly genes and STEC from bovine meat. The combination of stx1c and stx2b genes was significant (p<0.001) for STEC derived from red deer, sheep and goat products. The properties of foodborne STEC were compared with published data on faecal STEC from food producing animals. Virulence profiles and serotypes of STEC from food showed remarkable similarities to those of faecal STEC that were from the same animal species. The findings from our study clearly indicate that the food producing animals represent the most important source for the entry of STEC in the food chain. Sound hygiene measures implemented at critical stages of food production (milking, slaughtering, and evisceration) should be most effective in reducing the frequency of STEC contamination of food derived from domestic and wildlife animals. PMID:21371769

Martin, Annett; Beutin, Lothar

2011-03-15

274

Capsaicin and sensory neurones: a historical perspective.  

PubMed

Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red pepper has become not only a "hot" topic in neuroscience but its new target-related unique actions have opened the door for the drug industry to introduce a new chapter of analgesics. After several lines of translational efforts with over 1,000 patents and clinical trials, the 8% capsaicin dermal patch reached the market and its long-lasting local analgesic effect in some severe neuropathic pain states is now well established. This introductory chapter outlines on one hand the historical background based on the author's 50 years of experience in this field and on the other hand emphasizes new scopes, fascinating perspectives in pharmaco-physiology, and molecular pharmacology of nociceptive sensory neurons. Evidence for the effect of capsaicin on C-polymodal nociceptors (CMH), C-mechanoinsensitive (CHMi), and silent C-nociceptors are listed and the features of the capsaicin-induced blocking effects of nociceptors are demonstrated. Common and different characteristics of nociceptor-blocking actions after systemic, perineural, local, intrathecal, and in vitro treatments are summarized. Evidence for the misleading conclusions drawn from neonatal capsaicin pretreatment is presented. Perspectives opened from cloning the capsaicin receptor "Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1" (TRPV1) are outlined and potential molecular mechanisms behind the long-lasting functional, ultrastructural, and nerve terminal-damaging effects of capsaicin and other TRPV1 agonists are summarized. Neurogenic inflammation and the long-list of "capsaicin-sensitive" tissue responses are mediated by an unorthodox dual sensory-efferent function of peptidergic TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals which differ from the classical efferent and sensory nerve endings that have a unidirectional role in neuroregulation. Thermoregulatory effects of capsaicin are discussed in detail. It is suggested that since hyperthermia and burn risk due to enhanced noxious heat threshold are the major obstacles of some TRPV1 antagonists, they could be overcome. The special "multisteric" gating function of the TRPV1 cation channel provides the structural ground for blocking chemical activation of TRPV1 without affecting its responsiveness to physical stimuli. A new chapter of potential analgesics targeting nociceptors is now already supported for pain relief in persistent pathological pain states. PMID:24941663

Szolcsányi, János

2014-01-01

275

A new pressure sensory mechanism for prey detection in birds: the use of principles of seabed dynamics?  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in birds. Red knots (Calidris canutus), sandpipers that occur worldwide in coastal intertidal areas, are able to detect their favourite hard-shelled prey even when buried in sand beyond the reach of their bills. In operant conditioning experiments designed to find out whether the birds could tell buckets containing only wet sand from buckets containing hard objects in wet sand, we show that they detect the presence not only of deeply buried live bivalves but also of stones. The latter finding virtually excludes, under experimental conditions, prey-detection mechanisms based on vision, acoustics, smell, taste, vibrational signals emitted by prey, temperature gradients and electromagnetic fields. A failure to discriminate between food and non-food trays with dry sand indicates that pore water is involved. Based on the presence of large arrays of Herbst corpuscles (sensory organs that can measure the acceleration due to changes in pressure), the specifics of foraging technique and the characteristics of sediments on which red knots feed, we deduce that the sensory mechanism involves the perception of pressure gradients that are formed when bills probe in soft sediments in which inanimate objects block pore water flow. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been described before. It is argued that repeated probing in soft, wet sediments allows red knots to induce a residual pressure build-up of sufficient strength to detect the pressure disturbance caused by a nearby object. The cyclic process of shaking loosely packed sand grains followed by gravitational settling into a closer packing, leads, owing to insufficient drainage of the sediment, to a locally increased pressure disturbance that is 'pumped up' at each shake.

Piersma, T.; Aelst, R. van; Kurk, K.; Berkhoudt, H.; Maas, L. R. M.

1998-01-01

276

Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M

2010-07-15

277

A mixed-methods investigation of sensory response patterns in Barth syndrome: a clinical phenotype?  

PubMed

Barth syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects approximately 1/500,000 boys each year. While treatment of medical complications associated with Barth is of primary importance, there is a concomitant need to look at behavioral and clinical features of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of atypical sensory processing in 21 boys with Barth syndrome and to explore if phenotypic patterns of sensory responsiveness may be useful in early diagnosis. Using a mixed methods approach, we found that sensory issues related to feeding and eating were ubiquitous in our sample, with some behaviors such as strong gag reflex identifiable early in development. Specifically, boys with Barth had a strong preference for salty, cheesy, and spicy foods while having an overall restricted repertoire of foods they would eat (e.g., picky eaters). In boys with Barth as they age, auditory sensitivity and auditory filtering issues also emerged as potential sensory-related behaviors affecting academic performance and participation. Overall, this study suggests that early identification of sensory patterns in Barth may assist in differential diagnosis and create opportunities for early interventions that may minimize the impact of these behaviors on function and participation. PMID:22711649

Reynolds, Stacey; Kreider, Consuelo M; Bendixen, Roxanna

2012-07-01

278

Determination of absolute threshold and just noticeable difference in the sensory perception of pungency.  

PubMed

Absolute threshold and just noticeable difference (JND) were determined for the perception of pungency using chili pepper in aqueous solutions. Absolute threshold and JND were determined using 2 alternative forced-choice sensory tests tests. High-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to determine capsaicinoids concentration in samples used for sensory analysis. Sensory absolute threshold was 0.050 mg capsaicinoids/kg sample. Five JND values were determined using 5 reference solutions with different capsaicinoids concentration. JND values changed proportionally as capsaicinoids concentration of the reference sample solutions changed. Weber fraction remained stable for the first 4 reference capsaicinoid solutions (0.05, 0.11, 0.13, and 0.17 mg/kg) but changed when the most concentrated reference capsaicinoids solution was used (0.23 mg/kg). Quantification limit for instrumental analysis was 1.512 mg/kg capsaicinoids. Sensory methods employed in this study proved to be more sensitive than instrumental methods. Practical Application: A better understanding of the process involved in the sensory perception of pungency is currently required because "hot" foods are becoming more popular in western cuisine. Absolute thresholds and differential thresholds are useful tools in the formulation and development of new food products. These parameters may help in defining how much chili pepper is required in a formulated product to ensure a perceptible level of pungency, as well as in deciding how much more chili pepper is required in a product to produce a perceptible increase in its pungency. PMID:22384966

Orellana-Escobedo, L; Ornelas-Paz, J J; Olivas, G I; Guerrero-Beltran, J A; Jimenez-Castro, J; Sepulveda, D R

2012-03-01

279

Pathological features of ganglioradiculitis (sensory neuropathy) in two dogs.  

PubMed

Canine ganglioradiculitis (sensory neuropathy) was examined pathologically in two dogs (dog Nos. 1 and 2). The affected dogs had 1 and 2 years clinical courses from the onset, respectively. As common clinical signs, both cases showed progressive ataxia, difficulty in prehending food, visual deficit, and several sensory abnormalities. Gross observation after tissue fixation revealed whitish discoloration in the dorsal column of the spinal cords. The histological lesions were mainly distributed in the spinal dorsal roots, ganglions, and dorsal columns. In the spinal dorsal roots and ganglions, there were striking myelin loss, mild infiltration of mononuclear cells, and proliferation of small spindle cells. In the dorsal funiculus, there were moderate to severe diffuse myelin-loss and axonal degeneration. Immunohistochemistry for substance P (SP) revealed marked reduction of SP-immunopositive granules in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of affected dogs. By immunohistochemistry, CD3-positive cells were observed in the dorsal roots of dog No. 2, while CD3-positive cells were rare in those of dog No. 1. In the spinal ganglion of dog No. 1 there were many CD3- and MHC class II-positive cells. By indirect immunofluorescence assay using sera from affected dogs, no autoantibodies against canine nerve tissues were detected. The clinicopathological features of the present cases are almost consistent with those in previous reports of canine sensory neuropathies, while the etiology remains unclear. PMID:18176020

Funamoto, Miwako; Nibe, Kazumi; Morozumi, Motoji; Edamura, Kazuya; Uchida, Kazuyuki

2007-12-01

280

Neuroepithelial circuit formed by innervation of sensory enteroendocrine cells.  

PubMed

Satiety and other core physiological functions are modulated by sensory signals arising from the surface of the gut. Luminal nutrients and bacteria stimulate epithelial biosensors called enteroendocrine cells. Despite being electrically excitable, enteroendocrine cells are generally thought to communicate indirectly with nerves through hormone secretion and not through direct cell-nerve contact. However, we recently uncovered in intestinal enteroendocrine cells a cytoplasmic process that we named neuropod. Here, we determined that neuropods provide a direct connection between enteroendocrine cells and neurons innervating the small intestine and colon. Using cell-specific transgenic mice to study neural circuits, we found that enteroendocrine cells have the necessary elements for neurotransmission, including expression of genes that encode pre-, post-, and transsynaptic proteins. This neuroepithelial circuit was reconstituted in vitro by coculturing single enteroendocrine cells with sensory neurons. We used a monosynaptic rabies virus to define the circuit's functional connectivity in vivo and determined that delivery of this neurotropic virus into the colon lumen resulted in the infection of mucosal nerves through enteroendocrine cells. This neuroepithelial circuit can serve as both a sensory conduit for food and gut microbes to interact with the nervous system and a portal for viruses to enter the enteric and central nervous systems. PMID:25555217

Bohórquez, Diego V; Shahid, Rafiq A; Erdmann, Alan; Kreger, Alex M; Wang, Yu; Calakos, Nicole; Wang, Fan; Liddle, Rodger A

2015-02-01

281

Nicotinic filtering of sensory processing in auditory cortex  

PubMed Central

Although it has been known for decades that the drug nicotine can improve cognitive function, the nature of its effects and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Nicotine activates nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) that normally are activated by endogenous ACh, presumably “hijacking” the cholinergic contribution to multiple cognitive functions, notably attention. Thus, studying nicotine's effects helps to better understand a commonly used drug as well as functions of nAChRs. Moreover, nicotinic agonists are being developed to treat a variety of disorders that involve attention-related or age-related cognitive dysfunction. Studies have shown that nicotine can enhance processing of attended stimuli and/or reduce processing of distracters; that is, nicotine enhances attentional filtering. To examine potential mechanisms within sensory cortex that may contribute to cognitive functions, here we describe nicotinic actions in primary auditory cortex, where well-characterized neural “filters”—frequency receptive fields—can be exploited to examine nicotinic regulation of cortical processing. Using tone-evoked current-source density (CSD) profiles, we show that nicotine produces complex, layer-dependent effects on spectral and temporal processing that, broadly speaking, enhance responses to characteristic frequency (optimal) stimuli while simultaneously suppressing responses to spectrally distant stimuli. That is, nicotine appears to narrow receptive fields and enhances processing within the narrowed receptive field. Since basic cortical circuitry and nAChR distributions are similar across neocortex, these findings may generalize to neural processing in other sensory regions, and to non-sensory regions where afferent inputs are more difficult to manipulate experimentally. Similar effects across sensory and non-sensory cortical circuits could contribute to nicotinic enhancement of cognitive functions. PMID:22833720

Metherate, Raju; Intskirveli, Irakli; Kawai, Hideki D.

2012-01-01

282

Morphology and Intrinsic Excitability of Regenerating Sensory and Motor Neurons Grown on a Line Micropattern  

PubMed Central

Axonal regeneration is one of the greatest challenges in severe injuries of peripheral nerve. To provide the bridge needed for regeneration, biological or synthetic tubular nerve constructs with aligned architecture have been developed. A key point for improving axonal regeneration is assessing the effects of substrate geometry on neuronal behavior. In the present study, we used an extracellular matrix-micropatterned substrate comprising 3 µm wide lines aimed to physically mimic the in vivo longitudinal axonal growth of mice peripheral sensory and motor neurons. Adult sensory neurons or embryonic motoneurons were seeded and processed for morphological and electrical activity analyses after two days in vitro. We show that micropattern-guided sensory neurons grow one or two axons without secondary branching. Motoneurons polarity was kept on micropattern with a long axon and small dendrites. The micro-patterned substrate maintains the growth promoting effects of conditioning injury and demonstrates, for the first time, that neurite initiation and extension could be differentially regulated by conditioning injury among DRG sensory neuron subpopulations. The micro-patterned substrate impacts the excitability of sensory neurons and promotes the apparition of firing action potentials characteristic for a subclass of mechanosensitive neurons. The line pattern is quite relevant for assessing the regenerative and developmental growth of sensory and motoneurons and offers a unique model for the analysis of the impact of geometry on the expression and the activity of mechanosensitive channels in DRG sensory neurons. PMID:25329060

Benzina, Ouafa; Cloitre, Thierry; Martin, Marta; Raoul, Cédric; Gergely, Csilla; Scamps, Frédérique

2014-01-01

283

Related Links — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has launched an online mapping tool that locates food deserts. The Food Desert Locator also provides data on population characteristics where residents have limited access to affordable and nutritious foods, including low-income communities. The tool can be used to help advocates expand the availability of nutritious foods in these areas.

284

Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

2014-02-01

285

Chemogenetic silencing of neurons in retrosplenial cortex disrupts sensory preconditioning.  

PubMed

An essential aspect of episodic memory is the formation of associations between neutral sensory cues in the environment. In light of recent evidence that this critical aspect of learning does not require the hippocampus, we tested the involvement of the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) in this process using a chemogenetic approach that allowed us to temporarily silence neurons along the entire rostrocaudal extent of the RSC. A viral vector containing the gene for a synthetic inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor (hM4Di) was infused into RSC. When the receptor was later activated by systemic injection of clozapine-N-oxide, neural activity in RSC was transiently silenced (confirmed using a patch-clamp procedure). Rats expressing hM4Di and control rats were trained in a sensory preconditioning procedure in which a tone and light were paired on some trials and a white noise stimulus was presented alone on the other trials during the Preconditioning phase. Thus, rats were given the opportunity to form an association between a tone and a light in the absence of reinforcement. Later, the light was paired with food. During the test phase when the auditory cues were presented alone, controls exhibited more conditioned responding during presentation of the tone compared with the white noise reflecting the prior formation of a tone-light association. Silencing RSC neurons during the Preconditioning phase prevented the formation of an association between the tone and light and eliminated the sensory preconditioning effect. These findings indicate that RSC may contribute to episodic memory formation by linking essential sensory stimuli during learning. PMID:25122898

Robinson, Siobhan; Todd, Travis P; Pasternak, Anna R; Luikart, Bryan W; Skelton, Patrick D; Urban, Daniel J; Bucci, David J

2014-08-13

286

Mirror-sensory synaesthesia: exploring 'shared' sensory experiences as synaesthesia.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests the observation or imagination of somatosensory stimulation in another (e.g., touch or pain) can induce a similar somatosensory experience in oneself. Some researchers have presented this experience as a type of synaesthesia, whereas others consider it an extreme experience of an otherwise normal perception. Here, we present an argument that these descriptions are not mutually exclusive. They may describe the extreme version of the normal process of understanding somatosensation in others. It becomes synaesthesia, however, when this process results in a conscious experience comparable to the observed person's state. We describe these experiences as 'mirror-sensory synaesthesia'; a type of synaesthesia identified by its distinct social component where the induced synaesthetic experience is a similar sensory experience to that perceived in another person. Through the operationalisation of this intriguing experience as synaesthesia, existing neurobiological models of synaesthesia can be used as a framework to explore how mechanisms may act upon social cognitive processes to produce conscious experiences similar to another person's observed state. PMID:21986634

Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Enticott, Peter G; Rich, Anina N; Giummarra, Melita J; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Bradshaw, John L

2012-01-01

287

Effects of High Pressure on Chemical Reactions Related to Food Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In response to the growing consumer demand for high-quality, nutritious food products, the food industry is interested in\\u000a high pressure technology as a potential food processing\\/preservation method that minimally affects sensory and nutritional\\u000a quality attributes. High pressure allows inactivation of pathogenic\\/ spoilage microorganisms and food-spoiling enzymes while\\u000a leaving most attributes of food quality intact (Hayashi, 1989; Cheftel, 1991; Mertens, 1992;

Linda Ludikhuyze; Marc E. G. Hendrickx

288

Physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh potato-based pasta (gnocchi).  

PubMed

This study dealt with the characterization and quality assessment of 3 kinds of potato-based pasta (gnocchi) made with steam-cooked, potato puree (water added to potato flakes), and reconstituted potatoes as main ingredients. The aim of the research was to evaluate the quality of the products in terms of physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics. Water content, water activity, color (L* and h°), and texture (texture profile analysis [TPA] and shearing test) were evaluated on both raw and cooked samples. In addition, on the recovered cooking water the loss of solid substances was determined and on the cooked gnocchi a sensory assessment was performed. Eight sensory attributes (yellowness, hardness, gumminess, adhesiveness, potato taste, sweet taste, flour taste, and sapidity) were investigated. Statistically significant differences among products were obtained, especially concerning textural properties. In fact, sample made with reconstituted potatoes and emulsifiers resulted the hardest (8.53 ± 1.22 N), the gummiest (2.90 ± 0.05 N), and the "chewiest" (2.90 ± 0.58 N) after cooking. Gnocchi made with potato puree or reconstituted potatoes significantly differed from the one produced with steam-cooked potatoes in terms of sensory properties (yellowness, hardness, flour taste, and sapidity). Pearson's correlation analysis between some textural instrumental and sensory parameters showed significant correlation coefficients (0.532 < r < 0.810). Score plot of principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed obtained results from physicochemical and sensory analyses, in terms of high discriminant capacity of colorimetric and textural characteristics. PMID:21535629

Alessandrini, Laura; Balestra, Federica; Romani, Santina; Rocculi, Pietro; Rosa, Marco Dalla

2010-01-01

289

Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers  

PubMed Central

We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

290

Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

Peters, Richard Alan, II

2003-01-01

291

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

292

Holiday Foods.  

E-print Network

strong flavored foods, some sweet and some sour, such as mashed potatoes and broccoli and sweet and sour pork . Choose different colored foods such as cauliflower and broccoli or tomatoes and lettuce. ~lnclude some crisp foods and soft foods... are a natu ral for families attending the games. The station wagon tailgate makes a convenient table for serving the food. Buffet service is a convenient way to serve Baked Beans Potato Salad Fresh Vegetable Relish - Tomato Wedges, Carrot Strips...

Reasonover, Frances L.; Sweeten, Mary K.

1981-01-01

293

Enzyme Inactivation in Food Processing using High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) is an effective non-thermal processing technique for inactivating deleterious enzymes in liquid and solid food systems. This processing method avoids high temperatures and exerts a minimal impact on the nutritional and sensory properties of foods, but extends shelf life by inhibiting or killing microorganisms and enzymes. Indigenous enzymes in food such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO),

WANFENG HU; LINYAN ZHOU; ZHENZHEN XU; Y AN ZHANG; XIAOJUN LIAO

2011-01-01

294

Control of food handling by cutaneous receptor input in squirrels.  

PubMed

In a complementary neuroanatomical study by Brenowitz in 1980, it was shown that tree squirrels (Sciurus niger) have a higher relative density of mechanoreceptors in their glabrous forepaw skin than do ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). The main purpose of this sudy was to test the prediction that tree squirrels would depend upon somatic sensory (cutaneous) input from their forepaws to a greater extent than would ground squirrels in food handling behavior. In addition, a series of more general questions about the sensory control of food handling was examined. First, using different sized food items, it was shown that food handling (rate of manipulation) is subject to sensory control, in general. Secondly, comparision of sham-operated groups with groups receiving median nerve (innervating the palmar surface) lesions showed that cutaneous input from the volar surface of the forepaw contributes to the sensory control in both species of squirrels. Thirdly, comparison of lesion effects in the two species showed that, as predicted, tree squirrels depend upon cutaneous input from their volar forepaw to a greater extent than do ground squirrels. Fourthly, by reanalyzing the above data it was shown that there is continued sensory feedback from food items rather than only an initial evaluation of them. PMID:7437901

Brenowitz, G L

1980-01-01

295

Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

2008-01-01

296

Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction  

PubMed Central

Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists between food neophobia and both the variety in one person’s diet and previous exposures to different foods. In this review, the more recent findings about food neophobia will be concisely described. Given the suggested connection between the exposure to different foods and food neophobia, this review will focus on the relation between this attitude and human chemosensory abilities. Olfaction, in particular, is a sensory modality that has a central role in flavor perception and in food preference acquisition. Therefore, the latest evidences about its relation with food neophobia will be discussed along with the applied and cognitive implications. PMID:24596565

Demattè, M. Luisa; Endrizzi, Isabella; Gasperi, Flavia

2014-01-01

297

Innovative analytical tools to characterize prebiotic carbohydrates of functional food interest.  

PubMed

Functional foods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functional food or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functional food ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functional food formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and they are critically reviewed. PMID:23420135

Corradini, Claudio; Lantano, Claudia; Cavazza, Antonella

2013-05-01

298

Food masquerade.  

PubMed

Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann

2010-01-01

299

First record of the temperate species Daphnia curvirostris Eylmann, 1887 emend. Johnson, 1952 (Cladocera: Daphniidae) in Mexico and its demographic characteristics in relation to algal food density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daphnia curvirostris is a typical European species but has also been recorded in Canada and USA. This is a new record for Mexico and the taxon\\u000a was collected from the Chimaliapan wetlands (State of Mexico, Mexico). Taxonomic descriptions of it are provided using both\\u000a light and scanning-electron microscopes. When cultured on the green alga Scenedesmus acutus at three food levels

S. Nandini; Marcelo Silva-Briano; Gerardo García García; S. S. S. Sarma; Araceli Adabache-Ortiz; Ricardo Galván de la Rosa

2009-01-01

300

Effect of ionising radiation treatment on the specific migration characteristics of packaging–food simulant combinations: effect of type and dose of radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration levels of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticiser from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film into the European Union specified aqueous food simulants (distilled water, 3% w\\/v acetic acid and 10% v\\/v ethanol) were monitored as a function of time. Migration testing was carried out at 40°C for 10 days. Determination of the analyte was performed by applying an analytical methodology based

P. D. Zygoura; E. K. Paleologos; M. G. Kontominas

2011-01-01

301

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... December 2009 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 is a condition ...

302

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2014-07-01

303

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2013-07-01

304

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2010-07-01

305

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2012-07-01

306

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2011-07-01

307

Application of the Dynamic Gastric Model to evaluate the effect of food on the drug release characteristics of a hydrophilic matrix formulation.  

PubMed

Characterisation of the effect of food on the bio-performance of modified and extended release dosage forms can be very challenging due to the need to replicate the dynamic biochemical conditions of the human gut as well as the complex physical processing modalities under fed state. Classical compendial methods are useful for testing the quality of pharmaceutical dosage forms but typically have limitations in the accurate prediction of food-effect in-vivo. Preliminary evaluation of the Dynamic Gastric Model (DGM) shows that it can provide substantially more detailed mechanistic information on dosage form properties compared to conventional compendial testing. The potential effect of food on the drug release and physical properties of a hydrophilic matrix formulation containing a model drug, hydrochlorothiazide, was studied using compendial methods, bio-relevant media and the DGM (in combination with an off-line intestinal model). Whilst the compendial methods with biorelevant media provided good correlation with the dissolution rates observed using the DGM/intestinal model under simulated fasted state, the quantification of simulated fed state performance changes was much more challenging using the compendial methods. Classical compendial studies using biorelevant FeSSIF and FaSSIF media could not readily discern differences in dissolution performance under fasted and fed states; however, the DGM could detect significant changes in both physical properties as well as drug release performance under fed state processing. PMID:24657141

Chessa, S; Huatan, H; Levina, M; Mehta, R Y; Ferrizzi, D; Rajabi-Siahboomi, A R

2014-05-15

308

Sensory Perception and Communication in Electric Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electric fish of the Amazon Basin and Nile River are equipped with electric-generator-receiver organs for both sensory perception and communication. These fish are superbly adapted for life in turbulent, muddy streams and, therefore, provide and excellent illustration of the input of environmental information into central nervous systems via specialized sensory windows.

Patricia J. DeCoursey (University of South Carolina;)

1993-01-01

309

Amino Acid Odorants Stimulate Microvillar Sensory Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olfactory epithelium (OE) of zebrafish is populated with ciliated and microvillar olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Whether distinct classes of odorants specifically activate either of these unique populations of OSNs is unknown. Previously we demonstrated that zebrafish OSNs could be labeled in an activity-dependent fashion by amino acid but not bile acid odorants. To determine which sensory neuron type was

David L. Lipschitz; William C. Michel

2002-01-01

310

Trigeminal sensory neurons of the sea lamprey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular recordings were made from neurons of the trigeminal sensory ganglia of young adult sea lampreys. Receptive fields were mapped, and four classes of sensory cells were identified. Touch cells gave rapidly adapting responses to indentation of the skin. Pressure cells gave slowly adapting responses to indentation of the skin. Pit organ cells gave slowly adapting responses to mechanical stimulation

Gary Matthews; Warren O. Wickelgren

1978-01-01

311

ASIC3 Channels in Multimodal Sensory Perception  

PubMed Central

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3?6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy. PMID:22778854

2010-01-01

312

Sensory symptoms in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature regarding abnormalities in sensory functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including evidence regarding the neurobiological basis of these symptoms, their clinical correlates, and their treatment. Abnormalities in responses to sensory stimuli are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. The underlying neurobiology of these symptoms is unclear, but several theories have been proposed linking possible etiologies of sensory dysfunction with known abnormalities in brain structure and function that are associated with ASD. In addition to the distress that sensory symptoms can cause patients and caregivers, these phenomena have been correlated with several other problematic symptoms and behaviors associated with ASD, including restrictive and repetitive behavior, self-injurious behavior, anxiety, inattention, and gastrointestinal complaints. It is unclear whether these correlations are causative in nature or whether they are due to shared underlying pathophysiology. The best-known treatments for sensory symptoms in ASD involve a program of occupational therapy that is specifically tailored to the needs of the individual and that may include sensory integration therapy, a sensory diet, and environmental modifications. While some empirical evidence supports these treatments, more research is needed to evaluate their efficacy, and other means of alleviating these symptoms, including possible psychopharmacological interventions, need to be explored. Additional research into the sensory symptoms associated with ASD has the potential to shed more light on the nature and pathophysiology of these disorders and to open new avenues of effective treatments. PMID:24614766

Hazen, Eric P; Stornelli, Jennifer L; O'Rourke, Julia A; Koesterer, Karmen; McDougle, Christopher J

2014-01-01

313

A housefly sensory-motor integration laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly Musca domestica that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration of sensory information that mediate the behaviors.

Edwin R. Griff (University of Cincinnati Biological Sciences); Thomas C. Kane (University of Cincinnati)

2010-06-01

314

Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

2013-01-01

315

Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change.  

PubMed Central

The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable, lawful fashion by using "natural communities of sensory reinforcement." PMID:489480

Rincover, A; Cook, R; Peoples, A; Packard, D

1979-01-01

316

Sensory sensitivities and performance on sensory perceptual tasks in high-functioning individuals with autism  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive reports of sensory symptoms in autism, there is little empirical support for their neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical comparison participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and standardized neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two per cent of participants with autism endorsed more sensory sensitivity items than any of the participants in the comparison group. On the sensory perceptual exam, both groups made few errors on elementary sensory perception items. Controls made few errors on higher cortical sensory perception items, but 30% of the participants with autism made high numbers of errors, though there was no evidence of the neglect syndrome. There was little correlation between the sensory sensitivities and the sensory perceptual deficits, likely due to the low correspondence between the measures. These results support the common occurrence of disturbances in sensory experiences in high functioning individuals with autism based on first person report, and the presence of neurological abnormalities in higher cortical sensory perception. PMID:18302014

Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

2011-01-01

317

Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.  

PubMed

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

Harvey, Joshua Paul

2013-06-01

318

Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis with subsequent mild thermal oxidation of tallow on precursor formation and sensory profiles of beef flavours assessed by partial least squares regression.  

PubMed

Effects of different pretreatments of tallow on flavour precursor development and flavour profiles of beef flavours (BFs) were evaluated. Analysis of free fatty acids and volatiles of tallow by GC and GC-MS indicated that the enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow formed the most characteristic flavour precursors compared with others. The results of descriptive sensory analysis confirmed that beef flavour 4 from enzymatic hydrolyzed-thermally oxidized tallow had the strongest beefy, meaty and odour characteristics, followed by beef flavour 2 from oxidized tallow. Electronic nose data confirmed the accuracy of the sensory analysis results. The correlation analysis of 51 volatile compounds in tallow and sensory attributes of BFs showed that some compounds, especially aldehydes, made a significant contribution to sensory attributes. Correlation analysis of free fatty acids and sensory attributes through partial least squares regression (PLSR) confirmed that the moderate enzymatic hydrolysis-thermal oxidation pretreatment of tallow was necessary to achieve the characteristic beef flavour. PMID:24334040

Song, Shiqing; Tang, Qi; Hayat, Khizar; Karangwa, Eric; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zuobing

2014-03-01

319

The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Keegan TH, Hurley S, Goldberg D, Nelson DO, Reynolds P, Bernstein L, Horn-Ross PL, Gomez SL. The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort.

320

Food Chain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-04

321

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy ...

322

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... National Institutes of Health for research in food allergy. We are committed to supporting efforts to help ...

323

[Food allergy or food intolerance?].  

PubMed

Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management. PMID:24834642

Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

2014-04-16

324

Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.

2009-10-21

325

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food web reading. Build a food web and design a creature. Requires downloaded program. Download your assignment Food Web Assignment Sheet. Use the following sites and activities to answer the questions. Do not start the creature creator until Mr. Wood has seen your food web and completed assignment and allowed you to move on. Type your answers on the sheet and edit it to fit one page. When ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-10-06

326

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

327

Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs  

E-print Network

Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs-900 Parana´, Brasil. Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that affects community structure and ecosystem function. What determines the length of food chains is not well resolved

Hoeinghaus, David J.

328

Food Scorecard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

329

A controlled study of sensory tics in Gilles de 1a Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder using a structured interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of sensory tics in the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), and a matched population of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a structured assessment. METHODS: 50 subjects each of GTS, OCD, and healthy controls were studied to determine the prevalence and phenomenology of sensory tics, and diagnose tic disorders, OCD, and affective

K Y Chee; P Sachdev

1997-01-01

330

Individual astringency responsiveness affects the acceptance of phenol-rich foods.  

PubMed

Sensory responses greatly vary between individuals, and individual sensory experiences influence eating behaviour. Three groups responding differently to phenolic astringent stimuli (Low Responding, LR, n=20, Medium Responding, MR, n=37 and High Responding, HR, n=20) were identified from a population of 77 subjects, based on the maintenance vs fluctuation of salivary characteristics after repeated stimulation of the masticatory and taste/somatosensory systems. The effect of LR, MR and HR status on perceived astringency and liking for phenol-containing apple, grape and carrot juices spiked with increasing tannic acid (TA) concentrations was examined. TA induced a greater increase of perceived astringency in HR, compared to MR and LR subjects. A decrease in liking for spiked juices was found in HR and to a lesser extent in MR and LR subjects. No significant differences were found comparing MR and LR groups for both astringency intensity and liking data. Liking for and familiarity with 37 food items, as well as preference for 14 phenol-rich foods and beverages, each paired with a less astringent counter-product, were also examined. An internal preference map was computed on liking scores and product subgroups were identified. An effect of LR/HR status was found for two food subgroups consisting of coffee without sugar, tea without sugar, raw chicory and milk chocolate, tea with sugar, coffee with sugar. LR subjects rated the products with the most astringency higher and those with the least astringency lower than did HR subjects. LR subjects also rated their familiarity with highly astringent products higher than did HR subjects. Thus, individual differences related to the physiological salivatory response to oral stimulations affect responses to astringent stimuli and can influence the overall acceptability of phenol-rich food items. PMID:21354451

Dinnella, Caterina; Recchia, Annamaria; Tuorila, Hely; Monteleone, Erminio

2011-06-01

331

Effect of ionising radiation treatment on the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations: effect of type and dose of radiation.  

PubMed

Migration levels of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticiser from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film into the European Union specified aqueous food simulants (distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid and 10% v/v ethanol) were monitored as a function of time. Migration testing was carried out at 40°C for 10 days. Determination of the analyte was performed by applying an analytical methodology based on surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction prior to gas chromatographic-flame ionisation detection. PVC cling film used was subjected to ionising treatment with a [(60)Co] source, as well as to electron-beam irradiation at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy, with the aim to compare the effect of type and dose of radiation on the specific migration behaviour of PVC. Equilibrium concentrations of acetyl tributyl citrate into the aqueous solvents covered the ranges 173-422 µg l(-1) and 296-513 µg l(-1) for gamma- and electron-irradiated PVC, respectively. Hence, e-beam irradiation resulted in significantly higher ATBC migration compared with gamma treatment. The highest extraction efficiency of the 10% ethanol solution was common in both gamma and e-beam treatments; distilled water demonstrated the lowest migration. Gamma-irradiation at intermediate doses up to 5 kGy produced no statistically significant (p > 0.05) effect on ATBC migration into all three aqueous simulants; however, this does not apply for high-energy electrons. Both ionising treatments were similar in that they resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in plasticiser migrating amounts between non-irradiated and irradiated at doses of 15 and 25 kGy samples. Gamma-radiation did not affect the kinetics of plasticiser migration. On the contrary, electron-beam radiation produced shorter equilibration times for all food-simulating solvents tested at 40°C. The above values regarding ATBC migration into aqueous food simulants are far below the European Union restriction (1 mg kg(-1) body weight) for both types of ionising radiation. Thus, PVC cling film may be used in food irradiation applications in contact with aqueous foodstuffs. PMID:21400321

Zygoura, P D; Paleologos, E K; Kontominas, M G

2011-05-01

332

Bits and pieces. Food texture influences food acceptance in young children.  

PubMed

Background: Picky or fussy eating is common in early childhood and associated with a decreased preference for a variety of foods. The aim of the current study was to experimentally test which sensory food feature is associated with food acceptance, which, in turn is an indication for fussy eating, in young children (between 32 and 48 months). In a repeated-measures-design, three sensory features were manipulated separately (i.e., colour, texture and taste) while keeping the other two features constant. The baseline measurement consisted of a well-liked yoghurt, which was presented before each manipulation variant. The number of spoons that children (N?=?32) consumed from each variant were registered as behavioural indication for food acceptance. Another aim was to evaluate how the behavioural measurement of food acceptance would be related to parental reports of their child's fussy eating behaviour and parental feeding styles. In addition, this study explored if children's body-mass index (BMI) was related to the behavioural measurement of food acceptance and parental reports of fussy eating behaviour. Results: The manipulation of food texture caused a significant decrease in intake. Colour and taste manipulations of the yoghurt did not affect children's intake. Parental reports of children's fussy eating behaviour and parental feeding styles were not related to the behavioural observation of food acceptance. The behavioural measurement of food acceptance and parental accounts of fussy eating were not related to children's BMI. Conclusion: Food texture but not taste or colour alternations affected food acceptance, at least when consuming variations of a well-liked yoghurt. This knowledge is important for further research on picky-eating interventions. Parental reports of fussy eating did not concur with the behavioural observation of food acceptance. Further research is warranted to test whether these findings generalize to other food types. PMID:25312750

Werthmann, Jessica; Roefs, Anne; Havermans, Remco; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Kremers, Stef; Jansen, Anita

2014-10-13

333

An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism  

PubMed Central

Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

2012-01-01

334

Food Chains and Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.

2012-06-14

335

Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.  

PubMed

The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278mg/L) and phosphate (51-428mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. PMID:25466130

Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

2015-04-15

336

Synthesis and sensory studies of umami-active scaffolds.  

PubMed

The class of 2-isopropyl-5-methylbicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-7-carboxamides, 1-4, has been identified as potent umami-tasting molecules. A scalable synthesis of this challenging scaffold and new sensory insights will be presented. Interestingly, the umami characteristics differ remarkably, depending on constitutional and stereochemical features of the parent scaffold. During our studies, we could identify the carboxamide moiety as a crucial factor to influence the umami intensity of these scaffolds. In addition, the configuration of the cyclopropyl moiety exerts some influence, whereas the absolute configuration of the menthyl scaffold, at least the tested D- and L-configuration, is less important. PMID:25408323

Backes, Michael; Paetz, Susanne; Vössing, Tobias; Ley, Jakob Peter

2014-11-01

337

Understanding foods as soft materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods make up some of the most complex examples of soft condensed matter (SCM) with which we interact daily. Their complexity arises from several factors: the intricacy of components, the different aggregation states in which foods are encountered, and the multitude of relevant characteristic time and length scales. Because foodstuffs are governed by the rules of SCM physics but with

Raffaele Mezzenga; Peter Schurtenberger; Adam Burbidge; Martin Michel

2005-01-01

338

The Great Lakes Food Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

Baker, Marjane L.

1997-01-01

339

Sensory and chemical characteristics of ground goat meat products  

E-print Network

Ground goat meat and beef with 15% target fat content were produced using primal cuts of goat meat and beef chuck roasts obtained at 24 hours and ~7 days postmortem, respectively, and analyzed for total fat, moistures total and nowhere irons 2...

Myers, Cheri Elizabeth

2012-06-07

340

A comparative study of sensory processing in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in the home and classroom environments.  

PubMed

Sensory processing and higher integrative functions impairments are highly prevalent in children with ASD. Context should be considered in analyzing the sensory profile and higher integrative functions. The main objective of this study is to compare sensory processing, social participation and praxis in a group of 79 children (65 males and 14 females) from 5 to 8 years of age (M=6.09) divided into two groups: ASD Group (n=41) and Comparison Group (n=38). The Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) was used to evaluate the sensory profile of the children: parents reported information about their children's characteristics in the home environment, and teachers reported information about the same characteristics in the classroom environment. The ASD Group obtained scores that indicate higher levels of dysfunction on all the assessed measures in both environments, with the greatest differences obtained on the social participation and praxis variables. The most affected sensory modalities in the ASD Group were hearing and touch. Only in the ASD Group were significant differences found between the information reported by parents and what was reported by teachers: specifically, the teachers reported greater dysfunction than the parents in social participation (p=.000), touch (p=.003) and praxis (p=.010). These results suggest that the context-specific qualities found in children with ASD point out the need to receive information from both parents and teachers during the sensory profile assessment process, and use context-specific assessments. PMID:25575284

Fernández-Andrés, M Inmaculada; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raúl

2015-03-01

341

Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts  

PubMed Central

Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder. PMID:24359124

Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A.; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A.; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp

2013-01-01

342

Sensory integration therapy: affect or effect.  

PubMed

The results of studies examining the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy were reviewed, using recently developed quantitative methods that treat the literature review process as a unique type of research. Forty-nine studies were located initially. Eight of these studies met the following criteria: (a) they investigated the effect of sensory integration therapy; (b) they included dependent measures of academic achievement, motor or reflex performance, and/or language function; (c) they included a comparison between at least two groups; and (d) they reported quantitative results of the effect of sensory integration therapy. The 8 studies contained a total of 47 statistical hypothesis tests that evaluated the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy. An analysis of these tests, using quantitative reviewing methods, revealed that subjects participating in sensory integration therapy performed significantly better than members in the control groups who did not receive sensory integration therapy. The application of sensory integration therapy to various client populations is discussed in relation to the existing empirical support revealed in the studies reviewed. The advantages of quantitative reviewing procedures are discussed, and use of the procedures with the developing occupational therapy research literature is recommended. PMID:6182800

Ottenbacher, K

1982-09-01

343

Shapes, scents and sounds: quantifying the full multi-sensory basis of conceptual knowledge.  

PubMed

Contemporary neuroscience theories assume that concepts are formed through experience in multiple sensory-motor modalities. Quantifying the contribution of each modality to different object categories is critical to understanding the structure of the conceptual system and to explaining category-specific knowledge deficits. Verbal feature listing is typically used to elicit this information but has a number of drawbacks: sensory knowledge often cannot easily be translated into verbal features and many features are experienced in multiple modalities. Here, we employed a more direct approach in which subjects rated their knowledge of objects in each sensory-motor modality separately. Compared with these ratings, feature listing over-estimated the importance of visual form and functional knowledge and under-estimated the contributions of other sensory channels. An item's sensory rating proved to be a better predictor of lexical-semantic processing speed than the number of features it possessed, suggesting that ratings better capture the overall quantity of sensory information associated with a concept. Finally, the richer, multi-modal rating data not only replicated the sensory-functional distinction between animals and non-living things but also revealed novel distinctions between different types of artefact. Hierarchical cluster analyses indicated that mechanical devices (e.g., vehicles) were distinct from other non-living objects because they had strong sound and motion characteristics, making them more similar to animals in this respect. Taken together, the ratings align with neuroscience evidence in suggesting that a number of distinct sensory processing channels make important contributions to object knowledge. Multi-modal ratings for 160 objects are provided as supplementary materials. PMID:23159700

Hoffman, Paul; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

2013-01-01

344

Food allergies and food intolerances.  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A

2006-01-01

345

Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with Cinnamaldehyde and Carvacrol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Addition of plant essential oils to edible films and coatings has been shown to protect against bacterial pathogens and spoilage while also enhancing sensory properties of foods. This study evaluated the effect of adding 0.5% and 0.75% carvacrol (active ingredient of oregano oil) to apple- and toma...

346

Effects of dietary fat, nutrition labels, and repeated consumption on sensory-specific satiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether energy from fat, nutrition information, and\\/or repeated consumption of a palatable snack food affects the development of sensory-specific satiety (SSS). Participants (51 males and 44 females) ate an afternoon snack of potato chips in a laboratory for two 10-day (Monday–Friday) sessions in a repeated measures, cross-over design. In one 10-day session, participants were given regular, full-fat

Debra L Miller; Elizabeth A Bell; Christine L Pelkman; John C Peters; Barbara J Rolls

2000-01-01

347

Information for Decision Making and Stimulus Identification is Multiplexed in Sensory Cortex  

PubMed Central

In recordings from anterior piriform cortex (APC) in awake behaving mice we find that neuronal firing early in the olfactory pathway simultaneously conveys fundamentally different information: odor value – is the odor rewarded? - and identity - what is the smell? Thus, this sensory system performs early multiplexing of information reflecting stimulus–specific characteristics with that used for decision-making. PMID:23792942

Gire, David H.; Whitesell, Jennifer D.; Doucette, Wilder; Restrepo, Diego

2013-01-01

348

Autonomic reactivity to sensory stimulation in psychopathic, neurotic, and normal juvenile delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that lowered reactivity and\\/or more rapid adaptation to sensory inputs is a primary characteristic in psychopaths, 19 psychopathic, 21 neurotic, and 26 normal juvenile delinquents were identified by a behavior checklist and were presented with 21 successive tone stimuli while skin conductance and heart rate (HR) were being monitored. Results indicate that psychopaths gave significantly lower

Thomas D. Borkovec

1970-01-01

349

Application of multidimensional scaling to the analysis of sensory evaluations of stimuli with known attribute structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined sensory perceptions of dimensionally simple stimuli composed of 1 or 2 objectively measurable attributes of flavor (sweet, sour) and color (red) using multidimensional scaling analysis. In 3 experiments with 20–30 19–36 yr old Ss each, high correlations were found between the objectively measurable physical characteristics of the stimuli and the perceptual spaces obtained by multidimensional scaling analysis of expressed

James M. McCullough; Charlene S. Martinsen; Reza Moinpour

1978-01-01

350

Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

2011-01-01

351

Unusual fine structure of sensory hair triad of the millipede, Polyxenus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sensory hairs are inserted at right angles to each other at the temporal region of the head of Polyxenus. They display structural features characteristic of trichobothria and of scolopidia as well. They also manifest several unusual details: 1) The dendritic cilia are enclosed within a capsule formed by enveloping cells. 2) The dendritic cilia are interconnected by desmosome-like junctions.

Harald Tichy

1975-01-01

352

Influence of physical parameters of sound on the sensory gating effects of N40 in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory gating is the ability of the brain to modulate its sensitivity to incoming stimuli. The N40 component of the auditory evoked potential, evaluated with the paired click paradigm, was used to probe the gating effect in rats. The physical characteristics of the first and second sounds (S1 and S2), such as frequency, duration, and intensity, were altered in three

Dongming Zhou; Yuanye Ma; Ning Liu; Lin Chen; Min He; Yingda Miao

2008-01-01

353

Sensory Impairments and Autism: A Re-Examination of Causal Modelling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory impairments are widely reported in autism, but remain largely unexplained by existing models. This article examines Kanner's causal reasoning and identifies unsupported assumptions implicit in later empirical work. Our analysis supports a heterogeneous causal model for autistic characteristics. We propose that the development of a…

Gerrard, Sue; Rugg, Gordon

2009-01-01

354

Joint Torque Sensory Feedback in the Control of a PUMA Manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate control of joint forces is essential to achieve high performance in advanced assembly and other tasks that involve fine motion, active force control, or high speed operations. Joint force control can be substantially improved by sensory feedback. In this paper we present the design and describe the actual characteristics of a joint torque sensor for a PUMA 500. Using

Lawrence Pfeffer; Oussama Khatib; John Hake

1986-01-01

355

Design and baseline characteristics of the Food4Me study: a web-based randomised controlled trial of personalised nutrition in seven European countries.  

PubMed

Improving lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing well-being. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a multi-centre, web-based, proof-of-principle study of personalised nutrition (PN) to determine whether providing more personalised dietary advice leads to greater improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes compared to conventional population-based advice. A total of 5,562 volunteers were screened across seven European countries; the first 1,607 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups for a 6-month period: Level 0-control group-receiving conventional, non-PN advice; Level 1-receiving PN advice based on dietary intake data alone; Level 2-receiving PN advice based on dietary intake and phenotypic data; and Level 3-receiving PN advice based on dietary intake, phenotypic and genotypic data. A total of 1,607 participants had a mean age of 39.8 years (ranging from 18 to 79 years). Of these participants, 60.9 % were women and 96.7 % were from white-European background. The mean BMI for all randomised participants was 25.5 kg m(-2), and 44.8 % of the participants had a BMI ? 25.0 kg m(-2). Food4Me is the first large multi-centre RCT of web-based PN. The main outcomes from the Food4Me study will be submitted for publication during 2015. PMID:25491748

Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Kolossa, Silvia; Hartwig, Kai; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwi??o, Agnieszka; Grimaldi, Keith; Bouwman, Jildau; Daly, E J; Akujobi, Victor; O'Riordan, Rick; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Hoeller, Ulrich; Gundersen, Thomas E; Kaland, Siv E; Matthews, John N S; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Alfredo Martinez, J; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

2015-01-01

356

The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.  

PubMed

Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. PMID:24953197

Tucker, Corrina A

2014-10-01

357

Sensory Pedagogy: Understanding and Encountering Children through the Senses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present article we aim to explore the link between Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and what we call sensory pedagogy. The latter connects to recent sensory ethnography as presented by S. Pink ("Sensory ethnography." London: Sage; 2009). We discuss how these thoughts can be put to work in toddler pedagogy. This kind of sensory

Johansson, Eva; Løkken, Gunvor

2014-01-01

358

Stimulus discrimination by the polymodal sensory neuron  

PubMed Central

Polymodal sensory neurons inform organisms about the nature of the physical world around them. The activity of these cells guide behaviors including the withdrawal from nocifensive stimuli such as intense heat or harsh force to feeling the comforting weight of a warm blanket. Molecular and genetic analysis of the channel proteins required for these divers behavioral responses have revealed an elaborate and disparate collection of channel proteins within the polymodal sensory neuron. Recent data supports that the biophysical traits of the channel proteins combined with the collection of channels activated during stimulation is sufficient to describe the nature of the stimulus. It is currently unclear what the functional arrangement of channel proteins are during perception. Specifically, are channel proteins arranged in parallel and function independently during perception, or are these channel proteins arranged in functional sensory networks. We propose a hierarchal functional arrangement of channels within polymodal sensory neurons that incorporates aspects of both parallel and serial arrangements of channel proteins. PMID:23749412

Stockand, James D.; Eaton, Benjamin A.

2013-01-01

359

Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing.  

PubMed

Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime--when sampling limitations constrain performance--efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. PMID:25396297

Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tka?ik, Gašper

2014-01-01

360

Sensory circumventricular organs in health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized brain structures located around the third and fourth ventricles. They differ\\u000a from the rest of the brain parenchyma in that they are highly vascularised areas that lack a blood–brain barrier. These neurohaemal\\u000a organs are classified as “sensory”, when they contain neurons that can receive chemical inputs from the bloodstream. This\\u000a review focuses on the sensory

Sílvia Sisó; Martin Jeffrey; Lorenzo González

2010-01-01

361

Asymmetric synthesis and sensory evaluation of sedanenolide.  

PubMed

The synthesis and sensory evaluation of enantiomeric sets of sedanenolide (1) and 3-butylphthalide (3) are described. The asymmetric synthesis was achieved via the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of chiral propargylester (5) which was prepared from optically active propargyl alcohol (4) and 2,4-pentadienoic acid. The sensory evaluation of these enantiomers revealed that there were distinct differences between their aroma character and odor threshold. PMID:21821949

Oguro, Daichi; Watanabe, Hidenori

2011-01-01

362

P50 Sensory Gating in Infants  

PubMed Central

Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations. PMID:24430259

Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

2013-01-01

363

A layered network model of sensory cortex  

SciTech Connect

An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to the auditory system. Through an exercise of the model, it is shown that spatial location of sounds may be a natural consequence of the way cochlear response is mapped onto the cortex. 31 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Travis, B.J.

1986-01-01

364

Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN

2007-01-01

365

Food additives  

PubMed Central

Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

Spencer, Michael

1974-01-01

366

Anthropogenic noise affects behavior across sensory modalities.  

PubMed

Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals. PMID:25226190

Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R

2014-10-01

367

Safety evaluation of genetically modified foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of substantial equivalence has been accepted as the cornerstone of the health hazard assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods (OECD 1993). Substantial equivalence is the most practical approach to address the safety of foods or food components derived from GM crops and is based on comparison of the phenotypic and compositional characteristics of the parent crop and the

M. A. Martens

2000-01-01

368

Cellular and Network Mechanisms Underlying Information Processing in a Simple Sensory System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic, biophysically-based compartmental models were constructed of several primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system. A dynamic atlas of the afferent input to these cells was used to set spatio-temporal parameters for the simulated stimulus-dependent synaptic inputs. We examined the roles of dendritic morphology, passive membrane properties, and active conductances on the frequency tuning of the neurons. The sensitivity of narrow-band low pass interneurons could be explained entirely by the electronic structure of the dendritic arbors and the dynamic sensitivity of the SIZ. The dynamic characteristics of interneurons with higher frequency sensitivity required models with voltage-dependent dendritic conductances.

Jacobs, Gwen; Henze, Chris; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

369

Effect of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel powder (DPPP) on textural, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of biscuits.  

PubMed

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and ?-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits. PMID:25019979

Srivastava, Prateeti; Indrani, D; Singh, R P

2014-11-01

370

Sensory quality of functional beverages: bitterness perception and bitter masking of olive leaf extract fortified fruit smoothies.  

PubMed

Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains high amounts of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of these polyphenols makes OLE a promising ingredient for functional food. OLE causes very strong bitterness perception and can therefore only be formulated in low concentrations. In this research, bitter detection and recognition thresholds of OLE-fortified fruit smoothies were determined by a trained sensory panel (n = 11). Masking of the OLE's bitter taste was investigated with addition of sodium cyclamate, sodium chloride, and sucrose by means of a standardized ranking method and a scale test. Detection (5.78 mg/100 g) and recognition thresholds (8.05 mg/100 g) of OLE polyphenols confirmed the low formulation limits when bitterness was not masked by other substances. At higher polyphenol levels of 20 mg/100 g, sodium cyclamate and sucrose were able to reduce bitter taste perception by 39.9% and 24.9%, respectively, whereas sodium chloride could not effectively mask bitterness. Practical Application: Development of functional food poses new challenges for the food industry. A major problem in this field is the high bitterness of natural polyphenol-containing extracts with potential health benefits. This research was conducted to understand the sensory impact of olive leaf extract (OLE), a novel food ingredient with very bitter taste. In product development, the data of this research can be considered for formulation limits and the general sensory quality of OLE-fortified food and beverages. PMID:20722953

Kranz, Peter; Braun, Nina; Schulze, Nadine; Kunz, Benno

2010-08-01

371

How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

2014-01-01

372

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... of links for more information about food allergy Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

373

Food Allergy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

374

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

375

Food jags  

MedlinePLUS

Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... you can do to help your child try new foods include: Have other family members help set ... that are pleasing to the eye. Start introducing new tastes, especially green vegetables, beginning at 6 months, ...

376

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... germs. Chill - put fresh food in the refrigerator right away. In the grocery store, avoid cans that are bulging or jars that have cracks or loose lids. Check packages to be sure food hasn't reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture

377

Feeding state, insulin and NPR-1 modulate chemoreceptor gene expression via integration of sensory and circuit inputs.  

PubMed

Feeding state and food availability can dramatically alter an animals' sensory response to chemicals in its environment. Dynamic changes in the expression of chemoreceptor genes may underlie some of these food and state-dependent changes in chemosensory behavior, but the mechanisms underlying these expression changes are unknown. Here, we identified a KIN-29 (SIK)-dependent chemoreceptor, srh-234, in C. elegans whose expression in the ADL sensory neuron type is regulated by integration of sensory and internal feeding state signals. We show that in addition to KIN-29, signaling is mediated by the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor, OCR-2 TRPV channel, and NPR-1 neuropeptide receptor. Cell-specific rescue experiments suggest that DAF-2 and OCR-2 act in ADL, while NPR-1 acts in the RMG interneurons. NPR-1-mediated regulation of srh-234 is dependent on gap-junctions, implying that circuit inputs regulate the expression of chemoreceptor genes in sensory neurons. Using physical and genetic manipulation of ADL neurons, we show that sensory inputs from food presence and ADL neural output regulate srh-234 expression. While KIN-29 and DAF-2 act primarily via the MEF-2 (MEF2) and DAF-16 (FOXO) transcription factors to regulate srh-234 expression in ADL neurons, OCR-2 and NPR-1 likely act via a calcium-dependent but MEF-2- and DAF-16-independent pathway. Together, our results suggest that sensory- and circuit-mediated regulation of chemoreceptor genes via multiple pathways may allow animals to precisely regulate and fine-tune their chemosensory responses as a function of internal and external conditions. PMID:25357003

Gruner, Matthew; Nelson, Dru; Winbush, Ari; Hintz, Rebecca; Ryu, Leesun; Chung, Samuel H; Kim, Kyuhyung; Gabel, Chrisopher V; van der Linden, Alexander M

2014-10-01

378

Cross-sensory transfer of sensory-motor information: visuomotor learning affects performance on an audiomotor task, using sensory-substitution.  

PubMed

Visual-to-auditory sensory-substitution devices allow users to perceive a visual image using sound. Using a motor-learning task, we found that new sensory-motor information was generalized across sensory modalities. We imposed a rotation when participants reached to visual targets, and found that not only seeing, but also hearing the location of targets via a sensory-substitution device resulted in biased movements. When the rotation was removed, aftereffects occurred whether the location of targets was seen or heard. Our findings demonstrate that sensory-motor learning was not sensory-modality-specific.?We conclude that novel sensory-motor information can be transferred between sensory modalities. PMID:23230514

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Novick, Itai; Arbel, Roni; Abboud, Sami; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Vaadia, Eilon; Amedi, Amir

2012-01-01

379

Cross-sensory transfer of sensory-motor information: visuomotor learning affects performance on an audiomotor task, using sensory-substitution  

PubMed Central

Visual-to-auditory sensory-substitution devices allow users to perceive a visual image using sound. Using a motor-learning task, we found that new sensory-motor information was generalized across sensory modalities. We imposed a rotation when participants reached to visual targets, and found that not only seeing, but also hearing the location of targets via a sensory-substitution device resulted in biased movements. When the rotation was removed, aftereffects occurred whether the location of targets was seen or heard. Our findings demonstrate that sensory-motor learning was not sensory-modality-specific.?We conclude that novel sensory-motor information can be transferred between sensory modalities. PMID:23230514

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Novick, Itai; Arbel, Roni; Abboud, Sami; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Vaadia, Eilon; Amedi, Amir

2012-01-01

380

Food porn.  

PubMed

Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

McBride, Anne E

2010-01-01

381

Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids)  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). CONCLUSION The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. PMID:24619938

Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

2014-01-01

382

Enhanced sensory sampling precedes self-initiated locomotion in an electric fish.  

PubMed

Cortical activity precedes self-initiated movements by several seconds in mammals; this observation has led into inquiries on the nature of volition. Preparatory neural activity is known to be associated with decision making and movement planning. Self-initiated locomotion has been linked to increased active sensory sampling; however, the precise temporal relationship between sensory acquisition and voluntary movement initiation has not been established. Based on long-term monitoring of sensory sampling activity that is readily observable in freely behaving pulse-type electric fish, we show that heightened sensory acquisition precedes spontaneous initiation of swimming. Gymnotus sp. revealed a bimodal distribution of electric organ discharge rate (EODR) demonstrating down- and up-states of sensory sampling and neural activity; movements only occurred during up-states and up-states were initiated before movement onset. EODR during voluntary swimming initiation exhibited greater trial-to-trial variability than the sound-evoked increases in EODR. The sampling variability declined after voluntary movement onset as previously observed for the neural variability associated with decision making in primates. Spontaneous movements occurred randomly without a characteristic timescale, and no significant temporal correlation was found between successive movement intervals. Using statistical analyses of spontaneous exploratory behaviours and associated preparatory sensory sampling increase, we conclude that electric fish exhibit key attributes of volitional movements, and that voluntary behaviours in vertebrates may generally be preceded by increased sensory sampling. Our results suggest that comparative studies of the neural basis of volition may therefore be possible in pulse-type electric fish, given the substantial homologies between the telencephali of teleost fish and mammals. PMID:25320268

Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

2014-10-15

383

The Applicability of the Short Sensory Profile for Screening Sensory Processing Disorders among Israeli Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine the applicability of the short sensory profile (SSP) for screening sensory processing disorders (SPDs) among typical children in Israel, and to evaluate the relationship between SPDs and socio-demographic parameters. Participants were 395 Israeli children, aged 3 years to 10 years 11 months, with typical…

Engel-Yeger, Batya

2010-01-01

384

Physiological and Behavioral Differences in Sensory Processing: A Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder  

PubMed Central

A high incidence of sensory processing difficulties exists in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and children with Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD). This is the first study to directly compare and contrast these clinical disorders. Sympathetic nervous system markers of arousal and reactivity were utilized in a laboratory paradigm that administered a series of sensory challenges across five sensory domains. The Short Sensory Profile, a standardized parent-report measure, provided a measure of sensory-related behaviors. Physiological arousal and sensory reactivity were lower in children with ASD whereas reactivity after each sensory stimulus was higher in SMD, particularly to the first stimulus in each sensory domain. Both clinical groups had significantly more sensory-related behaviors than typically developing children, with contrasting profiles. The ASD group had more taste/smell sensitivity and sensory under-responsivity while the SMD group had more atypical sensory seeking behavior. This study provides preliminary evidence distinguishing sympathetic nervous system functions and sensory-related behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder. Differentiating the physiology and sensory symptoms in clinical groups is essential to the provision of appropriate interventions. PMID:19915733

Schoen, Sarah A.; Miller, Lucy J.; Brett-Green, Barbara A.; Nielsen, Darci M.

2009-01-01

385

Mineral and sensory profile of seasoned cracked olives packed in diverse salt mixtures.  

PubMed

This work studies the effect of packing cracked seasoned olives with NaCl, KCl, and CaCl(2) mixture brines on their mineral nutrients and sensory attributes, using RSM methodology. The Na, K, Ca, and residual natural Mn contents in flesh as well as saltiness, bitterness and fibrousness were significantly related to the initial concentrations of salts in the packing solution. This new process led to table olives with a significantly lower sodium content (about 31%) than the traditional product but fortified in K and Ca. High levels of Na and Ca in the flesh led to high scores of acidity and saltiness (the first descriptor) and bitterness (the second) while the K content was unrelated to any sensory descriptor. The new presentations using moderate proportions of alternative salts will therefore have improved nutritional value and healthier characteristics but only a slightly modified sensory profile. PMID:23265447

Moreno-Baquero, J M; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A; López-López, A

2013-05-01

386

Sensory roles of neuronal cilia: Cilia development, morphogenesis, and function in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, cilia are found on the dendritic endings of sensory neurons. C. elegans cilia are classified as `primary' or `sensory' according to the `9+0' axonemal ultrastiucture (nine doublet outer microtubules with no central microtubule pair) and lack of motility, characteristics of `9+2' cilia. The C. elegans ciliated nervous system allows the animal to perceive environmental stimuli and make appropriate developmental, physiological, and behavioral decisions. In vertebrates, the biological significance of primary cilia had been largely neglected. Recent findings have placed primary/sensory cilia in the center of cellular signaling and developmental processes. Studies using genetic model organisms such as C. elegans identified the link between ciliary dysfunction and human ciliopathies. Future studies in the worm will address important basic questions regarding ciliary development, morphogenesis, specialization, and signaling functions. PMID:18508635

Bae, Young-Kyung; Barr, Maureen M.

2011-01-01

387

Applications of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in Food Science  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decade, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties of various food products during processing and distribution. ANNs have a great deal of promise for modeling complex tasks in process control and simulation, and in applications of machine perception including machine vision and the electronic nose for food safety and quality control. This review discusses the basic theory of the ANN technology and its applications in food science, providing food scientists and the research community an overview of the current research and future trend of the applications of ANN technology in this field.

HUang, Yiqun; Kangas, Lars J.; Rasco, Barbara A.

2007-02-01

388

The neurocognitive consequences of the wandering mind: a mechanistic account of sensory-motor decoupling  

PubMed Central

A unique human characteristic is our ability to mind wander – a state in which we are free to engage in thoughts that are not directly tied to sensations and perceptions from our immediate physical environment. From a neurocognitive perspective, it has been proposed that during mind wandering, our executive resources are decoupled from the external environment and directed to these internal thoughts. In this review, we examine an underappreciated aspect of this phenomenon – attenuation of sensory-motor processing – from two perspectives. First, we describe the range of widespread sensory, cognitive and motor processes attenuated during mind wandering states, and how this impacts our neurocognitive processing of external events. We then consider sensory-motor attenuation in a class of clinical neurocognitive disorders that have ties to pathological patterns of decoupling, reviews suggesting that mind wandering and these clinical states may share a common mechanism of sensory-motor attenuation. Taken together, these observations suggest the sensory-motor consequences of decoupled thinking are integral to normal and pathological neurocognitive states. PMID:24133472

Kam, Julia W. Y.; Handy, Todd C.

2013-01-01

389

Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study  

PubMed Central

In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

2012-01-01

390

Irradiation, microwave and alternative energy-based treatments for low water activity foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is an increasing recognition of low water activity foods as vectors for human pathogens. Partially or fully dried agricultural commodities, along with modern formulated dried food products, are complex, and designed to meet a variety of nutritional, sensory, and market-oriented goal. This comp...

391

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2004-01-01

392

Perceptions of genetically modified foods by consumers in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of genetically modified foods (GMF) by consumers in Argentina was investigated using the repertory grid method in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis. The following factors were considered: type of genetic modification (microbial, plant or animal), rationale for modification (nutritional, sensory or economic), labeling or not labeling as genetically modified, controls (local or international) and associated risks (health or environment).

Andrea Mucci; Guillermo Hough

2003-01-01

393

Food Grab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

394

Space Food  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

1994-01-01

395

Does sediment resuspension by storms affect the fate of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in the benthic food chain? Interactions between changes in POM characteristics, adsorption and absorption by the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental parameters and gross sedimentation rates (GSR) were monitored at a fixed site located in the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (NW Mediterranean), between March 1997 and April 1998, together with the main biochemical characteristics of both sedimenting and sedimented particulate organic matter (POM). Three storms which occurred during this time period resulted in natural sediment resuspension. This is indicated by the corresponding increase in GSR and a decrease in the enzymatically hydrolysable amino acids/totally hydrolysable amino acids ratio (EHAA/THAA), within the sedimenting POM. Only the strongest storm resulted in (1) a transitory increase in fine-grained particles, (2) concomitant increases in organic carbon, carbohydrates, lipids and THAA, and (3) a decrease in the EHAA/THAA ratio in surficial sediments. For most of the assayed parameters, the values recorded after the December 1997 storm corresponded to extremes for the whole period under study. This emphasises the role of storms in controlling the characteristics of sedimented and sedimenting POM. Ten sediment types, with contrasting biochemical characteristics, were selected for experiments; these were based on the results of the monitoring survey and were used during adsorption and absorption experiments involving 14C tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB). Adsorption rates differed significantly between the sediment types, but did not correlate with any of the assayed biochemical parameters. Absorption efficiency by the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis also differed between the sediment types; it correlated positively with all the assayed biochemical parameters, except lipids. Comparison between the magnitudes of the increase in GSR, together with the decrease in absorption efficiency during resuspension events, suggests that resuspension tends to enhance the transfer of organic pollutants in the benthic food chain.

Charles, François; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Grémare, Antoine; Michel Amouroux, Jean; Desmalades, Martin; Vétion, Gilles; Escoubeyrou, Karine

2005-12-01

396

Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

Sparling, D.W.

1991-01-01

397

Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking  

PubMed Central

Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

2010-01-01

398

Classification of children with autism spectrum disorder by sensory subtype: a case for sensory-based phenotypes.  

PubMed

This study examines whether sensory differences can be used to classify meaningful subgroups of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with ASD aged 2-10 years (n?=?228) completed the Short Sensory Profile. Model-based cluster analysis was used to extract sensory subtypes. The relationship of these subtypes to age, gender, autism symptom severity, and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) was further explored. Four distinct sensory subtypes were identified: (a) sensory adaptive; (b) taste smell sensitive; (c) postural inattentive; and (d) generalized sensory difference. The sensory subtypes differ from each other on two dimensions: (a) the severity of reported sensory differences; and (b) the focus of differences across auditory, taste, smell, vestibular and proprioceptive domains. Examination of the clinical features of each subtype reveals two possible mechanisms of sensory disturbance in autism: (a) sensory hyperreactivity; and (b) difficulties with multisensory processing. Further, the sensory subtypes are not well explained by other variables such as age, gender, IQ, and autism symptom severity. We conclude that classification of children using sensory differences offers a promising method by which to identify phenotypes in ASD. Sensory-based phenotypes may be useful in identifying behavioral features responsive to specific interventions thereby improving intervention effectiveness. Further validation of the sensory-based phenotypes by establishing neural and physiological correlates is recommended. PMID:24639147

Lane, Alison E; Molloy, Cynthia A; Bishop, Somer L

2014-06-01

399

The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

Lickliter, Robert

2011-01-01

400

Sensory dysfunction in children who toe walk.  

PubMed

In order to formulate a hypothesis regarding the etiology of toe walking, the sensory processing abilities of 17 mentally retarded children who toe walk were examined. A galvanic skin response was used to compare reactions of the mentally retarded children and a group of normal children to a variety of sensory stimuli. Galvanic skin response testing did not reveal significant differences between the two groups in processing sensory input. Scores of the mentally retarded children from a postrotary nystagmus test were compared to values for normal children of the same age, and the results indicated that vestibular dysfunction was present in all of the subjects. We hypothesize that children may toe walk to increase somatosensory input to the lateral vestibular nucleus (Deiter's) and the lateral vestibulospinal tract to facilitate support tone in the lower extremities during walking. PMID:693578

Montgomery, P; Gauger, J

1978-10-01

401

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly people are at the greatest risk for food poisoning. You are also at higher risk if: ...

402

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... food allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish ( ... peanut allergy and about 10% of kids with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish ...

403

Food Justice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this adaptation of a video that high school students created in collaboration with the Environmental Justice League of Rhode Island, learn what's whack about our current food systems and the many actions individuals can take to address these issues.

2011-03-02

404

Future food.  

PubMed

Journalists and science fiction writers love to speculate that soon we will not be eating food as we have known it for millennia, but only the encapsulated products of the 'farmaceutical' industry. What nonsense! PMID:11852285

Malcolm, Alan D B

2002-02-01

405

Sensory synergy as environmental input integration  

PubMed Central

The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

2015-01-01

406

Access to Affordable, Nutritious Food Is Limited in “Food Deserts† 

Microsoft Academic Search

A small percentage of U.S. households live in “food deserts,†where access to a supermarket or large grocery store is a problem. Low-income households often leave food deserts to shop where food prices are lower. Business costs, along with characteristics of potential customers, affect where stores locate.

Michele Ver Ploeg

2010-01-01

407

Effects of mobility and location on food access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to healthy food has become an important area of investigation for researchers interested in health disparities and inequalities. The debate about the existence and characteristics of ‘food deserts’ has increased the interest in food availability and equity in health research. This debate is crucial to an understanding of the factors leading to food security. Research reported here used in-depth

John Coveney; Lisel A. O’Dwyer

2009-01-01

408

Effects of mobility and location on food access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to healthy food has become an important area of investigation for researchers interested in health disparities and inequalities. The debate about the existence and characteristics of 'food deserts' has increased the interest in food availability and equity in health research. This debate is crucial to an understanding of the factors leading to food security. Research reported here used in-depth

John Coveney; Lisel A. O'Dwyer

409

Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the volatile and non-volatile compositions as well as sensory properties of the most common monovarietal white wine (var. Solaris) in Denmark. Using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 volatile compounds were identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while the remainder were described by less pleasant flavours, such as chemical, wood and rooibos/smoke. Partial least squares regression (PLS) showed that acetates and ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids were associated with floral and fruity odours while ethyl esters of branched-chain fatty acids were less associated with them. The study also suggested that differences in vintage were less characteristic than differences caused due to sulphite management by producers. PMID:25053038

Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Zhang, Shujuan; Arneborg, Nils; Bredie, Wender L P

2015-01-01

410

Physicochemical, textural, volatile, and sensory profiles of traditional Sepet cheese.  

PubMed

Characterization of traditional cheeses is important for the protection of diversity of tradition and contributing baseline data for further research and quality control. Sepet cheese is a traditional cheese and specific to the Aegean region of Turkey. In this study, 52 Sepet cheese samples were analyzed to characterize the physicochemical, textural, volatile compounds, and sensory profiles. The changes in the physicochemical and volatile compositions were investigated during production and ripening periods. The average dry matter (DM; 55.16%), fat-in-DM (45.80%), protein (29.18%), salt-in-DM (12.88%), water activity (0.83), pH (5.50), titratable acidity (1.69%), ripening and lipolysis indices (11.06 and 6.36), firmness (212.20N), springiness (0.62), cohesiveness (0.57), adhesiveness (0.48 Nmm), and chewiness (66.87N) values of Sepet cheese samples were determined. Hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and butyric acids, which were responsible for the cheesy, waxy, goaty odors, were the most abundant volatile compounds in these cheeses. Most of the volatile compounds increased significantly during production and ripening. Significant changes in most of the physicochemical characteristics were observed up to the third month of ripening. As a result of the descriptive sensory analysis, Sepet cheeses were described with descriptors such as free fatty acid, animal like, sulfurous, creamy, cooked, and whey, and aromatics with high salty basic taste. PMID:21854903

Ercan, D; Korel, F; Yüceer, Y Karagül; K?n?k, O

2011-09-01

411

Linear Superposition of Sensory-Evoked and Ongoing Cortical Hemodynamics  

PubMed Central

Modern non-invasive brain imaging techniques utilize changes in cerebral blood flow, volume and oxygenation that accompany brain activation. However, stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses display considerable inter-trial variability even when identical stimuli are presented and the sources of this variability are poorly understood. One of the sources of this response variation could be ongoing spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations. To investigate this issue, 2-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy was used to measure cortical hemodynamics in response to sensory stimuli in anesthetized rodents. Pre-stimulus cortical hemodynamics displayed spontaneous periodic fluctuations and as such, data from individual stimulus presentation trials were assigned to one of four groups depending on the phase angle of pre-stimulus hemodynamic fluctuations and averaged. This analysis revealed that sensory evoked cortical hemodynamics displayed distinctive response characteristics and magnitudes depending on the phase angle of ongoing fluctuations at stimulus onset. To investigate the origin of this phenomenon, “null-trials” were collected without stimulus presentation. Subtraction of phase averaged “null trials” from their phase averaged stimulus-evoked counterparts resulted in four similar time series that resembled the mean stimulus-evoked response. These analyses suggest that linear superposition of evoked and ongoing cortical hemodynamic changes may be a property of the structure of inter-trial variability. PMID:20844602

Saka, Mohamad; Berwick, Jason; Jones, Myles

2010-01-01

412

Contribution of native pasture to the sensory properties of Ragusano cheese.  

PubMed

Ragusano is a Protected Denomination of Origin cheese produced in the Hyblean area of Sicily. Sixteen samples of Ragusano cheese from two different treatments [pasture and total mixed ration (TMR)] were evaluated after 4 and 7 mo of aging. The color of the cheeses produced from milk of cows consuming fresh native pasture plants was much more yellow than cheeses from TMR fed cows (i.e., higher Hunter b value). This was due to transfer of beta-carotene and related compounds from the diet and demonstrated that compounds from native pasture plants changed the sensory characteristics of Ragusano cheese. To avoid a "halo" effect in a trained panel, quantitative descriptive analysis sensory evaluation of these cheeses for odor, taste, consistency, and mouth structure, color differences among cheeses were masked. A unique approach in sensory analysis was developed using sunglasses with lenses designed to block light at the specific wavelengths at which panelists would detect differences in color among samples. Testing was conducted every 2-wk period (15-d increments) with two tests per week using 11 trained panelists. All the panelists tasted all the products. Panelists were able to detect significant differences in the sensory characteristics of cheeses produced from milk of cows consuming native pastures versus TMR even when the color difference was masked. PMID:14762073

Carpino, S; Horne, J; Melilli, C; Licitra, G; Barbano, D M; Van Soest, P J

2004-02-01

413

Dissecting a central flip-flop circuit that integrates contradictory sensory cues in C. elegans feeding regulation.  

PubMed

Feeding behaviour is modulated by both environmental cues and internal physiological states. Appetite is commonly boosted by the pleasant smell (or appearance) of food and destroyed by a bad taste. In reality, animals sense multiple environmental cues at the same time and it is not clear how these sensory inputs are integrated and a decision is made to regulate feeding behaviour accordingly. Here we show that feeding behaviour in Caenorhabditis elegans can be either facilitated by attractive odours or suppressed by repellents. By identifying mutants that are defective for sensory-mediated feeding regulation, we dissected a central flip-flop circuit that integrates two contradictory sensory inputs and generates bistable hormone output to regulate feeding behaviour. As feeding regulation is fundamental to animal survival, we speculate that the basic organizational logic identified here in C. elegans is likely convergent throughout different phyla. PMID:22491324

Li, Zhaoyu; Li, Yidong; Yi, Yalan; Huang, Wenming; Yang, Song; Niu, Weipin; Zhang, Li; Xu, Zijing; Qu, Anlian; Wu, Zhengxing; Xu, Tao

2012-01-01

414

Sensory theories of developmental dyslexia: three challenges for research  

E-print Network

Recent years have seen the publication of a range of new theories suggesting that the basis of dyslexia may be sensory dysfunction. Here, the evidence for and against several prominent sensory theories of dyslexia is closely scrutinized. Contrary...

Goswami, Usha

2014-01-01

415

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V  

MedlinePLUS

... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... gene ; growth factor ; hereditary ; inherited ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...

416

Indexical Embodiments : : Sensory Cinema and/as Historical Reenactment  

E-print Network

of sensory anthropology and performance studies offerstudies, performance studies, visual/sensory anthropology,anthropology and history and memory, and an ethnographic research methodology within the fields of performance

Rice, David Andrew

2013-01-01

417

Out of thin air: sensory detection of oxygen and carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Oxygen (O?) and carbon dioxide (CO?) levels vary in different environments and locally fluctuate during respiration and photosynthesis. Recent studies in diverse animals have identified sensory neurons that detect these external variations and direct a variety of behaviors. Detection allows animals to stay within a preferred environment as well as identify potential food or dangers. The complexity of sensation is reflected in the fact that neurons compartmentalize detection into increases, decreases, and short-range and long-range cues. Animals also adjust their responses to these prevalent signals in the context of other cues, allowing for flexible behaviors. In general, the molecular mechanisms for detection suggest that sensory neurons adopted ancient strategies for cellular detection and coupled them to brain activity and behavior. This review highlights the multiple strategies that animals use to extract information about their environment from variations in O? and CO?. PMID:21262460

Scott, Kristin

2011-01-27

418

Out of thin air: Sensory detection of oxygen and carbon dioxide  

PubMed Central

Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels vary in different environments and locally fluctuate during respiration and photosynthesis. Recent studies in diverse animals have identified sensory neurons that detect these external variations and direct a variety of behaviors. Detection allows animals to stay within a preferred environment as well as identify potential food or dangers. The complexity of sensation is reflected in the fact that neurons compartmentalize detection into increases, decreases, short-range and long-range cues. Animals also adjust their responses to these prevalent signals in context of other cues, allowing for flexible behaviors. In general, the molecular mechanisms for detection suggest that sensory neurons adopted ancient strategies for cellular detection and coupled them to brain activity and behavior. This review highlights the multiple strategies that animals use to extract information about their environment from variations in oxygen and carbon dioxide. PMID:21262460

Scott, Kristin

2011-01-01

419

Effect of tiger nut fibre on quality characteristics of pork burger.  

PubMed

Horchata is a refreshing beverage obtained from tiger nut tubers that yields high amount of by-products. These by-products have a high content of fibre that allows its application in the development of dietary fibre rich foods. The utilization of increasing levels (0%-control, 5%, 10% and 15%) of tiger nut fibre (TNF), in the formulation of pork burgers was evaluated. This evaluation was based on: chemical composition, physicochemical, cooking characteristics and sensory properties of burgers. Pork burgers elaborated with TNF had higher nutritional value (higher fibre content) and better cooking characteristics (higher cooking yield, fat retention and moisture retention) than control burgers. Some of the negative changes in colour (a* decrease and b* increase) and texture (chewiness and springiness increase) parameters due to TNF addition observed in raw burgers were masked by the stronger modifications due to the cooking process. Burgers with TNF were perceived as less greasy, less juicy, more grainy and with less meaty flavour than controls; although this perception did not reduce the overall acceptability of burgers. Overall acceptability scores were slightly lower in burgers with 15% TNF, although no significant differences were detected with the scores of control, 5% and 10% TNF burgers. TNF addition to burgers is a promising and convenient application as dietary fibre of burgers was significantly increased without changes in sensory acceptance. PMID:20374867

Sánchez-Zapata, E; Muñoz, C M; Fuentes, E; Fernández-López, J; Sendra, E; Sayas, E; Navarro, C; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

2010-05-01

420

Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

Shuman, Theresa

421

A Housefly Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insects have many interesting behaviors that can be observed in an introductory biology laboratory setting. In the present article, we describe several reflexes using the housefly "Musca domestica" that can be used to introduce students to sensory and motor responses and encourage them to think about the underlying neural circuits and integration…

Griff, Edwin R; Kane, Thomas C.

2010-01-01

422

Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.  

PubMed

Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation. PMID:24834571

Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

2014-05-01

423

Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

424

Sensory Integration: A Home Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summer home intervention program provided sensory integration therapy and visual-motor integration tasks to a preschooler with gross and fine motor delays. The child was involved in enjoyable activities and encouraged to talk to himself during his actions. The program was both successful and fun. (CL)

Ainsa, Trisha

1983-01-01

425

Sensory Integration--Myth, Method, and Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a response to a critique of studies on the use of sensory integration therapy with mentally retarded persons, the article suggests that the original authors should have encouraged professionals using this therapy to systematically evaluate outcomes rather than discouraging them from using the therapy. (DB)

Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

1988-01-01

426

Child's Play: A Sensory-Integrative Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to demonstrate the direct relationship of physical play to sensory integration, this descriptive study measured fine and gross motor activities, and the repetition and duration of preferred activities among 179 children between 2 and 8 years of age who participated in 3 early childhood programs in California. Data were collected by…

Hartman, Jeanette Allison

427

A physical basis for sensory perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

Norwich, Kenneth H.

2014-11-01

428

Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing  

PubMed Central

Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tka?ik, Gašper

2014-01-01

429

What Is the Goal of Sensory Coding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent attempts have been made to describe early sensory coding in terms of a general information processing strategy. In this paper, two strategies are contrasted. Both strategies take advantage of the redundancy in the environment to produce more effective representations. The first is described as a compact coding scheme. A compact code performs a transform that allows

David J. Field

1994-01-01

430

Synchronisation in anticipative sensory-motor schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model of anticipative sensory-motor schemes, inspired by Jean Piaget and Interactivist theories. The necessity of interactivity in order to provide a real epistemic contact to reality is discussed. We then describe a computer implementation of such schemes, applied to the recognition of musical rhythms, which illustrates these ideas in a more concrete way. Assimilation schemes Assimilation

Jean-Charles Quinton; Christophe Duverger; Jean-Christophe Buisson

431

SENSORY EVALUATION OF SELECTED WALNUT CULTIVARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensory evaluation study was performed at UC Davis to determine if taste differences could be detected among several English walnut (Juglans regia) cultivars. Differences were tested using the duo-trio method, in which 'Hartley' was compared to seven other cultivars. No differences were found when 'Hartley' was compared to 'Vina', 'Scharsch Franquette' and 'Mayette', however 'Chandler', 'Chico', 'Howard' and 'Sunland'

Chuck Ingels; Gale McGranahan; Ann Noble

432

Combining Sensory Information: Mandatory Fusion Within, but  

E-print Network

Combining Sensory Information: Mandatory Fusion Within, but Not Between, Senses J. M. Hillis,1 * M supply haptic shape information by means of tactile and proprioceptive cues. Combining information across (disparity and texture gradients in vision) are combined, but not when different modalities (vision

433

Temporal Structure in Audiovisual Sensory Selection  

PubMed Central

In natural environments, sensory information is embedded in temporally contiguous streams of events. This is typically the case when seeing and listening to a speaker or when engaged in scene analysis. In such contexts, two mechanisms are needed to single out and build a reliable representation of an event (or object): the temporal parsing of information and the selection of relevant information in the stream. It has previously been shown that rhythmic events naturally build temporal expectations that improve sensory processing at predictable points in time. Here, we asked to which extent temporal regularities can improve the detection and identification of events across sensory modalities. To do so, we used a dynamic visual conjunction search task accompanied by auditory cues synchronized or not with the color change of the target (horizontal or vertical bar). Sounds synchronized with the visual target improved search efficiency for temporal rates below 1.4 Hz but did not affect efficiency above that stimulation rate. Desynchronized auditory cues consistently impaired visual search below 3.3 Hz. Our results are interpreted in the context of the Dynamic Attending Theory: specifically, we suggest that a cognitive operation structures events in time irrespective of the sensory modality of input. Our results further support and specify recent neurophysiological findings by showing strong temporal selectivity for audiovisual integration in the auditory-driven improvement of visual search efficiency. PMID:22829899

Kösem, Anne; van Wassenhove, Virginie

2012-01-01

434

Prolonged sensory-selective nerve blockade.  

PubMed

Sensory-selective local anesthesia has long been a key goal in local anesthetic development. For example, it allows women to be pain-free during labor without compromising their ability to push. Here we show that prolonged sensory-selective nerve block can be produced by specific concentrations of surfactants-such as are used to enhance drug flux across skin-in combination with QX-314, a lidocaine derivative that has relative difficulty penetrating nerves. For example, injection of 25 mM QX-314 in 30 mM octyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB) lasted up to 7 h. Sensory selectivity was imparted to varying degrees by cationic, neutral, and anionic surfactants, and also was achieved with another lidocaine derivative, QX-222. Simultaneous injection of OTAB at a s.c. injection site remote from the sciatic nerve did not result in prolonged sensory-specific nerve blockade from QX-314, suggesting that the observed effect is due to a local interaction between the surfactant and the lidocaine derivative, not a systemic effect. PMID:20133669

Sagie, Itay; Kohane, Daniel S

2010-02-23

435

Parent and Teacher Report: Comparing Results from the Sensory Profile and the Sensory Profile School Companion  

E-print Network

. Parents and teachers provided a combination of similar and unique information when evaluating a child using the Sensory Profile and the School Companion thus adding to their construct validity. Therefore, best practice indicates that evaluators should...

Clark, Jessica Saiter

2008-08-13

436

Wine metabolomics: objective measures of sensory properties of semillon from GC-MS profiles.  

PubMed

The contribution of volatile aroma compounds to the overall composition and sensory perception of wine is well recognized. The classical targeted measurement of volatile compounds in wine using GC-MS is laborious and only a limited number of compounds can be quantified at any time. Application of an automated multivariate curve resolution technique to nontargeted GC-MS analysis of wine makes it possible to detect several hundred compounds within a single analytical run. Hunter Valley Semillon (HVS) is recognized as a world class wine with a range of styles. Subtle characters reliant upon the development of bottle maturation characteristics are a feature of highly esteemed HVS. In this investigation a metabolomic approach to wine analysis, using multivariate curve resolution techniques applied to GC-MS profiles coupled with full descriptive sensory analysis, was used to determine the objective composition of various styles of HVS. Over 250 GC-MS peaks were extracted from the wine profiles. Sensory scores were analyzed using PARAFAC prior to development of predictive models of sensory features from the extracted GC-MS peak table using PLS regression. Good predictive models of the sensorial attributes honey, toast, orange marmalade, and sweetness, the defining traits for HVS, could be determined from the extracted peak tables. Compound identification for these rated attributes indicated the importance of a range of ethyl esters, aliphatic alcohols and acids, ketones, aldehydes, furanic derivatives, and norisoprenoids in the development of HVS and styles. The development of automated metabolomic data analysis of GC-MS profiles of wines will assist in the development of wine styles for specific consumer segments and enhance understanding of production processes on the ultimate sensory profiles of the product. PMID:24215513

Schmidtke, Leigh M; Blackman, John W; Clark, Andrew C; Grant-Preece, Paris

2013-12-11

437

Sensory Integration and Its Effects on Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of the literature on sensory integration in young children. First it explains the importance of "sensory integration" in child development and normal functioning. It goes on to note signs of a sensory integration dysfunction (such as hyper-or hypo-sensitivity to touch, poor coordination, and poor behavioral…

Ramirez, Judy

438

Reported Sensory Processing of Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigators have identified delays and differences in cognitive, language, motor, and sensory development in children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this study was to determine the parent-reported frequency of sensory processing issues in children with DS aged 3-10 years, and the parent-reported functional impact of those sensory

Bruni, Maryanne; Cameron, Debra; Dua, Shelly; Noy, Sarah

2010-01-01

439

Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article evaluates the scientific basis (primarily gained through uncontrolled, descriptive studies) of various sensory and motor interventions for children with autism and concludes that most categories of interventions, including sensory integration, sensory stimulation approaches, auditory integration training, and prism lenses, have shown…

Baranek, Grace T.

2002-01-01

440

On the intersection of products and concepts: opportunities for sensory analysis to improve the commercial development process 1 Prepared for: Sense And Sensibility: The IIIrd International Pangborn Symposium, Aeslund, Norway, 1998. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial product development entails the creation of physical products and concepts. Concepts are both descriptions of product characteristics and statements about why consumers should buy the product. Traditionally, sensory analysis has shied away from concept work. This paper points out specific areas in which sensory analysis can make a contribution. The paper shows specific examples and interpretations for each of

Howard R. Moskowitz

1999-01-01

441

Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor  

PubMed Central

Sodium is an essential micronutrient and, via salt taste, appetitive. High consumption of sodium is, however, related to negative health effects such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In industrialized countries, about 75% of sodium in the diet comes from manufactured foods and foods eaten away from home. Reducing sodium in processed foods will be, however, challenging due to sodium’s specific functionality in terms of flavor and associated palatability of foods (i.e., increase of saltiness, reduction of bitterness, enhancement of sweetness and other congruent flavors). The current review discusses the sensory role of sodium in food, determinants of salt taste perception and a variety of strategies, such as sodium replacers (i.e., potassium salts) and gradual reduction of sodium, to decrease sodium in processed foods while maintaining palatability. PMID:22254117

Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Keast, Russell S. J.

2011-01-01

442

Life cycle assessment of integrated food chains—a Swedish case study of two chicken meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aims, and scope  Food is a vital human need that not only provides essential nutrition but is also a key part of our social life as well as\\u000a being a valued sensory experience. However, food, or rather the production chain of food, from primary production (agriculture\\/aquaculture\\/fishing)\\u000a to consumer and beyond, also results in some form of environmental impact, as does

Jennifer Davis; Ulf Sonesson