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1

Sensory Characteristics in ASD  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we review evidence regarding differences in the types of sensory experiences of persons with ASD with respect to both unisensory and multisensory processing. We discuss selfreports, carer questionnaires as well as perceptual processing differences found in the laboratory. Incoming information is processed through one or more of our senses and fundamental differences in the processing of information from any sensory modality or combination of sensory modalities are likely to have cascading effects on the way individuals with ASD experience the world around them, effects that can have both positive and negative impact on a individual with ASD’s quality of life.

Stewart, Mary E.; Russo, Natalie; Banks, Jennifer; Miller, Louisa; Burack, Jacob A.

2009-01-01

2

Seminar and Workshop on Sensory Evaluation of Food in Nicaragua.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sensory evaluation - a scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze, and interpret reactions to those characteristics of foods perceived by the senses - is a relatively new field which has become essential in developing, improving, and evaluating...

R. E. Baldwin

1982-01-01

3

Food Intake Is Influenced by Sensory Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake.

Naish, Katherine R.; Harris, Gillian

2012-01-01

4

Food intake is influenced by sensory sensitivity.  

PubMed

Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake. PMID:22916284

Naish, Katherine R; Harris, Gillian

2012-08-20

5

Invited Review: Sensory Analysis of Dairy Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory quality is the ultimate measure of product quality and success. Sensory analysis comprises a vari- ety of powerful and sensitive tools to measure human responses to foods and other products. Selection of the appropriate test, test conditions, and data analysis re- sult in reproducible, powerful, and relevant results. Ap- propriate application of these tests enables specific product and consumer

M. A. Drake

2007-01-01

6

Sensory characteristics of diverse rice cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lack of a knowledge-base for predicting how genetic, pre-harvest, and post-harvest factors affect the sensory characteristics of rice results in producers and processors not having control over the sensory quality of their products. In this study, differences in the texture and flavor of seventeen ...

7

Sensory basis of refreshing perception: Role of psychophysiological factors and food experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refreshing is a term often used to characterize certain types of foods and beverages. This review first explores what is known from sensory and consumer studies on refreshing perception in relation to food and beverage consumption. It then presents and discusses the similarities between sensory characteristics perceived as refreshing with those perceived during and after drinking water. In general, refreshing

D. Labbe; E. Almiron-Roig; J. Hudry; P. Leathwood; H. N. J. Schifferstein; N. Martin

2009-01-01

8

Perception of oral food breakdown. The concept of sensory trajectory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture perceived in mouth largely depends on the behaviour of the food when it is broken down and transformed by the mouth elements. Texture results from a dynamic process in which texture attributes are continuously analysed by the oral sensory systems during mastication. However, the particular sequence of perceptual events that occur during oral food breakdown remains unknown. The aim

Francine Lenfant; Chrystel Loret; Nicolas Pineau; Christoph Hartmann; Nathalie Martin

2009-01-01

9

How sensory properties of foods affect human feeding behavior.  

PubMed

The sensory properties of food which can lead to a decrease in the pleasantness of that food after it is eaten, and to enhanced food intake if that property of the food is changed by successive presentation of different foods, were investigated. After eating chocolates of one color the pleasantness of the taste of the eaten color declined more than of the non-eaten colors, although these chocolates differed only in appearance. The presentation of a variety of colors of chocolates, either simultaneously or successively, did not affect food intake compared with consumption of the subject's favorite color. Changes in the shape of food (which affects both appearance and mouth feel) were introduced by offering subjects three successive courses consisting of different shapes of pasta. Changes in shape led to a specific decrease in the pleasantness of the shape eaten and to a significant enhancement (14%) of food intake when three shapes were offered compared with intake of the subject's favorite shape. Changes in just the flavor of food (i.e., cream cheese sandwiches flavored with salt, or with the non-nutritive flavoring agents lemon and saccharin, or curry) led to a significant enhancement (15%) of food intake when all three flavors were presented successively compared with intake of the favorite. The experiments elucidate some of the properties of food which are involved in sensory specific satiety, and which determine the amount of food eaten. PMID:7178247

Rolls, B J; Rowe, E A; Rolls, E T

1982-09-01

10

Alliesthesia to food cues: heterogeneity across stimuli and sensory modalities.  

PubMed

Negative alliesthesia to olfactory and visual stimuli was assessed in 29 normal-weight women who, on alternate days, were either fasting or in a postprandial state after an ad libitum lunch. The participants were alternatively exposed to food and non-food pictures and odorants, and then rated for their hedonic appreciation (liking) and their desire to ingest (wanting) the evoked foods. While negative alliesthesia was observed only for food stimuli, it did not equally affect all food categories in either sensory modality. The stimuli representing foods eaten in typical local main dishes or having high energy density (e.g., pizza, bacon, beef, cheese) evoked clear negative alliesthesia, whereas this was not the case for those less consumed within a customary meal or associated with desserts (i.e., fruits). Furthermore, the visual food stimuli triggered a more negative shift in liking than did the food odours. Finally, the shift in wanting between pre- and post-meal state was more important than the shift in liking. These results suggest that alliesthesia may be influenced by both metabolic and non-metabolic factors. PMID:18675834

Jiang, Tao; Soussignan, Robert; Rigaud, Daniel; Martin, Sylviane; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Brondel, Laurent; Schaal, Benoist

2008-07-16

11

Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods  

PubMed Central

Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that reduce the viscosity, increase the solubility, impart desirable sensory characteristics, and potentially avoid excessive energy and nutrient thinning.

Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane

2013-01-01

12

Physical and sensory characteristics of marinated broiler drumsticks treated with lactoperoxidase system and thermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) and thermal treatments have been shown to inactivate some micro-organisms in foods. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether these treatments influenced the physical and sensory characteristics of treated samples.2.?A solution that contained 1% acetic acid and 3% salt with pH adjusted to 4 was developed as a standard marinade. The LPS consisting of 1?µg\\/ml

F. J. Tan; H. W. Ockerman

2006-01-01

13

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0–14kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1×103–1.7×105CFU\\/g and 14kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from

Hsiao-Wei Wen; Hsiao-Ping Chung; Fong-In Chou; I-hsin Lin; Po-Chow Hsieh

2006-01-01

14

Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?  

PubMed

Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal. PMID:23266517

Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

2012-12-21

15

Hospital catering systems and their impact on the sensorial profile of foods provided to older patients in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired sensorial perception is very common in older people and low sensorial quality of foods is associated with decreased appetite and dietary intake. Hospital undernutrition in older patients could be linked to sensorial quality of hospital food if the quality were low or inappropriate for older people. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the sensorial quality

Yiannis Mavrommatis; Paula J. Moynihan; Margot A. Gosney; Lisa Methven

2011-01-01

16

Effects of Microwave Heating on Sensory Characteristics of Kiwifruit Puree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microwave processing on the characteristics of kiwifruit puree was evaluated by applying various gentle treatments.\\u000a Different combinations of microwave power\\/processing time were applied, with power among 200–1,000 W and time among 60–340 s,\\u000a and various sensory and instrumental measurements were performed with the aim of establishing correlations and determining\\u000a which instrumental parameters were the most appropriate to control the

María Benlloch-Tinoco; Paula Varela; Ana Salvador; Nuria Martínez-Navarrete

17

Sight or Scent: Lemur Sensory Reliance in Detecting Food Quality Varies with Feeding Ecology  

PubMed Central

Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology.

Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D.; Drea, Christine M.

2012-01-01

18

Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.  

PubMed

Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology. PMID:22870229

Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D; Drea, Christine M

2012-08-03

19

Sensory-specific satiety with simple foods in humans: no influence of BMI?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Olfacto-gustatory sensory-specific satiety plays an important role in the termination of food ingestion. A defect in this mechanism, by increasing food intake, could be a factor in development of overweight. The present study was conducted to explore whether sensory-specific satiety in the overweight may be different from that in normal-weight subjects.Subjects:144 subjects (half men, half women; age range: 17–62 years;

L Brondel; M Romer; V Van Wymelbeke; P Walla; T Jiang; L Deecke; D Rigaud

2007-01-01

20

Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257.  

PubMed

Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage. PMID:23744118

Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S

2013-06-01

21

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0 14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1×103 1.7×105 CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD90) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D10 doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, ?-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life.

Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, I.-Hsin; Hsieh, Po-Chow

2006-05-01

22

Nurses with sensory disabilities: their perceptions and characteristics.  

PubMed

A survey design was used to explore the perceptions and characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) with sensory disabilities and their risk for leaving their jobs. An earlier study found that nurses with disabilities are leaving nursing and that employers do not appear to support these nurses. Work instability and the mismatch between a nurse's perceptions of his or her ability and the demands of their work increase risk for job retention problems. This study's convenience sample of U.S. RNs had hearing, vision, or communication disabilities. Participants completed a demographic form, three U.S. Census questions, and the Nurse-Work Instability Survey. Hospital nurses were three times more likely to be at risk for retention problems. Nurses with hearing disabilities were frustrated at work. Hearing difficulties increased with years spent working as a nurse. Many nurses with sensory disabilities have left nursing. Early intervention may prevent work instability and increase retention, and rehabilitation nurses are ideally positioned to lead early intervention programs. PMID:21290962

Neal-Boylan, Leslie; Fennie, Kristopher; Baldauf-Wagner, Sara

23

Different sensory aspects of a food are not remembered with equal acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, food memory for three sensory aspects involved in food perception, taste, texture and aroma, is compared. Participants received a lunch including a custard dessert (target) under incidental learning condition. One day later, participants were presented with samples identical to the target and with distractors varying either in sweetness, thickness or cherry aroma. Memory was assessed by

L. Morin-Audebrand; M. Laureati; C. Sulmont-Rossé; S. Issanchou; E. P. Köster; J. Mojet

2009-01-01

24

Influence of Oil Type and Freshness on the Sensory Perception of Fried Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory analysis is a valuable tool used to determine the effect of a formulation or process on the perception of a product. In this study, triangle tests were performed to determine differences between fried foods cooked in fresh palm olein and a fresh blend of canola oil and palm olein (50\\/50) and between food products fried in fresh oil and

Blanca E. Enríquez-Fernández; Liliana Álvarez de la Cadena y Yañez; Maria Elena Sosa-Morales

2012-01-01

25

Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.  

PubMed

The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and GP compared to that by increasing beef content or adding GSH or MSG. In addition, it is expected that the outcome of this study, such as sensory attributes of and consumer responses to GSH Maillard reaction products, compliments previous studies that mostly focused on chemical analysis of Maillard reaction. PMID:21535516

Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

2010-09-20

26

Hospital catering systems and their impact on the sensorial profile of foods provided to older patients in the UK.  

PubMed

Impaired sensorial perception is very common in older people and low sensorial quality of foods is associated with decreased appetite and dietary intake. Hospital undernutrition in older patients could be linked to sensorial quality of hospital food if the quality were low or inappropriate for older people. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the sensorial quality of different foods that occur as a result of the food journey (i.e. freezing, regeneration, etc.) in the most common hospital catering systems in the UK. A trained sensory panel assessed sensorial descriptors of certain foods with and without the hospital food journey as it occurs in the in-house and cook/freeze systems. The results showed effects of the food journey on a small number of sensorial descriptors related to flavour, appearance and mouthfeel. The majority of these effects were due to temperature changes, which caused accumulation of condensation. A daily variation in sensorial descriptors was also detected and in some cases it was greater than the effect of the food journey. This study has shown that changes occur in the sensory quality of meals due to hospital food journeys, however these changes were small and are not expected to substantially contribute to acceptability or have a major role in hospital malnutrition. PMID:21477630

Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Methven, Lisa

2011-04-06

27

Alliesthesia to food cues: Heterogeneity across stimuli and sensory modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative alliesthesia to olfactory and visual stimuli was assessed in 29 normal-weight women who, on alternate days, were either fasting or in a postprandial state after an ad libitum lunch. The participants were alternatively exposed to food and non-food pictures and odorants, and then rated for their hedonic appreciation (liking) and their desire to ingest (wanting) the evoked foods. While

Tao Jiang; Robert Soussignan; Daniel Rigaud; Sylviane Martin; Jean-Pierre Royet; Laurent Brondel; Benoist Schaal

2008-01-01

28

Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione and/or MSG.  

PubMed

The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione (GSH) and/or monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated to examine the feasibility of GSH as a flavor enhancer. The sensory characteristics of beef soup samples, containing only GSH or MSG at different levels or a mixture of these, were examined by descriptive analysis. Principle component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the beef soup samples and the attributes. In consumer testing, separate groups of consumers evaluated overall liking as well as the flavor intensities of beef, seasoning, and MSG. Partial least square regression was conducted to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer data. The samples containing GSH had stronger "beef flavor,"garlic flavor," and "green onion flavor" while the samples containing MSG had stronger "salty taste,"sweet taste,"MSG taste," and "potato flavor." The consumers preferred samples containing both GSH and MSG, which had higher perceived flavor intensities of beef, seasonings, MSG. This study indicates that GSH has potential as a flavor enhancer, but more tests in different food systems with additions of GSH at varying levels are required to elucidate its effectiveness as a flavor enhancer more clearly. PMID:20492200

Jung, D W; Hong, J H; Kim, K O

29

The neurocognitive bases of human multimodal food perception: Sensory integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses a fundamental neuroscientific question in food perception: how multimodal features of food are integrated. Much research and conceptualization has emerged related to multisensory integration in vision, audition and somatosensation, while it remains poorly understood and researched within the chemical and mouth feel senses. This review aims to bridge this gap.We discuss the main concepts in the fields

Justus V. Verhagen; Lina Engelen

2006-01-01

30

Sensory exploitation as an evolutionary origin to nuptial food gifts in insects.  

PubMed Central

Nuptial food gifts given by males to females at mating are widespread in insects, but their evolutionary origin remains obscure. Such gifts may arise as a form of sensory trap that exploits the normal gustatory responses of females, favouring the selective retention of sperm of gift-giving males. I tested this hypothesis by offering foreign food gifts, synthesized by males of one cricket species, to females of three non-gift-giving species. Females provisioned with novel food gifts were 'fooled' into accepting more sperm than they otherwise would in the absence of a gift. These results support the hypothesis that nuptial food gifts and post-copulatory female mating preferences coevolve through a unique form of sensory exploitation.

Sakaluk, S K

2000-01-01

31

Influences of Thermal and Gustatory Characteristics on Sensory and Motor Aspects of Swallowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of experiments were conducted to examine the effects of two sensory modalities, temperature and taste, of foods on perceptual and motor aspects of swallowing in 20 young, healthy subjects (10 subjects for each experiment). A tasteless and odorless thickening agent was the basic testing material. The first experiment compared the swallowing of foods at four temperatures ranging from

Yozo Miyaoka; Keiko Haishima; Masamichi Takagi; Hiroyuki Haishima; Jin Asari; Yoshiaki Yamada

2006-01-01

32

Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes\\u000a of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to\\u000a evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the\\u000a fermented food products like cow milk

Debasree Ghosh; Parimal Chattopadhyay

33

Food selectivity and sensory sensitivity in children with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a complex set of related developmental disorders that are characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. Impairments in sensory processing are also extremely common. The prevalence of ASDs is increasing and is currently estimated to affect 1 in 150 children. ASDs are considered to be a major health and educational problem, affecting many areas of daily living, including eating. Children with ASDs are often described as picky or selective eaters. This paper provides a comprehensive narrative review of the empirical literature over the last 25 years on food selectivity and nutritional adequacy in children with ASDs. The possible contributions of sensory factors, such as sensory sensitivity, to food selectivity are discussed. The need for an interdisciplinary approach to managing atypical eating patterns in children with ASD is highlighted.

Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.

2010-01-01

34

Responses of PROP taster groups to variations in sensory qualities within foods and beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increasing evidence that variations in sensitivity to the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) are also reflected in responses to other tastes in solution, there has been little research examining the impact of PROP sensitivity on responses to sensory qualities in foods or beverages. The present studies examined responses of PROP taster groups to systematic variations in tastes and oral irritation

J. Prescott; J. Soo; H. Campbell; C. Roberts

2004-01-01

35

Sight or Scent: Lemur Sensory Reliance in Detecting Food Quality Varies with Feeding Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and

Julie Rushmore; Sara D. Leonhardt; Christine M. Drea

2012-01-01

36

Dairy fat content and serving temperature as determinants of sensory and hedonic characteristics in cheese soup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fat content and serving temperature on sensory and hedonic responses were studied using cheese soup samples with 3, 6 or 12% dairy fat, served at 33, 48 or 63 °C. A trained panel (n = 13) rated the intensity of eight sensory characteristics. The pleasantness of the samples was rated by 36 consumers, who also rated their

Päivi Kähkönen; Hely Tuorila; Lea Hyvönen

1995-01-01

37

Sensory odour profiling and physical characteristics of edible oil blends during frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible oil blends containing 80 parts of mustard oil (MO) or groundnut oil (GNO) or sunflower oil (SNO) and 20 parts of sesame oil (SO) or refined red palm oil (RPO) or rice bran oil (RBO) were studied to determine the changes in their physical and sensory characteristics during deep fat frying. Odour evaluation by the trained sensory panel revealed

R. Ravi; Maya Prakash; K. K. Bhat

2005-01-01

38

Microwave Freeze–Drying Characteristics and Sensory Quality of Instant Vegetable Soup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instant vegetable soup mix was dehydrated in a microwave freeze dryer to study the drying characteristics and sensory properties of the dried product. The mix was dried at different microwave power levels, material thicknesses, and material loads. As expected, microwave power significantly influenced the total drying time and sensory quality of the final product. The total drying time increased with

Rui Wang; Min Zhang; Arun S. Mujumdar; Jin-Cai Sun

2009-01-01

39

Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: The characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and\\/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method

Walter P. Hammes

40

A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities, and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods.  

PubMed

Given the significant increase in consumer interest in organic food products, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic produce. Studies comparing foods derived from organic and conventional growing systems were assessed for three key areas: nutritional value, sensory quality, and food safety. It is evident from this assessment that there are few well-controlled studies that are capable of making a valid comparison. With the possible exception of nitrate content, there is no strong evidence that organic and conventional foods differ in concentrations of various nutrients. Considerations of the impact of organic growing systems on nutrient bioavailability and nonnutrient components have received little attention and are important directions for future research. While there are reports indicating that organic and conventional fruits and vegetables may differ on a variety of sensory qualities, the findings are inconsistent. In future studies, the possibility that typical organic distribution or harvesting systems may deliver products differing in freshness or maturity should be evaluated. There is no evidence that organic foods may be more susceptible to microbiological contamination than conventional foods. While it is likely that organically grown foods are lower in pesticide residues, there has been very little documentation of residue levels. PMID:11833635

Bourn, Diane; Prescott, John

2002-01-01

41

Parents reported oral sensory sensitivity processing and food preference in ADHD.  

PubMed

Oral sensory processing in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an area with limited research. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms usually co-occur with ADHD. This study investigates the association of oral sensory processing problems with ODD and SAD symptoms in children with ADHD. The parents of 189 children with ADHD completed Oral Over- and Underresponsivity Behaviors Inventory reporting oral overresponsivity (OR) and underresponsivity (UR) of their children. Only ODD score predicted OR scale score. None of ADHD severity, anxiety score, age and gender predicted OR score. UR scale score was only predicted by SAD and inattention scores. ODD score and hyperactivity/impulsivity score did not predict UR score. The ODD behaviour in children with ADHD needs to be evaluated and managed more extensively and it should include oral sensory occupational therapy. Future studies should extend this research to children with ADHD and obesity and food reward system. PMID:22074155

Ghanizadeh, A

2011-10-06

42

Sensory perception of food and insulin-like signals influence seizure susceptibility.  

PubMed

Food deprivation is known to affect physiology and behavior. Changes that occur could be the result of the organism's monitoring of internal and external nutrient availability. In C. elegans, male mating is dependent on food availability; food-deprived males mate with lower efficiency compared to their well-fed counterparts, suggesting that the mating circuit is repressed in low-food environments. This behavioral response could be mediated by sensory neurons exposed to the environment or by internal metabolic cues. We demonstrated that food-deprivation negatively regulates sex-muscle excitability through the activity of chemosensory neurons and insulin-like signaling. Specifically, we found that the repressive effects of food deprivation on the mating circuit can be partially blocked by placing males on inedible food, E. coli that can be sensed but not eaten. We determined that the olfactory AWC neurons actively suppress sex-muscle excitability in response to food deprivation. In addition, we demonstrated that loss of insulin-like receptor (DAF-2) signaling in the sex muscles blocks the ability of food deprivation to suppress the mating circuit. During low-food conditions, we propose that increased activity by specific olfactory neurons (AWCs) leads to the release of neuroendocrine signals, including insulin-like ligands. Insulin-like receptor signaling in the sex muscles then reduces cell excitability via activation of downstream molecules, including PLC-gamma and CaMKII. PMID:18604269

Gruninger, Todd R; Gualberto, Daisy G; Garcia, L Rene

2008-07-04

43

Instrumental Texture and Sensory Characteristics of Cod Frankfurter Sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of five ingredients on cod sausages' chemical composition, pH, colour, texture, and sensory attributes were analysed. Changed ingredients were pea protein (0 vs. 2 g\\/100 g sausage), carrageenan (0 vs. 1 g\\/100 g), sodium bicarbonate (0, 0.15, and 0.3 g\\/100 g), sodium chloride (1.2 vs. 2.3 g\\/100 g) and pork meat (0, 13.3, and 26.7 g\\/100 g). Sausages became

Carlos M. L. Cardoso; Rogério Mendes; Maria L. Nunes

2009-01-01

44

History and characteristics of Okinawan longevity food.  

PubMed

Okinawan food culture in the Ryukyu island is one of the world's most interesting culture because its consumers have the longest life expectancies and low disability rates. It is a product of cultural synthesis, with a core of Chinese food culture, inputs through food trade with South-East Asia and the Pacific and strong Japanese influences in eating style and presentation. The Satsamu sweet potato provides the largest part of the energy intake (and contributes to self-sufficiency), there is a wide array of plant foods including seaweed (especially konbu) and soy, and of herbaceous plants, accompanied by fish and pork, and by green tea and kohencha tea. Infusing multiple foodstuff and drinking the broth is characteristic. Raw sugar is eaten. The concept that 'food is medicine' and a high regard accorded medical practice are also intrinsic of Okinawan culture. Again, food-centered and ancestral festivities keeep the health dimensions well-developed. Pork, konbu and tofu (soy bean-curd) are indispensable ingredients in festival menus, and the combination of tofu and seaweed are used everyday. Okinawan food culture is intimately linked with an enduring belief of the system and highly developed social structure and network. PMID:11710358

Sho, H

2001-01-01

45

Sensory characteristics and oxidative stability of soybean oil and flour extracted with aqueous isopropyl alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean flakes extracted with hexane or aqueous isopropyl alcohol (85%, 87.7% and 90.5% IPA by weight) were processed to toasted\\u000a flours and the miscellas to refined soybean oils. These products were evaluated for sensory characteristics and oxidative\\u000a stability. Sensory analyses of initial oils and flours indicated good quality products. Initial flavor scores of IPA-extracted\\u000a oils and flours were not significantly

K. Warner; E. C. Baker

1984-01-01

46

Sensory Correlates of Difficult Temperament Characteristics in Preschool Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…

Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

2012-01-01

47

Sensory Correlates of Difficult Temperament Characteristics in Preschool Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…

Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

2012-01-01

48

A Neuromedin U Receptor Acts with the Sensory System to Modulate Food Type-Dependent Effects on C. elegans Lifespan  

PubMed Central

The type of food source has previously been shown to be as important as the level of food intake in influencing lifespan. Here we report that different Escherichia coli food sources alter Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. These effects are modulated by different subsets of sensory neurons, which act with nmur-1, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U receptors. Wild-type nmur-1, which is expressed in the somatic gonad, sensory neurons, and interneurons, shortens lifespan only on specific E. coli food sources—an effect that is dependent on the type of E. coli lipopolysaccharide structure. Moreover, the food type-dependent effect of nmur-1 on lifespan is different from that of food-level restriction. Together our data suggest that nmur-1 processes information from specific food cues to influence lifespan and other aspects of physiology.

Regenass, Martin; Alcedo, Joy

2010-01-01

49

Should healthy eating programmes incorporate interaction with foods in different sensory modalities? A review of the evidence.  

PubMed

Commercial interventions seeking to promote fruit and vegetable consumption by encouraging preschool- and school-aged children to engage with foods with 'all their senses' are increasing in number. We review the efficacy of such sensory interaction programmes and consider the components of these that are likely to encourage food acceptance. Repeated exposure to a food's flavour has robust empirical support in terms of its potential to increase food intake. However, children are naturally reluctant to taste new or disliked foods, and parents often struggle to provide sufficient taste opportunities for these foods to be adopted into the child's diet. We therefore explore whether prior exposure to a new food's non-taste sensory properties, such as its smell, sound, appearance or texture, might facilitate the food's introduction into the child's diet, by providing the child with an opportunity to become partially familiar with the food without invoking the distress associated with tasting it. We review the literature pertaining to the benefits associated with exposure to foods through each of the five sensory modalities in turn. We conclude by calling for further research into the potential for familiarisation with the visual, olfactory, somaesthetic and auditory properties of foods to enhance children's willingness to consume a variety of fruits and vegetables. PMID:22264626

Dazeley, Paul; Houston-Price, Carmel; Hill, Claire

2012-01-23

50

Comparing the Sensory Characteristics of Doughnuts Made With Trans-Fat-Free Canola Shortening, Trans-Fat-Free Palm Shortening, and Trans-Fat Vegetable\\/Soybean Shortening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the adverse health effects associated with consuming trans-fats, foodservice companies continue to reduce\\/eliminate the amount of trans-fats used to prepare doughnuts and other foods. People eat doughnuts because they like the taste, however, meaning companies must reduce\\/eliminate trans-fats in a manner that has minimal impact on consumer preference. This study evaluated the sensory characteristics of doughnuts fried in

Peter L. Bordi Jr; Kimberly S. Snyder; S. William Hessert Jr

2010-01-01

51

Physicochemical and sensory fruit characteristics of two sweet cherry cultivars after cool storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical and sensory fruit characteristics were studied to assess the effects of cool storage on quality attributes of sweet cherries of the Sciazza variety, widespread in the Campania region and Ferrovia variety, marketed in Italy and abroad. The major sugar and organic acid constituents, anthocyanin composition, colour (CIE L*, a*, b*), firmness, volatile neo-formation compounds (acetaldehyde, ethanol and methanol) and

M Esti; L Cinquanta; F Sinesio; E Moneta; M Di Matteo

2002-01-01

52

Demand characteristics underlying differential ratings of sensory versus affective components of pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several investigations, differential ratings of sensory and affective components of pain can be explained by the expectations conveyed to subjects to provide different ratings for each pain component under conditions where they could readily recall their ratings. In Experiment I, such demand characteristics were controlled in one group by having subjects rate each pain component in a separate session

Ephrem Fernandez; Dennis C. Turk

1994-01-01

53

Learning Sensory Modalities and Educational Characteristics of Greek Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Dyslexia has been shown to affect the learning ability of individuals who experience difficulties in processing written information and developing effective study skills. Method: In the present study we assessed the relationship between dyslexia, the learning sensory modalities and educational characteristics in 20 dyslexic and 40…

Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Ekaterini; Zenakou, Elena; Kouvava, Sofia

2010-01-01

54

Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10kGy (P<0.05), while the alcohols and furan groups were increased by irradiation. Different odor patterns were observed among samples using electronic nose system analysis. Gamma-irradiated samples showed better sensory score and the quality was sustained during storage. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

Kim, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo

2004-02-01

55

Comparison between temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) and key-attribute sensory profiling for evaluating solid food with contrasting textural layers: Fish sticks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the performance of two sensory description methods, Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and key-attribute sensory profiling, in order to assess the sensory attributes of fish sticks (two different commercial brands) cooked by three different procedures (deep frying, conventional oven and microwaving).The TDS method has scarcely ever been applied to solid food and battered fish sticks are a

A. Albert; A. Salvador; P. Schlich; S. Fiszman

56

Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Cameros cheese packaged under modified atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the shelf-life quality of Cameros cheeses packaged under modified atmospheres. Five different modified atmosphere conditions were studied (carbon dioxide\\/nitrogen mixtures and vacuum). Control cheeses were packaged in air. The product stored at 3–4°C was evaluated periodically to investigate its sensory quality, microbiological condition and physicochemical characteristics. Weight loss and pH evolution were similar in vacuum and air

Elena Gonzalez-Fandos; Susana Sanz; Carmen Olarte

2000-01-01

57

Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Calcium Chloride?Treated Horse Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post rigor horse meat was marinated in 150 mM CaCl2 solution at 4°C and compared against untreated samples in order to evaluate characteristics associated with meat quality. Water holding capacity (WHC) and pH were recorded over 15 days period. Protein degradation was studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS–PAGE electrophoresis, and rheological properties related to texture were evaluated by instrumental compression. Sensory

2003-01-01

58

Effect of barley flour on the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the possibility of using barley flour as an ingredient to incorporate soluble fibre (?-glucan)\\u000a in chocolate-chip cookies. Some clinical studies have shown that ?-glucan might reduce the serum cholesterol levels. The objective\\u000a of this study was to determine the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies partly substituted with\\u000a barley flour at different levels. Physical

Diana June Frost; Koushik Adhikari; Douglas S. Lewis

59

Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation (EC) No. 853\\/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council provides a legal basis permitting the use of antimicrobial treatments to remove surface contamination from poultry. This paper reports the results of research into the effects on natural microflora, pH, and sensorial characteristics achieved by dipping chicken legs (15 min, 18±1 °C) into solutions (wt\\/vol) of 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP),

Elena del Río; Mónica Panizo-Morán; Miguel Prieto; Carlos Alonso-Calleja; Rosa Capita

2007-01-01

60

Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10kGy. After irradiation, Hunter’s color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other

Jae Hyun Kim; Hyun Joo Ahn; Hong Sun Yook; Kyong Soo Kim; Moon Soo Rhee; Gi Hyung Ryu; Myung Woo Byun

2004-01-01

61

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of restructured beef steak with added walnuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different proportions (0, 5, 10, 15%) of added walnuts on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of restructured beef steak were evaluated. The addition of 10 and 15% walnut reduced (P<0.05) cooking loss. Increasing proportions of walnut in the beef steak increased (P<0.05) water binding and reduced (P<0.05) fat binding properties. The addition of walnut did not affect

F. Jiménez Colmenero; A. Serrano; J. Ayo; M. T. Solas; S. Cofrades; J. Carballo

2003-01-01

62

Sensory characteristics of fufu prepared with cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) stored in polyethylene sacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis study was carried out to assess the effect of storage of cassava roots in polyethylene sacks for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8?weeks on the sensory characteristics of cassava fufu, a popular Ghanaian dish. Freshly harvested cassava roots were dipped in tap water and packed into polyethylene sacks in 2-kg batches and stored at room temperature (25°C?±?1°C). Samples

Clara Opare-Obisaw; Isaac Kojo Asante; Ekua Koba Annan

2004-01-01

63

Effect of sensory education on school children’s food perception: A 2-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of sensory education on taste and odor awareness and food ratings in school children. Second and fifth graders (n=244, 7–11 years at the baseline) from two schools in Helsinki area participated in the study. At the completion of the study at two years, the groups consisted of 96 (education, school one) and 79 (control, school two)

Sari Mustonen; Reetta Rantanen; Hely Tuorila

2009-01-01

64

Food Flavor and Nutritional Characteristics Alter Dynamics of Food Preference in Lambs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We addressed two questions involving food preference. First, we determined how a food's flavor and nutritional characteristics affected prefer- ence. In three trials, we offered lambs isonitrogenous foods differing in energy (trial 1, 90% TDN; trial 2, 100% TDN; trial 3, 110% TDN); each food was offered in apple and maple flavors. We hypothesized that preference for apple- or maple-flavored

David M. Early; Frederick D. Provenza

2010-01-01

65

Comparison of sensory, physiological, personality, and cultural attributes in regular spicy food users and non-users.  

PubMed

Some individuals savor spicy foods, while others avoid them. Reasons underlying this range of hedonic responses are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the basis for individual differences in preference for spicy foods. Regular spicy food users (n=13) and non-users (n=12) were characterized for selected sensory, physiological, personality, and cultural attributes. Individual differences between users and non-users were primarily related to sensory and cultural attributes (i.e., a higher proportion of users reported consuming spicy foods since childhood and users rated spicy foods as more palatable and were better able to discriminate this burn than non-users). Users and non-users exhibited comparable responsiveness to noxious pressure pain, oral tactile sensitivity, and auditory sensitivity, varying only in responsiveness to oral thermal heat (i.e., users were more sensitive to increases than non-users). Studied personality traits did not vary between users and non-users. These findings suggest that prior experience, rather than physiological adaptation or personality differences, may best predict preference for spicy foods. These findings are of public health interest, given that spicy food consumption is reported to confer weight management and food safety benefits. PMID:21986186

Ludy, Mary-Jon; Mattes, Richard D

2011-10-01

66

Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

2012-01-01

67

Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

2010-01-01

68

Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

2010-01-01

69

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk. PMID:20105517

Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

2010-02-01

70

Sensory and Motor Responses of Normal Young Adults During Swallowing of Foods with Different Properties and Volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of rheological\\/textural properties and volumes of test foods on the sensory and motor aspects of\\u000a swallowing in healthy young adults. Three test foods differing in thickening agent concentration (0.0, 1.5, and 3.0%) were\\u000a prepared and delivered in different volumes (~3, ~5, and ~7 ml) to subjects seated on a chair. Viscosity analyses of the 1.5\\u000a and 3.0% test foods

Atsuko Igarashi; Maiko Kawasaki; Shu-ichi Nomura; Yuji Sakai; Mayumi Ueno; Ichiro Ashida; Yozo Miyaoka

2010-01-01

71

Consumer characteristics influencing fast food consumption in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turkish fast food industry has grown rapidly since the 1980s. There are now more than 700 fast food restaurants in Turkey. Using the data from a consumer survey, this study investigates the relationship between consumers’ fast food consumption frequency and their socio-economic\\/demographic characteristics and attitudes. Using Chi-square test of independence, the study compares consumers’ fast food consumption frequencies of

Cuma Akbay; Gulgun Yildiz Tiryaki; Aykut Gul

2007-01-01

72

Sensory activity and food intake : a study of input-output relationships in two phytophageous insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships were studied between sensory responses and behavioural responses to the same stimulus. Sensory and behavioural reactions were both quantified according to stimulus type and concentration. Correlations between relative sensory responses and relative behavioural responses were determined to obtain some insight into processing in the central nervous system.The larvae of two phytophagous insects were studied: Pieris brassicae L. and

F. Blom

1978-01-01

73

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of a medicinal soy yogurt containing health-benefit ingredients.  

PubMed

Medicinal soy yogurt (sogurt) containing high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), free amino acids (FAAs), statins, and isoflavone aglycones was developed using lactic acid bacteria (1:1 mixture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. latis KFRI 01181 and Lactobacillus plantarum KFRI 00144) and Monascus-fermented soybean extract (MFSE, 1.5%, w/v). Changes in the content of some functional components (GABA, FAAs, statins, isoflavones) and physical (pH, titratable acidity, water-holding capacity), biological (viable cell counts), and sensory characteristics of sogurts during fermentation and cold storage were examined. The medicinal sogurt contained significantly (p < 0.05) high levels of FAAs (2011.2 +/- 8.1 mg/100 g of dry weight of sogurt), GABA (45.5 +/- 1.9 mg), statins (100.1 +/- 7.5 microg), and isoflavone aglycones (56.4 +/- 4.6 mg) compared with the control sogurt (1167.1 +/- 8.1 mg, 32.1 +/- 2.5 mg, not detected, and 19.2 +/- 1.9 mg, respectively) after fermentation for 24 h at 35 degrees C. During cold storage for 30 days at 4 degrees C, medicinal sogurt displayed higher water-holding capacity and titratable acidity and total bacterial cells and lower pH than the control sogurt (p < 0.05). Overall sensory acceptability of medicinal sogurt supplemented with MFSE was higher than that of the control sogurt prepared without MFSE. The results indicate that the addition of the appropriate MFSE concentrations (1.5%, w/v) improved the physicochemical properties as well as sensory characteristics of soy yogurt, resulting in enhanced health-benefit ingredients and consumers' preferences. PMID:19063635

Pyo, Young-Hee; Song, Sun-Mi

2009-01-14

74

Urban Food Supply and Distribution: Characteristics and Utilization of Fresh Food Markets in Bangkok and Thonburi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with one aspect of the problem of food supply and distribution to urban areas. It describes major internal characteristics of nearly two hundred fresh-food markets or talat in Bangkok Thonburi, Thailand. These characteristics are then su...

M. E. Crawford

1974-01-01

75

Physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile of honey samples from stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponinae) submitted to a dehumidification process.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a dehumidification process on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of stingless-bee honey. Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey samples were submitted to a dehumidification process and to physicochemical (reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture, diastatic activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, ash, pH, acidity, and electric conductivity) and sensory evaluations (fluidity, color, aroma, crystallization,flavor,and acceptability). The results indicated that the dehumidification process does not interfere with honey quality and acceptability. PMID:19274339

Carvalho, Carlos A L; Sodré, Geni S; Fonseca, Antonio A O; Alves, Rogério M O; Souza, Bruno A; Clarton, Lana

2009-03-01

76

Effect of altering the variety of sensorially distinct foods, of the same macronutrient content, on food intake and body weight in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the effect of increasing the variety of sensorially distinct but nutritionally identical foods on appetite, food intake and body weight, over 7 days, in men.Design: Six younger, lean men (mean (s.d.) age 27.0 (2.9) y; weight 74.7 (3.9) kg; height 1.78 (0.03) m; body mass index (BMI) 23.6 (1.1) kg\\/m2) and six older, overweight men (mean (s.d.)

RJ Stubbs; AM Johnstone; N Mazlan; SE Mbaiwa; S Ferris

2001-01-01

77

Nutritional and Functional Characteristics of Whey Proteins in Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey proteins are well known for their high nutri- tional value and versatile functional properties in food products. Estimates of the worldwide production of whey indicate that about 700,000 tonnes of true whey proteins are available as valuable food ingre- dients. Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins are related to the structure and biologi- cal functions of these proteins.

J. N. de Wit

1998-01-01

78

Effect of sire breed on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of lamb meat.  

PubMed

Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of lamb meat were evaluated in crossbred ram lambs from Merino ewes and Oxford Down, Texel, Charollais, Suffolk and Merinolandschaf sires. The lambs were slaughtered at average age 119.2days, live weight 34.6kg and carcass weight 16.3kg. Samples of M. longissimus lumborum et thoracis were used for measurements of pH values, electrical conductivity (EC), drip loss, contents of dry matter (DM), protein, intramuscular fat (IMF), ash, and hydroxyproline and for sensory analysis. The breed of sire significantly affected pH24 and 48h postmortem, EC 24h postmortem, protein content and juiciness (P<0.05). Significant negative correlations between pH48 and DM (-0.255) and pH48 and IMF (-0.258) were found (P<0.05). A significant positive correlation between EC48 and drip loss (0.366) was observed (P<0.05). Progeny of Charollais sires had meat of better quality than the others; the highest content of protein and IMF, the lowest drip loss and the best juiciness and texture. PMID:23896141

Jandasek, J; Milerski, M; Lichovnikova, M

2013-06-14

79

Impact of the hydrodyne process on tenderness, microbial load, and sensory characteristics of pork longissimus muscle.  

PubMed

Paired, boneless pork loin muscles were obtained from 76 market hogs to evaluate tenderness, meat quality characteristics, sensory attributes, and microbial characterization of pork muscle exposed to the Hydrodyne Process (H) compared with untreated control (C) loin. A subset of 16 paired loins was randomly selected for use in sensory evaluation and microbial characterization. Loins were vacuum packaged and immersed in a heat shrink tank prior to the H treatment. The Hydrodyne treatment exposed the loin to the pressure equivalent of a 150-g explosive, generating a pressure distribution of approximately 703 kg/cm2 at the surface of the samples. Meat quality assessments taken following treatment included subjective color, firmness/wetness, marbling scores (1 to 5 scale), Minolta reflectance and color readings, drip loss, and lipid content. The P-value for statistical significance for main effects and interactions was set at <.05 in all analyses. Administration of H resulted in a 17% improvement in Warner-Bratzler shear force (2.69 vs. 3.24 kg), with the shear force similar at two end-point cooking times (11 and 16 min) corresponding to approximately 75 and 83 degrees C, respectively. No differences between H and C were observed for color score, firmness score, Minolta L, Minolta Y, or drip loss on uncooked samples. The H loins had lower marbling scores (P<.05) and intramuscular lipid (P<.05) content than the paired C loin. Sensory evaluation on the randomly selected (n = 16) paired loins samples showed no improvement in Warner-Bratzler shear force. Sensory panelists were also unable to detect a difference between H and C loins for both initial and sustained tenderness scores. No differences between H and C loins were found for pork flavor, off-flavor, cohesiveness, or number of chews before swallowing, but H loins had a significantly lower juiciness score and more cooking loss than C loins. Microbial analysis results showed no differences in coliform bacteria counts, aerobic plate counts, and no detectable levels of Escherichia coli bacteria in any loins. The findings support the ability of the Hydrodyne procedure to improve tenderness without impacting other muscle quality attributes of pork. PMID:10461990

Moeller, S; Wulf, D; Meeker, D; Ndife, M; Sundararajan, N; Solomon, M B

1999-08-01

80

A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: Application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.  

PubMed

Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA). PMID:23973565

Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

2013-08-01

81

Study on lower back electrotactile stimulation characteristics for prosthetic sensory feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the seamless integration of artificial limbs into the human body, sensory feedback plays an important role. There are two main methods of providing sensory feedback: invasive and non-invasive. One of the challenges of non-invasive methods is to identify the appropriate body location to transmit information through. In prosthetic applications it makes sense to target locations with low sensory

Monika Seps; Konstantinos Dermitzakis; Alejandro Hernandez-Arieta

2011-01-01

82

Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention: The role of positive sensory experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

European consumers are skeptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if positive sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence

Klaus G. Grunert; Tino Bech-Larsen; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Øydis Ueland; Annika Åström

2004-01-01

83

Reproducibility and Performance Characteristics of Colonic Compliance, Tone and Sensory Tests in Healthy Humans  

PubMed Central

Background The performance characteristics of colonic sensation and motility measurements are unclear. Aim To compare left colon compliance, tone and sensation in males and females and to evaluate inter- and intra-individual coefficients of variation (COV) in these measurements. Methods Data were acquired using standard barostat methods, by one technologist, in 72 human volunteers (38 males, 18–65 y). We measured compliance, fasting tone and sensation during baseline and post-placebo; postprandial (PP) tone was measured only post-placebo. Compliance and thresholds for first sensation, gas and pain were measured using ascending method of limits; sensory ratings (0–100 mm VAS) using random phasic distensions at 8 to 36 mmHg above baseline operating pressure. Change in PP tone was measured by barostat balloon volume for the first 30 min after a 1000kcal meal. Inter-COV was calculated as 100 (SD/mean), and intra-COV as (100*SD delta/overall mean). Results There were no statistically significant associations with gender for most sensory or motor parameters at baseline. A modest association of fasting colonic tone and gender was observed. COV are lower (20–35%) for compliance, fasting tone, pain threshold, and sensation ratings than for PP tone and threshold for first or gas sensation (>45%). COV data are similar in males and females; sensation COVs appear smaller in females relative to males. Conclusions Testing of compliance, tone and pain and gas sensation in left colon performs adequately to assess these functions in humans. Lower COV for sensation tests among females is relevant to plan studies of drugs intended for functional GI disorders.

Odunsi, Suwebatu T.; Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E.; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Busciglio, Irene; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

2009-01-01

84

Effects of Salt and Sodium Tripolyphosphate on Texture, Organic Volatiles and Sensory Characteristics of Irradiated and Nonirradiated Pork Rolls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radappertized pork rolls were prepared using fresh pork hams with sodium chloride (0.75%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3% or 0.5%) additions. The irradiated and nonirradiated samples were tested by technological panels for the sensory characteristics an...

G. W. Shults J. J. Howker E. Wierbicki

1976-01-01

85

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burger made from duck surimi-like material.  

PubMed

Burgers were prepared using duck surimi-like material (DSLM) with polydextrose added (SL) and DSLM with sucrose-sorbitol added (SS), and the properties of these burgers were compared with those of burgers made of chicken meat (CB) and duck meat (DB). Quality characteristics such as chemical composition, cooking loss, diameter shrinkage, color, and texture were measured. The DB had a lower moisture content (55.58%) and higher fat content (21.44%) and cooking loss (11.01%) compared with other samples, whereas CB, SS, and SL did not differ significantly in moisture (65.21-66.10%) and fat (10.42-11.16%) content or cooking loss (5.32-6.15%). The SS and SL were positioned below CB and above DB in terms of hardness, chewiness, and springiness. Ten trained panelists assessed the burgers using quantitative descriptive analysis. Among the burgers, CB had the greatest brightness of color, hardness, springiness, and chewiness. The SS had greater sweetness than the other burgers. Both SL and SS had significantly less animalic odor, meaty flavor, oiliness, juiciness, and saltiness compared with DB. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burgers prepared from DSLM approached those of burgers made of chicken. PMID:22912469

Ramadhan, K; Huda, N; Ahmad, R

2012-09-01

86

Assessing sensory quality of rice to meet industry needs.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food industries need consistent supplies of rice that are well-defined in terms of functional, nutritional, and sensory characteristics associated with intrinsic product quality to allow them to be directed to the most appropriate, highest value markets. Defining the sensory quality of rice is prob...

87

Integrating sensory evaluation in adaptive conjoint analysis to elaborate the conflicting influence of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on food choice.  

PubMed

Sensory properties and packaging information are factors which considerably contribute to food choice. We present a new methodology in which sensory preference testing was integrated in adaptive conjoint analysis. By simultaneous variation of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on identical levels, this procedure allows assessing the importance of attribute/level combinations on product selection. In a set-up with nine pair-wise comparisons and four subsequent calibration assessments, 101 young consumers evaluated vanilla yoghurt which was varied in fat content (four levels), sugar content (two levels) and flavour intensity (two levels); the same attribute/level combinations were also presented as extrinsic information. The results indicate that the evaluation of a particular attribute may largely diverge in intrinsic and in extrinsic processing. We noticed from our utility values that, for example, the acceptance of yoghurt increases with an increasing level of the actual fat content, whereas acceptance diminishes when a high fat content is labelled on the product. This article further implicates that neglecting these diverging relationships may lead to an over- or underestimation of the importance of an attribute for food choice. PMID:23000276

Hoppert, Karin; Mai, Robert; Zahn, Susann; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rohm, Harald

2012-09-18

88

Sensory enhancement of foods for the elderly with monosodium glutamate and flavors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, both the number and proportion of elderly persons is increasing dramatically. By 2025, it is predicted that there will be 1.121 billion persons over 60 years of age. Most of these elderly will have sensory losses including impairment of taste and smell perception. Taste and smell losses are serious because they can lead to inadequate dietary intake and impaired

Susan S. Schiffman

1998-01-01

89

Food-related sensory experience from birth through weaning: Contrasted patterns in two nearby European regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes infant feeding practices among mothers from two European regions from the perspective of early sensory experiences. Two groups of mothers, one in Dijon , France (n=139), the other in Aalen , Germany (n=157) with infants aged 4–9 months were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Clear between- and within-group differences in weaning practices were found, particularly with respect

Andrea Maier; Claire Chabanet; Benoist Schaal; Peter Leathwood; Sylvie Issanchou

2007-01-01

90

Food Selectivity and Sensory Sensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism spectrum disorders comprise a complex set of related developmental disorders that are characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. Impairments in sensory processing are also extremely common. The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is increasing and is currently estimated to affect 1 in 150 children. Autism spectrum disorders are considered to be a major health and

Sharon A. Cermak; Carol Curtin; Linda G. Bandini

2010-01-01

91

Study on lower back electrotactile stimulation characteristics for prosthetic sensory feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the seamless integration of artificial limbs into the human body, sensory feedback plays an impor- tant role. There are two main methods of providing sensory feedback: invasive and non-invasive. One of the challenges of non-invasive methods is to identify the appropriate body location to transmit information through. In prosthetic appli- cations it makes sense to target locations with

Monika Seps; Konstantinos Dermitzakis; Alejandro Hernandez-Arieta

2011-01-01

92

Consumer Preference and Description of Salmon in Four Northern Atlantic Countries and Association with Sensory Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus in this article is on the relation between consumer preference and objective description of the product profile of salmon. A consumer study of eight salmon products was carried out in Iceland, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Ireland. In addition, objective sensory profiling using a trained sensory panel was performed on the products, which varied according to storage method, storage

Ditte Green-Petersen; Grethe Hyldig; Kolbrun Sveinsdóttir; Rian Schelvis; Emilía Martinsdóttir

2009-01-01

93

Effects of altered ration levels on sensory characteristics, lipid content and fatty acid composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the effects of altered ration levels on sensory characteristics, lipid content and fatty acid composition of rainbow trout fillet. Ration levels were altered from adequate to restricted level after 0.2 and 1.0 years from hatching and from strongly restricted and restricted levels to adequate level 1.0 years from hatching. A selected and trained panel carried out descriptive

L Johansson; A Kiessling; K-H Kiessling; L Berglund

2000-01-01

94

Effect of salt and sodium tripolyphosphate on texture, organic volatiles, and sensory characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radappertized pork rolls and chops were prepared using fresh pork muscles with sodium chloride (0.75 percent) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3 percent or 0.5 percent) additions. The irradiated and nonirradiated samples were tested by technological panels for sensory characteristics and consumer panels for preference. Texture measurements were made with an Allo-Kramer Shear Press. Total organic volatiles were determined using a steam

GARY W. SHULTS; J. J. Howker; E. Wierbicki

1976-01-01

95

Quality and sensory characteristics of hard red wheat after residential storage for up to 32 y.  

PubMed

Samples of hard red wheat packaged for long-term storage, ranging in age from 0 to 32 y, were obtained from donors in residential households. All samples had been stored under nonabusive conditions (7% to 10% moisture, 13 to 27 °C). Selected quality parameters of the wheat (moisture, thiamin, free fatty acids, flour extraction rate, bread loaf volume, and bread firmness) and sensory properties of bread made from the stored wheat (aroma, appearance, texture, flavor, overall liking, acceptance for use as part of the regular diet, and acceptance for use in emergency situations) were evaluated. Free fatty acids increased significantly from 0.897 to 11.8 ?mol/g, and flour extraction rate decreased significantly from 76.5% to 69.9% over time. None of the other quality parameters measured (moisture, thiamin, bread loaf volume, and bread firmness) were significantly correlated with wheat storage time. Panelists who frequently or occasionally consume whole wheat bread rated all breads made from the stored wheat with hedonic scores (9-point scale) of at least 6.4 (like slightly to moderately). Consumer ratings of bread texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were negatively correlated with storage time (P < 0.001); however, at least 70% of panelists indicated that they would consume the bread as part of their regular diet even after 32 y of wheat storage, while over 97% would do so in an emergency. These data indicate that wheat maintains nutritional quality and makes acceptable bread when stored up to 32 y at 13 to 27 °C and 7% to 10% moisture. Practical Application: Wheat stored for the purposes of disaster relief has the potential of being stored for extremely long periods of time, which may result in undesirable changes in milling and baking quality. Therefore, we tested wheat that had been stored under residential conditions for up to 32 y to determine its functional quality and consumer acceptability. Our results indicate that wheat of low moisture (7% to 10%) packaged in sealed cans and stored for up to 32 y at or below typical room temperature retains quality and can be made into bread that is well accepted by consumers. Thus, whole wheat has good long-term storage stability and can be recommended for emergency food supplies. PMID:21535720

Rose, Devin J; Ogden, Lynn V; Dunn, Michael L; Jamison, Rachel G; Lloyd, Michelle A; Pike, Oscar A

2010-11-18

96

Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.  

PubMed

Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with regard to toxigenicity and pathogenicity determinants as well as presence of transferable antibiotic resistance. Nitrate and nitrite are still considered basically undesired in food. The main objections are based on their potential to form nitrosamines with carcinogenic potential. In view of new results from intensive research of NO, potential risks are opposed by positive effects on human health. PMID:22202868

Hammes, Walter P

2011-07-07

97

Instrumental determination of flavor stability of fatty foods and its correlation with sensory flavor responses.  

PubMed

The evaluation of flavor and the flavor stability of vegetable oils and products made from them has evolved from the purely subjective to the objective through the use of instrumental measurement techniques. An attempt has been made in this report to catalogue this evolution and put in perspective the advantages and limitations of both the sensory and the instrumental techniques. Multi-laboratory collaborative studies have shown the viability of the instrumental approach and the utility of a number of methods for research and quality control. While the benchmark of consumer acceptance remains anchored in the subjective sensory responses, the instrumental objective methods are beginning to replace these for application to product and process evaluation. They have also provided insight into the identity of the flavor bearing components and their changes with time and temperature abuse. Recent utilization of mass spectrometry for analysis of the flavor components from vegetable oil containing products has provided greater assurance of the validity of the instrumental approaches. PMID:6380953

Waltking, A E; Goetz, A G

1983-01-01

98

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

2012-08-01

99

Comparison of the effects of Carotino and canola oils on the sensory properties of various foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotino oil is a viscous refined derivative of palm oil and has a deep orange-red colour. It contains valuable nutrients and has the potential to be considered as a functional food. Carotino oil has been used in some developing countries to overcome vitamin A deficiency; however, it is unfamiliar to North America. Consumer taste panels were conducted to evaluate the

Sharareh Hekmat; Jennifer Haines

2003-01-01

100

SENSORY EVALUATION OF CITRUS PEEL ESSENTIAL OILS AS FLAVOURING AGENTS IN VARIOUS FOOD PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2002-2003. The objective was to evaluate the utility of peel essential oils of various Pakistani citrus varieties such as Kinnow (C. reticulata, var. mandarin), Fewtrell's Early (C. reticulata, var. tangenrine), Malta (C. sinensis var. malta), Mousami (C. sinensis var. mousami), grape fruit (C.

Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad

101

Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference for Cooked Chicken Breasts from Organic, Corn-fed, Free-range and Conventionally Reared Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory characteristics of cooked chicken breasts from organic (n=4), corn-fed (n=1), free range (n=5) and conventionally (n=5) reared animals from conventional origins were determined. Twelve trained assessors described the sensory characteristics of all samples using twenty-one attributes. One-way analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.05) differences between samples for all appearance, one odour, one flavour, and all texture attributes. Principal

2003-01-01

102

Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of ‘Pink Lady’ and other late?season apple cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Pink Lady’ is a late maturing ‘Lady Williams’ × ‘Golden Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivar developed in Western Australia and imported into New Zealand by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries in 1986. We used trained and consumer panellists, and chemical and physical analyses, to compare the sensory quality of ‘Pink Lady’ with that of four standard late?harvest apple

Virginia K. Corrigan; Paul L. Hurst; Geraldine Boulton

1997-01-01

103

Classification of different bovine muscles according to sensory characteristics and Warner Bratzler shear force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to examine how well different beef muscles from Norwegian Red bulls respond to the consumer needs. Ten carcasses were slaughtered at a commercial abbatoir, chilled at 4°C for 48h, and 10 muscles excised. After ageing for 9days at 4°C, the muscles were subjected to sensory and chemical analyses and classified according to these analyses in 4 quality

Kjell Ivar Hildrum; Rune Rødbotten; Martin Høy; Jan Berg; Bjørg Narum; Jens Petter Wold

2009-01-01

104

Rheological properties and sensory characteristics of set-type soy yogurt.  

PubMed

The study examined chemical composition and rheological and sensory properties of probiotic soy yogurt during 28 day storage at 4 degrees C. Soymilk supplemented with 2% (w/v) inulin or 1% (w/v) each of raffinose and glucose was used as a base for soy yogurt manufacture. Viability of probiotic organisms and their metabolic activity measured as production of organic acids and aldehyde content responsible for beany flavor, as well as rheological and sensory properties of soy yogurt, were examined. Inulin or raffinose/glucose supplementation in soymilk increased the bacterial population by one log cycle and the amount of lactic acid. Probiotic bacteria metabolized more aldehyde than yogurt culture and substantially reduced the beaniness in soy yogurt as determined by sensory evaluation. The probiotic soy yogurts showed more viscous and pseudoplastic properties than the control soy yogurts, but the sensory evaluation results showed preference for the control soy yogurts which were slightly less viscous. Control soy yogurt provided better mouth feel than probiotic soy yogurts. PMID:17979230

Donkor, Osaana N; Henriksson, A; Vasiljevic, T; Shah, N P

2007-11-03

105

Quantitative morphological characteristics of developing neurons after partial deafferentation of the sensory trigeminal nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied different types of neurons in the sensory trigeminal nuclei stained by the Golgi method in kittens aged 30 days with bilateral transection of the lingual nerve, made on the fifth postnatal day. We have shown that deprivation of afferent inflow from the tongue to trigeminal neurons leads to changes in the structure of all types of cells:

N. G. Gladkovich; E. A. Lushchekina; T. A. Leontovich; K. V. Shuleikina

1985-01-01

106

Structure, sensory and nutritional aspects of soluble-fibre inclusion in processed food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food industry relies increasingly on soluble fibre to formulate products with superior structural properties, mouthfeel and potential health benefits. In this paper, we have compiled experimental data from a wide range of high-solid foodstuffs in order to demonstrate the utility of fibre inclusion in such preparations. Recent studies have mapped out the structural properties of soluble-fibre polysaccharides (e.g., ?-carrageenan,

Leewah Koh; Bin Jiang; Stefan Kasapis; Check Woo Foo

2011-01-01

107

Degradation of edible oil during food processing by ultrasound: electron paramagnetic resonance, physicochemical, and sensory appreciation.  

PubMed

During ultrasound processing of lipid-containing food, some off-flavors can be detected, which can incite depreciation by consumers. The impacts of ultrasound treatment on sunflower oil using two different ultrasound horns (titanium and pyrex) were evaluated. An electron paramagnetic resonance study was performed to identify and quantify the formed radicals, along with the assessment of classical physicochemical parameters such as peroxide value, acid value, anisidine value, conjugated dienes, polar compounds, water content, polymer quantification, fatty acid composition, and volatiles profile. The study shows an increase of formed radicals in sonicated oils, as well as the modification of physicochemical parameters evidencing an oxidation of treated oils. PMID:22804736

Pingret, Daniella; Durand, Grégory; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Rockenbauer, Antal; Ginies, Christian; Chemat, Farid

2012-07-25

108

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of licorice root product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Licorice root products were irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20kGy in a 60Co package irradiator. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at room temperatures. Microbial population on product, chemical changes and sensory properties of produced solution of licorice root products were evaluated after 0 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the counts of microorganisms on licorice root products. D10 of total count and klebsiella spp. were about 1.4 and 0.7kGy, respectively. The mineral ions (Na, Ca and K) concentration in solution produced from irradiated products were lower than non-irradiated ones. Glycyrrhezinic acid and maltose concentration in solution produced from irradiated products were higher than non-irradiated ones. Sensory evaluation indicated that no significant differences (P<0.05) were found between solution produced from irradiated and unirradiated products in color, flavor, texture, or taste.

Al-Bachir, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.; Al-Kaid, A.

2004-03-01

109

A comparison of the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of alheira samples from different-sized producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alheira is a traditional Portuguese meat product made from boiled meat, usually pork and\\/or poultry, and bread. The physicochemical and sensory properties of alheira were analyzed to determine the relationships between them and to evaluate how they are affected by the product’s origin i.e. if is produced on a small or industrial scale. The most important variables used to characterize

L. Patarata; I. Judas; J. A. Silva; A. Esteves; C. Martins

2008-01-01

110

Effect of goat breed on the sensory, chemical and nutritional characteristics of ricotta cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory properties of ricotta cheese, such as softness, granulosity and greasiness, were significantly different (P<0.001) among goat breeds. The lower value of adhesiveness, detected in ricotta cheese made from whey of the Local breed, may be linked to the higher fat\\/protein ratio. Goat odour was more pronounced in ricotta cheese made from whey of Siriana and Maltese goats (P<0.001) compared

M. Pizzillo; S. Claps; G. F. Cifuni; V. Fedele; R. Rubino

2005-01-01

111

Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild\\/farmed), storage time (short\\/extended) and storage method (fresh\\/frozen\\/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European countries tasted and scored the cod products on a 9-point hedonic scale. In addition information on the consumers attitudes, motives\\/barriers

K. Sveinsdottir; E. Martinsdottir; D. Green-Petersen; G. Hyldig; A. A. M. Schelvis-Smit

2009-01-01

112

Microbial growth, communities and sensory characteristics of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged lamb shoulders.  

PubMed

Packaging fresh lamb in a vacuum (VAC) versus a 100% CO2 modified atmosphere (MAP) may influence product shelf-life and the bacterial communities. While VAC is a common packing method and 100% CO2 MAP is used in some countries, there is little information about how these different techniques affect the growth of spoilage bacteria and sensory attributes of lamb. The aim of this study was to assess changes in microbiological and organoleptic properties, and determine differences in microbial communities by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing, in bone-in (BI) and bone-out (BO) MAP- and VAC-packed lamb shoulders stored at -0.3 °C over 12 wk. VAC and MAP lamb shoulders were acceptable in sensory test scores over 12 wk of storage at -0.3 °C, despite total viable count (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) levels increasing to 8 log10 CFU/cm(2) for VAC lamb and 4-6 log10 CFU/cm(2) for MAP lamb. Similar to the sensory results, there were no significant differences in microbial communities between BI and BO product. However, types of bacteria were different between VAC and MAP packaging. Specifically, while VAC shoulder became dominated by Carnobacterium spp. in the middle of the storage period, the MAP shoulder microbial population remained similar from the start until later storage times. PMID:24010611

Kiermeier, Andreas; Tamplin, Mark; May, Damian; Holds, Geoff; Williams, Michelle; Dann, Alison

2013-07-05

113

National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.  

PubMed

The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values, whereas steaks from the round had the greatest (P < 0.05) values. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared with top sirloin steaks. Retail top blade steaks and food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P < 0.05) consumer sensory panel ratings compared with the other steaks evaluated. Prime food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P < 0.05) for overall like, like tenderness, tenderness level, like juiciness, and juiciness level, whereas ungraded rib eye steaks received the lowest ratings (P < 0.05) for like tenderness and tenderness level. The WBS values for food service steaks were greater (P < 0.05) for the Select and ungraded groups compared with the Prime, Top Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred. PMID:23230117

Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

2012-12-10

114

The Influence of SocioEconomic Characteristics on Food Advertisement Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only 22 percent of surveyed consumers reported making frequent use of food advertisements when purchasing food products. However, certain demographic segments appear to place a greater emphasis on food advertisements than others. This study empirically evaluates which socio-economic characteristics encourage consumers to be more likely to take food advertisements into account when purchasing grocery products. The results indicate that those

Ramu Govindasamy; John Italia

1999-01-01

115

The marginal willingness to pay for health-related food characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumers often face a trade-off between taste and nutrition. This paper examines how consumers value food characteristics that simultaneously affect taste and nutritional value. As a case study, we focus on Swedish consumer preferences for food characteristics in breakfast cereals, hard bread, and potato products. We estimate the value attached to fat, fiber, salt, and sugar and the value

Linda Thunström; Gordon Rausser

2008-01-01

116

Transglutaminase cross-linking effect on sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of Maillard reaction products from soybean protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

To improve the yield of Maillard peptides, a microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was used to increase the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in soybean protein hydrolysates by using a cross-linking reaction. The sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of corresponding Maillard Reaction Products (MSPC) was then evaluated. After cross-linking treatment the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in protein hydrolysates and the yield of Maillard peptides increased by 21.19% and 8.71%, respectively, which contributed to the improved mouthfulness of MSPC. The bitter amino acids were significantly decreased and the umami acids were markedly increased in MSPC. Volatile compounds identified by GC-MS analysis showed that the content of the important meaty flavour compounds (such as 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide) of MSPC were dramatically higher than that of MRPs from uncross-linking peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation, it was confirmed that MTGase cross-linking improved the flavour Characteristics and did not affect the antioxidant activity of MSPC. PMID:23017405

Song, Na; Tan, Chen; Huang, Meigui; Liu, Ping; Eric, Karangwa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin; Jia, Chengsheng

2012-07-31

117

Effect of structure in the sensory characterization of the crispness of toasted rusk roll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crispness is a salient textural attribute of toasted foods strongly related to their preference. Crispness is affected by water content, mechanical properties and morphology of the food. Sound emission and force characteristics during food crushing play a key role in crispness.The aim was to assess the effect of product morphology on sensory crispness grading of toasted rusk roll, a cellular

C. Primo-Martin; E. M. Castro-Prada; M. B. J. Meinders; P. F. G. Vereijken; T. van Vliet

2008-01-01

118

Effect of genotype on slaughtering performance and meat physical and sensory characteristics of organic laying hens.  

PubMed

Slaughtering yields and some meat physical and sensorial parameters of laying hens reared under organic system production were studied. The hens belonged to both Italian dual-purpose breeds [Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER; brown eggshell) and Robusta Maculata (RM; brown eggshell)] as well as hybrid genotypes [Hy Line White 36 (white eggshell) and Hy Line Brown (brown eggshell)]. The birds were reared under organic farming system production from 24 to 44 wk of age, when they were slaughtered. They were reared throughout summer and autumn, and the temperature ranged from about 28 to 3 degrees C. Local breeds presented higher (P < 0.01) live BW and dressing percentage compared with hybrids. The RM and ER carcasses had (P < 0.01) the highest breast and leg (thigh and drumstick) percentage, respectively. The muscle-bone ratio of the Hy Line White 36 drumstick was lower (P < 0.05) than the RM ratio, whereas the other groups were intermediate. The ER breast presented the highest (P < 0.01) lightness value and the lowest (P < 0.01) final pH value compared with the other 3 groups. The breast meat significantly differed according to genotype for almost all the studied sensorial parameters (adhesivity, fibrousness, chewiness, solubility, juiciness, tenderness, shear resistance), with the exception of aroma and odor intensity. In the thigh, genotype significantly affected aroma, adhesivity, fibrousness, solubility, tenderness, and shear resistance. PMID:17179427

Rizzi, C; Marangon, A; Chiericato, G M

2007-01-01

119

Effect of storage time and temperature on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial apricot jam.  

PubMed

Storage conditions are important factors for jam quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability and sensorial profile of apricot jam during storage for 60days at 5°C, 25°C and 37°C. For that purpose, special attention was paid to total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), colour, free amino acids (FAA), total sugars (TS) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The decreasing parameter for jam at the end of storage under 5°C, 25°C and 37°C, respectively, were 16.81%, 34.30% and 56.01% for FAA, and 5.52%, 9.02% and 7.46% for TS; likewise, the increasing were 19.81%, 22.94% and 25.07% for TA, 3.15%, 4.08% and 4.47% for TSS, 15.96%, 112.76% and 150% for HMF. Jam stability was better at 5°C than 25°C and 37°C. The interaction time-temperature factor had significant effects on pH, TS, FAA and HMF, unlike TA, TSS and sensorial profile. PMID:24128444

Touati, Noureddine; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Aguayo, Encarna; Louaileche, Hayette

2013-08-16

120

The Nutritional Characteristics of a Contemporary Diet Based Upon Paleolithic Food Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The intent of the present study was to examine the nutritional characteristics of a contemporary diet based upon Paleolithic food groups and to determine how these characteristics may impact the risk of chronic disease. Methods: Nutritional software was employed to ascertain the macro and trace nutrient characteristics of a diet composed of commonly available modern foods, but devoid of

Loren Cordain

121

Regional sensory and chemical characteristics of Malbec wines from Mendoza and California.  

PubMed

Malbec grapes are widely grown and studied in Argentina, whereas the smaller production in California is less well known. This study sought to define and compare Malbec wine compositions from various regions in Mendoza, Argentina and California, USA. The Malbec wines were clearly separated, based on their chemical and sensory profiles, by wine region and country. Descriptors of Malbec wines were aromas of cooked vegetal, earthy, soy and volatile acidity, as well as acidic taste and astringent mouthfeel, regardless of the region of origin. Malbec wines from Mendoza generally had more ripe fruit, sweetness, and higher alcohol levels, while the Californian Malbec wines had more artificial fruit and citrus aromas, and bitter taste. Compositional differences between the two countries were related more to altitude than precipitation and growing degree days. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an extensive regionality study has been attempted for Malbec wines. PMID:24054238

King, Ellena S; Stoumen, Martha; Buscema, Fernando; Hjelmeland, Anna K; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde; Boulton, Roger B

2013-07-26

122

Effect of inclusion of salmon roe on characteristics of salmon baby food products.  

PubMed

Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree + chunks, puree + pink row, puree + pink row + chunks, puree + red row, puree + red roe + chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristics were determined. Samples containing roe were lighter and less red (by approximately 3 to 4 a* units) than formulations without roe regardless of the type of roe added. Visual pink color followed the same trend. Formulations with roe, both pink and sockeye, were almost twice as fibrous as formulations without roe. Salmon flavor was stronger in samples containing roe from sockeye salmon. In the 2nd study, retort processed samples were stored at room temperature for 6 mo. Sweaty odor decreased over storage time. Visual cream-brown color correlated with L*, a*, b*, and chroma values (r =-0.80, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively). TBARS values of all samples were < 0.35 mg MDA/kg and declined after month 0 indicating that these products were oxidatively stable. Overall, adding roe to these products lightened them and increased fibrous texture. Samples containing sockeye salmon roe had stronger salmon flavor. Once retort processed, these products were quite stable in terms of color, odor, and TBARS. Potential nutrient contributions of this type of product to the infant diet warrant additional research. PMID:20546426

DeSantos, F A; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

2010-05-01

123

Acquired hedonic and sensory characteristics of odours: Influence of sweet liker and propylthiouracil taster status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated pairings of novel food-related odours with sweet tastes can result in enduring changes in sweetness of the odour alone, but have less consistent effects on odour liking. Variation in ability to taste propylthiouracil (PROP) might account for this, since PROP supertasters (ST) have been reported both to experience stronger sweetness intensity and to be more likely to dislike sweetness

Martin R. Yeomans; John Prescott; Natalie J. Gould

2009-01-01

124

I'll Have What She's Having: The Impact of Model Characteristics on Children's Food Choices  

PubMed Central

The current research investigates children's use of social categories in their food selection. Across three studies, we presented preschoolers with sets of photographs that contrasted food-eating models with different characteristics, including model gender, race (Black, White), age (child or adult), and/or expression (acceptance or rejection of the food). Children were asked to pick between the photographs to choose which food they would like for snack. Results demonstrated that preschoolers prefer foods being eaten by models with positive over negative expressions, foods being eaten by child over adult models, and foods being eaten by child models of the same gender as themselves over models of the other gender. This work connects with previous research on children's understanding of social categories and also has important practical implications for how characteristics of a food-eating model can affect children's willingness to try new foods.

Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Russell, Joshua W.; Lumeng, Julie C.

2011-01-01

125

Pungency in food perception and preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sensations of pungency are characteristic of food in all cultures, relatively little attention has been given to trying to understand the role these sensations play in our perception of, and preference for, foods and food flavors. This review provides an overview of research on the psychophysics of the sensory system responsible for perception of pungency (the trigeminal nerve), current

John Prescott; Richard J. Stevenson

1995-01-01

126

Textural and sensory characteristics of whole and skimmed flavored set-type yogurt during long storage.  

PubMed

A study of refrigerated storage (10 degrees C for 91 d) of whole and skimmed flavored set-type yogurt was made. Comparison with storage at 20 degrees C for 21 d and 30 degrees C for 3 d (accelerated) was also carried out. Refrigerated storage yogurts were assessed by a trained panel and by a consumer panel. Trained-panel scores were correlated to instrumental data, and the acceptability data for long storage were studied using consumer criteria. In all cases, after-storage pH values barely changed over storage time, indicating that the yogurt samples did not develop much acidity under any of the storage conditions studied. The profile of the instrumental texture curves obtained corresponded to a firm gel, which broke after a plunger penetrated the sample, and the firmness values of the whole yogurt were lower than for the skimmed yogurt under all the storage conditions studied. From a microbiological point of view, the viability of the yogurts was adequate at the different storage times and temperatures studied, although those stored at 10 degrees C for long periods would not comply with some countries' minimum requirements. Logistic regression of the data from a 50-consumer sensory evaluation showed that the probability of the whole yogurt being accepted after 91 d storage at 10 degrees C was around 40%, whereas for the skimmed yogurt it was only 15%, largely because the skimmed yogurt developed certain negative attributes at an earlier stage of storage than the whole yogurt. PMID:15545363

Salvador, A; Fiszman, S M

2004-12-01

127

Optimization of consumer acceptability and sensory characteristics for marinated broiler breast meat.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of marination on the quality of poultry breast meat deboned at various times postmortem (PM) were investigated. One of the specific goals was to optimize the processing conditions between deboning time, tumbling duration, and poultry breast meat tenderness, with the objective of developing specific recommendations on processing practices adopted by the poultry industry. Broiler breast (Pectoralis major) muscles deboned at 0.25, 1.5, 3, 6, and 24 h PM were vacuum tumbled with 20% solution added containing 1% salt and 0.45% sodium tripolyphosphate for either 15 or 30 min. Meat quality measurements including marination uptake, retention, cooking loss, instrumental texture, sensory descriptive analysis, and consumer acceptance were performed. Results indicated that acceptable tenderness was achieved for marinated treatments deboned at 3 h or later PM. Fillets deboned at shorter PM were rated tough by consumers. Marination duration had very little effect on the quality of the meat processed. Practical Application:? For the poultry industry to maximize consumer acceptance for marinated broiler breast meat, this research will be of benefit. Various qualities of broiler breast meat such as tenderness and water-holding capacities were examined under different marination conditions. PMID:22417605

Lee, Y S; Youm, G; Owens, C M; Meullenet, J F

2011-10-01

128

Barley for food: Characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare vulgare L.) is an ancient cereal grain, which upon domestication has evolved from largely a food grain to a feed and malting grain. However, barley food use today remains important in some cultures around the world, particularly in Asia and northern Africa, and there is renewed interest throughout the world in barley food because of its nutritional

Byung-Kee Baik; Steven E. Ullrich

2008-01-01

129

Understanding school food service characteristics associated with higher competitive food revenues can help focus efforts to improve school food environments.  

PubMed

Many school food services sell extra foods and beverages, popularly referred to as “competitive foods,” in addition to USDA school meals. On the basis of national survey data, most competitive foods and beverages selected by students are of low nutritional value. Recent federal legislation will allow schools that participate in USDA school meal programs to sell competitive foods only if the food items they sell meet nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of limiting competitive foods on local school food service finances. However, national data indicate that only in a subset of schools do food services receive large amounts of revenues from competitive foods. These food services are typically located in secondary schools in more affluent districts, serving higher proportions of students who do not receive free or reduced price meals. Compared to other food services, these food services couple higher competitive food revenues with lower school meal participation. Increasing school meal participation could increase meal revenues to offset any loss of competitive food revenues. Replacing less-healthful competitive items with healthier options could also help maintain school food service revenues while improving the school food environment. Nationally consistent nutrition standards for competitive foods may encourage development and marketing of healthful products. PMID:22867067

Guthrie, Joanne F; Newman, Constance; Ralston, Katherine; Prell, Mark; Ollinger, Michael

2012-08-01

130

Non-sensory factors in sensory science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisions about what food to buy, eat and serve for one’s family and friends are complex and influenced by many factors other than sensory quality. It is widely agreed that while taste and other sensory qualities are very important, they only partially account for consumers’ food related behaviours. This paper considers the role of several other factors: convenience, price, production

Sara R. Jaeger

2006-01-01

131

Investigation of sensory and volatile characteristics of farmed and wild barramundi (Lates calcarifer) using gas chromatography-olfactometry mass spectrometry and descriptive sensory analysis.  

PubMed

Australian aquacultured and wild-caught barramundi (Lates calcarifer) were obtained for sensory evaluation and analysis by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with simultaneous mass spectrometry. Aquacultured barramundi were sourced from commercial farms representing some typical Australian production methods: above-ground recirculation tank, in-ground lined pond, and in-ground earth pond cultivation. Wild barramundi were sourced from three river-mouth sites in Northern Australia: the Gulf of Carpentaria, the Arafura Sea in the Northern Territory, and the Coral Sea, Northern Queensland. Fish were filleted, minced into a homogeneous sample, and blast frozen for subsequent cooking and sensory and volatile analysis. Barramundi mince portions were grilled using a standardized method for sensory descriptive profiling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry analysis. Volatiles from grilled fish were collected using dynamic headspace, and the extracts were subjected to direct-intensity olfactometry analysis by trained assessors. More than 30 odor-active compounds were present in the barramundi extracts, mostly with the same odor-active compounds detected in both wild and aquacultured samples. On average, the perceived GC-O odor intensities of most aroma volatiles were higher in aquacultured samples. This was also reflected by instrumental data, where most volatiles were present at higher concentrations in the aquacultured samples. Additional "muddy", "earthy", and "musty" flavor notes perceived in the lined and earth pond aquacultured samples were related to the presence of 2-methyl isoborneol and geosmin in these samples. Multivariate modeling was used to relate the sensory, olfactometry, and instrumental data; overall, there was good agreement between the data sets. PMID:19824645

Frank, Damian; Poole, Sue; Kirchhoff, Stephanie; Forde, Ciarán

2009-11-11

132

Local Characteristics Are Linked to Food Insecurity Among Households With Elementary School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the relationship between community characteristics and household food security status among elementary school children in Wisconsin. Data were from a self-administered survey of parents of elementary school children during 2003–2005 and were linked by ZIP code to data on community characteristics. The sample included 8396 households. Food security was measured with the standard 6-item Food Security Scale.

Judith S. Bartfeld; Jeong-Hee Ryu; Lingling Wang

2010-01-01

133

Dietary vitamin E supplementation effects on the color and sensory characteristics of enhanced beef steaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on characteristics of enhanced beef cuts during retail display. Twelve steers were fed either a control (E?) diet or a diet supplemented with dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate (E+) for 117 days prior to slaughter. Paired strip loins, clods, and inside rounds served as the control (C)

K. Robbins; J. Jensen; K. J. Ryan; C. Homco-Ryan; F. K. McKeith; M. S Brewer

2003-01-01

134

Chemical and sensory characteristics of low molecular weight fractions obtained from three types of Japanese soy sauce (shoyu) – Koikuchi, tamari and shiro shoyu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three typical forms of Japanese soy sauce (shoyu), koikuchi, tamari and shiro shoyu, can be differentiated, primarily due to their different compositions of soybeans and wheat used for their productions. To evaluate and compare the chemical characteristics of the low molecular weight (MW) fractions of three types of shoyu with their sensory data, gel filtration fractions of ultrafiltration products with

Hanifah Nuryani Lioe; Koji Wada; Takayoshi Aoki; Masaaki Yasuda

2007-01-01

135

Comparison of sensory specific satiety and sensory specific desires to eat in children and adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this experiment is to compare sensory specific satiety (SSS) and sensory specific desire to eat (SSD), which can be described as general wanting for certain taste categories and go beyond specific foods, in children and adults and their impact on subsequent food choices. Eighty-seven children (10.3 ± 0.6 years) and 49 adults (31.0 ± 2.0 years) participated in the study. Sweet pear banana yoghurt was used as the food eaten to satiation, and test foods representing sweet, salty, sour, bitter, "fatty", and "spicy" flavors were also evaluated (foods not eaten). At baseline and post meal participants evaluated hunger, satiation, liking, and wanting for test foods and yoghurt, and desires on a 150 mm visual analogue score (VAS) scale. The yoghurt was eaten until a state of "comfortable satiation" was reached. Results showed that SSS and SSD were expressed differently in children and adults. In children, SSS was primarily product specific and bound to the yoghurt, whereas in adults SSS was transferred to the uneaten foods sharing sensory characteristics with the yoghurt (namely sweet, sour and "fatty"), which all decreased in their liking post meal. Similar differences were found for SSD. We conclude that children and adults differ in their expression of SSS and SSD, and this might have implications for planning meal compositions. PMID:21477632

Olsen, Annemarie; Ritz, Christian; Hartvig, Ditte L; Møller, Per

2011-04-06

136

Consumer attitudes toward GM food with hypothetical functional characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their introduction in the early 1990s, genetically modified organisms in agriculture tended to emphasize improved yield. Europeans, perceiving unacceptable risk and too little benefit, resoundingly disapproved of GMO use in agro-food processes. More recently, research has turned to developing products that use GMO components that better match consumer interest, including nutritionally enhanced foods, environmentally friendly crops, and other areas.

Floriana Marin; Sandra Notaro

2007-01-01

137

CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GMO FOODS: BRANDING, CERTIFICATION, AND CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two consumer choice models were developed using conjoint analysis to evaluate the effect of potential strategies to gain consumer acceptance of GMO foods. Results indicate that a government certification program would be more effective than the use of a familiar brand in assuring consumers of the safety of GMO foods.

Gregory A. Baker; Michael A. Mazzocco

2002-01-01

138

Contribution to aroma characteristics of mutton process flavor from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sheep bone protein assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry.  

PubMed

Changes in the aroma characteristics of mutton process flavors (MPFs) prepared from sheep bone protein hydrolysates (SBPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). Five attributes (muttony, meaty, roasted, mouthful, and simulate) were selected to assess MPFs. The results of DSA showed a distinct difference among the control sample MPF0 and other MPF samples with added SBPHs for different DHs of almost all sensory attributes. MPF5 (DH 25.92%) was the strongest in the muttony, meaty, and roasted attributes, whereas MPF6 (DH 30.89%) was the strongest in the simulate and roasted attributes. Thirty-six compounds were identified as odor-active compounds for the evaluation of the sensory characteristics of MPFs via GC-MS-O analysis. The results of correlation analysis among odor-active compounds, molecular weight, and DSA further confirmed that the SBPH with a DH range of 25.92-30.89% may be a desirable precursor for the sensory characteristics of MPF. PMID:23416288

Zhan, Ping; Tian, Honglei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liping

2013-01-26

139

Food intake characteristics of hemodialysis patients as obtained by food frequency questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) are frequently used in epidemiologic studies of nutrition and food intake. However, the use of FFQs in patients receiving maintenance dialysis has not been extensively studied. We hypothesize that FFQ is a useful tool to assess the food intake differences between patients receiving dialysis and patients not receiving dialysis. Design: Matched exposed-unexposed study with case-controlled

Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh; Joel D. Kopple; Sunaina Deepak; Donald Block; Gladys Block

2002-01-01

140

Effects of rearing temperature and strain on sensory characteristics, texture, colour and fat of Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fillet quality of two Icelandic strains of Arctic charr, reared at 10 and 15 °C were analysed by sensory, instrumental and chemical methods. Regardless of strain, raw fillets from Artic charr reared at 10 °C, had a higher red (a?), yellow (b?) and chroma intensity than those from fish reared at 15 °C, measured by the Minolta Chroma Meter CR-300. Also by sensory

Rafael Ginés; Tyri Valdimarsdottir; Kolbrun Sveinsdottir; Helgi Thorarensen

2004-01-01

141

The Modern Obesity Epidemic, Ancestral Hunter-Gatherers, and the Sensory/Reward Control of Food Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Obesity has become a true pandemic. In the United States, over two thirds of adults are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. The increase in the prevalence of obese and overweight individuals has happened too rapidly for it to be due to an alteration in the genome. The gastrointestinal, sensory (taste and…

King, Bruce M.

2013-01-01

142

Microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured with adjunct Lactobacillus strains using a low cooking temperature.  

PubMed

The effect of nonstarter Lactobacillus adjunct cultures on the microbial, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured using the "kosher make procedure" was investigated. The kosher make procedure, which uses a lower cooking temperature than traditional Swiss cheese making, is used by many American cheese manufacturers to allow for kosher-certified whey. Cheeses were manufactured using a commercial starter culture combination and 1 of 3 non-starter Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from Swiss cheeses, Lactobacillus casei A26, L. casei B21, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus H2, as an adjunct. Control cheeses lacked the adjunct culture. Cheeses were analyzed during ripening for microbial and chemical composition. Adjunct strain L. casei A26, which utilized citrate most readily in laboratory medium, dominated the Lactobacillus population within 30 d, faster than the other adjunct cultures. There were no significant differences in Propionibacterium counts, Streptococcus thermophilus counts, protein, fat, moisture, salt, and pH among the cheeses. Free amino acid concentration ranged from 5 to 7 mmol/100 g of cheese at 90 d of ripening and was adjunct strain dependent. Lactic, acetic, and propionic acid concentrations were not significantly different among the cheeses after a 90-d ripening period; however differences in propionic acid concentrations were apparent at 60 d, with the cheeses made with L. casei adjuncts containing less propionic acid. Citric acid was depleted by the end of warm room ripening in cheeses manufactured with adjunct L. casei strains, but not with adjunct L. rhamnosus. Cheeses made with L. casei A26 were most similar to the control cheeses in diacetyl and butyric/isobutyric acid abundance as evaluated by electronic nose during the first 3 mo of ripening. The 4 cheese types differed in their descriptive sensory profiles at 8 mo of age, indicating an adjunct strain-dependent effect on particular flavor attributes. Adjunct Lactobacillus spp. affected the flavor profile and concentration of some flavor compounds in Swiss cheeses produced with the kosher make procedure. Use of adjunct Lactobacillus cultures provides Swiss cheese makers using a low cooking temperature with a means to control the dominant Lactobacillus strain during ripening, reduce citrate concentration, and modify cheese flavor. PMID:18650271

Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Harper, W J; Drake, M A; Courtney, P D

2008-08-01

143

Effects of physical and chemical characteristics of food on specific and general satiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two high-energy-dense Italian dishes were employed to study the effects of chemical and physical characteristics of foods on satiety. The specific satiety was firstly investigated. Then the satiating efficiency was evaluated when each dish was divided into two calorie levels (preloads) before an ad lib meal. Our results suggest that specific satiety differs, depending on the food itself rather than

Marisa Porrini; Roberta Crovetti; Patrizia Riso; Alessandra Santangelo; Giulio Testolin

1995-01-01

144

I'll Have What She's Having: The Impact of Model Characteristics on Children's Food Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research investigates children's use of social categories in their food selection. Across three studies, we presented preschoolers with sets of photographs that contrasted food-eating models with different characteristics, including model gender, race (Black, White), age (child or adult), and/or expression (acceptance or rejection of the…

Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Russell, Joshua W.; Lumeng, Julie C.

2012-01-01

145

Chemical and biological characteristics of a West African weaning food supplemented with compea ( Vigna unguiculata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cowpea and amino acid supplementation on the protein quality and chemical characteristics of a maize-based West African traditional weaning food were studied. Process optimization for improved nutritive value was also determined. Supplementation of the traditional weaning food with cowpea increased the lysine, tryptophan and threonine content while the sulphur-amino acids decreased with increasing levels of cowpea. Further

C. A. Nti; W. A. Plahar

1995-01-01

146

High-pressure processing of a raw milk cheese improved its food safety maintaining the sensory quality.  

PubMed

The effect of high-pressure treatment (400 or 600?MPa for 7?min) on microbiology, proteolysis, texture and sensory parameters was investigated in a mature raw goat milk cheese. At day 60 of analysis, Mesophilic aerobic, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Listeria spp. were inactivated after high-pressure treatment at 400 or 600?MPa. At day 90, mesophilic aerobic, lactic acid bacteria and Micrococacceae counts were significantly lower in high-pressure-treated cheeses than in control ones. In general, nitrogen fractions were significantly modified after high-pressure treatment on day 60 at 600?MPa compared with control cheeses, but this effect was not found in cheeses after 30 days of storage (day 90). On the other hand, high-pressure treatment caused a significant increase of some texture parameters. However, sensory analysis showed that neither trained panellists nor consumers found significant differences between control and high-pressure-treated cheeses. PMID:23729423

Delgado, Francisco José; Delgado, Jonathan; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

2013-05-31

147

Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC\\/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types:

Panagiota D. Zygoura; Evangelos K. Paleologos; Michael G. Kontominas

2011-01-01

148

Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging–food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC\\/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types:

Panagiota D. Zygoura; Evangelos K. Paleologos; Michael G. Kontominas

2011-01-01

149

Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

2010-01-01

150

Frying Pressure and Temperature Effects on Sensory Characteristics of Coated Chicken Nuggets (Kesan Tekanan dan Suhu Penggorengan Terhadap Ciri Deria Nuget Ayam Bersalut)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to evaluate the effects of frying pressure (102 and 156 kPa) and temperature (150, 165 and 180°C) on sensory characteristics of chicken nuggets coated with wheat, rice and sago flours. Batters from wheat, rice and sago flours were prepared by mixing each flour with water at a weight ratio of 1:1.2 (flour: water). Chicken nuggets

SALMA MOHAMAD YUSOP; MOHAMAD YUSOF MASKAT; AIDA WAN; AMINAH ABDULLAH

2009-01-01

151

Effects of electron-beam irradiation on the shelf life, microbial populations and sensory characteristics of summer truffles ( Tuber aestivum) packaged under modified atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two doses of electron-beam irradiation (1.5 kGy and 2.5 kGy) on the microbial populations (total mesophilic aerobes, Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, molds and yeasts) and sensory characteristics of Tuber aestivum packaged under modified atmospheres were monitored immediately after treatment, and weekly during 42 days of storage at 4 °C. Treatment with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy reduced the pseudomonads populations by 4.3

Carmen Susana Rivera; Domingo Blanco; Pedro Marco; Rosa Oria; María Eugenia Venturini

2011-01-01

152

Injection of sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium lactate improves Warner–Bratzler shear and sensory characteristics of pre-cooked inside round roasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paired inside rounds (n=30 pairs) were removed from randomly selected USDA Select quality grade carcasses to examine the effects of injecting a solution of sodium lactate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium chloride on Warner–Bratzler shear force, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, and sensory characteristics of pre-cooked beef. Injected treatments were more tender (P<0.05) than control products, as measured by Warner–Bratzler shear force

M. R. McGee; K. L. Henry; J. C. Brooks; F. K. Ray; J. B. Morgan

2003-01-01

153

Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.  

PubMed

Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat content of standard fermented sausages of similar characteristics. Sausages with SO showed higher sensory ratings in desirable ripened odor and flavor attributes and improved texture defined by lower hardness and chewiness (both sensory and instrumental) and higher crumbliness. Sausages with DAGs showed a similar behavior to that of BF, so they could be a good alternative to produce healthier reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages. PMID:23273479

Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Miklos, Rikke; Lametsch, René; Arnau, Jacint

2012-11-23

154

Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose. PMID:20127544

Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

2010-04-01

155

Pyrolysis and gasification of food waste: Syngas characteristics and char gasification kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of syngas from the pyrolysis and gasification of food waste has been investigated. Characteristic differences in syngas properties and overall yields from pyrolysis and gasification were determined at two distinct high temperatures of 800 and 900°C. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior were evaluated in terms of syngas flow rate, hydrogen flow rate, output power, total syngas yield, total hydrogen yield,

I. I. Ahmed; A. K. Gupta

2010-01-01

156

The Relationship of Characteristics of Vocational Food Service Teachers to Their Teaching Effectiveness. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was conducted to determine the relationship between selected teacher characteristics of current food service teachers and their effectiveness as teachers. The seven teacher characteristics were age, sex, industrial experience, teacher experience, level of education, teacher perception of concern for students, and occupational…

Simpson, Margaret Jean

157

Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.  

PubMed

The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (P<0.05; 0.70 log CFU/g) of Salmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (P<0.05) psychrotrophic growth. SDLA patties had more purge (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) subjective color scores. There were not large differences in sensory characteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05). PMID:23639886

Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

2013-04-15

158

Chemical composition, techno-functional and sensory properties and effects of three dietary fibers on the quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage.  

PubMed

This study determined the effects of three dietary fibers namely, VITACEL LC200 powdered cellulose (LC200), barley beta-glucan concentrate (BBC), and VITACEL KF500 potato fiber (KF500), on the techno-functional and sensory properties and quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage. The findings revealed interesting functional properties for LC200 fiber. This fiber displayed high water binding capacity (WBC) and oil binding capacity (OBC), values of 16.2g/g and 10.2g/g, respectively, which are higher than reported for most fruit and vegetable fiber concentrates. The application of LC200 improved the masticability and elasticity of beef sausage formulations and minimized their hardness and production costs without negatively affecting their sensory properties. Overall, the findings demonstrate the potential functional and economic utility of LC200 fiber as a promising source of dietary fiber. PMID:24013695

Ktari, Naourez; Smaoui, Slim; Trabelsi, Imen; Nasri, Moncef; Ben Salah, Riadh

2013-08-19

159

Mechanical tuning characteristics of the hearing organ measured at the sensory cells in the gerbil temporal bone preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micromechanical behaviour of the inner ear in response to sound stimulation was investigated in an in vitro preparation of the gerbil temporal bone. Using laser heterodyne interferometry it was possible to measure the vibration responses directly at the level of the sensory and supporting cells within the hearing organ rather than from the underlying basilar membrane as has been

Mats Ulfendahl; Shyam M. Khanna

1993-01-01

160

Influence of Cape gooseberry ( Physalis peruviana L.) addition on the chemical and sensory characteristics and mineral concentrations of ice cream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the influence of Cape gooseberry (CG) addition at different concentrations (5, 10 and 15%) on the physical, chemical and sensory properties and mineral contents of ice cream was investigated. The increment of CG concentration caused the decrease of fat, protein, pH and overrun values in ice cream, on the contrary it increased the total solid, ash, titratable

Tuba Erkaya; Elif Da?demir; Mustafa ?engül

161

Effect of incorporation of mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) powder on quality characteristics of Papad (Indian snack food).  

PubMed

Papad is familiarly known as an Indian food adjunct or snack food. In this study, attempts have been made to increase the protein, minerals and crude fibre content of the papad with incorporation of Pleurotus sajor-caju powder to develop a novel snack food. Mushroom powder was added in different proportions with other ingredients of the papad and the prepared papad was subjected to physicochemical and sensorial analyses. Mushrooms pretreated with 1% potassium metabisulphite followed by whey treatment had better colour and reduced drying time. Drying at 50°C produced more amount of mushroom powder (350 ?) and had higher acceptability of rehydrated samples. The papad enriched with 20% mushroom powder showed increased values of protein (15.8%), minerals (38.87%) and crude fibre (218.18%) content and had maximum sensory score. Therefore, papad supplemented with oyster mushroom powder may help to reduce protein malnutrition, constipation and mineral deficiency disorders. PMID:22574961

Parab, D N; Dhalagade, J R; Sahoo, A K; Ranveer, R C

2012-05-11

162

Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.  

PubMed

Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products. PMID:23575142

Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

2013-04-01

163

Effect of organic calcium supplements on the technological characteristic and sensory properties of gluten-free bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effect of individual and combined addition of two organic calcium supplements, calcium caseinate\\u000a and calcium citrate to the gluten-free formulation on selected technological parameters, calcium content and sensory quality\\u000a of bread was evaluated. Standard technological tests and texture analysis were performed on the gluten-free control and gluten-free\\u000a breads fortified with calcium. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA)

Urszula Krupa-Kozak; Agnieszka Troszy?ska; Natalia B?czek; Maria Soral-?mietana

2011-01-01

164

Influence of oxygen exclusion and temperature on pathogenic bacteria levels and sensory characteristics of packed ostrich steaks throughout refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ostrich steaks (290) were obtained from Iliofibularis muscles. For microbiological and pH determinations, samples were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 11994 (80 steaks) or Escherichia coli ATCC 12806 (80), then air- or vacuum-packed and stored at either 4±1°C or 10±1°C. Analyses were carried out on days 0, 3, 6 and 9 of storage. For sensory evaluation, samples (130) were air-

Beatriz González-Montalvo; Rosa Capita; José Alfredo Guevara-Franco; Miguel Prieto; Carlos Alonso-Calleja

2007-01-01

165

Evaluation of nutritional composition, sensory and physical property of home processed weaning food based on low cost locally available food materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objectives of this study are to develop low cost weaning food for the economically disadvantaged nursing mothers and also to prevent protein energy malnutrition among the infants in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The blends (sweet potato and soybean flour) were prepared (homogenously) in the ratio of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 of sweet potato and soybean respectively.

O. S. Ijarotimi; F. Ashipa

2006-01-01

166

Characteristics of rabbit food-procuring behavior as an indicator of changes in the level of hunger motivation.  

PubMed

We proposed new method for measuring dynamic changes in hunger motivation in rabbits in the course of satisfaction of nutritional need by weight, time, and rate parameters of effective food-procuring behavior. Transformation of the amount of food eaten into the electric signals was performed using electronic weighing machine incorporated into hardware and software system. The most conclusive characteristic for decrease in hunger motivation in the course of first effective food-procuring act was the period of food-procuring cycles, which values increase significantly as animal satisfies its nutritional need, whereas amount of the food consumed for each food-procuring cycle remains constant. Integral characteristics of food-procuring behavior reflect higher level of food motivation in the course of first effective food-procuring act in comparison to the subsequent ones. PMID:22808480

Dvoenko, E E; Kromin, A A; Maslov, A N

2012-05-01

167

Effect of farming system and cheesemaking technology on the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid profile, and sensory properties of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese.  

PubMed

Caciocavallo Palermitano is a typical stretched-curd cheese that has been produced over the centuries in Sicily according to traditional cheesemaking technology and using raw milk from autochthonous cow breeds reared at pasture. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of the farming system and processing technology on the characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese, with particular regard to the fatty acid profile. The farming system was either extensive, using autochthonous cows fed a pasture-based diet, or intensive, with specialized dairy cow breeds fed mainly hay and concentrate. The cheese-processing technology was either artisanal, using traditional wooden tools and endemic lactic bacteria, or advanced, using modern steel equipment and selected lactic bacteria. Twelve Caciocavallo Palermitano cheeses, 3 from each of the 4 experimental theses (2 farming systems × 2 cheesemaking technologies), were obtained and aged for 1, 30, 60, and 120 d. Milk of origin and cheeses were analyzed for the main chemical and rheological parameters. Fatty acids were methylated in lyophilized cheese and analyzed by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis was carried out by trained panelists. The PROC GLM of SAS 9.1.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NY) was used for the statistical analysis. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese were influenced more by the farming system than by the cheesemaking technology. Compared with cheese produced through intensive farming, cheese from extensive farming was richer in polyunsaturated, n-3, and odd- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as in conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 C18:2), with accompanying improved human health benefits. The cheesemaking technology produced variation in the evolution of proteolysis during aging, due presumably to the different active microflora, which influenced the sensory profile of the resulting cheese. Indeed, cheese produced by artisanal manufacturing was described as less "bitter" and more "piquant" than cheese produced through the advanced process. PMID:23127907

Bonanno, A; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; De Pasquale, C; Mazza, F; Maniaci, G; Di Grigoli, A

2012-11-03

168

Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types: namely, distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid, 10% v/v ethanol and isooctane. Migration testing was carried out at 40 °C for 10 days for the aqueous simulants, and at 20 °C for 2 days for the fatty food simulant (EC, 1997; EEC, 1993). In addition, food-grade saran film was subjected to ionizing radiation treatment with a [60Co] source at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizer levels were monitored as a function of time for untreated, as well as gamma-irradiated packaging material, with a secondary objective to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on polymer/migrant/surrounding medium interactions. Depending on the food simulant, determination of the analyte was performed by either direct gas chromatographic analysis, or surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction followed by gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). ATBC concentrations determined in aqueous and fatty food simulants were 0.216-0.497 and 5.0-5.9 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the most efficient extracting medium of plasticizers in vinyl chloride copolymers is the non-polar isooctane. Moreover, an extremely high rate of ATBC migration into isooctane during the early stages of contact was observed. The above observation verifies the aggressiveness of isooctane towards plastic packaging materials. Amongst the aqueous food simulants tested, the 10% ethanol solution demonstrated the highest migration levels. Gamma-irradiation enhanced ATBC migration; specific migration levels increased with increasing contact time and radiation dose. This was expected, since ATBC did not undergo chemical decomposition upon irradiation up to 25 kGy. Finally, specific migration decreased proportionally with increasing polarity of the food-simulating solvent.

Zygoura, Panagiota D.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Kontominas, Michael G.

2011-08-01

169

Quantification of Consumer Attitudes to Health and Hedonic Characteristics of Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health and Taste Attitudes Questionnaires were developed to assess consumers» orientations toward the health and hedonic characteristics of foods. Items were generated in a qualitative study. The original 37 items on health and 44 on taste were rated from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” by a representative sample of 1005 Finnish adults (18–81 years). The number of items was reduced

K ROININEN; L LÄHTEENMÄKI; H TUORILA

1999-01-01

170

The market for genetically modified foods: consumer characteristics and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis was used to explore consumer preferences for food products that are the product of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The results of a cluster analysis indicated that consumers fell into three homogeneous groups based on their preference for a branded, low-priced, or GMO-free product. There were some differences between the segments based on the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education,

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

171

Sensory syndromes.  

PubMed

Somatosensory deficit syndromes represent a common impairment following stroke and have a prevalence rate of around 80% in stroke survivors. These deficits restrict the ability of survivors to explore and manipulate their environment and are generally associated with a negative impact on quality of life and personal safety. Sensory impairments affect different sensory modalities in diverse locations at varying degrees, ranging from complete hemianesthesia of multiple modalities to dissociated impairment of somatosensory submodalities within a particular region of the body. Sensory impairments induce typical syndromal patterns which can be differentiated by means of a careful neurological examination, allowing the investigator to deduce location and size of the underlying stroke. In particular, a stroke located in the brainstem, thalamus, and the corticoparietal cortex result in well-differentiable sensory syndromes. Sensory function following stroke can be regained during rehabilitation even without specific sensory training. However, there is emerging evidence that specialized sensory interventions can result in improvement of somatosensory and motor function. Herein, we summarize the clinical presentations, examination, differential diagnoses, and therapy of sensory syndromes in stroke. PMID:22377851

Klingner, Carsten M; Witte, Otto W; Günther, Albrecht

2012-02-14

172

Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl). Sausages produced with 40% substitution of NaCl with combined K-lactate and Ca-ascorbate showed a higher value of lightness (P<0.001) than sausages containing 2.0% content of NaCl (control). However, the sensory panels were unable to distinguish a difference in color intensity between the control and treatment groups. Frankfurter sausages produced with 30% K-lactate and 10% Ca-ascorbate exhibited similar water-holding capacity, textural properties, and organoleptic characteristics (P>0.05) when compared to control sausages. Thus, the use of these salt mixtures is a good way to reduce the NaCl content in meat products while maintaining the quality of meat products. These results may be useful in developing low-sodium meat products. PMID:23896133

Choi, Y M; Jung, K C; Jo, H M; Nam, K W; Choe, J H; Rhee, M S; Kim, B C

2013-06-22

173

Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users.  

PubMed

Functional foods and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functional food and supplement users. The present study compared Dutch functional food and supplement consumers with non-consumers with regard to demographic and lifestyle factors. The consumption of the most common functional foods and supplements in 2000 was studied (yoghurt with extra lactic acid bacteria, cholesterol-lowering margarine, lemonade and sweets with extra vitamins and minerals, milk and margarine with extra Ca, Ca tablets, multivitamin and mineral supplements, and Echinacea supplements). Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires filled in by a consumer panel, aged 19-91 years (response rate 76 %, n 1183), representative of the Dutch population. The number of daily consumers of functional foods or supplements appeared to be relatively low (daily use of multivitamin and mineral supplements, 20 %; all other products, 3-9 %). Explanatory variables depended on the type of product; but gender, age, education, and vegetable intake were significant factors in the logistic regression model. Consumption of cholesterol-lowering margarines was more likely to be reported by individuals with a poorer subjective health (odds ratio 2.62 (95 % CI 1.15, 6.05)) and by smokers (odds ratio 2.93 (95 % CI 1.34, 6.40)). In conclusion, determinants of functional food or supplement use depended on the type of product, so generalisation of consumer characteristics over different foods is not legitimate. In addition to research on lifestyle factors, surveys about consumers' attitudes, norms and knowledge regarding functional foods in relation to actual dietary patterns and health risk profiles are necessary. PMID:12575912

de Jong, Nynke; Ocké, Marga C; Branderhorst, Hester A C; Friele, Roland

2003-02-01

174

Effects of UV irradiation in a continuous turbulent flow UV reactor on microbiological and sensory characteristics of cow's milk.  

PubMed

The dairy industry under current pasteurization conditions (15 s at 72°C) and sanitary standards achieves a safe product with excellent quality. In an ever-competitive market there is still a need to improve product quality and extend shelf life of dairy products to increase competitiveness and open up new markets. In an attempt to test the effect of UV irradiation on microbiota of fluid milk, a continuous flow UV system at 254 nm was used to treat 3.5 and 2% fat milk at two UV doses (880 and 1,760 J liter(-1)). Milk was obtained from three processors, and two lots from each processor were assessed. To assess the impact on the most descriptive native microbiota in pasteurized milk after UV illumination, the product was held at two storage temperatures (4 and 7°C) and tested weekly for 5 weeks for aerobic plate counts (psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria), laboratory pasteurization counts, aerobic sporeformers, coliform organisms, and titratable acidity. Microbial counts for all tested microorganisms were lower in UV-treated milk when compared with control throughout storage at 4 and 7°C in both 3.5 and 2% fat milk. Sensory analysis indicated that there is a sensory defect associated with UV treatment at the wavelength used. PMID:23212017

Rossitto, P V; Cullor, J S; Crook, J; Parko, J; Sechi, P; Cenci-Goga, B T

2012-12-01

175

Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during 6 months of dietary energy restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine characteristics of craved foods in relation to dietary energy restriction (ER) with high (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets.Design:Assessments of food cravings before and during a randomized controlled trial of HG and LG diets provided for 6 months.Subjects:Thirty-two healthy, overweight women aged 20–42 years.Measurements:Self-reported food cravings and dietary intake, body weight, weight history and measures of eating

C H Gilhooly; S K Das; J K Golden; M A McCrory; G E Dallal; E Saltzman; F M Kramer; S B Roberts

2007-01-01

176

SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOOD HANDLERS AND THEIR KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS FOOD SANITATION : A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases spread through food still remain a common and persistent problems resulting in appreciable morbidity and occasional mortality. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. This study is to explore the pattern of sociodemographic distribution and to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers towards food-borne diseases

Maizun Mohd Zain; Nyi Nyi Naing

177

A comparison of the socioeconomic characteristics, dietary practices, and health status of women food shoppers with different food price attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person's attitude toward food price could influence food purchase decisions and, consequently, impact diet quality. The aim of the study was to compare soicoeconomic, dietary, and health status of women food shoppers who considered food price very important (n = 1322) with those of women who did not consider food price very important (n = 1272). These women planned

Shanthy A. Bowman

2006-01-01

178

An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat.  

PubMed

Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5%, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14%) and CA (5%) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14%), LA (5%), CA (5%) and ASC (1200ppm) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the Campylobacter counts and a 2.5 to 3log10 cfu/cm(2) reduction was observed within the shelf-life (3-5days) of poultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14%) or CA (5%) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44log10 cfu/cm(2), respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The 'colour' of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14%, w/v) and CA (5%, w/v) was significantly (P?0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The 'intensity of chicken odour' and the perception of 'salt' in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5%, w/v) were also significantly (P?0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14%, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14%) or CA (5%) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product. PMID:23973843

Meredith, H; Walsh, D; McDowell, D A; Bolton, D J

2013-07-12

179

SENSORY EVALUATION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF TEMPE SNACKS IN WEST AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two locally-grown legumes namely cowpea and groundbean were processed into tempe, an Indonesian fermented food. Freshly harvested beans for tempe were sliced and either frozen at ?20°C and were later blanched or blanched immediately and fried into tempe snacks which were evaluated for their sensory characteristics by three hundred (300) West African panellists. Cowpea and groundbean tempe snacks were comparable

M. Egounlety

2001-01-01

180

Efficacy of soy protein isolate as a fat replacer on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat paneer.  

PubMed

The nutritional and textural properties of low fat paneer using soy protein isolate (SPI) as fat replacer was investigated. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of 4 types of paneer made of low-fat milk (3% milk fat (MF) and 10% solids-not-fat (SNF)) and SPI of 0 (T1), 0.1 (T2), 0.2 (T3) and 0.3% SPI (T4) were compared with high fat paneer (TC) made of high fat milk (6% MF and 9% SNF). CaCl2 (0.2%, w/v) was used as coagulant at 75?±?1°C. Increased level of SPI in paneer increased yield, protein, ash, moisture content and decreased fat, moisture protein ratio, lactose and calorie contents. Titratable acidity and pH varied in narrow range. Instrumental firmness was higher (p???0.05) in T1-T4 than in TC. The gumminess, chewiness and firmness showed the same trend. Resilience and cohesiveness values showed no significant difference among the samples. Hunter colour L values showed a decreasing, and a and b values increasing trend with increasing levels of SPI. Sensory appearance and colour scores were lower (p???0.05) for T1-T4 than TC. More than 0.2% SPI imparted beany flavour to paneer. PMID:23572778

Kumar, S Siva; Balasubramanian, S; Biswas, A K; Chatli, M K; Devatkal, S K; Sahoo, J

2010-12-17

181

The perceptual characteristics of voice-hallucinations in deaf people: insights into the nature of subvocal thought and sensory feedback loops.  

PubMed

The study of voice-hallucinations in deaf individuals, who exploit the visuomotor rather than auditory modality for communication, provides rare insight into the relationship between sensory experience and how "voices" are perceived. Relatively little is known about the perceptual characteristics of voice-hallucinations in congenitally deaf people who use lip-reading or sign language as their preferred means of communication. The existing literature on hallucinations in deaf people is reviewed, alongside consideration of how such phenomena may fit into explanatory subvocal articulation hypotheses proposed for auditory verbal hallucinations in hearing people. It is suggested that a failure in subvocal articulation processes may account for voice-hallucinations in both hearing and deaf people but that the distinct way in which hallucinations are experienced may be due to differences in a sensory feedback component, which is influenced by both auditory deprivation and language modality. This article highlights how the study of deaf people may inform wider understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations and subvocal processes generally. PMID:16510696

Atkinson, Joanna R

2006-03-01

182

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

BONADIE, E.P.

2000-08-22

183

Processing characteristics and stability of chemically synthesized carotenoids in food systems.  

PubMed

Product development is driven by consumer demand for variety in food. Increasing health awareness and a corresponding lifestyle are the main factors that influence the development of new food products. The pure nutritional aspect of food is becoming less and less important, leaving enjoyment and health as the major motivators of consumer preference. Research & Development and Technical Service departments for carotenoid formulations have been taking up these challenges for a long time. They have developed carotenoid formulations with processing characteristics and stability to meet the customer's requirements. Carotenoids that are approved under food laws are used as colorants. beta-carotene is also important as provitamin A and as a physiologically active substance. Carotenoid formulations are available as dispersions, powders and emulsions. They must meet the requirements of the different food production processes. Ease of handling, and stability to light, air and heat are important technical features of our carotenoid formulations. Some of the main processing parameters and the stability of carotenoid formulations are discussed with reference to the beverage industry, margarine production and the dairy industry. PMID:10971843

Sambale, C

1999-09-01

184

Adsorption characteristics of Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ from aqueous solution using carbonized food waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to analytically provide adsorption characteristics of Cu2+ and Zn2+ using carbonized food waste (CFW); more specifically, batch tests were conducted using various concentrations of metal ions,\\u000a contact times, and initial pH levels in an attempt to understand the adsorption removal of heavy metal ions in aqueous solution\\u000a at concentrations ranging between 50 and

Jung-Geun Han; Jong-Young Lee; Ki-Kwon Hong; Jai-Young Lee; Young-Woong Kim; Sun-Mi Hong

2010-01-01

185

FINANCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REFRIGERATED FOOD PRODUCTS TRUCKING FIRMS IN THE U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an overview of the financial characteristics of U. S. refrigerated food products trucking firms as a group and by regions. The analytical tools used for evaluating the financial assessment of the industry were several commonly used liquidity, profitability, and solvency ratios. One of the results reveals that the pre-tax income-to-gross revenue ratio, a measure of profitability, for

Alina M. Quesada; Albert J. Allen; Jeanne M. Reeves

1997-01-01

186

Effect of the closure type on the evolution of the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of a Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Rosé wine.  

PubMed

The present work studied the effect of the kind of closure (a screw cap, a natural cork, and 2 synthetic closures) on the evolution of the oxygen content and on the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of a Montepulciano d'Abruzzo rosé wine during the 1st 12 mo of bottle aging. The chemical analyses concerned the parameters more involved in the oxidative reactions (SO(2) , acetaldehyde, phenols, wine color), as well as the main fermentative volatile compounds. The kind of closure influenced the oxygen content in wines, free and total SO(2) concentration, and wine color (color intensity and hue). During bottle aging, free and total SO(2) concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with absorbance at 420 nm (A420), whereas the correlations with A520 were weak. Probably, the limited extent of the variations in red color (A520), when varying SO(2) concentration, were due to the low pH of this rosé wine. No effect of the kind of closure on phenols and the main fermentative volatile compounds was observed. The wines bottled with cork closures (N trials), after 12 mo of storage, had higher color intensity and hue, measured by spectrophotometry, and were visually distinguished from the other trials for the more intense pink reflections. On the whole, under the conditions of this work, all the used closures guaranteed a good preservability to the rosè wines during the 1st year of bottle aging, and the changes in composition did not significantly affect wine sensory characteristics. Therefore, these synthetic closures can represent an alternative to the cork closures for a medium to long term bottle aging of these wines. PMID:23324077

Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Motta, Silvia; Bonello, Federica; Cravero, Maria Carla; Marulli, Concezio; Bosso, Antonella

2013-01-16

187

Texture, sensory and swallowing characteristics of high-pressure-heat-treated pork meat gel as a dysphagia diet.  

PubMed

To develop a soft meat product for a dysphagia diet, high-pressure technology was applied. Pressure-heat-treated ground pork meat (PH) was prepared from ground pork mixed with water (ground meat: water, 1:0.5 or 1:1) and salt (1.5%). PH-gels were made from these meat homogenates by treatment at 400 MPa for 20 min, followed by heat treatment. Heat-treated pork meat homogenates (H) were also prepared. The hardness and adhesiveness of the 1:1PH-gel was lower than those of the 1:1H-gel. The PH-gel scored higher in sensory evaluations of elasticity, smoothness and ease of swallowing. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the superior textural property of the 1:1PH-gel was caused by a network of myosin filaments. Videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing revealed that the 1:1PH-gel was easy to swallow and left little residue in the oropharynx. These results proved the utility of pressurization in creating a dysphagia meat diet. PMID:23313970

Tokifuji, Ai; Matsushima, Yasuyuki; Hachisuka, Kenji; Yoshioka, Keiko

2012-12-13

188

Sensory systems.  

PubMed

Research on the senses spans the enormous range from analysis of individual molecules involved in sensory transduction to the attempted elucidation of conscious sensation. Because the variety of conceptual and experimental approaches varies so broadly across the field, it is impossible to delineate a single direction for future research. Two trends are nonetheless apparent. At the reductionistic end of the spectrum, in the analysis of sensory transduction, studies on all the senses will increasingly be driven by the techniques of molecular biology. The advent of techniques for producing cDNA libraries from small ensembles of receptor cells, or even from individual cells, will permit the recognition of new constituents of receptor cells and of factors involved in their specification, differentiation, and maintenance. In the integrative realm of sensory neurobiology, future studies will increasingly rely on optical techniques for the study of activity patterns on the surfaces of sensory areas of the cerebral cortex and on noninvasive functional imaging for the investigation of neural responses in human subjects. These techniques will continue to strengthen our understanding of the relation between neuronal activity and conscious sensory experience. PMID:9751666

Hudspeth, A J; Tanaka, K

1998-08-01

189

Food characteristics, long-term habituation and energy intake. Laboratory and field studies.  

PubMed

Greater food variety is related to increased energy intake, and one approach to reduce food intake is to reduce food variety. The effects of varying the variety of foods at the dinner meal to reduce energy intake was assessed in laboratory and field experiments. Experiment 1 randomly assigned 31 overweight children to one of three conditions that provided one laboratory meal per day over a week. Conditions were the SAME macaroni and cheese, SIMILAR types of macaroni and cheese, or a VARIETY of high-energy-dense foods. On days 1 and 5 all children consumed the same macaroni and cheese meal. Results showed significant differences in energy consumed between SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY from day 1 to 5, with SAME and SIMILAR decreasing and VARIETY increasing energy intake. Trials to habituation, a potential mechanism for the variety effect, showed the same pattern of between group differences as energy intake. Experiment 2 randomly assigned 30 overweight children to conditions that provided the SAME, SIMILAR or VARIETY of high-energy-dense entrees along with a variety of low-energy-dense dinner entrees to eat in their homes for 4 weeks. Results showed significant between group differences in energy intake across weeks, with significant decreases over weeks for the SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY groups. The pattern of results across the experiments shows the same pattern of reduction in energy intake if children eat the same or similar characteristics of foods (types of macaroni and cheese), which may provide ideas about how to develop dietary variety prescriptions that can reduce intake and be tested in clinical trials. PMID:23085682

Epstein, Leonard H; Fletcher, Kelly D; O'Neill, Jessica; Roemmich, James N; Raynor, Hollie; Bouton, Mark E

2012-10-22

190

Effects of sensory education based on classroom activities for lower grade school children  

PubMed Central

This study is to verify the effects of sensory education based on classroom activities for 2nd and 3rd grade children. The hypothesis is that children who participated in sensory education would demonstrate positive changes in eating behaviors through sensory experiences. The sensory education program consists of 12 lessons. Twenty-six children were being recruited from one school in Changwon, Korea. Two control groups, one of which was the same age as the educated group and the other group of sixth graders, were selected by random sampling from the same school. Children answered a self-administered questionnaire. The parents (n = 20) of the children who participated in the program, took part in evaluating the program through self-administered questionnaires after the program ended. The questionnaire contained variables of general characteristics, education satisfaction, nutrition knowledge, eating attitude and behavior concerning unfamiliar foods. The score of nutrition knowledge was improved in educated children (P < 0.05). Food neophobia score towards unfamiliar foods (P < 0.05) was increased in educated children, but there are no changes in eating behaviors in all groups towards unfamiliar foods. In conclusion, sensory education is useful for having a positive eating attitude among children. Its consistent implementation could lead to healthier and well-balanced eating behaviors for children.

Woo, Taejung

2013-01-01

191

Research Note Cholesterol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Meat from Broilers Consuming Moderate to High Levels of Alfalfa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an urgent need in industrialized societies to develop novel products that can lower human dietary cholesterol intake. Dehydrated alfalfa is a good source of hypocholesterolemic compounds such as sapo- nins. Whether consumption of alfalfa by chickens would decrease the cholesterol content of broiler meat remains, however, to be established. We determined meat quality characteristics, lipid and cholesterol contents,

P. I. P. Ponte; I. Mendes; M. Quaresma; M. N. M. Aguiar; J. P. C. Lemos; L. M. A. Ferreira; M. A. C. Soares; C. M. Alfaia; J. A. M. Prates; C. M. G. A. Fontes

192

Incidence, diversity and toxin gene characteristics of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food products marketed in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, diversity and characteristics of Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from food products marketed in Belgium. The food products investigated in this study included cooked pasta, lasagna, béchamel sauce, bolognaise sauce, fresh minced beef, fresh-cut vegetables and raw basmati rice. B. cereus group spp. were detected in 56.3% (324 of

S. Samapundo; M. Heyndrickx; R. Xhaferi; F. Devlieghere

2011-01-01

193

EFFECT OF THE PARTIAL SUBSTITUTION OF SUCROSE BY NEOTAME ON THE SENSORY AND CONSISTENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAIN YOGURT EFECTO DE LA SUSTITUCIÓN PARCIAL DE SACAROSA POR NEOTAME EN LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS SENSORIALES Y DE CONSISTENCIA DE YOGUR NATURAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the partial substitution of sucrose by neotame on the sensory and physical characteristics of plain yogurt. Yogurts consisted of a 100 % sucrose control and 3 formulations with 25, 37.5, and 50 % of the sucrose substituted by neotame. Sweetness of all treatments was evaluated using time- intensity (TI)

C. Hernández-Morales; A. Hernández-Montes; A. Villegas-de Gante

2007-01-01

194

Combined effects of prefermentative skin maceration and oxygen addition of must on color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics of Airén white wine.  

PubMed

The effects of the joint prefermentative maceration and hyperoxygenation of Airén white must and wine on the phenolic content, chromatic characteristics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics, not previously described in combination, have been evaluated. A total of 20 phenolic and 149 volatile compounds have been identified and quantified for that purpose. As a consequence of the oxygen addition, the concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavan-3-ols decreased (above all t-GRP and (+)-catechin), leading to color stabilization, but also the concentrations of several volatile compounds with a great importance for quality aroma decreased. Prefermentative skin maceration, previously applied to the hyperoxygenation of Airén musts, provided the aforementioned color stabilization in the respective wine but also increased the content of short-chain fatty acid esters and terpenes and decreased the concentration of C(6) alcohols. That combination of prefermentative treatments (skin maceration followed by must hyperoxygenation) produced an improvement of the global impression of the final wine based on significantly better scores of tropical fruit, body, and herbaceous notes. PMID:21981320

Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Castro-Vázquez, Lucía; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad

2011-10-27

195

Chemical, Physical, and Sensory Characteristics of Mozzarella Cheese Fortified Using Protein-Chelated Iron or Ferric Chloride1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mozzarella cheese containing 25 and 50 mg of iron\\/ kg of cheese was manufactured from milk that had been fortified with casein-chelated iron, whey protein- chelated iron, or FeCl3. Chemical, physical, and sen- sory characteristics were compared with those of a control cheese. Physical properties were assessed by testing melting, apparent viscosity, and browning of heated cheese. Cheeses were evaluated

Wendy Haws Rice; Donald J. McMahon

1998-01-01

196

Sensory Profiles of Sweeteners in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ŠEDIVÁ A., PANOVSK Á Z., POKORN Ý J. (2006): Sensory profiles of sweeteners in aqueous solutions. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 283-287. Sensory profiles of saccharin, acesulfame K, aspartame, and neotame were compared with that of sucrose in three different types of water (tap water, commerical Crystalis water, and distilled water) under the conditions of the respec- tive ISO standards.

JAN POKORNÝ

197

Migration and sensory changes of packaging materials caused by ionising radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of packaging materials-in most cases plastics-generally lead to a formation of free radicals and ions, with secondary effects such as cross-linking as well as oxidative chain scission. These effects result in a formation of volatile radiolysis products which may induce off-odours in the polymers and may change the migration characteristics of packaging materials. Irradiation affect also polymer additives which change the specific migration behaviour of polymer additives and additive related decomposition products. Migration and sensory changes of pre-sterilised packaging materials have consequences on the quality of packaged goods and consumer's safety. Therefore, migration and sensory properties of packaging materials have specific regulations. Within this paper the effects of the formation of radiolysis products on overall migration, specific migration of food additives or radiolysis products as well as on sensory changes are discussed in view of current European food law.

Welle, Frank; Mauer, Alexandra; Franz, Roland

2002-03-01

198

Influence of intramuscular fat content on the quality of pig meat — 1. Composition of the lipid fraction and sensory characteristics of m. longissimus lumborum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is part of a project which aimed to examine the influence of intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of pork. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of IMF level on the composition of the lipid fraction and on the sensory qualities of muscle longissimus lumborum (LL). Each of these experiments

X Fernandez; G Monin; A Talmant; J Mourot; B Lebret

1999-01-01

199

Effect of position changes after spinal anesthesia with low-dose bupivacaine in elderly patients: sensory block characteristics and hemodynamic changes  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to compare the anesthetic characteristics in elderly patients who remain in sitting position for 2 min compared with patients that are placed in supine position after induction of spinal anesthesia. Methods Fifty-seven patients scheduled for transurethral surgery were randomized to assume supine position immediately after 6.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine were injected (L group) or to remain in the sitting position for 2 minutes before they also assumed the supine position (S group). Analgesic levels were assessed bilaterally, using pin-prick. Motor block was scored using a 12-point scale. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate were also recorded. Results Sensory block levels were significantly lower at all time points for the L group. However, there were no significant differences in the degree of the motor block and hemodynamic changes between the two groups. However, in the L group, ephedrine or atropine were administered to three patients. Conclusions We concluded that performing a spinal anesthesia in sitting position was technically easier and induced less hypotension.

Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Myeong Jong; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Ji-Sub; Lee, Won Sang

2013-01-01

200

Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

2012-08-01

201

A COMPARISON OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS, DIETARY PRACTICES, AND HEALTH STATUS OF WOMEN FOOD SHOPPERS WITH DIFFERENT FOOD PRICE ATTITUDES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the study was to find out whether women who considered food price very important when grocery shopping altered their food choices and consequently their diet quality and weight status. Data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Diet and Health Knowledge Survey 1994-1996 was used (N=2,...

202

A comparison of sensory methods in quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different types of sensorial methods have been proposed and used to evaluate and control the sensory quality of foods. However, not all of them are suitable for incorporation in to quality control programmes. To simplify comparison a distinction is proposed between methods that can be used to define sensory specifications or to select a product quality standard and those

E Costell

2002-01-01

203

The Availability of Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants in the United States Associations with Neighborhood Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parallel to the rising obesity epidemic, food consumption patterns and household expenditures show a marked upward trend in total energy intake derived from away-from- home sources. Methods: This study conducted cross-sectional multivariate analyses to examine associations between local-area racial, ethnic, and income characteristics and the availability of full-service and fast-food restaurants. Based on a U.S. national census of 28,050

Lisa M. Powell; Frank J. Chaloupka; Yanjun Bao

204

Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire

Hanne Torjusen; Anne Lise Brantsæter; Margaretha Haugen; Geir Lieblein; Hein Stigum; Gun Roos; Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen; Helle Margrete Meltzer

2010-01-01

205

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

206

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

207

Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. Economic Information Bulletin Number 56  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eighty-four percent of U.S. households with children were food secure throughout 2007, meaning that they had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members. Nearly 16 percent of households with children were food insecure sometime during the year, including 8.3 percent in which children were food insecure…

Nord, Mark

2009-01-01

208

Impact of Gram-negative bacteria in interaction with a complex microbial consortium on biogenic amine content and sensory characteristics of an uncooked pressed cheese.  

PubMed

The impact of Gram-negative bacteria on sensory characteristics and production of volatile compounds as well as biogenic amines (BA) in the core of an uncooked pressed type model cheese was investigated in the presence of a defined complex microbial consortium. Eleven strains of Gram-negative bacteria, selected on the basis of their biodiversity and in vitro BA-production ability, were individually tested in a model cheese. Four out of 6 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter freundii UCMA 4217, Klebsiella oxytoca 927, Hafnia alvei B16 and Proteus vulgaris UCMA 3780) reached counts close to 6 log CFU g?¹ in the model cheese. In core of cheeses inoculated with Gram-negative bacteria, only slight differences were observed for microbial counts (Enterococcus faecalis or Lactobacillus plantarum count differences below 1 log CFU g?¹), acetate concentration (differences below 200 mg kg?¹) and texture (greater firmness) in comparison to control cheeses. Cheese core colour, odour and volatile compound composition were not modified. Although ornithine, the precursor of putrescine, was present in all cheeses, putrescine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16 and never exceeded 2.18 mmol kg?¹ cheese dry matter. Cadaverine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16, K. oxytoca 927, Halomonas venusta 4C1A or Morganella morganii 3A2A but at lower concentrations (<1.05 mmol kg?¹ cheese dry matter), although lysine was available. Only insignificant amounts of the detrimental BA histamine and tyramine, as well as isopentylamine, tryptamine or phenylethylamine, were produced in the cheese model by any of the Gram-negative strains, including those which produced these BA at high levels in vitro. PMID:22265286

Delbès-Paus, Céline; Pochet, Sylvie; Helinck, Sandra; Veisseire, Philippe; Bord, Cécile; Lebecque, Annick; Coton, Monika; Desmasures, Nathalie; Coton, Emmanuel; Irlinger, Françoise; Montel, Marie-Christine

2011-12-14

209

Comparison of sensory specific satiety and sensory specific desires to eat in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment is to compare sensory specific satiety (SSS) and sensory specific desire to eat (SSD), which can be described as general wanting for certain taste categories and go beyond specific foods, in children and adults and their impact on subsequent food choices. Eighty-seven children (10.3±0.6 years) and 49 adults (31.0±2.0 years) participated in the study. Sweet

Annemarie Olsen; Christian Ritz; Ditte L. Hartvig; Per Møller

2011-01-01

210

Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and plasma glucose and urea in dogs fed a commercial dog food once or three times daily.  

PubMed

Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and levels of glucose and urea in the plasma were determined in 8 dogs that received 2 different dog foods once or 3 times daily. One dog food (A) was 5 times more expensive than the other (B). Fecal pH and consistency, digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) were determined. Blood samples were taken from 30 min before to 60 min after a meal. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP, and fecal consistency were higher, and daily fecal excretion and fecal pH were lower when dogs were fed food A (P < 0.001). The feeding schedule had no effect on plasma glucose and urea. Neither feeding X frequency nor food 3 frequency interactions was significant for the parameters studied. PMID:20440906

Brambillasca, Sebastián; Purtscher, Frederick; Britos, Alejandro; Repetto, José L; Cajarville, Cecilia

2010-02-01

211

Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

2009-01-01

212

Your health!? Transforming health perception into food product characteristics in consumer-oriented product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: food perception, health, consumer orientation, product development<\\/font>Food is part of everyday life and few things have changed more drastically in the last century than the way food is produced, processed, distributed, marketed and consumed. Food companies want to be more successful in product development, therefore this needs to be consumer oriented.This thesis develops a conceptual framework that enables transforming

S. J. Sijtsema

2003-01-01

213

Characteristics of food-allergic patients placing them at risk for a fatal anaphylactic episode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergy is a growing public health and food safety concern. Twelve million Americans—4% of the population—suffer from\\u000a the disease, and the prevalence is increasing. There is no cure for food allergy; strict avoidance is the only way to prevent\\u000a a reaction. Food allergy is a major cause of anaphylaxis, a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that results\\u000a in an

Anne Muñoz-Furlong; Christopher C. Weiss

2009-01-01

214

Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only

Seung Hee Lee; Megan T. Rowan; Lisa M. Powell; Sara Newman; Ann Carroll Klassen; Kevin D. Frick; Jennifer Anderson; Joel Gittelsohn

2010-01-01

215

Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational week 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. We used linear binomial regression with frequent versus rare use of organic food as outcome variable and characteristics of the respondent as independent variables. The outcome variable was derived from self-reported frequency of organic food use in six main food groups (milk/dairy, bread/cereal, eggs, vegetables, fruit and meat). Results Organic eggs and vegetables were the food items which were most frequently reported to be used "often" or "mostly". The proportion of women reporting frequent intake of organic food was 9.1% (n = 5754). This group included more women in the lower (<25 years) and higher (>40 years) age-groups, with normal or low body mass index, who were vegetarians, exercised regularly (3+times weekly), consumed alcohol and smoked cigarettes during pregnancy (p < 0.001 for all, except alcohol: p=0.044). Further, participants with frequent organic consumption included more women in the lower (?12 years) or higher (17 years +) category of educational attainment, women who were students or had a partner being a student, who belonged to the lowest household income group (both respondent and her partner earned <300 000 NOK), who entered the study 2005-2007, and who lived in an urban area (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions The socio-economic characteristics of pregnant Norwegian women with frequent organic consumption did not unambiguously follow those typically associated with better health, such as higher levels of education and income. Rather, lower household income, and both lowest and highest levels of education were associated with a higher prevalence of frequent organic consumption. The results indicate that personal and socio-economic characteristics are important covariates and need to be included in future studies of potential health outcomes related to organic food consumption during pregnancy.

2010-01-01

216

Effect of trimethylamine oxide and betaine in swine diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and sensory quality of pork.  

PubMed

Two growth experiments and one digestibility experiment were conducted to study the effect of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and betaine in swine diets. In Exp. 1, 36 limit-fed pigs averaging 19.1 kg in initial weight were used to study the effect of adding TMAO at 10 g/kg of feed or betaine at an equivalent level of methyl groups (10.5 g/kg feed) to a high-fat (11.3% ether extract) basal diet. Dietary addition of TMAO increased ADG by 61 g/d, reduced number of days to market by 8.3 d (P<.02), and tended (P<.09) to improve gain/feed (G/F) compared with the control diet. Betaine had no effect on growth performance of pigs. Adding TMAO or betaine to diets had no effect on percent carcass fat, percent carcass lean, or dressing percentage. Dietary supplementation of TMAO reduced (P<.05) plasma triacylglycerol level (TAG) compared with the control diet. There was no effect of dietary TMAO or betaine on sensory quality characteristics of pork. In Exp. 2, 48 ad libitum-fed pigs averaging 21.7 kg initial BW and 104.7 kg final BW were used to determine the effect of adding low and intermediate levels of TMAO (1, 2, or 5 g/kg) to diets. Adding 1 g of TMAO increased G/F (P<.01) compared with control pigs. When using orthogonal contrasts, adding 2 g of TMAO reduced (P<.05) P2 backfat thickness and tended to increase (P<.09) lean percentage compared with the control diet. Trimethylamine oxide gave a quadratic effect (P<.05) on plasma TAG levels. Adding 1 and 2 g of TMAO increased plasma TAG, but 5 g of TMAO decreased it compared with the control diet. In Exp. 3, 12 barrows of 42.3 kg average initial BW and 50.0 kg final BW were used to investigate the effect of supplementing diets with 1 g of TMAO and 1.27 g of betaine/kg of feed on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. The addition of TMAO increased (P<0.03) apparent total tract digestibility of fat (HCl-EE). Betaine had no such effect. Adding TMAO to diets influenced growth performance and carcass quality in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:10461993

Overland, M; Rørvik, K A; Skrede, A

1999-08-01

217

Sensory Integration Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sensory integration dysfunction (SID) (also known as regulatory sensory processing disorder, sensory processing dysfunction,\\u000a or sensory processing dysfunction) is a neurological disorder that involves impairment in processing data from the different\\u000a senses (vision, auditory, touch, olfaction, and taste), the vestibular system (movement), and proprioception (body awareness).

Mark L. Goldstein; Stephen Morewitz

218

Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border  

PubMed Central

Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA). The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers) in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are experiencing food insecurity; and for those living in rural or underserved areas such as the colonias, the worst forms of food insecurity are an ongoing reality. The rates of households with adult and child food insecurity in this border area are alarming and among the highest reported. Clearly, systematic and sustained action on federal, state, and community levels is needed to reduce household, adult, and child food insecurity that integrates cultural tailoring of interventions and programs to address food and management skills, multi-sector partnerships and networks, expansion of food and nutrition assistance programs, and enhanced research efforts.

2011-01-01

219

Changing household characteristics and the away-from-home food market: a censored equation system approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American consumer is obtaining more-and-more of his or her food at a restaurant, and that worries some people concerned with the Nation’s dietary health. To date, much of this concern seems to be directed at the fast food segment of the restaurant industry. This paper asks whether targeting one segment of the industry, such as fast food restaurants, is

Hayden Stewart; Steven T. Yen

2004-01-01

220

Characteristics and Determinants of Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses the persistence of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. Although pervasive poverty and low agricultural\\u000a productivity are important factors in understanding food insecurity in the region, broader global processes are examined.\\u000a It is argued therefore that, while poverty undermines individual and household access to sufficient food through market purchase,\\u000a land inequalities, corruption, structural adjustment programs, civil conflict, HIV\\/AIDS

Paul Mkandawire; Nathaniel D. Aguda

221

[GMOs in food: risk assessment and management; scientific and regulatory characteristics].  

PubMed

Genetic transformation constitutes a new tool for improvement of microorganisms, animals and plants used in food. Foreseeable risks are evoked, as well as management measures to avoid GMO unsuspected risks. Few risks are specific to GMOs. Present elements of french and european regulations concerning placing on the market and follow up GMOs and other novel foods are described. PMID:12669357

Casse, Francine; Hervieu, François

2002-01-01

222

Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

Nord, Mark

2009-01-01

223

The Effect of Lactic Acid, Nisin Whey Permeate, Sodium Chloride and Related Combinations on Aerobic Plate Count and the Sensory Characteristics of Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of 2.5 g\\/kg lactic acid, 30 g\\/kg whey permeate, 20 g\\/kg sodium chloride and their combinations on the total aerobic counts of minced fish were studied. Whey permeate was produced by a nisin-producingLactococcus lactisstrain. The applicability of lactic acid and whey permeate as bio-preservatives was also studied through the use of quantitative sensory profiling techniques. Bacterial growth

Anne Nykänen; Anja Lapveteläinen; Rose-Marie Hietanen; Heikki Kallio

1998-01-01

224

Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City  

PubMed Central

The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods.

LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

2011-01-01

225

Color as a factor in food choice.  

PubMed

From birth, nature teaches us to make judgements on our environment based in large measure on color. As such, it plays a key role in food choice by influencing taste thresholds, sweetness perception, food preference, pleasantness, and acceptability. Its role is elusive and difficult to quantify, however, which at times has placed color in a secondary role to the other sensory characteristics, a position not entirely consistent with the facts. Color, in a quantitative sense, has been shown to be able to replace sugar and still maintain sweetness perception in flavored foods. It interferes with judgments of flavor intensity and identification and in so doing has been shown to dramatically influence the pleasantness and acceptability of foods. Studies in the literature have used cross-sectional population panels to study these effects, but a recent investigation of color-sensory interactions in beverages has compared the response of a college age group with the response of a panel consisting of a more mature population. Interestingly, the older group showed significant differences from the college age group in their response to the effects of color on several sensory parameters as well as showing a direct correlation between beverage consumption and color. Color is often taken for granted, but this position must be reevaluated in view of such studies and the need to create more appealing foods for different segments of our society. PMID:8424857

Clydesdale, F M

1993-01-01

226

Dietary characteristics of complementary foods offered to Guatemalan infants vary between urban and rural settings.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe and compare the dietary variety, diversity, and origins of complementary foods given to urban and rural Guatemalan infants in the second semester of life. Dietary intake from a total of 128 infants of both sexes, aged 6.0 to 12.0 months on admission, from a low-income district of Guatemala City and a rural Mayan village was collected by means of 3 nonconsecutive 24-hour quantitative intake recalls and breast-feeding histories. We hypothesized that rural/urban, age, and sex differences would occur with respect to dietary variety and diversity scores and descriptive features at 7 levels, that is, animal or plant origin (animal, plant, both, or water); solids or semisolids vs soups and stews vs liquids; infant vs family foods; modern vs traditional foods; processed vs nonprocessed foods; commercial vs noncommercial foods; and fortified vs nonfortified foods. Overall dietary variety and diversity scores did not differ significantly between sampling areas or between sexes. Infants aged 9 to 12 months had a higher dietary variety and diversity than infants aged 6 to 9 months. Plant sources constituted a large part of the diet in both areas. Foods prepared specifically for infants, rather than for the household, were not common, although more common in the urban area than in the rural area. Commercial, processed, and fortified foods were commonly consumed in both settings. It can be concluded that although no geographical differences were seen in dietary variety or diversity, distinctions between types of selected and consumed foods were observed. PMID:19700034

Enneman, Anke; Hernández, Liza; Campos, Raquel; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

2009-07-01

227

Both longer oral sensory exposure to and higher intensity of saltiness decrease ad libitum food intake in healthy normal-weight men.  

PubMed

Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The secondary objective was to investigate the effect of intensity on bite size. Fifty-five healthy men consumed ad libitum from both a low-salt (LS) and a high-salt (HS) creamy tomato soup in 2 exposure time conditions ("long" and "short") and a free condition ("free"). Bites were administered and controlled via a pump. In the long condition, bites of 5 g were administered in 2 s at intervals of 5 s (exposure time: 24 s/min). In the short condition, bites of 15 g were administered in 3 s at intervals of 15 s (exposure time: 12 s/min). The eating rate was equal in the long and short conditions (60 g/min). In the free condition, participants adjusted their bite sizes at intervals of 15 s. The short condition resulted in ~34% higher ad libitum intake compared to the long condition (P < 0.001); there was no interaction with intensity. Ad libitum intake of HS soup was ~9% lower than LS soup (P < 0.001). The free condition showed that HS soup was consumed with smaller bite sizes during the first half of the intake period (P < 0.05). Longer orosensory exposure and higher saltiness intensity both decreased food intake, although orosensory exposure had more impact than intensity. Prolonging the orosensory exposure per food unit may be helpful to reduce food intake. PMID:22049294

Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; Graaf, Cees de

2011-11-02

228

Fetal sensory competencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence is available about the functioning of fetal sensory systems during gestation. This article aims at reviewing data concerning (i) the presence of potential sensory stimulation in the fetal milieu, (ii) the sequential functional development of the sensory systems and (iii) physiological and behavioral responses of fetuses to various types of stimulation. Human data are compared

Jean-Pierre Lecanuet; Benoist Schaal

1996-01-01

229

Sensory Assessment Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is intended to provide information leading to reliable assessment of vision and hearing capabilities of children considered to have dual sensory impairments. Ongoing sensory assessment is necessary to determine the extent of residual sensory abilities that should be considered in educational programming decisions and to determine any…

Cress, Pamela J.

230

Effects of food attributes on hunger and food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relative importance of a food's macronutrient composition, energy value, energy density, fiber content, weight, volume, sensory properties and rheology on hunger and food intake.DESIGN: Preloads of peanuts, peanut butter (rheology control), almonds (tree nut), chestnuts (macronutrient control), chocolate (sensory control), rice cakes (volume control), pickles (weight control) and no load (time control) were consumed by subjects

SV Kirkmeyer

2000-01-01

231

PHYSICOCHEMICAL, SENSORY, FUNCTIONAL AND MICROBIAL CHARACTERISATION OF HORSE MEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to determine the technological feasibility of using horsemeat as a human food. Beef and horsemeat Longissimus dorsi was stored at 4°C for a total study time of 15 days. Collagen content was lower for horsemeat than for beef, although sensory analysis showed no significant difference in tenderness. Instrumental and sensory color analysis showed significant

CARACTERIZAÇÃO FISICOQUÍMICA; MICROBIOLOGICA DE CARNE DE CAVALO

232

Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The "rate" of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (?(15)N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to ?(15)N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes (?(15)N; ?(13)C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. PMID:22982939

Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xioawa; Whittle, Mike; Swanson, Heidi K; Johnston, Tom; Guildford, Stephanie

2012-09-13

233

Rheological Principles for Food Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food scientists are routinely confronted with the need to measure physical properties related to sensory texture and processing needs. These properties are determined by rheological methods, where rheology is a science devoted to the deformation and flow of all materials. Rheological properties should be considered a subset of the textural properties of foods, because the sensory detection of texture encompasses

Christopher R. Daubert; E. Allen Foegeding

2010-01-01

234

Protocol for Interpretation and Use of Sensory Testing and ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... When sensory tested samples are acceptable, verify ... sediment contamination, toxicity testing, ecological injury ... column data, toxicity test results and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/emergencies

235

Perceptions of Starchy Food Dishes: Application of the Repertory Grid Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Repertory Grid Method (RGMwas applied to obtain an understanding of the characteristics used by U.K. consumers in discriminating amongst different common starchy food dishes, including potatoes, rice and pasta. Twenty-nine subjects generated a large number of constructs, relating to perceived nutrition, health, physiological effect, sensory, and use attributes of these products. Coupling of RGM with Generalized Procrustes Analysis produced

ERMINIO MONTELEONE; MONIQUE M. RAATS; DAVID J. MELA

1997-01-01

236

Effects of ultrasound and convection cooking to different end point temperatures on cooking characteristics, shear force and sensory properties, composition, and microscopic morphology of beef longissimus and pectoralis muscles.  

PubMed

Longissimus and pectoralis muscles were removed from 10 steer carcasses at 4 d postmortem, aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C, then assigned to either ultrasound or convection cooking to either 62 degrees C or 70 degrees C internal end point temperature. During cooking, time-temperature profiles and energy consumption were monitored. Ultrasound cooking resulted in greater (P < .05) cooking speed, greater (P < .05) moisture retention and less (P < .05) cooking loss, greater (P < .05) efficiency of energy consumption, a more uniform cooking environment, and less (P < .05) instrumental peak-force work to shear muscle samples than convection cooking. The ultrasound treatment also resulted in a reduction (P < .05) in soluble collagen content and superior (P < .05) myofibrillar tenderness, as determined by a trained sensory panel, than convection cooking. Electron micrographs indicated that ultrasound-cooked muscles had longer sarcomeres, larger diameter fibers, and more myofibrillar disruption and shattering. Longissimus muscles cooked faster (P < .05) and more (P < .05) energetically efficient, had less (P < .05) total collagen, and were superior (P < .05) in instrumental evaluated texture and sensory tenderness than pectoralis muscles. Cooking to 70 degrees C caused greater (P < .05) moisture and cooking losses, required more (P < .05) time and energy input to cook, and negatively (P < .05) affected instrumental textural and sensory tenderness characteristics. Electron micrographs indicated a shortening of sarcomeres, more deterioration of the banding structure, reduction in fiber diameter, and breakdown of endomysial and perimysial connective tissue at an internal temperature of 70 degrees C vs 62 degrees C. This research identifies ultrasound cooking as a new, rapid, energy-efficient method that may improve some meat textural attributes. PMID:9051461

Pohlman, F W; Dikeman, M E; Zayas, J F; Unruh, J A

1997-02-01

237

Oral exposure and sensory-specific satiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satiety has been shown after oral exposure to food that was chewed but not eaten (Modified Sham Feeding (MSF)). The aim of the study was to explore the role of sensory-specific satiety (SSS) in satiety development with MSF. Subjects were studied on three test days in a randomized crossover design; they received, in random order, water, MSF, or a meal.

A. J. P. G. Smeets; M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga

2006-01-01

238

Feeding Characteristics of an Amoeba ( Lobosea : Naegleria ) Grazing Upon Cyanobacteria: Food Selection, Ingestion and Digestion Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates has been widely studied in aquatic environments, but data on the grazing of amoebae, are still scarce. From the water samples of Dianchi Lake (Kunming, Yunnan Province, China), we isolated an amoeba, designated as Naegleria sp. strain W2, which had potent grazing effects on some kind of cyanobacteria. The food selection mechanism and the

Liu Xinyao; Shi Miao; Liao Yonghong; Gao Yin; Zhang Zhongkai; Wen Donghui; Wu Weizhong; An Chencai

2006-01-01

239

Identification of surface characteristics relevant to the hygienic status of stainless steel for the food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hygienic status of stainless steels used for food equipment was investigated by means of the number of residual adhering Bacillus cereus spores after a complete run of soiling and cleaning in place procedure. The 14 materials tested (304, 316 and 430 grades; pickling (2B), bright annealed (2R), and electropolished finishes) were shown to be highly hygienic with slight differences

C Jullien; T Bénézech; B Carpentier; V Lebret; C Faille

2003-01-01

240

Do Fast-Food Chains Price Discriminate on the Race and Income Characteristics of an Area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports tests for differences in prices charged by fast-food restaurants that serve markets with customers of widely divergent incomes and ethnic backgrounds. The data contain detailed prices on items sold at over 400 Burger King, Wendy's, KFC, and Roy Rogers restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania locations. I find significant differences in price based on the race and

Kathryn Graddy

1997-01-01

241

Meat quality of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (Aepyceros melampus): The effect of gender and age on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of kudu and impala meat.  

PubMed

Game meat has distinct sensory characteristics and favourable fatty acid profiles which differ between species. The SFA's percentage was found to be higher in impala meat (51.12%) than kudu meat (34.87%) whilst the total PUFA was higher in kudu (38.88%) than impala (34.06%). Stearic acid (22.67%) was the major fatty acid in impala and oleic acid in kudu (24.35). Linoleic acid, C20:3n-6 and C22:6n-3 were higher in kudu while C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:5n-3 were higher in impala. The PUFA:SFA ratio for kudu (1.22) was higher than for impala (0.73) while impala had a higher n-6 PUFA's to n-3 PUFA ratio (3.76) than kudu (2.20). Kudu was higher in cholesterol (71.42±2.61mg/100gmuscle) than impala (52.54±2.73mg/100gmuscle). Sensory evaluation showed impala had a more intense game aroma and flavour while the initial juiciness of cooked samples of kudu was higher. The results show kudu and impala can be marketed for their unique flavours and aromas as well as being a healthy substitute for other red meats. PMID:20416629

Hoffman, L C; Mostert, A C; Laubscher, L L

2009-08-14

242

Food security and marine capture fisheries: characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic contamination, coastal degradation and climate change. Looking towards 2050, the question is how fisheries governance, and the national and international policy and legal frameworks within which it is nested, will ensure a sustainable harvest, maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and adapt to climate change. This paper looks at global fisheries production, the state of resources, contribution to food security and governance. It describes the main changes affecting the sector, including geographical expansion, fishing capacity-building, natural variability, environmental degradation and climate change. It identifies drivers and future challenges, while suggesting how new science, policies and interventions could best address those challenges.

Garcia, Serge M.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

2010-01-01

243

Determination and residual characteristic of alkylphenols in household food detergents of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-ionic surfactants are mostly composed of alkylphenols for the ingredients of synthetic food detergents. Due to the ability to mimic hormones, it has been noticed that the exposures of alkylphenols might cause a variety of adverse effects. To assess the associate risks from possible exposures, concentrations of alkylphenols, including 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), technical nonylphenol isomers (t-NPS), and 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), in

Yi-Ping Pan; Shih-Wei Tsai

2009-01-01

244

Influence of lake characteristics on the biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in lake trout food webs.  

PubMed

The biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and major organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied using lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other food web organisms collected from 17 lakes in Canada and the northeastern United States between 1998 and 2001. Whole lake trout (n = 357) concentrations of the sum (Sigma) of 57 PCB congeners ranged between 1.67 and 2,890 ng/g wet weight (median 61.5 ng/g wet wt). Slimy sculpin had the highest mean concentrations of SigmaPCB of all forage fish (32-73 ng/g wet wt). Positive relationships between log (lipid wt) concentrations of PCB congener 153, PCB congener 52, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, or dieldrin and trophic level (determined using stable nitrogen isotope ratios) were found for most of the 17 food webs, indicating biomagnification of these PCBs and OCPs. The p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene had the highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of the 14 individual compounds studied, averaging 4.0 +/- 1.8 across the 17 lakes, followed by trans-nonachlor (3.6 +/- 1.5) and PCB congener 153 (3.4 +/- 1.2). Average TMFs for 14 individual PCBs or OCPs were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient, implying that the rate of accumulation along the food web is dependent on hydrophobicity and recalcitrance. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between TMFs of SigmaPCBs, hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, and lindane and lake area, latitude, and longitude, but not for 11 other PCBs or OCPs. Overall, the results of the present study show that biomagnification of PCBs and most OCPs, as measured by TMFs, is only weakly influenced by such factors as latitude and longitude. Exceptions are hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and hexachlorobenzene, which had generally greater TMFs in northern lakes, possibly due to lower rates of elimination and biotransformation in the food web. PMID:18444699

Houde, Magali; Muir, Derek C G; Kidd, Karen A; Guildford, Stephanie; Drouillard, Ken; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xiaowa; Whittle, D Michael; Haffner, Doug; Kling, Hedy

2008-10-01

245

The Association between Socioeconomic Characteristics and Consumption of Food Items among Brazilian Industry Workers  

PubMed Central

Background. Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the work place using standardized forms. Results. 4818 workers were interviewed, aged 35.4 ± 10.7 years, 76.5% were men. The workers had an average of 8.7 ± 4.1 years of schooling and 25.4 ± 4.1?kg/m2 of BMI. Men and individuals with less than high school education were less likely to consume dairy products, fruits, and vegetables daily, even after control for confounding factors. Men consumed rice and beans daily more often than women. In comparison to workers aged 50–76 years, those under 30 years old consumed less fruits and green leafy vegetables daily. Conclusion. The food items consumed by Brazilian workers show that there are insufficient consumption according to the guidelines of healthy foods, particularly of dairy products, vegetables, and fruits.

Vinholes, Daniele B.; Melo, Ione M. F.; Machado, Carlos Alberto; de Castro Chaves, Hilton; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

2012-01-01

246

[Comparative characteristics of antioxidant capacity and energy content of some foods].  

PubMed

The paper presents a comparative evaluation of antioxidant capacity and energy values of different foods groups in order to identify the most efficient combinations for correction of metabolic disorders associated with an imbalance in antioxidant system. In study integral method for determining of antioxidant and energy indicators (patent No 2,455,703) has been used. It has been revealed that the highest antioxidant-energy capacity (AE) of fresh juices has a pomegranate juice (AE = 3895.9 +/- 241.4 mg/L x kJ(-1)), other fresh juices inferior to him on this indicator: grenade>orange>lemon=apple> pomelo > mandarin > persimmon > kiwi > pears > avocado. Among dairy products the highest AE belongs to boiled fermented milk--"ryazhenka" (AE = 40.9 +/- 2.7 mg/L x kJ(-1)), other dairy products can be placed in line with index AE: ryazhenka ==>kefir > yogurt. Most of fresh juices were significantly superior to antioxidant-energy potential of other foods. Despite the fact that dairy products AE were lower than AE of some juices, they were much superior to AE values of fastfood products (biscuits, potato chips, popcorn). This demonstrates need to reduce the quota of fast foods in the diet to prevent the risk of reduction potential of the endogenous antioxidant system. PMID:24006756

Basov, A A; Bykov, I M

2013-01-01

247

Combination processes in food irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation is emerging as a potential method of food preservation. It is being used to extend the shelf life of raw and processed foods in many countries worldwide. Like all other methods of food preservation, irradiation has a number of limitations. Irradiation, when used alone, can cause the development of undesirable sensory and chemical changes in some foods, depending on

B. R. Thakur; R. K. Singh

1995-01-01

248

Package Design of ReadytoDrink Coffee Beverages Based on Food Kansei Model—Effects of Straw and Cognition Terms on Consumer’s Pleasantness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To design a consumer-oriented package that complements the taste and aroma of ready-to-drink chilled-cup coffee beverages\\u000a by using the food kansei model, the effects of the diameter and the color of drinking straws as well as the cognition terms of coffee on consumer\\u000a sensory characteristics and preferences were investigated. Variance and factor analyses of the sensory scores for chilled-cup\\u000a coffee

Masayuki Akiyama; Masashi Tatsuzaki; Tomomi Michishita; Toshikazu Ichiki; Masahiro Sumi; Michio Ikeda; Tetsuya Araki; Yasuyuki Sagara

249

Immunohistochemical characteristics of human paraganglion cells and sensory corpuscles associated with the urinary bladder. A developmental study in the male fetus, neonate and infant.  

PubMed

Triple label immunohistochemistry was used to study the coexistence of the catecholamine-synthesising enzymes dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and several neuropeptides including neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM) and galanin (GAL) as well as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in developing pelvic paraganglion cells in a series of human male fetal, neonatal and infant specimens ranging in age from 13 wk of gestation to 3 y postnatal. 13-20 wk old fetal specimens possessed large clusters of paraganglion cells lying lateral to the urinary bladder and prostate gland which were intensely DBH-immunoreactive (-IR) but lacked TH, NOS and the neuropeptides investigated. With increasing fetal age small clusters of paraganglion cells were observed in the muscle coat of the urinary bladder. At 23 wk of gestation occasional paraganglion cells were NOS or NPY-IR while at 26 wk of gestation the majority of paraganglion cells were TH-IR and a few were SOM or GAL-IR. Some postnatal paraganglia within the bladder musculature contained cells which were all VIP, SP or CGRP-IR while others displayed coexistence of NOS and NPY, SP and CGRP, or NPY and VIP. The presence of NOS in certain paraganglion cells indicates their capacity to generate nitric oxide (NO). These results show that human paraganglion cells develop different phenotypes possibly dependent upon their location within the bladder wall. A delicate plexus of branching varicose nerves was observed in the fetal paraganglia which increased in density with increasing gestational age. The majority of these nerves were VIP-IR while others were CGRP, SP, NPY, NOS or GAL-IR. The presence of nerve terminals adjacent to the paraganglion cells implies a neural influence on the functional activity of the paraganglia. Some paraganglia in the late fetal and early postnatal specimens contained Timofeew's sensory corpuscles, resembling pacinian corpuscles in their morphology. The central nerve fibre of these corpuscles displayed immunoreactivity for SP, CGRP and NOS, the latter indicating a possible role for NO in afferent transmission from the urinary bladder. In addition, a few corpuscles were penetrated by a noradrenergic nerve fibre immunoreactive for NPY and TH, which may have a modulatory role on the sensory receptor. PMID:9688506

Dixon, J S; Jen, P Y; Gosling, J A

1998-04-01

250

Sensory Conversion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

Medelius, Pedro

251

Signaling by sensory receptors.  

PubMed

Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

2012-01-01

252

Behavioural consequences of sensory plasticity in guppies  

PubMed Central

Sensory plasticity, whereby individuals compensate for sensory deprivation in one sense by an improvement in the performance of an alternative sense, is a well-documented phenomenon in nature. Despite this, the behavioural and ecological consequences of sensory plasticity have not been addressed. Here we show experimentally that some components (vision and chemoreception) of the sensory system of guppies are developmentally plastic, and that this plasticity has important consequences for foraging behaviour. Guppies reared under low light conditions had a significantly stronger response to chemical food cues encountered in isolation than fish reared at higher light levels. Conversely, they exhibited a weaker response to visual-only cues. When visual and olfactory/gustatory cues were presented together, no difference between the strength of response for fish reared at different light intensities was evident. Our data suggest that guppies can compensate for experience of a visually poor, low light environment via a sensory switch from vision to olfaction/gustation. This switch from sight to chemoreception may allow individuals to carry out the foraging behaviour that is essential to their survival in a visually poor environment. These considerations are especially important given the increasing frequency of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems. Compensatory phenotypic plasticity as demonstrated by our study may provide a hitherto unconsidered buffer that could allow animals to perform fundamental behaviours in the face of considerable change to the sensory environment.

Chapman, Ben B.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Tosh, Colin R.; Krause, Jens

2010-01-01

253

Early and temporary quantitative food restriction of broiler chickens. 1. Effects on performance characteristics, mortality and meat quality.  

PubMed

1. An experiment was conducted with broiler chickens to determine the effects of different early food restrictions, strain (Ross 508 and Hybro G) and sex on performance, mortality carcase composition and meat characteristics. 2. Birds were restricted to 80% or 90% of ad libitum intake for 4 d (80%-4 d-group and 90%-4 d-group, respectively) or 80% for 8 d (80%-8 d-group). All restrictions started on d 4. After the periods of restriction, all birds were fed ad libitum. 3. Only the 90%-4 d-group reached a final body weight not significantly different from, but lower than, the ad libitum group. The other restrictions were too severe to allow a sufficient 'catch-up'. 4. No significant differences in food conversion and total carcase fat content between groups were observed. Abdominal fat showed a tendency to increase due to the restrictions induced. 5. There was a slight trend towards a reduced mortality and of 'sudden death syndrome' but no clear effect of food restriction on number of chickens removed with leg problems. There was no significant decrease in uniformity of the flocks due to restriction. 6. The group 80%-8 d had a significant lower yield percentage. Cut-up parts and meat quality were not changed by restriction. Ross birds had a significantly higher proportion of breast meat than Hybro chickens. Meat of female chickens seemed to be paler than that of males, possibly because of the higher proportion of carcase fat. 7. Food restriction did not always give good results. However, a mild restriction (90% for 4 d) may offer some economic advantages over an ad libitum feeding regimen, mainly by reducing mortality. PMID:11081430

Lippens, M; Room, G; De Groote, G; Decuypere, E

2000-07-01

254

Suitability of Norwegian short-tail lambs, Norwegian dairy goats and Cashmere goats for meat production - Carcass, meat, chemical and sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (P<0.05) proteins and 13% higher (P<0.05) fat content than goat meats. Moreover, m. longissimus dorsi samples from lambs were less red (a(?)) (P<0.05) and had lower colour intensity (C) and wider hue angle (H) than that from goats. Meat from lambs and Cashmere goats had higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P<0.001), especially stearic acid and lower ones for total unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the meat from Norwegian goats. Sensory panellists scored lamb meat fattier, juicier and more tender than goat meats. Meat from Cashmere goats scored highest (P<0.05) in whiteness, and lowest (P<0.05) in both colour tone and colour intensity. It is concluded that, since C18:0 was the main contributor of SFA in meat from Norwegian lamb and Cashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability. PMID:22063606

Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T

2008-04-07

255

Microalgae as human food: chemical and nutritional characteristics of the thermo-acidophilic microalga Galdieria sulphuraria.  

PubMed

The use of microalgae as a food source is still poorly developed because of the technical difficulties related to their cultivation and the limited knowledge about their chemical composition and nutritional value. The unicellular red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria has a very high daily productivity and its cultivation under acidic conditions avoided any bacterial contamination. G. sulphuraria can be cultured under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions: in this study a screening of 43 strains showed that in the latter case a duplication of biomass production was obtained. The proximate composition (protein, carbohydrates, fiber and lipids), the micronutrient content (carotenoids, phycobiliproteins, chlorophylls and vitamins) together with the antioxidant activity of the biomass produced by a selected strain of G. sulphuraria under both cultivation conditions were determined. Results showed that the material is rich in proteins (26-32%) and polysaccharides (63-69%) and poor in lipids. Under heterotrophic cultivation conditions, the lipid moiety mainly contained monounsaturated fatty acids. Among micronutrients, some B group vitamins are present, beta-carotene is the main carotenoid and phycobiliproteins are present under both cultivating conditions. G. sulphuraria proteins are strictly associated with polysaccharide components and therefore not digestible. In the second part of the work, an extraction protocol using Viscozyme L, a commercial enzymatic preparation containing a mixture of polysaccharidases, was developed which made G. sulphuraria proteins a good substrate for human gastrointestinal enzymes. All in all, the data suggested that G. sulphuraria biomass has a potential use as food ingredients both for protein-rich or insoluble dietary fibre-rich applications. The low concentration of lipids and the absence of green color make this microalgae source particularly useful for the addition to many food preparations. PMID:23104098

Graziani, Giulia; Schiavo, Simona; Nicolai, Maria Adalgisa; Buono, Silvia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino

2012-10-29

256

Sensory Correlations in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

2007-01-01

257

Sensory Correlations in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

2007-01-01

258

Sensory correlations in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different processing modalities using total scores. Analysis also showed

Janet K. Kern; Madhukar H. Trivedi; Bruce D. Grannemann; Carolyn R. Garver; Danny G. Johnson; Alonzo A. Andrews; Jayshree S. Savla; Jyutika A. Mehta; Jennifer L. Schroeder

2007-01-01

259

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function.

BONADIE, E.P.

2000-10-26

260

Health effects associated with foods characteristic of the Nordic diet: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. Objective A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. Design The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Results Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet.

Akesson, Agneta; Andersen, Lene F.; Kristjansdottir, Asa G.; Roos, Eva; Trolle, Ellen; Voutilainen, Eeva; Wirfalt, Elisabet

2013-01-01

261

Cutaneous Indentation Sensory Testing Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In one embodiment, the present invention provides a sensory testing system. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of using a sensory testing system to determine sensory pressure thresholds. In a further embodiment, the present inv...

D. R. Robichaud G. M. Bove M. Cannella P. Grigg

2006-01-01

262

NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

263

PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, LIPID OXIDATION AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF FILLETS FROM RAINBOW TROUT ONCHORYNCHUS MYKISS FED DIETS CONTAINING 10% TO 30% LIPID.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing dietary lipid concentrations on fillet characteristics of post-juvenile rainbow trout. A feeding trial was conducted with fish meal based diets containing 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% lipid for 24 wk. Menhaden oil was the lipid ingredient. ...

264

Sensory Evaluation Ratings and Melting Characteristics Show that Okra Gum Is an Acceptable Milk-Fat Ingredient Substitute in Chocolate Frozen Dairy Dessert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing dietary fat intake may lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. This study examined the feasibility of substituting okra gum for 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% milk fat in frozen chocolate dairy dessert. Fifty-six consumers evaluated the frozen dairy desserts using a hedonic scale. Consumers rated color, smell, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability characteristics of all products

Joelle E. Romanchik-Cerpovicz; Amanda C. Costantino; Laura H. Gunn

2006-01-01

265

Incidence, diversity and toxin gene characteristics of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food products marketed in Belgium.  

PubMed

The major objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, diversity and characteristics of Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from food products marketed in Belgium. The food products investigated in this study included cooked pasta, lasagna, béchamel sauce, bolognaise sauce, fresh minced beef, fresh-cut vegetables and raw basmati rice. B. cereus group spp. were detected in 56.3% (324 of 575) of the samples giving rise to 380 strains. The highest incidence (100%) occurred in the raw basmati rice. Although only 10 (2.6%) of the 380 isolates were determined to be psychrotolerant (able to grow at ?7°C), 25 (6.2%), 189 (49.7%) and 334 (87.9%) isolates were able to grow at mild temperature abuse conditions of 8°C, 9°C and 10°C, respectively. The large diversity of the isolates obtained (overall and between isolates obtained from the same product type) was highlighted by the results of the (GTG)(5) PCR fingerprinting of 80 selected isolates. Sixty-one of these 80 isolates belonged to 15 distinct clusters (?85% Pearson correlation) whereas the remaining 19 were each clustered separately. Further diversity was also found in the distribution of toxin genes as 16 different profiles were observed in the 80 selected isolates. Whilst none of 80 selected strains harboured the ces gene required for the production of the emetic toxin cereulide, 42 strains (52.5%) carried all seven genes required for the production of the diarrhoeal enterotoxins: haemolytic BL, non-haemolytic enterotoxin and cytotoxin K. The results of this study highlight not only the omnipresence but also the highly diverse ecology of B. cereus spp. within and across several food product types available on the retail market in Belgium. They should also provide the impetus for more studies to enable detailed risk assessment studies to be performed. PMID:21840614

Samapundo, S; Heyndrickx, M; Xhaferi, R; Devlieghere, F

2011-07-23

266

Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current interest in ``minimally processed foods'' has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly (/p<=0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

2002-03-01

267

Determination of operating characteristic, retesting, and testing amount probabilities associated with testing for the presence of Salmonella in foods.  

PubMed

The relatively small perceived probability associated with retesting a food for the presence of Salmonella at low levels is often considered as one of the reasons that a confirmatory or check-analysis tends to disagree in practice with the results of an original test. Given a retesting process where a retest is only performed to confirm an original positive Salmonella test, the probability that both the original and retest will test positive for Salmonella has been traditionally determined by some as the product of the probabilities of a positive Salmonella test for the original and retest samples. When examining the probabilities associated with the retesting process, we found that our results disagreed with those based on intuitions apparently held by others concerning how these probabilities should be calculated. For Salmonella testing, operating characteristic values were computed to demonstrate the protections afforded by the Salmonella sampling plans presented in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual and to obtain the probability of a positive Salmonella test. The geometric distribution was examined for possible utility in determining the probabilities associated with testing amounts, i.e., the number of Salmonella tests needed to obtain a positive test. PMID:21391511

McClure, Foster D; Lee, Jung K

268

Principle of Solid Food Texture Analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food texture reflects the human’s sensory perception of a food item when it is acted upon by force or deformation during mastication to cause changes or breakdown in the structure of the food. It is one major factor in quality evaluation and grading of solid foods. While food texture evaluation can ...

269

Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food.  

PubMed

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanuts (Arachis hypogoea), and mango (Mangifera indica) were processed separately and then combined, on the basis of their amino acid scores and energy content, into a complementary food for children of weaning age. The finger millet and kidney beans were processed by germination, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation. A mixture containing, on a dry matter basis, 65.2, 19.1, 8.0, and 7.7% of the processed finger millet, kidney beans, peanuts, and mango, respectively, gave a composite protein with an in vitro protein digestibility of 90.2% and an amino acid chemical score of 0.84. This mixture had an energy density of 16.3 kJ.g(-1) of dry matter and a decreased antinutrient content and showed a measurable improvement in the in vitro extractability for calcium, iron, and zinc. A 33% (w/v) pap made from a mix of the processed ingredients had an energy density of 5.4 kJ.g(-1) of pap, which is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of well-nourished children of 6-24 months of age at three servings a day and at the FAO average breast-feeding frequency. PMID:11982437

Mbithi-Mwikya, Stephen; Van Camp, John; Mamiro, Peter R S; Ooghe, Wilfried; Kolsteren, Patrick; Huyghebaert, Andre

2002-05-01

270

A transfer of technology from engineering: use of ROC curves from signal detection theory to investigate information processing in the brain during sensory difference testing.  

PubMed

This article reviews a beneficial effect of technology transfer from Electrical Engineering to Food Sensory Science. Specifically, it reviews the recent adoption in Food Sensory Science of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a tool that is incorporated in the theory of signal detection. Its use allows the information processing that takes place in the brain during sensory difference testing to be studied and understood. The review deals with how Signal Detection Theory, also called Thurstonian modeling, led to the adoption of a more sophisticated way of analyzing the data from sensory difference tests, by introducing the signal-to-noise ratio, d', as a fundamental measure of perceived small sensory differences. Generally, the method of computation of d' is a simple matter for some of the better known difference tests like the triangle, duo-trio and 2-AFC. However, there are occasions when these tests are not appropriate and other tests like the same-different and the A Not-A test are more suitable. Yet, for these, it is necessary to understand how the brain processes information during the test before d' can be computed. It is for this task that the ROC curve has a particular use. PMID:21535617

Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael

271

A Transfer of Technology from Engineering: Use of ROC Curves from Signal Detection Theory to Investigate Information Processing in the Brain during Sensory Difference Testing  

PubMed Central

This article reviews a beneficial effect of technology transfer from Electrical Engineering to Food Sensory Science. Specifically, it reviews the recent adoption in Food Sensory Science of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a tool that is incorporated in the theory of signal detection. Its use allows the information processing that takes place in the brain during sensory difference testing to be studied and understood. The review deals with how Signal Detection Theory, also called Thurstonian modeling, led to the adoption of a more sophisticated way of analyzing the data from sensory difference tests, by introducing the signal-to-noise ratio, d?, as a fundamental measure of perceived small sensory differences. Generally, the method of computation of d? is a simple matter for some of the better known difference tests like the triangle, duo–trio and 2-AFC. However, there are occasions when these tests are not appropriate and other tests like the same–different and the A Not–A test are more suitable. Yet, for these, it is necessary to understand how the brain processes information during the test before d? can be computed. It is for this task that the ROC curve has a particular use.

Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael

2010-01-01

272

Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

2012-01-01

273

Sensory feedback system using interferential current for EMG prosthetic hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a new type of sensory feedback system for myoelectrically controlled biomimetic prosthetic hand. One of the characteristic features of the neuromuscular control system in man is the increase in the compliance around the joint with decreasing activity of the muscle. For the sensory feedback system we used interferential current that use two

Y. Sasaki; Y. Nakayama; M. Yoshida

2002-01-01

274

Evaluation of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: physicochemical characteristics of low-fat turkey bologna.  

PubMed

Evaluation of poultry protein isolate (PPI) as a food ingredient was carried out by substituting nonmeat ingredients such as soy protein isolate (SPI) or meat protein in turkey bologna. Two concentrations (1.5 and 2% dry weight basis) of PPI prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat were used in this study. Two control samples were prepared with 11 and 13% meat protein, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics of turkey bologna containing PPI were compared with those of control and SPI-containing samples. Batter strength was higher for 2% PPI and 13% meat protein control samples (control-2) compared with all other treatments. Cooking yield of the 11% meat protein control was significantly (P < 0.05) less compared with other treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the expressible moisture or purge loss among all the treatments. Control-2 showed lower L* values and was more reddish during refrigerated storage. Addition of protein isolates caused a significant increase (b* value varied between 11.48 and 12.52) in yellowness of products. Turkey bologna with added protein isolates showed significantly lower lipid oxidation as indicated by induced TBA reactive substance analysis. Results from this study suggest that SPI or meat protein could be replaced by PPI without negatively affecting product characteristics as evident from cooking yield and purge loss values. PMID:23155034

Omana, D A; Pietrasik, Z; Betti, M

2012-12-01

275

High-performance liquid chromatographic evaluation of biogenic amines in foods an analysis of different methods of sample preparation in relation to food characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic amines are compounds formed by amino acid decarboxylation in fermented foods. Most of the methods for amine determination involve acid extraction followed by a liquid-liquid purification step. The different parameters which can influence amine recoveries are considered; experience with different foods such as cheese, fish and meat preserves are reported and for each of them the optimized analytical procedure

Sabrina Moret; Lanfranco S. Conte

1996-01-01

276

Neuromorphic sensory systems.  

PubMed

Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. PMID:20493680

Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

2010-05-20

277

Introduction to Food Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often\\u000a require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national\\u000a and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality\\u000a and safety of the food supply. All food products

S. Suzanne Nielsen

2010-01-01

278

Opioids and Sensory Nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the expression and regulation of opioid receptors in sensory neurons and the interactions of these receptors\\u000a with endogenous and exogenous opioid ligands. Inflammation of peripheral tissues leads to increased synthesis and axonal transport\\u000a of opioid receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons. This results in opioid receptor upregulation and enhanced G protein coupling\\u000a at peripheral sensory nerve terminals.

Christoph Stein; Christian Zöllner

279

Food texture analysis in the 21st century  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study of food texture encompasses sensory, physiological, and structural aspects. Research in this area must be multidisciplinary in nature, accounting for consumer perception and acceptability, rheology, and structural aspects. This brief review of the field covers sensory panels, instrumenta...

280

A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

2012-08-01

281

Chemosensory burst coding by mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons  

PubMed Central

The capabilities of any sensory system are ultimately constrained by the properties of the sensory neurons: the ability to detect and represent stimuli is limited by noise due to spontaneous activity, and optimal decoding in downstream circuitry must be matched to the nature of the encoding performed at the input. Here, we investigated the firing properties of sensory neurons in the accessory olfactory system, a distinct sensory system specialized for detection of socially relevant odors. Using multielectrode array recording, we observed that sensory neurons are spontaneously active and highly variable across time and trials and that this spontaneous activity limits the ability to distinguish sensory responses from noise. Sensory neuron activity tended to consist of bursts that maintained remarkably consistent statistics during both spontaneous activity and in response to stimulation with sulfated steroids. This, combined with pharmacological and genetic intervention in the signal transduction cascade, indicates that sensory transduction plays a role in shaping overall spontaneous activity. These findings indicate that as-yet unexplored characteristics of the sensory transduction cascade significantly constrain the representation of sensory information by vomeronasal neurons.

Arnson, Hannah A.

2011-01-01

282

Sensory acceptability of chocolate with inulina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study the influence of inulin on the sensory characteristics of chocolate. Three types of chocolate (milk, hazelnut and rice) where sucrose was replaced by inulin and fructose were studied in comparison to corresponding ordinary chocolates. A questionnaire between eighty diabetics and fifty-two random consumers showed that the chocolate with inulin was well accepted.

Terezija GOLOB; Jasna BERTONCELJ; Mojca JAMNIK

283

Effects of feeding extruded full-fat cottonseed pellets in place of tallow as a fat source for finishing heifers on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory traits, display color, and fatty acid profiles.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplemental feeding of full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets (FFECS) compared with tallow on carcass characteristics, sensory traits, retail display color, and fatty acid profiles, especially CLA isomers in finishing heifers. Twenty-one Angus heifers (450 ± 5 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 experimental diets: 1) 100% supplemental fat from tallow at 4.1% of ration DM (TAL), 2) a 50:50 ratio of supplemental fat from a combination of tallow at 2.1% and FFECS at 12.8% of ration DM (TAL/ECS), and 3) 100% supplemental fat from FFECS at 25.6% ration DM (ECS). All rations were formulated to contain 7.5% fat on a DM basis. Heifers were individually fed, ad libitum, for 82 d, and BW, G:F, DMI, ADG, and body composition via ultrasound were collected at 3 to 4 wk intervals. After 82 d on feed heifers were slaughtered under federal inspection, and carcass characteristics were measured (at 24 h). The LM was removed for retail display color (1, 3, 6, 10 d), Warner-Bratzler shear force (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), sensory analysis (1, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), and fatty acid profile analysis. Subcutaneous fat, including all layers, was removed from the LM for fatty acid profile analysis, and ground beef patties (80:20) were produced with lean from the brisket and fat from the plate for retail color analysis (1, 2, 4, 7 d). Supplemental fat source did not influence feedlot performance for any of the traits measured (P > 0.12) or any carcass traits related to yield, quality, or LM color at the 12th- to 13th-rib interface (P > 0.15). Supplemental fat source did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force or any sensory traits (P > 0.20), but LM steaks became more tender as postmortem aging time increased up to 14 d (P < 0.01). During retail display of LM steaks and beef patties, the only difference was LM steaks from ECS were darker (lower L* value) than TAL or TAL/ECS steaks (P < 0.02). As display time increased, LM steak and beef patty objective and subjective color deteriorated (P < 0.01). Although feeding FFECS compared with tallow increased linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6)) in both intramuscular and subcutaneous fat (P < 0.04), this did not lead to an increase in total CLA content (P > 0.90). Full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets are interchangeable with tallow in heifer finishing diets without impacting feeding performance, meat quality, shelf life color, or CLA content of adipose sites. PMID:23893987

Stelzleni, A M; Froetschel, M A; Pringle, T D

2013-07-26

284

Examining sensory quadrants in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3–43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community controls. Sensory quadrants (Low

Janet K. Kern; Carolyn R. Garver; Thomas Carmody; Alonzo A. Andrews; Madhukar H. Trivedi; Jyutika A. Mehta

2007-01-01

285

Colour of fat, and colour, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of muscle from heifers offered alternative forages to grass silage in a finishing ration.  

PubMed

The effect of type of silage offered to beef heifers during the finishing period on aspects of beef quality was determined. In two experiments, a diet based on grass silage (GS) was compared with a diet based on maize silage (MS) or whole-crop wheat silage (WCW). Compared to the GS-based diet, increasing the amount of MS linearly increased fat whiteness while the increase in fat whiteness due to WCW was dependent on the stage of crop maturity at harvesting. There was no effect of diet on muscle colour or on muscle pH measured at 48h post-mortem, drip loss, taste panel traits after 14days ageing or shear force values at 2, 7 or 14days ageing. The alternative silages decreased the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion and increased the linoleic:linolenic acid ratio in intramuscular lipid. It is concluded that type of silage affects fat colour and fatty acid composition of muscle but not the other muscle characteristics examined. PMID:23806853

Moloney, A P; Mooney, M T; Kerry, J P; Stanton, C; O'Kiely, P

2013-05-23

286

Nutrient intakes and characteristics of normal weight, female military personnel consuming foods reduced in fat or energy content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional implications of consuming reduced fat or reduced energy foods (RED) were examined in 50 women who were participating in a larger study of iron status while enrolled in the U.S. Army Medical Department Officer Basic Course. The subjects recorded their food intake for a 7-day period. Reduced fat or reduced energy foods were identified as foods labeled “reduced-calorie,

J. E. Arsenault; A. D. Cline

2000-01-01

287

Linking neighborhood characteristics to food insecurity in older adults: the role of perceived safety, social cohesion, and walkability.  

PubMed

Among the 14.6% of American households experiencing food insecurity, approximately 2 million are occupied by older adults. Food insecurity among older adults has been linked to poor health, lower cognitive function, and poor mental health outcomes. While evidence of the association between individual or household-level factors and food insecurity has been documented, the role of neighborhood-level factors is largely understudied. This study uses data from a representative sample of 1,870 New York City senior center participants in 2008 to investigate the relationship between three neighborhood-level factors (walkability, safety, and social cohesion) and food insecurity among the elderly. Issues relating to food security were measured by three separate outcome measures: whether the participant had a concern about having enough to eat this past month (concern about food security), whether the participant was unable to afford food during the past year (insufficient food intake related to financial resources), and whether the participant experienced hunger in the past year related to not being able to leave home (mobility-related food insufficiency). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression was performed for each measure of food insecurity. Results indicate that neighborhood walkability is an important correlate of mobility-related food insufficiency and concern about food insecurity, even after controlling the effects of other relevant factors. PMID:22160446

Chung, Wai Ting; Gallo, William T; Giunta, Nancy; Canavan, Maureen E; Parikh, Nina S; Fahs, Marianne C

2012-06-01

288

Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings

Frans J. Kok; Cees de Graaf

2010-01-01

289

Sensory properties of chocolate and their development.  

PubMed

Sensory attributes of eating chocolate are determined by processing variables and inherent characteristics of the cocoa bean. Flavor precursors develop during fermentation and primarily interact at roasting temperatures. Complex browning reactions occur during roasting. Numerous heterocyclic flavor compounds produced then contribute to the characteristic chocolate flavor. Feel of chocolate in the mouth (mouth feel) and textural properties are determined by the unique properties of cocoa butter. Careful processing and selection of ingredients is necessary to produce desirable attributes. PMID:7977154

Hoskin, J C

1994-12-01

290

Rheological Principles for Food Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food scientists are routinely confronted with the need to measure physical properties related to sensory texture and processing\\u000a needs. These properties are determined by rheological methods, where rheology is a science devoted to the deformation and flow of all materials. Rheological properties should be considered a subset of the textural properties of foods, because the sensory detection\\u000a of texture encompasses

Christopher R. Daubert; E. Allen Foegeding

291

Sensory Impairment: Taste and Smell Impairments with Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The sensory properties of foods influence food choices and provide cues about a food’s nutritional value.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Sensory signals from food elicit salivary, gastric acid, and pancreatic secretions associated with digestion and ultimately\\u000a absorption of nutrients. Taste and smell are especially important in activating these digestive secretions because the taste\\u000a and olfactory systems have closer anatomical connections to the

Susan Schiffman

292

Selected gelling agents in canned dog food affect nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of ileal cannulated dogs.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of gelling agents in canned dog food on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Dogs were fed canned diets with either no gelling agent (control) or one of three gelling agents, wheat starch, a guar gum/carrageenan mixture (50:50), and a locust bean meal (LBM)/carrageenan mixture (50:50) incorporated at two levels (0.2 and 0.5% of the diet on a wet weight basis). Six dogs were fed each diet in a 6 x 7 Youden square design. Dogs fed diets containing gelling agents had higher ileal digestibilities of OM (P = 0.05), fat (P < 0.01), GE (P = 0.02), and total amino acids (P = 0.04) and lower (P < 0.01) total tract DM digestibilities when compared to dogs fed the control diet. Fecal output by dogs fed the control diet, expressed on both an as-is (73.4 g/d) and DM (45.6 g/d) basis, was lower (P < 0.01) than for dogs fed gelling agent-containing diets (mean 102.3 g/d as-is and 57.6 g/d DM). Dogs fed the control diet also had lower (P < 0.01) fecal DM percentages and higher (P = 0.02) fecal scores than dogs fed gelling agent-containing diets. PMID:12389228

Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K; Merchen, N R; Grieshop, Christine M; Smeets-Peeters, Marianne J E; Fahey, G C

2002-04-01

293

Mechanosensitive currents in the neurites of cultured mouse sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Almost all sensory neurones in the dorsal root ganglia have a mechanosensory function. The transduction of mechanical stimuli in vivo takes place exclusively at the sensory ending. For cutaneous sensory receptors it has so far proved impossible to directly record the mechanically gated receptor potential because of the small size and inaccessibility of the sensory ending. Here we investigate whether mechanosensitive currents are present in the neurites of freshly isolated adult mouse sensory neurones in culture. Amost all sensory neurone neurites possess currents gated by submicrometre displacement stimuli (92%). Three types of mechanically activated conductance were characterized based on different inactivation kinetics. A rapidly adapting conductance was found in larger sensory neurones with narrow action potentials characteristic of mechanoreceptors. Slowly and intermediate adapting conductances were found exclusively in putative nociceptive neurones. Mechanically activated currents with similar kinetics were found also after stimulating the cell soma. However, soma currents were only observed in around 60% of cells tested and the displacement threshold was several times larger than for the neurite (?6 ?m). The reversal potential of the rapidly adapting current indicated that this current is largely selective for sodium ions whereas the slowly adapting current is non-selective. It is likely that distinct ion channel entities underlie these two currents. In summary, our data suggest that the high sensitivity and robustness of mechanically gated currents in the sensory neurite make this a useful in vitro model for the mechanosensitive sensory endings in vivo.

Hu, Jing; Lewin, Gary R

2006-01-01

294

Measuring consumer response to food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of taste tests to predict the market performance of new food products (cf. Burger King's new french fries, New Coke) illustrate the inability of marketing researchers to perform such tests effectively. Food scientists, with their expertise at testing the sensory effects of foods, can make an important contribution to the ability of food producers to predict consumer preference

Lawrence L. Garber; Eva M. Hyatt; Richard G. Starr

2003-01-01

295

Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the multi-sensory brand-experience concept in relation to the human mind and senses. It also seeks to propose a sensory marketing (SM) model of the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigating the multi-sensory brand-experience concept within the context of discovery. The qualitative study

Bertil Hultén

2011-01-01

296

Methodological characteristics of the national dietary surveys carried out in the European Union as included in the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009 competent organisations in the European Union provided the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with data from the most recent national dietary survey at the level of individuals’ consumption. Twenty different Member States provided EFSA with data from 22 different national dietary surveys, with consumption figures for adults and, when available, for children. Member States’ dietary data were assembled

C. Merten; P. Ferrari; M. Bakker; A. Boss; Á. Hearty; C. Leclercq; O. Lindtner; C. Tlustos; P. Verger; J. L. Volatier; D. Arcella

2011-01-01

297

Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities.

Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S. N.; Bawa, A. S.

2011-12-01

298

Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

2010-01-01

299

Recording Sensory Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2007-01-01

300

SENSORY DEPRIVATION AND PSYCHOTHERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

TYPICALLY THE EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION FOR SENSORY DEPRIVATION RESEARCH CONSISTS OF AN ORDINARY SINGLE HOSPITAL ROOM, CONTAINING A NORMAL HOSPITAL BED. THE PATIENT REMAINS IN A ROOM DARKENED BY HEAVY CURTAINS, LYING OR SITTING IN BED, WEARING TRANSLUCENT EYE-GOGGLES, AND WITH HANDS AND ARMS ENCASED IN CARDBOARD CYLINDERS. PRACTICAL CLINICAL EXPERIENCE SUPPORTS THE USE OF RESTRAINT OR ISOLATION PROCEDURES WITH AGITATED

LAWRENCE S. GAINES; HAROLD J. VETTER

1968-01-01

301

Sensory Transduction: Getting the Message  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture covers the sensory system. More specifically, it provides information about how the sensory system captures, transduces, amplifies, adapts, and passes information from one cell to the next.

A. James Hudspeth, Ph.D., M.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2008-04-18

302

Verification of retail food outlet location data from a local health department using ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology: assessing differences by neighborhood characteristics.  

PubMed

Obtaining valid and accurate data on community food environments is critical for research evaluating associations between the food environment and health outcomes. This study utilized ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology to validate a food outlet retail list obtained from an urban local health department in Baltimore, Maryland in 2009. Ten percent of outlets (n=169) were assessed, and differences in accuracy were explored by neighborhood characteristics (96 census tracts) to determine if discrepancies were differential or non-differential. Inaccuracies were largely unrelated to a variety of neighborhood-level variables, with the exception of number of vacant housing units. Although remote-sensing technologies are a promising low-cost alternative to direct observation, this study demonstrated only moderate levels of agreement with ground-truthing. PMID:22818588

Rossen, Lauren M; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

2012-07-04

303

Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

2013-05-18

304

Sensory characterisation of wine vinegars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-six samples of vinegars of different sources were subjected to sensory analysis. For white vinegars, Linear Discriminant Analysis showed that sensory analysis could be used to distinguish between the different sources of vinegar, and especially to discriminate between alcohol and apple vinegars from wine vinegars on the basis of only seven sensory parameters. Principal Component Regression showed that the quality

Vincenzo Gerbi; Giuseppe Zeppa; Andrea Antonelli; Alberta Carnacini

1997-01-01

305

Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

306

Sensory signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simple anatomy, behavior, and genetics of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans make it an attractive organism for studying sensory circuits and their functions in vivo. Recent advances in our understanding of C. elegans sensory signaling stem from work on topographic maps, chemosensory receptors, modality coding, and the integration of antagonistic sensory inputs.

Joshua M Kaplan

1996-01-01

307

Methodological characteristics of the national dietary surveys carried out in the European Union as included in the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database.  

PubMed

In 2009 competent organisations in the European Union provided the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with data from the most recent national dietary survey at the level of individuals' consumption. Twenty different Member States provided EFSA with data from 22 different national dietary surveys, with consumption figures for adults and, when available, for children. Member States' dietary data were assembled into the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. In this paper an overview of the methodologies and protocols employed in the different national dietary surveys is provided. Specifically, details about dietary assessment methods, interview administration, sampling design, portion size estimation, dietary software, evaluation of under-reporting and non-dietary information collected are described. This information is crucial to evaluate the level of accuracy of food consumption data and to anticipate and acknowledge the utmost important sources of heterogeneity of national databases included in the Comprehensive Database. The Comprehensive Database constitutes a unique resource for the estimation of consumption figures across the European Union and represents a useful tool to assess dietary exposure to hazardous substances and nutrient intake in Europe. Nevertheless, the many substantial methodological differences that characterise the Comprehensive Database are acknowledged and critically discussed. PMID:21732710

Merten, C; Ferrari, P; Bakker, M; Boss, A; Hearty, A; Leclercq, C; Lindtner, O; Tlustos, C; Verger, P; Volatier, J L; Arcella, D

2011-07-06

308

MECHANICAL?ACOUSTIC AND SENSORY EVALUATIONS OF CORNSTARCH?WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE EXTRUDATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism relating sensory perception of brittle food foams to their mechanical and acoustic properties during crushing was investigated. Corn- starch was extruded with four levels of whey protein isolate (0, 6, 12 and 18%) and two levels of in-barrel moisture (23 and 27%). Hardness, fracturability and roughness of mass were three main sensory attributes that varied sub- stantially between

E. M. CHENG; S. ALAVI; T. PEARSON; R. AGBISIT

2007-01-01

309

Ecological determinants and sensory mechanisms in habitat selection of crustacean postlarvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals use sensory stimuli to assess and select habitats, mates, and food as well as to communicate with other individuals. One of the great mysteries of crustacean ecology is how postlarvae locate the relatively rare patches of coral reef habitat on which they settle. The present study aimed to estimate, by experiments in aquaria and biochemical analysis, the sensory modalities

David Lecchini; Suzanne C. Mills; Christophe Brié; Robert Maurin; Bernard Banaigs

2010-01-01

310

Algal Sensory Chemical Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory chemical ecology is the branch of chemical ecology that focuses on chemical communications between organisms and chemical\\u000a sensing of the environment by organisms. Algae are well known to have numerous physiological responses to variations in their\\u000a chemical environment, particularly with respect to nutrients (Lobban and Harrison 1994). However, with respect to environmental\\u000a sensing it is typical for “chemical ecology”

Charles D. Amsler

311

Microhistological Characteristics of Selected Aquatic Plants of Florida with Techniques for the Study of Manatee Food Habits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection and preparation of aquatic plants for voucher specimens and preparation of reference slide collection is described in the report. Techniques for food identification and quantification for 83 plant species and three invertebrate groups are pre...

L. A. Hurst C. A. Beck

1988-01-01

312

Sensory cilia in arthropods.  

PubMed

In arthropods, the modified primary cilium is a structure common to all peripheral sensory neurons other than photoreceptors. Since its first description in 1958, it has been investigated in great detail in numerous sense organs (sensilla) of many insect species by means of electron microscopy and electrophysiology. The perfection of molecular biological methods has led to an enormous advance in our knowledge about development and function of sensory cilia in the fruitfly since the end of the last century. The cilia show a wealth of adaptations according to their different physiological roles: chemoreception, mechanoreception, hygroreception, and thermoreception. Divergent types of receptors and channels have evolved fulfilling these tasks. The number of olfactory receptor genes can be close to 300 in ants, whereas in crickets slightest mechanical stimuli are detected by the interaction of extremely sophisticated biomechanical devices with mechanosensory cilia. Despite their enormous morphological and physiological divergence, sensilla and sensory cilia develop according to a stereotyped pattern. Intraflagellar transport genes have been found to be decisive for proper development and function. PMID:22814269

Keil, Thomas A

2012-07-17

313

Use of Food Pantries is Associated with Household Food Insecurity in Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Households receiving food from emergency food providers, including food pantries, soup kitchens, and shelters, are vulnerable to food insecurity and hunger. The objective of this study was to (1) examine the household food security status of Ohio food pantry users; and (2) compare the household food security status between food pantry users\\/food pantry using-households for a variety of characteristics, including

Kelly E. OConnell; David H. Holben; John P. Holcomb

2008-01-01

314

Effects of 35% corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, beef fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes.  

PubMed

Fifty-four individually-fed Hereford-Angus cross steers (initial BW = 308 ± 9 kg) were used in an unbalanced randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine effects of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass and beef characteristics, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn- (SFC) and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 35% WDGS (DM basis; 0SFC and 35SFC, 0DRC and 35DRC, respectively). Yellow grease was used to equilibrate fat content of diets. Steers were fed 174 d, and were harvested on a single date when the mean ultrasound fat thickness was estimated to be 1.30 cm. No interactions between corn processing and WDGS were observed for performance or carcass characteristics (P ? 0.11). Final BW (556 ± 14 kg) and ADG (1.43 ± 0.06 kg) were not affected (P ? 0.25) by dietary treatment. Steers fed SFC-based diets consumed less feed, and were 10.6% more efficient (P < 0.01) than those fed DRC-based diets. Including WDGS in finishing diets improved feed efficiency of steers consuming both SFC- and DRC-based diets (P ? 0.04). Dietary treatment did not affect HCW, dressing percentage, fat thickness, or yield grade (P ? 0.27). Including WDGS in finishing diets decreased the concentration of 16:1cis-9, 18:1cis-9, and 18:1cis-11 fatty acids, and tended (P ? 0.10) to increase total fat concentration of steaks compared with diets without WDGS. A corn processing method by WDGS interaction was detected for 18:1trans-11 where steaks from 0DRC diets had decreased concentrations compared with other diets. There were no dietary effects on palatability attributes (P > 0.20). Livery-organy aromatics (P = 0.03) and sweet basic tastes (P = 0.01) in steaks from the 35SFC treatment were more intense than in other treatments, but were barely detectable. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances tended to be greater in steaks from steers fed WDGS after 5 d of storage (P = 0.10), and were greater after 7 d. (P < 0.01). Inclusion of WDGS used in this experiment improved G:F with minimal impacts on carcass characteristics. Both WDGS inclusion and corn processing method impacted fatty acid composition. However, diet had minimal impacts on palatability attributes. When compared with diets fat-equilibrated with yellow grease, the primary concern with incorporating WDGS appears to be decreased shelf-life after 5 d of storage. PMID:23589628

Buttrey, E K; Jenkins, K H; Lewis, J B; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Lawrence, T E; McCollum, F T; Pinedo, P J; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

2013-04-01

315

Retailing organic foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past five years consumer demand for organic food has risen dramatically in the wake of a series of high profile scares about food safety. This paper provides a case study of the retailing of organic foods. The case study includes an outline of the characteristics and development of the organic food market, an examination of the different players

Peter Jones; Colin Clarke-Hill; Peter Shears; David Hillier

2001-01-01

316

A Neural Model for Compensation of Sensory Abnormalities in Autism Through Feedback From a Measure of Global Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory abnormalities and weak central coherence (WCC), a processing bias for features and local information, are important characteristics associated with autism. This paper introduces a self-organizing map (SOM)-based computational model of sensory abnormalities in autism, and of a feedback system to compensate for them. Feedback relies on a measure of balance of coverage over four (sensory) domains. Different methods to

Gerardo Noriega

2008-01-01

317

Sensory substitution in prosthetics.  

PubMed

Use of arm and hand prostheses may be essential for many amputees to facilitate activities of daily life and interaction with society. A major drawback that reduces the use of prostheses, however, is the lack of sensibility. Current strategies for sensory feedback in commercially available prostheses are based on force and slip sensors in the mechanical hand for independent grasp control in an opening and closing function. Developing principles for providing conscious sensibility is discussed, including new techniques where hearing is used as substitution for sensation based on sense substitution. PMID:11599215

Lundborg, G; Rosén, B

2001-08-01

318

Personality and Sensory Acuity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between human extroversion scores to the assessment of meat texture in the mouth was studied by observing the difference in taste assessments completed on questionnaires and the results of food solution tests given in terms of concentrati...

J. M. Harries

1973-01-01

319

Thermoluminescence Analysis for Detection of Irradiated Food—Luminescence Characteristics of Minerals for Different Types of Radiation and Radiation Doses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoluminescence analysis is used to detect radiation processing of foods which are contaminated with sand or dust. Silicate minerals are isolated, their radiation-induced luminescence is measured and compared to the thermoluminescence from a second measurement after exposure to a defined radiation dose (normalization). In the present study, the mineral mixture ‘sand’ and its main components feldspar and quartz were investigated

Christiane Soika; Henry Delincée

2000-01-01

320

Food perception with age and its relationship to pleasantness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between elderly subjects (n = 46, 61¿86 years) and young subjects (n = 36, 18¿25 years) in food perception and food liking were investigated. Intensity and liking ratings were assessed for custard dessert, in which flavor enrichment, textural change, and irritant addition were incorporated as strategies to compensate for sensory losses with increasing age. The sensory acuity (taste, olfaction,

Stefanie Kremer; Johannes H. F. Bult; Jos Mojet; Jan H. A. Kroeze

2007-01-01

321

Sensory Integration, Sensory Processing, and Sensory Modulation Disorders: Putative Functional Neuroanatomic Underpinnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines conditions that have variously been called sensory integration disorder, sensory processing disorder,\\u000a and sensory modulation disorder (SID\\/SPD\\/SMD). As these conditions lack readily and consistently agreed-upon operational definitions,\\u000a there has been confusion as to how these disorders are conceptualized. Rather than addressing various diagnostic controversies,\\u000a we will instead focus upon explaining the symptoms that are believed to characterize

Leonard F. Koziol; Deborah Ely Budding; Dana Chidekel

322

The effects of focal epileptic activity on regional sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling and postictal modulation of bilateral sensory processing  

PubMed Central

While it is known that cortical sensory dysfunction may occur in focal neocortical epilepsy, it is unknown whether sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling is also disrupted during epileptiform activity. Addressing this open question may help to elucidate both the effects of focal neocortical epilepsy on sensory responses and the neurovascular characteristics of epileptogenic regions in sensory cortex. We therefore examined bilateral sensory-evoked neurovascular responses before, during, and after 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 15?mmol/L, 1??L) induced focal neocortical seizures in right vibrissal cortex of the rat. Stimulation consisted of electrical pulse trains (16?seconds, 5?Hz, 1.2?mA) presented to the mystacial pad. Consequent current-source density neural responses and epileptic activity in both cortices and across laminae were recorded via two 16-channel microelectrodes bilaterally implanted in vibrissal cortices. Concurrent two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy was used to produce spatiotemporal maps of total, oxy-, and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration. Compared with control, sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling was altered during ictal activity, but conserved postictally in both ipsilateral and contralateral vibrissal cortices, despite neurovascular responses being significantly reduced in the former, and enhanced in the latter. Our results provide insights into sensory-evoked neurovascular dynamics and coupling in epilepsy, and may have implications for the localization of epileptogenic foci and neighboring eloquent cortex.

Harris, Sam; Bruyns-Haylett, Michael; Kennerley, Aneurin; Boorman, Luke; Overton, Paul G; Ma, Hongtao; Zhao, Mingrui; Schwartz, Theodore H; Berwick, Jason

2013-01-01

323

The effects of focal epileptic activity on regional sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling and postictal modulation of bilateral sensory processing.  

PubMed

While it is known that cortical sensory dysfunction may occur in focal neocortical epilepsy, it is unknown whether sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling is also disrupted during epileptiform activity. Addressing this open question may help to elucidate both the effects of focal neocortical epilepsy on sensory responses and the neurovascular characteristics of epileptogenic regions in sensory cortex. We therefore examined bilateral sensory-evoked neurovascular responses before, during, and after 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 15?mmol/L, 1??L) induced focal neocortical seizures in right vibrissal cortex of the rat. Stimulation consisted of electrical pulse trains (16?seconds, 5?Hz, 1.2?mA) presented to the mystacial pad. Consequent current-source density neural responses and epileptic activity in both cortices and across laminae were recorded via two 16-channel microelectrodes bilaterally implanted in vibrissal cortices. Concurrent two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy was used to produce spatiotemporal maps of total, oxy-, and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration. Compared with control, sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling was altered during ictal activity, but conserved postictally in both ipsilateral and contralateral vibrissal cortices, despite neurovascular responses being significantly reduced in the former, and enhanced in the latter. Our results provide insights into sensory-evoked neurovascular dynamics and coupling in epilepsy, and may have implications for the localization of epileptogenic foci and neighboring eloquent cortex. PMID:23860375

Harris, Sam; Bruyns-Haylett, Michael; Kennerley, Aneurin; Boorman, Luke; Overton, Paul G; Ma, Hongtao; Zhao, Mingrui; Schwartz, Theodore H; Berwick, Jason

2013-07-17

324

The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat ovine and bovine Halloumi.  

PubMed

Halloumi cheese is a popular cheese in Lebanon and the Middle East. Today, health-conscious consumers are demanding lower fat foods with sensory properties that are comparable to their full-fat counterparts. The objectives of this work were to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine and ovine Halloumi of different fat levels and to provide a baseline sensory profile for Halloumi cheese. Full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat samples were produced from ovine and bovine milks in 2 batches resulting in a total of 12 batches. The fat, protein, moisture, ash, pH, sodium, and calcium levels were determined and the instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Eleven trained panelists used quantitative descriptive analysis to profile the sensory attributes of the samples and an acceptability test was conducted with 84 panelists. The type of milk (ovine vs. bovine) significantly affected the moisture and protein contents, whereas fat level had a significant effect on moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents. Instrumental texture analysis revealed that the type of milk significantly affected adhesiveness, chewiness, and hardness, whereas the fat level affected chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. The sensory results of the trained panelists revealed that the ovine cheese was more yellow and harder than bovine cheese, whereas bovine cheese was squeakier. Low-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were also more yellow and harder than full-fat cheese, and full-fat cheese was more moist with no significant differences between the low-fat and reduced-fat varieties. Type of milk and fat level did not have any significant effect on fermented flavor, whey flavor, or saltiness. Bovine cheese received significantly higher scores on overall acceptability, texture acceptability, and significantly lower scores on the food action rating scale. Full-fat cheese obtained the highest score on overall acceptability, and texture acceptability decreased significantly with decreasing fat levels. PMID:19700674

Lteif, L; Olabi, A; Kebbe Baghdadi, O; Toufeili, I

2009-09-01

325

Agronomic Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Newly Developed Day-Neutral Strawberry Lines by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic characteristics and chemical composition of seven advanced day-neutral strawberry lines and a commercial cultivar ‘Seascape’ were evaluated for their horticulture and quality attributes. The results showed that the advanced strawberry lines had the best horticultural characteristics, such as more resistance to diseases, less weight and juice losses and better fruit glossiness during storage, compared to ‘Seascape’. Among the

Qinglian Wang; Emmanuel Tury; Djamila Rekika; Marie Thérèse Charles; Rong Tsao; Yu-Jin Hao; Claudine Dubé; Shahrokh Khanizadeh

2010-01-01

326

Differential Regulation of the Expression of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 (CRF2) in Hypothalamus and Amygdala of the Immature Rat by Sensory Input and Food Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological consequences of activating corticotropin- releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) are not fully understood. The neuroanatomic distribution of this CRF receptor family member is consistent with roles in mediating the actions of CRF and similar ligands on food intake control and integrative as- pects of stress-related behaviors. However, CRF2 expression in the adult rat is not influenced by

Mariam Eghbal-Ahmadi; Sarit Avishai-Eliner; Carolyn G. Hatalski; Tallie Z. Baram

1999-01-01

327

Temperament and Sensory Features of Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3–7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Methods Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt & Carey, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (Carey & McDevitt, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three dimensional constructs of sensory features (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsivness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. Results The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Conclusions Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally associated with sensory response patterns. Shared mechanisms underlying sensory responsiveness, temperament, and social withdrawal may be fruitful to explore in future studies.

Brock, Matthew E.; Freuler, Ashley; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Poe, Michele D.; Sabatino, Antoinette

2012-01-01

328

Purinergic signalling in sensory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular purines play multiple roles in a variety of sensory systems acting as neural signalling and humoral factors via purinoceptors. For example, ATP and adenosine have a neurosignalling role in autonomic sensory–motor reflexes, mechanoreception and chemoreception mediated via vagus nerve afferents, and in nociception. Purinergic neuromodulation of vision via adenosine in the retina is well established and there is mounting

Peter R. Thorne; Gary D. Housley

1996-01-01

329

Phenotypes within sensory modulation dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory modulation disorder (SMD) is a severe inability to regulate responses to everyday sensory stimulation to which most people easily adapt. It is estimated to affect 5% to 16% of the general population of children. Although heterogeneity is seen in the presentation clinically, previous research has not empirically investigated whether the clinical heterogeneity of SMD can be classified into subtypes.

Katherine James; Lucy Jane Miller; Roseann Schaaf; Darci M. Nielsen; Sarah A. Schoen

2011-01-01

330

Sensory Dominance in Product Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

People perceive the material world around them with their five senses. Information from different sensory modalities is integrated in the brain to create a stable and meaningful experience of objects, including industrial products that accompany us in our everyday life. Some of the sensory systems play a more important role in product experience than others. Designing pleasurable products can enrich

A. B. Fenko

2010-01-01

331

Salinibacter Sensory Rhodopsin  

PubMed Central

Halobacterium salinarum sensory rhodopsin I (HsSRI), a dual receptor regulating both negative and positive phototaxis in haloarchaea, transmits light signals through changes in protein-protein interactions with its transducer, halobacterial transducer protein I (HtrI). Haloarchaea also have another sensor pigment, sensory rhodopsin II (SRII), which functions as a receptor regulating negative phototaxis. Compared with HsSRI, the signal relay mechanism of SRII is well characterized because SRII from Natronomonus pharaonis (NpSRII) is much more stable than HsSRI and HsSRII, especially in dilute salt solutions and is much more resistant to detergents. Two genes encoding SRI homologs were identified from the genome sequence of the eubacterium Salinibacter ruber. Those sequences are distantly related to HsSRI (?40% identity) and contain most of the amino acid residues identified as necessary for its function. To determine whether those genes encode functional protein(s), we cloned and expressed them in Escherichia coli. One of them (SrSRI) was expressed well as a recombinant protein having all-trans retinal as a chromophore. UV-Vis, low-temperature UV-Vis, pH-titration, and flash photolysis experiments revealed that the photochemical properties of SrSRI are similar to those of HsSRI. In addition to the expression system, the high stability of SrSRI makes it possible to prepare large amounts of protein and enables studies of mutant proteins that will allow new approaches to investigate the photosignaling process of SRI-HtrI.

Kitajima-Ihara, Tomomi; Furutani, Yuji; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ihara, Kunio; Kandori, Hideki; Homma, Michio; Sudo, Yuki

2008-01-01

332

Health claims on functional foods: the Japanese regulations and an international comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese scientific academic community defined 'functional food' early in the 1980s. That is, functional foods are those that have three functions. The primary function is nutrition. The sec- ondary function is a sensory function or sensory satisfaction. The third is the tertiary function, which is physiological. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) set up 'Foods for

Toshio Shimizu

2003-01-01

333

Probabilistic shelf life assessment of white button mushrooms through sensorial properties analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory test was carried out on different batches of white button mushrooms stored at various temperatures (5, 10, 15 °C and 3.5 °C control) for 5–7days to find the effect of temperature and storage time on the sensory characteristics. Acceptance or rejection of the mushrooms was used to evaluate the shelf life of the product. Sensory data was modelled using mixed-effects logistic

Debabandya Mohapatra; Zuberi M. Bira; Jesus M. Frias; Joe P. Kerry; Fernanda A. Rodrigues

2011-01-01

334

Treatment of sensory defensiveness in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study explored the relationship between sensory defen- siveness and anxiety, as well as the impact of a sensory integration treatment protocol on normal adults. Fifteen adult subjects identified as having sensory defensiveness completed the Adult Sensory Questionnaire (ASQ), Adult Sensory Interview (ADULT-SI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) at pre-test and post-test intervals to measure sensory defensiveness and anxiety.

Beth Pfeiffer; Moya Kinnealey

2003-01-01

335

Characteristics of eating in anger, fear, sadness and joy.  

PubMed

The influences of emotions on eating were investigated. One-hundred and seven female and 103 male subjects were asked to report how various characteristics of eating could change during the emotions of anger, fear, sadness and joy. Subjects completed a questionnaire of 33 items for each emotion and a food deprivation condition. A factor analysis of the items answered with respect to food deprivation yielded four factors which were labelled hunger, impulsive eating, sensory eating and hedonic eating. ANCOVAs showed main effects of emotions upon each factor. Single comparisons showed that: (1) subjects reported to experience higher levels of hunger during anger and joy than during fear and sadness; (2) impulsive eating and sensory eating were rated higher during anger than during the other emotions; and (3) hedonic eating was rated higher during joy than during the other emotions. Results did not indicate any differential influences upon eating between fear and sadness. Women reported to experience higher tendencies of impulsive eating and sensory eating than men during anger and sadness. Eating scores of negative emotions correlated low and positive with body mass index, low and negative with dietary restraint. The differential effects of emotions on characteristics of eating may be due to differences of the examined emotions in frequency of occurrence, physiological correlates and motivational properties. PMID:10447985

Macht, M

1999-08-01

336

Current salt reduction strategies and their effect on sensory acceptability: a study with reduced salt ready-meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers frequently associate low-salt foods with reduced taste. The present study aimed to address this issue by conducting\\u000a a suite of sensory analyses to determine the effects of current salt reduction strategies on the sensory acceptability of\\u000a a reduced salt ready-meal. Initial sensory trials investigated the effect of gradually lowering salt levels in a chilli con\\u000a carne ready-meal over an

Michelle Mitchell; Nigel P. Brunton; Martin G. Wilkinson

2011-01-01

337

Nuptial gifts of male spiders function as sensory traps.  

PubMed Central

While nuptial food gifts come in various forms in arthropods, their evolutionary origins are unclear. A previous study on insects has shown that such gifts may arise as a sensory trap that exploits a female's underlying motivation to feed. Here I present independent evidence of a sensory trap in spiders. In certain visually oriented spiders, I suggest that males initially exploit the maternal care instinct by producing a nuptial gift that closely resembles the female egg sac. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis cover their prey gift with a silk layer, transforming it into a white round object. In a laboratory experiment I tested whether the colour of the gift affected the rate that females accepted males displaying their gifts. I found that the brighter and the more alike the nuptial gift to a female's egg sac, the faster the female responded by grabbing the gift. My results support the hypothesis that the nuptial gift in P. mirabilis works as a sensory trap.

Stalhandske, Pia

2002-01-01

338

Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

339

Eating without a nose: olfactory dysfunction and sensory-specific satiety.  

PubMed

Odor stimuli play an important role in the perception of food flavor. Olfactory dysfunction is thus likely to affect eating behavior. In the present study, we hypothesized that dysfunctional olfactory perception promotes sensory-specific satiety, a decrease in pleasure derived from a certain test food during and shortly after its consumption relative to other unconsumed control foods. A total of 34 hyposmic/anosmic participants were compared with 29 normosmic control participants. All participants repeatedly consumed a fixed portion of one and the same food item, a procedure known to induce sensory satiation. We found evidence for sensory-specific satiety (SSS) regardless of olfactory function. It thus appears that olfactory deficits have no major effect on SSS. PMID:20693276

Havermans, Remco C; Hermanns, Julia; Jansen, Anita

2010-08-06

340

[The characteristics of the learning and neuronal support for instrumental food-acquisition behavior in rabbits with an insulin deficiency].  

PubMed

Behavioural changes during operant learning and feeding were studied in rabbits with insulin deficiency (ID) in chronic ditizone diabetes. Unit activity in the motor and sensorimotor cortex of freely moving rabbits was also studied during the operant behaviour. It was shown that the rabbits with ID displayed much more searching behaviour during learning than the intact ones, although the mean evaluations of the other types of behaviour (grooming, resting, alertness etc.) did not differ significantly. Acceleration of reward learning in the rabbits with ID was also observed. After injection of insulin (2-4 units) an hour before the operant feeding test an extreme reduction of searching behaviour was observed in the rabbits with ID in comparison with the control values as well as an enhancement of grooming, resting and other types of behaviour. Nevertheless, the amount of the operant feeding in this case did not change. Almost a half of neurons (46%) recorded in rabbits with ID manifested prolong activation correlated with the reward and/or food consuming. This proportion of "feeding" neurons in rabbits with ID was much higher than that in control ones (12%). The presented data indicate a significant transformation of behavioural and neuronal patterns in diabetic rabbits during operant reward learning and feeding and allow to consider the enhanced food motivation under ID as the main factor of learning acceleration. PMID:8317163

Lukashev, A O

341

Analysis of sensory data of Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena (ABTM) of different ageing by application of PARAFAC models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena is a typical Italian food product of protected denomination of origin, obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic bio-oxidation of cooked musts, and it is aged for at least 12 years in series of wooden casks. The product suitable for marketing is qualified by sensory examination on the whole of 13 sensory parameters.In this study, a

Marina Cocchi; Rasmus Bro; Caterina Durante; Daniela Manzini; Andrea Marchetti; Francesco Saccani; Simona Sighinolfi; Alessandro Ulrici

2006-01-01

342

Sensory profiling by children aged 6–7 and 10–11 years. Part 2: a modality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a method for determining which sensory factors influence liking of children for a product is needed by the food industry. The present study uses a one-step procedure and confines the semantics to understanding the meanings of the six main sensory modalities appearance, smell, taste, texture\\/mouthfeel, aftertaste and afterfeel that may influence liking of a product. Here the products

G Rose; D. G Laing; N Oram; I Hutchinson

2004-01-01

343

Assessing decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena in diabetic polyneuropathies.  

PubMed

Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

Dyck, Peter J; Herrmann, David N; Staff, Nathan P; Dyck, P James B

2013-11-01

344

Increased hemodynamic response in the hippocampus, thalamus and prefrontal cortex during abnormal sensory gating in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDeficits in sensory gating are a common feature of schizophrenia. Failure of inhibitory gating mechanisms, shown by poor suppression of evoked responses to repeated auditory stimuli, has been previously studied using EEG methods. These methods yield information about the temporal characteristics of sensory gating deficits, but do not identify brain regions involved in the process. Hence, the neuroanatomical substrates of

Jason R. Tregellas; Deana B. Davalos; Donald C. Rojas; Merilyne C. Waldo; Linzi Gibson; Korey Wylie; Yiping P. Du; Robert Freedman

2007-01-01

345

Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

Kalpidou, Maria

2012-01-01

346

The effect of chilled conditioning at 4°C on selected water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors in Bison bison longissimus dorsi muscle and their impact on sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

Water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors were monitored using chromatography methods in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of six grain-fed Bison bison, stored at 4°C for 2, 4, 8, 15 and 21days in order to investigate their potential impact on sensory attributes of cooked bison meat. While pH and lipid-soluble compounds remained mostly unchanged, several changes in water-soluble compounds were observed. The breakdown of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) led to increases in inosine, hypoxanthine and ribose (7-fold). Non-polar amino acids including valine, leucine and phenylalanine showed the most significant increases over 21days. Trained panelists (n=8) found a significant increase at day 15 in vinegary/sour aroma, tenderness and juiciness, while chewiness and connective tissue significantly decreased. Although, most flavor attributes were undetectable, partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed most water-soluble precursors were positively correlated with extended conditioning as well as beef and oily/fatty flavors. Quantitative changes observed in flavor precursors may be responsible for some sensory attributes developed during the heating process. PMID:23896147

Williamson, Jennifer; Ryland, Donna; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

2013-07-01

347

Sensory suppression during feeding  

PubMed Central

Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors.

Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

2005-01-01

348

A sensory bias has triggered the evolution of egg-spots in cichlid fishes.  

PubMed

Although, generally, the origin of sex-limited traits remains elusive, the sensory exploitation hypothesis provides an explanation for the evolution of male sexual signals. Anal fin egg-spots are such a male sexual signal and a key characteristic of the most species-rich group of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. Males of about 1500 mouth-brooding species utilize these conspicuous egg-dummies during courtship--apparently to attract females and to maximize fertilization success. Here we test the hypothesis that the evolution of haplochromine egg-spots was triggered by a pre-existing bias for eggs or egg-like coloration. To this end, we performed mate-choice experiments in the basal haplochromine Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor, which manifests the plesiomorphic character-state of an egg-spot-less anal fin. Experiments using computer-animated photographs of males indeed revealed that females prefer images of males with virtual ('in-silico') egg-spots over images showing unaltered males. In addition, we tested for color preferences (outside a mating context) in a phylogenetically representative set of East African cichlids. We uncovered a strong preference for yellow, orange or reddish spots in all haplochromines tested and, importantly, also in most other species representing more basal lines. This pre-existing female sensory bias points towards high-quality (carotenoids-enriched) food suggesting that it is adaptive. PMID:22028784

Egger, Bernd; Klaefiger, Yuri; Theis, Anya; Salzburger, Walter

2011-10-18

349

A Sensory Bias Has Triggered the Evolution of Egg-Spots in Cichlid Fishes  

PubMed Central

Although, generally, the origin of sex-limited traits remains elusive, the sensory exploitation hypothesis provides an explanation for the evolution of male sexual signals. Anal fin egg-spots are such a male sexual signal and a key characteristic of the most species-rich group of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. Males of about 1500 mouth-brooding species utilize these conspicuous egg-dummies during courtship – apparently to attract females and to maximize fertilization success. Here we test the hypothesis that the evolution of haplochromine egg-spots was triggered by a pre-existing bias for eggs or egg-like coloration. To this end, we performed mate-choice experiments in the basal haplochromine Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor, which manifests the plesiomorphic character-state of an egg-spot-less anal fin. Experiments using computer-animated photographs of males indeed revealed that females prefer images of males with virtual (‘in-silico’) egg-spots over images showing unaltered males. In addition, we tested for color preferences (outside a mating context) in a phylogenetically representative set of East African cichlids. We uncovered a strong preference for yellow, orange or reddish spots in all haplochromines tested and, importantly, also in most other species representing more basal lines. This pre-existing female sensory bias points towards high-quality (carotenoids-enriched) food suggesting that it is adaptive.

Theis, Anya; Salzburger, Walter

2011-01-01

350

Ultrastructure of Arthropod Sensory Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes research in the sensory structure and related selected organ system of ticks, mites and fly larva. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy are utilized. A list of publications is given with an abstract for each journal publicat...

R. C. Axtell

1975-01-01

351

Sensory Mechanisms Controlling Bacterial Bioluminescence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to explore the sensory mechanisms which control the expression of bioluminescence in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Genetic methods were used to discover the genes which encode functions for the production of extracellul...

M. R. Silverman

1999-01-01

352

Functional weakness and sensory disturbance  

PubMed Central

In the diagnosis of functional weakness and sensory disturbance, positive physical signs are as important as absence of signs of disease. Motor signs, particularly Hoover's sign, are more reliable than sensory signs, but none should be used in isolation and must be interpreted in the overall context of the presentation. It should be borne in mind that a patient may have both a functional and an organic disorder.

Stone, J; Zeman, A; Sharpe, M

2002-01-01

353

Treatment of Diabetic Sensory Polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  No current disease-modifying treatments have been shown definitively in randomized clinical trials to reduce or reverse diabetic\\u000a sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). It is increasingly recognized that individuals with “prediabetes” or impaired glucose regulation\\u000a can already have a “small-fiber” neuropathy, or mild DSP, in which sensory axons of both small and larger diameter are damaged.\\u000a Small-fiber neuropathy is frequently associated with

Lindsay Zilliox; James W. Russell

2011-01-01

354

Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1

Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

1972-01-01

355

NMR spectrometers as "magnetic tongues": prediction of sensory descriptors in canned tomatoes.  

PubMed

The perception of odor and flavor of food is a complicated physiological and psychological process that cannot be explained by simple models. Quantitative descriptive analysis is a technique used to describe sensory features. Nevertheless, the availability of a number of instrumental techniques has opened up the possibility to calibrate the sensory perception. In this frame, we have tested the potentiality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a predictive tool to measure sensory descriptors. In particular, we have used an NMR metabolomic approach that allowed us to differentiate the analyzed samples based on their chemical composition. We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints recorded for canned tomato samples to the sensory descriptors bitterness, sweetness, sourness, saltiness, tomato and metal taste, redness, and density, suggesting that NMR might be a very useful tool for the characterization of sensory features of tomatoes. PMID:21942325

Malmendal, Anders; Amoresano, Claudia; Trotta, Roberta; Lauri, Ilaria; De Tito, Stefano; Novellino, Ettore; Randazzo, Antonio

2011-10-05

356

The limits and motivating potential of sensory stimuli as reinforcers for autistic children.  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the reinforcing properties, limits, and motivating potentials of sensory stimuli with autistic children. In the first phase of the study, four intellectually retarded autistic children were exposed to three different types of sensory stimulation (vibration, music, and strobe light) as well as edible and social reinforcers for ten-second intervals contingent upon six simple bar pressing responses. In the second phase, the same events were used as reinforcers for correct responses in learning object labels. The results indicated that: (a) sensory stimuli can be used effectively as reinforcers to maintain high, durable rates of responding in a simple pressing task; (b) ranked preferences for sensory stimuli revealed a unique configuration of responding for each child; and (c) sensory stimuli have motivating potentials comparable to those of the traditional food and social reinforcers even when training receptive language tasks.

Ferrari, M; Harris, S L

1981-01-01

357

The limits and motivating potential of sensory stimuli as reinforcers for autistic children.  

PubMed

This study investigated the reinforcing properties, limits, and motivating potentials of sensory stimuli with autistic children. In the first phase of the study, four intellectually retarded autistic children were exposed to three different types of sensory stimulation (vibration, music, and strobe light) as well as edible and social reinforcers for ten-second intervals contingent upon six simple bar pressing responses. In the second phase, the same events were used as reinforcers for correct responses in learning object labels. The results indicated that: (a) sensory stimuli can be used effectively as reinforcers to maintain high, durable rates of responding in a simple pressing task; (b) ranked preferences for sensory stimuli revealed a unique configuration of responding for each child; and (c) sensory stimuli have motivating potentials comparable to those of the traditional food and social reinforcers even when training receptive language tasks. PMID:7298542

Ferrari, M; Harris, S L

1981-01-01

358

Sensory feedback system for prosthetic hand by using interferential current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a new type of sensory feedback system for a myoelectrically controlled biomimetic prosthetic hand. One of the characteristic features of the neuromuscular control system in man is the increase in the compliance around the joint with decreasing activity of the muscle. We used interferential current that uses two waves and interfere to

M. Yoshida; Y. Sasaki

2001-01-01

359

Validity of the Sensory Balance Test to Screen Children for Sensory Processing Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the validity of the Sensory Balance Test (SBT), which uses the technology of computerized dynamic posturography, to screen children for sensory processing impairments. Twenty typically developing children and 20 children with sensory processing impairments were administered the SBT under six different sensory conditions. The results show that children's sensory balance composite scores (SBT summary score) are associated

Shu-Yuan Hu; Jim Hinojosa; Ping-Yen Chiang; Cheng-Shiun Leu

2010-01-01

360

FOOD CHOICE AMONG HOMEBOUND OLDER ADULTS: MOTIVATIONS AND PERCEIVED BARRIERS  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this paper is to identify: motivations and perceived barriers associated with food choices made by homebound older adults; whether motivations and perceived barriers vary according to social demographic characteristics; and whether motivations and perceived barriers are associated with dietary quality. Design This was an observational study using standard interview methods where participants were administered a questionnaire and completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Participants were interviewed in their homes. Participants 185 homebound older adults were included. Measurement Motivations were assessed using a modification of The Food Choice Questionnaire and perceived barriers were assessed using the Vailas Food Enjoyment Questionnaire. Participants answered questions regarding social demographic characteristics. Dietary quality measures of adequate intakes of calories, protein, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 were obtained from the three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results Mean age was 78.9; 80% were female; and 36% were African American. Key motivations in food choice included sensory appeal, convenience, and price. Key barriers included health, being on a special diet, and being unable to shop. These varied little by social demographics, except for age. Dietary quality varied according to different motivations and barriers. Conclusion Food choices are based upon a complex interaction between the social and environmental context, the individual, and the food. Efforts to change eating behaviors, especially community-based interventions involving self-management approaches, must carefully take into account individuals’ self-perceived motivations and barriers to food selection. Incorporating foods that are tasty, easy to prepare, inexpensive, and that involve caregivers are critical for successful interventions.

LOCHER, J.L.; RITCHIE, C.S.; ROTH, D.L.; SEN, B.; DOUGLAS, K. VICKERS; VAILAS, L.I.

2009-01-01

361

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

362

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

363

Saltiness enhancement by the characteristic flavor of dried bonito stock.  

PubMed

There is a pressing need for the development of ways of preparing palatable salt-reduced foods to reduce the salt intake of the Japanese population. The salt-reducing effect of the characteristic flavors other than umami of dried bonito stock, which is widely used in everyday Japanese food, was examined by sensory evaluation. In the 1st sensory evaluation, the effect was evaluated in a model solution. The saltiness of 0.80% NaCl solution was equivalent to that of 0.12% monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution containing 0.81% NaCl and dried bonito stock containing 0.68% NaCl. Saltiness enhancement could not be found when MSG solution was used, but was found with 6% dried bonito stock. The 2nd evaluation examined whether the effect was valid for 2 everyday Japanese foods--traditional Japanese clear soup (sumashi-jiru) and steamed egg custard (tamagodoufu). Although enhancement of saltiness by dried bonito stock could not be clearly demonstrated in the soup, a change in NaCl concentration within 15% did not affect the palatability of the soup. However, dried bonito stock not only enhanced the saltiness but also improved the palatability of steamed egg custard. These findings are expected to be useful for improving the palatability of salt-reduced food. PMID:19241577

Manabe, M

2008-08-01

364

Changes in the adult vertebrate auditory sensory epithelium after trauma.  

PubMed

Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

Oesterle, Elizabeth C

2012-11-20

365

Methodological approach to evaluate the effects of age at slaughter and storage temperature and time on sensory profile of lamb meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodological approach, that requires the use of an experimental design, the definition of a sensory profile and an appropriate statistic validation of sensory data, was developed, in order to evaluate the effects of some process variables, such as age at slaughter and storage time and temperature, on sensory characteristics of lamb meat. In this study factorial design (23) was

A Carlucci; F Napolitano; A Girolami; E Monteleone

1999-01-01

366

A proposed methodology to determine the sensory quality of a fresh goat's cheese (Cameros cheese): application to cheeses packaged under modified atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensory profile was proposed, together with a methodology which permited the quality control of a fresh goat's cheese (Cameros cheese) from the sensory standpoint. Samples of Cameros cheese from four different cheesemakers were evaluated by a jury of 10 members. All panelists attended five tasting sessions to define an agreed lexicon of sensory characteristics of Cameros cheese. In order

Carmen Olarte; Elena Gonzalez-Fandos; Susana Sanz

2001-01-01

367

Surface Texture of Foods: Perception and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface texture is generally accepted as a key sensory factor of food materials and has great impact on consumers' perception and expectation of a food product. However, no authentic definition has been given in the literature for the term surface texture. Its real meaning is often rather confusing, varying from case to case and from person to person. A general

Jianshe Chen

2007-01-01

368

Sensory and instrumental evaluation of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) aroma.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the composition of volatile constituents and sensory characteristics of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) grown in Lithuania. Hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, static headspace, and solid phase microextraction methods were used for the isolation of aroma volatiles. Geranyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, citronellol, and geraniol were the major constituents in catnip. Differences in the quantitative compositions of volatile compounds isolated by the different techniques were considerable. A sensory panel performed sensory analysis of the ground herb, pure essential oil, and extract; aroma profiles of the products were expressed graphically, and some effects of odor qualities of individual compounds present in catnip on the overall aroma of this herb were observed. PMID:12797753

Baranauskiene, Renata; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Demyttenaere, Jan C R

2003-06-18

369

Sensory and motor neuropathy in a Border Collie.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old female Border Collie was evaluated because of progressive hind limb ataxia. The predominant clinical findings suggested a sensory neuropathy. Sensory nerve conduction velocity was absent in the tibial, common peroneal, and radial nerves and was decreased in the ulnar nerve; motor nerve conduction velocity was decreased in the tibial, common peroneal, and ulnar nerves. Histologic examination of nerve biopsy specimens revealed considerable nerve fiber depletion; some tissue sections had myelin ovoids, foamy macrophages, and axonal degeneration in remaining fibers. Marked depletion of most myelinated fibers within the peroneal nerve (a mixed sensory and motor nerve) supported the electrodiagnostic findings indicative of sensorimotor neuropathy. Progressive deterioration in motor function occurred over the following 19 months until the dog was euthanatized. A hereditary link was not established, but a littermate was similarly affected. The hereditary characteristic of this disease requires further investigation. PMID:16266014

Harkin, Kenneth R; Cash, Walter C; Shelton, G Diane

2005-10-15

370

Food safety.  

PubMed

Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313

Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

2010-10-01

371

Optimization of TNT sensory polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group has been involved in the design and synthesis of ultra-sensitive fluorescence sensory materials for the detection of 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4 dinitrotoluene (DNT). These schemes make use of a novel energy migration mechanisms to amplify the fluorescence response and have led to systems capable of rapid detection of these analytes at sub part-per-billion levels. In an effort to optimize the amplification and specificity, we have examined the nature of energy migration in our polymers systems because it is inherent in achieving amplification. polarization measurements and energy transfer studies between polymers were conducted in order to evaluate and maximize energy migration and hence TNT sensory response. The correlation of photo physical properties with molecular structure guided the synthesis of novel polymers with more discriminant optical responses. These synthetic efforts have yielded a library of sensory polymers with varying sensitivities to different analytes.

Rose, Aimee; Lugmair, Claus G.; Miao, Yi-Jun; Kim, Jinsang; Levitsky, Igor A.; Williams, Vance E.; Swager, Timothy M.

2000-08-01

372

Sensory neuronopathy in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2.  

PubMed

The objective of this article has been to describe the presence of a sensory neuronopathy in a patient harbouring ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2). A 40 year-old woman, born to consanguineous parents, presented with ataxia, decreased vibration sense, areflexia, indifferent plantar responses, preserved muscle volume and strength, and oculomotor apraxia; elevated levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein and creatine-kinase were found. A homozygous missense mutation, causing a substitution of a molecule of arginine for histidine at the helicase domain of the senataxin protein, was found. Two electrophysiological studies were performed, in which decreased amplitudes of the sensory action potentials were followed some years later by an absence of sensory action potentials in the lower limbs, and increased latencies in the somatosensory evoked potentials. Motor nerve conduction velocities were normal, and electromyographic recordings did not show abnormalities. Taken together, these findings are suggestive of a progressive sensory neuronopathy. The patterns of neuromuscular disturbance in AOA2 have not been thoroughly defined; therefore, a sensory neuronopathy should be considered part of the spectrum of neuromuscular manifestations in this disease. Genetic analysis may be of help to diagnose cases with unusual neuromuscular characteristics, like the one presented here. PMID:20869730

Gazulla, José; Benavente, Isabel; López-Fraile, Isabel Pérez; Tordesillas, Carlos; Modrego, Pedro; Alonso, Isabel; Pinto-Basto, Jorge

2010-09-24

373

Food Classification using Color Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color based food classification is widely used in food industry. In this paper we first propose an efficient and inexpensive technique of color image segmentation and then propose an efficient analysis system for food samples. The proposed method uses a modified watershed segmentation algorithm to breakdown color images of food samples into groups of similar color characteristics. Prior to the

Liyanage C De Silva; Anton Pereira; Amal Punchihewa

374

Sensory Neuronopathy and Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Sensory neuronopathies (SNs) are a specific subgroup of peripheral nervous system diseases characterized by primary degeneration of dorsal root ganglia and their projections. Multifocal sensory symptoms often associated to ataxia are the classical features of SN. Several different etiologies have been described for SNs, but immune-mediated damage plays a key role in most cases. SN may herald the onset of some systemic autoimmune diseases, which further emphasizes how important the recognition of SN is in clinical practice. We have thus reviewed available clinical, neurophysiological, and therapeutic data on autoimmune disease-related SN, namely, in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, and celiac disease.

Martinez, Alberto R. M.; Nunes, Marcelo B.; Nucci, Anamarli; Franca, Marcondes C.

2012-01-01

375

Why don't they like that? And can I do anything about it? The nature and correlates of parents' attributions and self-efficacy beliefs about preschool children's food preferences.  

PubMed

Children's food preferences influence their food intakes, which then have important effects on their health status. Presently little is understood about the aetiology of children's food preferences within families. Parental beliefs are important in many domains of socialisation although their role in the development of children's food preferences has seldom been investigated. Parents of 2-5 year old children participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were analysed with content analysis. The parents either had children with healthy food preferences (i.e. closely aligned with dietary guidelines) (N=20), unhealthy food preferences (i.e. not closely aligned with dietary guidelines) (N=18), or high levels of food neophobia (N=19). Parents described their beliefs about why children like and dislike foods (their attributions) and their ability to influence children's food preferences (their self-efficacy). Children's food preferences were attributed to (a) the influence of children's characteristics (e.g. food neophobia level and personality), (b) sensory attributes of foods (e.g. texture and appearance), and (c) socialisation experiences (e.g. peer modelling and parental feeding behaviours). Results provide preliminary evidence of differences in parents' attributions and self-efficacy beliefs in the feeding domain and highlight the need for greater understanding of the ways in which parents' beliefs affect children's food preferences. PMID:23474088

Russell, Catherine Georgina; Worsley, Anthony

2013-03-06

376

Food Neophobia, Odor Evaluation and Exploratory Sniffing Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has shown that people who avoid new foods (neophobics) and people who approach new foods (neophilics) differ in their sensory ratings of food and odor stimuli. The possible role of sampling behaviors in these differences was assessed in two studies. Participants completed neophobia surveys, then rated the pleasantness of odors while wearing a device that measured sniffing behavior.

BRYAN RAUDENBUSH; FORREST SCHROTH; SEAN REILLEY; ROBERT A. FRANK

1998-01-01

377

Opportunities and constraints in the functional food market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the main food choice trends driving consumer demand for functional foods and the constraints limiting market development. Considers previous research activity in the functional food arena and subsequently identifies paramount research priorities that may facilitate the development of products that will help satisfy consumer demands for convenience, health and sensory pleasure.

Jennifer Gray; Gillian Armstrong; Heather Farley

2003-01-01

378

Does organic food taste better? A claim substantiation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the demand for organic foods has grown globally, disputes have arisen on whether organic foods are more nutritious, safer, and better for the environment. To many consumers, though, a major issue is whether organic foods taste different and, especially if they are being asked to pay a premium price, whether they taste better. Via the use of sensory analysis

Laurence Fillion; Stacey Arazi

2002-01-01

379

Is fast food addictive?  

PubMed

Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

2011-09-01

380

Crispy and crunchy textures: a critical evaluation of rigid foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The textural attributes of crispness and crunchiness are important factors in the enjoyment of many foods, but they are defined differently among dictionaries, consumers, and researchers. Sensory, mechanical, and acoustic methods have been used to provide data on crispness and crunchiness. Sensory...

381

Year-Round Sensory Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This month-by-month calendar of suggested sensory activities is intended to be part of the science curriculum in kindergarten and the primary grades. It takes advantage of the child's natural interest in examining the world around him. Lists of natural and man-made objects appropriate to each school month are divided according to the sense to…

Warner, Jeanette V., Comp.

382

Making Sense of Sensory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

Hendrix, Marie

2010-01-01

383

Visualizing an Olfactory Sensory Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a genetic approach to visualize axons from olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor, as they project to the olfactory bulb. Neurons expressing a specific receptor project to only two topographically fixed loci among the 1800 glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb. Our data provide direct support for a model in which a topographic map of

Peter Mombaerts; Fan Wang; Catherine Dulac; Steve K. Chao; Adriana Nemes; Monica Mendelsohn; James Edmondson; Richard Axel

1996-01-01

384

Sensory feedback program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This program determined the feasibility of using sensory force feedback on a remote controlled continuous miner to improve operator performance, identified parameters to be sensed and relayed to the operator, and developed a prototype control system for field evaluation. However, due to some unforeseen problems involving machine access by participating mine operators the final phase of the program was changed

Fox

1982-01-01

385

Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

Skapof, Jerome

386

Evolving concepts of sensory adaptation  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems constantly adapt their responses to match the current environment. These adjustments occur at many levels of the system and increasingly appear to calibrate even for highly abstract perceptual representations of the stimulus. The similar effects of adaptation across very different stimulus domains point to common design principles but also continue to raise questions about the purpose of adaptation.

2012-01-01

387

[Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

Farquhar, Carin; And Others

388

Making Sense of Sensory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

Hendrix, Marie

2010-01-01

389

Cilia in Nematode Sensory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron microscopic studies revealed the presence of true cilia in nerve processes connected with sensory organs of a nematode. These structures are important in evaluating the relation between nematodes and the other aschelminths, from which they were separated partially on the basis of the supposed total absence of cilia.

D. R. Roggen; D. J. Raski; N. O. Jones

1966-01-01

390

Mechanosensory Transduction in 'Sensory' and 'Motile' Cilia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has long been recognized that there are striking anatomical similarities between those cilia classically thought of as serving 'sensory' and those serving 'motile' functions. It has also been suggested that sensory cilia evolved from motile cilia, and ...

M. L. Wiederhold

1976-01-01

391

Food irradiation: The past fifty years as prologue to tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

Food Irradiation is a process ready for use. Backing that statement are more than four decades of research and development that have provided the extensive knowledge necessary to proceed confidently with its utilization. Research done since 1943 has demonstrated that treating foods with irradiation can provide considerable advantages: preserves foods; decontaminates food; controls maturation; alters chemical composition for quality improvement; produces no toxic residues in foods; maintains full nutritive value of foods; and maintains sensory quality. Yet, despite government approval, the United States food industry has not made a significant use of food irradiation. This article also discusses government actions that have affirmed its safety and utility.

Urbain, W.M. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-07-01

392

Electronic noses in food analysis.  

PubMed

Gas sensor array technology combined with multivariate data processing methods as artificial neural network has been demonstrated to have a promising potential for rapid non-destructive analysis of food quality. It may be applicable in quality control of raw material, food processing or products. This technique cannot completely replace reference methods like the use of sensory panels as the technique requires a frequent calibration against some valid reference method. As with all new techniques there remain some basic problems to be solved concerning sample handling and instrumental performance. The emerging research activity in the development of chemical sensors including hardware and software combined with applied research makes it realistic to expect applications with this technique implemented on-line in the food industry in near future. In particular, promising applications on meat seem to be within the field of spoilage, off-flavor, sensory analysis and fermentation processes. PMID:11548159

Haugen, J E

2001-01-01

393

Food Signs in Radiology  

PubMed Central

Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis.

Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

2007-01-01

394

Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

Powrie, W. D.

1984-01-01

395

Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)|

Powrie, W. D.

1984-01-01

396

Maturation of sensory gating performance in children with and without sensory processing disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in sensory gating in children with and without neuropsychological disorders has resulted in a number of studies and the results regarding the developmental trajectory of sensory gating are inconsistent. We investigated the maturational course of sensory gating in samples of typically developing children and children with sensory processing deficits (SPD) and compared their performance to adults. Besides gating

Patricia L. Davies; Wen-Pin Chang; William J. Gavin

2009-01-01

397

Idiopathic sensory urgency and early interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory aspects of bladder function are not clearly defined, are poorly understood and imperfectly managed. Sensory urgency or bladder hypersensitivity often present with symptoms without an obvious cause (idiopathic sensory urgency). This article reviews the evidence that some of these symptomatic patients are actually suffering from early interstitial cystitis. The implications of such a possibility are discussed and the

M. I. Frazer

1993-01-01

398

USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

399

The Sensorial Production of the Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China temple festivals are replete with noises, sights, smells, tastes, and ambient sensory productions. When worshipers converge on a particular temple festival, they produce and experience honghuo (social heat or red-hot sociality). This native concept of honghuo highlights the importance of the social production of a heightened sensory ambience as well as the sensorial production of sociality. In co-producing

Adam Yuet Chau

2008-01-01

400

Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.  

PubMed

Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model. PMID:23035109

Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

2012-10-01

401

Individual Differences in Sensory Gating in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalographic measures consistently show that adults with sensory processing deficits (e.g., schizophrenia) have reduced abilities to gate out repetitive information. However, studies contrasting children with and without disabilities are inconclusive due to large within-group variances. Characterizing individual differences may lead to better understanding of sensory gating in children. We examined sensory gating in 22 children ages 5 to 10 years

Wen-Pin Chang; William J. Gavin; Patricia L. Davies

402

‘One Receptor’ Rules in Sensory Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the recent explosion in the characterization of different sensory systems, a general rule is emerging: only one type of sensory receptor molecule is expressed per receptor neuron. The visual system is no exception and, in most cases, photoreceptors express only one visual pigment per cell. However, the mechanisms underlying the exclusion of sensory receptors are poorly understood. As expression

Esteban O. Mazzoni; Claude Desplan; Arzu Çelik

2004-01-01

403

Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

Thompson, Carla J.

2011-01-01

404

Is it the plate or is it the food? Assessing the influence of the color (black or white) and shape of the plate on the perception of the food placed on it  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our perception of food is affected by the sensory properties of the food itself, together with our expectations about the food and other contextual factors. The latter are especially relevant in the restaurant setting, where appearance factors, such as the presentation of the food on the plates can dramatically affect food liking and consumption. However, to date, not much emphasis

Betina Piqueras-Fiszman; Jorge Alcaide; Elena Roura; Charles Spence

405

Food Allergens  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Department of Agriculture. Food Allergy Educational Materials - WIC Works Resource System; Food Allergies and Intolerances - Nutrition.gov. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodallergens

406

Stable Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Live Benthic Foraminifera from the Okhotsk Sea: Effects of Oceanography, Food Supply, and Microhabitat Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoceanographic studies use benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes as proxies for interpretations of numerous parameters such as past oceanic circulation patterns, food supply, primary productivity, etc. However, only few studies have used live (rose Bengal-stained) populations to reliably calibrate stable isotope characteristics to bottom water and sediment chemistry of the surrounding environment. We report results from a study in the Okhotsk Sea, a region characterized by extreme climatic and oceanographic settings. Not only does this marginal basin of the NW-Pacific experience the southermost extent of seasonal ice cover in the entire Northern Hemisphere, it also shows extremely high primary productivity. These boundary conditions lead many to consider the Okhotsk Sea both as a modern analog for ecological and oceanographic conditions in ocean basins during past and a sensitive recorder of potential future climate change in high latitudes. We compare results of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the most abundant taxa to oxygen isotopic compositions of bottom water and carbon isotopes of bottom water DIC, nutrient inventories from the water column and productivity proxy-data from sediment surface profiles (chlorines, TOC, biogenic opal). Multicorer samples from the upper 10 cm at 15 sites were taken from a variety of settings with water depths ranging from less than 100 m to more than 3200 m. Results obtained show a wide range of interspecific carbon isotope values exceeding 2 per mil variability within neighbouring samples. Minimum values occur in deep endobenthic groups like Globobulima spp., whereas species living in a relatively wide depth range like V. sadonica or U. peregrina exhibit intermediate values between -0.7 and -1 per mil. Most measurements conducted to address intraspecific variability remain within a narrow range of less than 0.4 per mil. However, we do observe vertical trends with both increasing and decreasing carbon isotope gradients within the sediment column. Obtained carbon isotope values from both living and dead specimen of widely used the Cibicides spp. group stay within the range of bottom water DIC, with no systematic negative phytodetritus- effect occuring throughout the sample set despite etremely pronounced seasonality in organic matter supply on most sites. Combined with a proxy-dataset about primary productivity, we give an evaluation of benthic-pelagic coupling and the impact on benthic species adaption to the pronounced subarctic seasonal cycle and the strongly pulsed food fluxes to the ocean floor.

Lembke-Jene, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Bubenshchikova, N.; Erlenkeuser, H.; Dullo, W.

2008-12-01

407

Stable Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Characteristics of Live Benthic Foraminifera from the Okhotsk Sea: Effects of Oceanography, Food Supply and Microhabitat Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoceanographic studies use benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes as proxies for interpretations of numerous parameters such as past oceanic circulation patterns, food supply, primary productivity, etc. However, only few studies have used live (rose Bengal-stained) populations to reliably calibrate stable isotope characteristics to bottom water and sediment chemistry of the surrounding environment. We report data from a study in the Okhotsk Sea, a region characterized by extreme climatic and oceanographic settings. Not only does this marginal basin of the NW-Pacific experience the southermost extent of seasonal ice cover in the entire Northern Hemisphere, it also shows extremely high primary productivity. These boundary conditions lead many to consider the Okhotsk Sea both as a modern analog for ecological and oceanographic conditions in ocean basins during past and a sensitive recorder of potential future climate change in high latitudes. We compare results of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the most abundant taxa to oxygen isotopic compositions of bottom water and carbon isotopes of bottom water DIC, nutrient inventories from the water column and productivity proxy-data from sediment surface profiles (chlorines, TOC, biogenic opal). Multicorer samples from the upper 10 cm at 15 sites were taken from a variety of settings with water depths ranging from less than 100 m to more than 3200 m. Results obtained show a wide range of interspecific carbon isotope values exceeding 2 per mil variability within neighbouring samples. Minimum values occur in deep endobenthic groups like Globobulima spp., whereas species living in a relatively wide depth range like V. sadonica or U. peregrina exhibit intermediate values between -0.7 and -1 per mil. Most measurements conducted to address intraspecific variability remain within a narrow range of less than 0.4 per mil. However, we do observe vertical trends with both increasing and decreasing carbon isotope gradients within the sediment column. Obtained carbon isotope values from both living and dead specimen of widely used the Cibicides spp. group stay within the range of bottom water DIC, with no systematic negative phytodetritus-effect occuring throughout the sample set despite etremely pronounced seasonality in organic matter supply on most sites. Combined with a proxy-dataset about primary productivity, we give an evaluation of benthic-pelagic coupling and the impact on benthic species adaption to the pronounced subarctic seasonal cycle and the strongly pulsed food fluxes to the ocean floor.

Lembke-Jene, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Bubenshchikova, N.; Erlenkeuser, H.

2009-04-01

408

Response Properties of a Sensory Hair Excised from Venus's Flytrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicellular sensory hairs were excised from the leaf of Venus's flytrap, and the sensory cells were identified by a destructive dissection tech- nique. The sensory layer includes a radially symmetrical rosette of 20-30 ap- parently identical cells, and the sensory cells are organized in a plane normal to the long axis of the sensory hair. The sensory cells were probed

R. M. Benolken; S. L. JACOBSON

1970-01-01

409

Pre-attentive auditory sensory processing in autistic spectrum disorder. Are electromagnetic measurements telling us a coherent story?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory processing is a crucial underpinning of the development of social cognition, a function which is compromised in variable degree in patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). In this manuscript, we review some of the most recent and relevant contributions, which have looked at auditory sensory processing derangement in PDD. The variability in the clinical characteristics of the samples studied

Stefano Seri; Francesco Pisani; Jade N. Thai; Antonella Cerquiglini

2007-01-01

410

[Applications of 'quantitative sensory testing'].  

PubMed

Quantitative sensory testing (QST) consists of several non-invasive, standardised tests aimed at examining different aspects of the entire somatosensory nervous system. Important advantages of QST over existing supplementary tests such as electromyography are the ability to test the function of thin and unmyelinated nerve fibres as well as the subjective sensation of a somatosensory stimulus. QST is validated in diagnosing small fibre neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain. In scientific research, QST is useful in the study into pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and syndromes with sensory symptoms and in the evaluation of the effect of analgesic treatment on the function of the somatosensory nervous system. In the future, QST could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic test in more forms of neuropathy and in other clinical conditions such as chronic unexplained pain syndromes (e.g. fibromyalgia and whiplash-associated disorder. PMID:23369816

Verberne, Wouter R; Snijders, Tom J; Liem, K Seng; Baakman, Anne Catrien; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S

2013-01-01

411

Sensory perception in overdenture patients.  

PubMed

The discussion of overdentures has been confined to their capacity to use abutment teeth to improve neuromuscular control of mandibular movement. Use of overdentures has been favored often because of their mechanical advantages, but seldom because of the sensory role of the retained abutment teeth. Even though the retained teeth may be periodontally diseased, they still may provide sufficient support for the transmission of masticatory pressures and sufficient periodontal ligament receptors to initiate a jaw opening reflex. Whereas conflicting evidence shows that the periodontal nerve receptors play a role in mandibular positional sensibility (proprioception), pressure perception by the periodontal ligament remains a primary stimulus for the jaw opening reflex. Additional investigations will be essential to a complete understanding of the role of the periodontal ligament receptors. However, recognition of the importance of the periodontal ligament receptors to the overdenture patient as a source of sensory input is vital. PMID:1066472

Kay, W D; Abes, M S

1976-06-01

412

Enhanced sensory perception in synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous findings imply that synaesthetic experience may have consequences for sensory processing of stimuli that do not themselves\\u000a trigger synaesthesia. For example, synaesthetes who experience colour show enhanced perceptual processing of colour compared\\u000a to non-synaesthetes. This study aimed to investigate whether enhanced perceptual processing was a core property of synaesthesia\\u000a by contrasting tactile and colour sensitivity in synaesthetes who experience

Michael J. Banissy; Vincent Walsh; Jamie Ward

2009-01-01

413

Household consumer food safety study in Trinidad, West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been minimal research on consumer food safety knowledge, perception and food handling practices at homes in Trinidad, West Indies. Questions were asked on the demographic characteristics of 84 respondents, reporting of food - borne illness, hand washing practices, purchase of foods, separation of raw and cooked foods, cooking of foods, thawing and cooling of foods and consumption of

Marsha Surujlal; Neela Badrie

414

Apoptotic Death of Olfactory Sensory Neurons in the Adult Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory sensory neurons only live for about 1 month in most mammals. It is not fully understood whether the short life span of these neurons is due to necrotic death, or if these cells die by apoptosis. One characteristic of cells undergoing apoptotic cell death is internucleosomal DNA-fragmentation. We have used TdT-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) to detect cells

Maja-Lena Deckner; Mårten Risling; Jonas Frisén

1997-01-01

415

Robotic Arc Welding: Research in Sensory Feedback Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic arc welding and its dependence on sensory feed-back control for successful application is discussed. Problems unique to arc weld sensing are identified and sensor requirements are categorized as a function of welding design requirements, joint imperfections, weld shape deviations, and process characteristics. The two most prevalent approaches of weld sensing, i.e., optical and through-the arc sensing, are covered.

George E. Cook

1983-01-01

416

Managing sensory expectations concerning products and brands: Capitalizing on the potential of sound and shape symbolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the evidence demonstrating the existence of a variety of robust crossmodal correspondences between both sounds (phonetic speech sounds, tones, and other parameters of musical expression) and shapes, and the sensory attributes (specifically the taste, flavor, aroma, and oral-somatosensory attributes) of various foods and beverages is reviewed. The available research now clearly suggests that marketers can enhance their

Charles Spence

417

Multivariate analysis of the sensory changes in the dehydrated cowpea leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing of foods, especially dehydration is known to result in alteration of sensory and nutritional qualities. Cowpea leaves is one of the common leafy vegetables consumed in Kenya that contain high levels of pro-vitamin A compounds and has good carotene retention during processing. A tasting panel was trained using a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) test that was developed and used

Hudson Nyambaka; Janice Ryley

2004-01-01

418

Chemical and sensory properties of yam (Discorea alata) flour substituted with grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Yam flour (YMF) is an important staple food in the tropics but its utilization is limited by low nutrient and consumer acceptability. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of substituting yam flour with grain amaranth on chemical and sensory properties. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – YMF and grain amaranth flour (GAF) were prepared on a dry matter

S. O. Babalola; O. Taylor; A. O. Babalola; O. A. Ashaye

2007-01-01

419

Estimación de la vida útil fisicoquímica, sensorial e instrumental de queso crema bajo en calorías  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Useful life time studies are important to define the duration of food, and necessary for not overestimate or underestimate the real life time of the product. Objective. To determine the useful life time of low calories cream cheese under physic, che- mical and sensory terms. Materials and methods. With two fat substitutes (Z-trim and Paselli SA2) at three different

Francia Elena Valencia García; Leonidas de Jesús; Millán Cardona; Yamilé Jaramillo Garcés

420

Timing flickers across sensory modalities.  

PubMed

In tasks requiring a comparison of the duration of a reference and a test visual cue, the spatial position of test cue is likely to be implicitly coded, providing a form of a congruency effect or introducing a response bias according to the environmental scale or its vectorial reference. The precise mechanism generating these perceptual shifts in subjective duration is not understood, although several studies suggest that spatial attentional factors may play a critical role. Here we use a duration comparison task within and across sensory modalities to examine if temporal performance is also modulated when people are exposed to spatial distractors involving different sensory modalities. Different groups of healthy participants performed duration comparison tasks in separate sessions: a time comparison task of visual stimuli during exposure to spatially presented auditory distractors; and a time comparison task of auditory stimuli during exposure to spatially presented visual distractors. We found the duration of visual stimuli biased depending on the spatial position of auditory distractors. Observers underestimated the duration of stimuli presented in the left spatial field, while there was an overestimation trend in estimating the duration of stimuli presented in the right spatial field. In contrast, timing of auditory stimuli was unaffected by exposure to visual distractors. These results support the existence of multisensory interactions between space and time showing that, in cross-modal paradigms, the presence of auditory distractors can modify visuo-temporal perception but not vice versa. This asymmetry is discussed in terms of sensory perceptual differences between the two systems. PMID:19817148

Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Anna Maria; Oliveri, Massimiliano

2009-01-01

421

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...

422

Food additives  

MedlinePLUS

... food additives have to do with man-made ingredients that are added to foods, including: Antibiotics given to food producing animals Antioxidants in oily or fatty foods Artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, saccharine, and sodium cyclamate ...

423

Food Groups  

MedlinePLUS

Choose a Food Group MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

424

Who Buys Local Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a national survey of food shoppers, a Lancaster-Weinstein model is estimated using probit analysis to investigate the characteristics of local food buyers. Because there is no standard for what “local food†is, consumer research is used to define the term fairly narrowly as buying from farmers’ markets, buying directly from farmers, and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) membership.

Lydia Zepeda; Jinghan Li

2006-01-01

425

Insulin, cGMP, and TGF-beta signals regulate food intake and quiescence in C. elegans: a model for satiety.  

PubMed

Despite the prevalence of obesity and its related diseases, the signaling pathways for appetite control and satiety are not clearly understood. Here we report C. elegans quiescence behavior, a cessation of food intake and movement that is possibly a result of satiety. C. elegans quiescence shares several characteristics of satiety in mammals. It is induced by high-quality food, it requires nutritional signals from the intestine, and it depends on prior feeding history: fasting enhances quiescence after refeeding. During refeeding after fasting, quiescence is evoked, causing gradual inhibition of food intake and movement, mimicking the behavioral sequence of satiety in mammals. Based on these similarities, we propose that quiescence results from satiety. This hypothesized satiety-induced quiescence is regulated by peptide signals such as insulin and TGF-beta. The EGL-4 cGMP-dependent protein kinase functions downstream of insulin and TGF-beta in sensory neurons including ASI to control quiescence in response to food intake. PMID:18316030

You, Young-jai; Kim, Jeongho; Raizen, David M; Avery, Leon

2008-03-01

426

Pulsed Light Treatments for Food Preservation. A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers demand high-quality processed foods with minimal changes in nutritional and sensory properties. Nonthermal methods\\u000a are considered to keep food quality attributes better than traditional thermal processing. Pulsed light (PL) is an emerging\\u000a nonthermal technology for decontamination of food surfaces and food packages, consisting of short time high-peak pulses of\\u000a broad spectrum white light. It is considered an alternative to

Gemma Oms-Oliu; Olga Martín-Belloso; Robert Soliva-Fortuny

2010-01-01

427

Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of foods by fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology. Fermentation ensures not only increased shelf life and microbiological safety of a food but also may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria because of their unique metabolic characteristics are involved in many fermentation

Elizabeth Caplice; Gerald F Fitzgerald

1999-01-01

428

Improving the palatability of salt-reduced food using dried bonito stock.  

PubMed

The characteristic flavors, with the exception of umami, of dried bonito stock not only enhanced saltiness but also improved palatability, namely the acceptability, of salt-reduced foods. However, the respective effects of odorants and tastants of dried bonito stock on palatability have yet to be fully explained. Thus, the effect of dried bonito stock aroma on saltiness enhancement and palatability improvement in salt-reduced food was evaluated by sensory assessment. Probit analysis indicated that aromas of the stocks, arabushi and karebushi, did not affect the intensity of saltiness. However, the test sample with aromas of dried bonito stocks was significantly more palatable than the reference sample. The effects of the taste of dried bonito stock were also evaluated. Probit analysis indicated that enhanced saltiness was not observed in the MSG solution but was observed with the dried bonito stocks, when controlled for aroma. These results suggest that saltiness enhancement by dried bonito stock was caused by the characteristic taste (excluding umami) of dried bonito stock, while its characteristic aroma and umami were involved in preventing the loss of palatability of a low-salt diet. Moreover, it was found that using a combination of karebushi and dried kelp, as material for making stock, could contribute effectively to the preparation of palatable salt-reduced foods in Japan. Invention of new seasonings for improving the palatability of salt-reduced foods could exploit these findings. PMID:19895497

Manabe, Mariko; Ishizaki, Sanae; Yoshioka, Tatsuhito; Oginome, Nozomu

2009-09-01

429

Relationships between digestibilities of food components and characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) introduced as the only cereal source in a broiler chicken diet.  

PubMed

1. The aim of the experiment was to establish relationships between chemical or physical characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) and digestibilities of food components in broiler chickens fed on wheat-based diets. Twenty-two wheat samples, each differing by their cultivar origin, were included at 550 g/kg in diets offered to male Ross broiler chicks. The other main ingredients were soya bean meal (340 g/kg) and rapeseed oil (68.5 g/kg). Diets were given as pellets. 2. In vitro viscosities of wheats measured as potential applied viscosity (PAV) or real applied viscosity (RAV) varied between 1.91 and 6.03, or between 0.95 and 3.81 ml/g (dry matter basis), respectively. Hardness of wheats varied between 17 (soft) and 95 (very hard), and lipase activity of wheats varied from 1 to 13.6 (relative scale). 3. PAV and RAV values were not significantly correlated with hardness. PAV and RAV values were correlated with (80:20) ethanol:water insoluble, water soluble arabinoxylans (r = 0.961, 0.932, respectively), with the amount of water retained by cell walls (r = 0.656, 0.492, respectively), and with lipase activity (r = 0.600, 0.532, respectively. 4. Hardness was correlated with ash (r = -0.484), nitrogen (r = 0.534), mean particle size of wheat flours (r = 0.631), and specific energy of pelleting (r = -0.574). 5. Wheat diets were evaluated in two assays with 3-week-old chicks, with 11 diets per assay. In each assay, a balance experiment was carried out using the total collection method. Growth performance was also measured during the balance experiment. 6. In vitro viscosity parameters were negatively correlated with diet AMEn (P < 0.05), lipid digestibility (P < 0.05) and, to a lesser extent, protein digestibility (P < 0.05). In vitro viscosity data were positively correlated with food:gain ratio (P < 0.05) and water loss parameters (P < 0.05), and were not significantly (P > 0.05) correlated with starch digestibility. 7. Wheat hardness-related parameters were correlated (P < 0.01) with individual starch digestibility (hardness, proportion of coarse particles in wheat flour, specific energy of pelleting: r = -0.273, -0.305, 0.212, respectively). 8. Wheat lipase activity was negatively correlated with individual lipid (r = -0.179; P < 0.05) and starch (r = -0.225; P < 0.01) digestibilities and with individual diet AMEn (r = -0.266; P < 0.001). Individual diet AMEn values were correlated (r = 0.175) with the values calculated by the EU AMEn prediction equation (Fisher and McNab, 1987). Among the correlations observed between the individual measured AMEn:EU predicted AMEn ratio and wheat parameters (P < 0.05), the correlation obtained with wheat lipase was the highest (r = -0.195). The correlations with lipase could be explained in part by strong correlations between lipase and in vitro viscosity parameters. PMID:12195800

Carré, B; Idi, A; Maisonnier, S; Melcion, J P; Oury, F X; Gomez, J; Pluchard, P

2002-07-01

430

Primary processes in sensory cells: current advances.  

PubMed

In the course of evolution, the strong and unremitting selective pressure on sensory performance has driven the acuity of sensory organs to its physical limits. As a consequence, the study of primary sensory processes illustrates impressively how far a physiological function can be improved, if the survival of a species depends on it. Sensory cells that detect single-photons, single molecules, mechanical motions on a nanometer scale, or incredibly small fluctuations of electromagnetic fields have fascinated physiologists for a long time. It is a great challenge to understand the primary sensory processes on a molecular level. This chapter points out some important recent developments in the search for primary processes in sensory cells that mediate touch perception, hearing, vision, taste, olfaction, as well as the analysis of light polarization and the orientation in the Earth's magnetic field. The data are screened for common transduction strategies and common transduction molecules, an aspect that may be helpful for researchers in the field. PMID:22399394

Frings, Stephan

2012-01-01

431

Determination of absolute threshold and just noticeable difference in the sensory perception of pungency.  

PubMed

Absolute threshold and just noticeable difference (JND) were determined for the perception of pungency using chili pepper in aqueous solutions. Absolute threshold and JND were determined using 2 alternative forced-choice sensory tests tests. High-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to determine capsaicinoids concentration in samples used for sensory analysis. Sensory absolute threshold was 0.050 mg capsaicinoids/kg sample. Five JND values were determined using 5 reference solutions with different capsaicinoids concentration. JND values changed proportionally as capsaicinoids concentration of the reference sample solutions changed. Weber fraction remained stable for the first 4 reference capsaicinoid solutions (0.05, 0.11, 0.13, and 0.17 mg/kg) but changed when the most concentrated reference capsaicinoids solution was used (0.23 mg/kg). Quantification limit for instrumental analysis was 1.512 mg/kg capsaicinoids. Sensory methods employed in this study proved to be more sensitive than instrumental methods. Practical Application: A better understanding of the process involved in the sensory perception of pungency is currently required because "hot" foods are becoming more popular in western cuisine. Absolute thresholds and differential thresholds are useful tools in the formulation and development of new food products. These parameters may help in defining how much chili pepper is required in a formulated product to ensure a perceptible level of pungency, as well as in deciding how much more chili pepper is required in a product to produce a perceptible increase in its pungency. PMID:22384966

Orellana-Escobedo, L; Ornelas-Paz, J J; Olivas, G I; Guerrero-Beltran, J A; Jimenez-Castro, J; Sepulveda, D R

2012-03-01

432

Rapid profiling of Swiss cheese by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and descriptive sensory analysis.  

PubMed

The acceptability of cheese depends largely on the flavor formed during ripening. The flavor profiles of cheeses are complex and region- or manufacturer-specific which have made it challenging to understand the chemistry of flavor development and its correlation with sensory properties. Infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technology for the rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput analysis of foods, providing information related to its composition and conformation of food components from the spectra. Our objectives were to establish infrared spectral profiles to discriminate Swiss cheeses produced by different manufacturers in the United States and to develop predictive models for determination of sensory attributes based on infrared spectra. Fifteen samples from 3 Swiss cheese manufacturers were received and analyzed using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The spectra were analyzed using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to build a classification model. The cheeses were profiled by a trained sensory panel using descriptive sensory analysis. The relationship between the descriptive sensory scores and ATR-IR spectra was assessed using partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. SIMCA discriminated the Swiss cheeses based on manufacturer and production region. PLSR analysis generated prediction models with correlation coefficients of validation (rVal) between 0.69 and 0.96 with standard error of cross-validation (SECV) ranging from 0.04 to 0.29. Implementation of rapid infrared analysis by the Swiss cheese industry would help to streamline quality assurance. PMID:19723228

Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Eliardi, A; Drake, M A; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Harper, W J

2009-08-01

433

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)|

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

434

A new pressure sensory mechanism for prey detection in birds: the use of principles of seabed dynamics?  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in birds. Red knots (Calidris canutus), sandpipers that occur worldwide in coastal intertidal areas, are able to detect their favourite hard-shelled prey even when buried in sand beyond the reach of their bills. In operant conditioning experiments designed to find out whether the birds could tell buckets containing only wet sand from buckets containing hard objects in wet sand, we show that they detect the presence not only of deeply buried live bivalves but also of stones. The latter finding virtually excludes, under experimental conditions, prey-detection mechanisms based on vision, acoustics, smell, taste, vibrational signals emitted by prey, temperature gradients and electromagnetic fields. A failure to discriminate between food and non-food trays with dry sand indicates that pore water is involved. Based on the presence of large arrays of Herbst corpuscles (sensory organs that can measure the acceleration due to changes in pressure), the specifics of foraging technique and the characteristics of sediments on which red knots feed, we deduce that the sensory mechanism involves the perception of pressure gradients that are formed when bills probe in soft sediments in which inanimate objects block pore water flow. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been described before. It is argued that repeated probing in soft, wet sediments allows red knots to induce a residual pressure build-up of sufficient strength to detect the pressure disturbance caused by a nearby object. The cyclic process of shaking loosely packed sand grains followed by gravitational settling into a closer packing, leads, owing to insufficient drainage of the sediment, to a locally increased pressure disturbance that is 'pumped up' at each shake.

Piersma, T.; Aelst, R. van; Kurk, K.; Berkhoudt, H.; Maas, L. R. M.

1998-01-01

435

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Smith, Sharyn; Lownie, Steven P.; Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.

2007-12-10

436

Sensory changes after tongue reduction for macroglossia.  

PubMed

We report sensory changes after tongue reduction by the Harada-Enomoto method for macroglossia in a 20-year-old woman with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Sensory tests were performed before surgery and 1 week and 2 months after surgery. We assessed the static tactile threshold, vibration sense, static 2-point discrimination, pain threshold, and taste. No sensory loss of any category tested was observed after tongue reduction. PMID:22901656

Matsumoto, Kanako; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Jinno, Shigeharu; Omura, Ken

2012-08-15

437

The CCHamide 1 receptor modulates sensory perception and olfactory behavior in starved Drosophila.  

PubMed

The olfactory response of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to food odor is modulated by starvation. Here we show that this modulation is not restricted to food odors and their detecting sensory neurons but rather increases the behavioral response to odors as different as food odors, repellents and pheromones. The increased behavioral responsiveness is paralleled by an increased physiological sensitivity of sensory neurons regardless whether they express olfactory or ionotropic receptors and regardless whether they are housed in basiconic, coeloconic, or trichoid sensilla. Silencing several genes that become up-regulated under starvation confirmed the involvement of the short neuropeptide f receptor in the starvation effect. In addition it revealed that the CCHamide-1 receptor is another important factor governing starvation-induced olfactory modifications. PMID:24067446

Farhan, Abu; Gulati, Jyotasana; Gro?e-Wilde, Ewald; Vogel, Heiko; Hansson, Bill S; Knaden, Markus

2013-09-26

438

The CCHamide 1 receptor modulates sensory perception and olfactory behavior in starved Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The olfactory response of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to food odor is modulated by starvation. Here we show that this modulation is not restricted to food odors and their detecting sensory neurons but rather increases the behavioral response to odors as different as food odors, repellents and pheromones. The increased behavioral responsiveness is paralleled by an increased physiological sensitivity of sensory neurons regardless whether they express olfactory or ionotropic receptors and regardless whether they are housed in basiconic, coeloconic, or trichoid sensilla. Silencing several genes that become up-regulated under starvation confirmed the involvement of the short neuropeptide f receptor in the starvation effect. In addition it revealed that the CCHamide-1 receptor is another important factor governing starvation-induced olfactory modifications.

Farhan, Abu; Gulati, Jyotasana; Gro?e-Wilde, Ewald; Vogel, Heiko; Hansson, Bill S.; Knaden, Markus

2013-01-01

439

Food images engage subliminal motivation to seek food.  

PubMed

Human eating behaviour is motivated and shaped by a complex interaction of internal drives such as hunger, external influences such as environmental cues and the sensory properties of food itself. Thus, as is demonstrated by the example of sensory-specific satiety (SSS), hunger may be reduced but particular foods (for example, desserts) retain their attraction and their ability to prompt consumption. In considering consumption, and overconsumption, it is therefore important to understand the interaction between internal and external drives to eat. Using grip force as a measure of motivation, we examined this interaction using an SSS manipulation. Critically, we sought to determine whether food stimuli would exert their influence even when they were subliminally presented (and thus not accessible to consciousness), and whether this unconscious influence would be flexibly updated in response to changes in food reward value with satiety. Demonstrating that the SSS effect remains when external stimuli are not consciously perceived, our data highlight the importance of even the most subtle, fleeting and even subliminal external events in shaping our motivation towards food. PMID:22143617

Ziauddeen, H; Subramaniam, N; Gaillard, R; Burke, L K; Farooqi, I S; Fletcher, P C

2011-12-06

440

From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for…

Lynch, Meghan

2012-01-01

441

Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-functioning Individuals with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological\\u000a basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire\\u000a and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two percent of autism participants\\u000a endorsed more sensory sensitivity items than any control participants.

Nancy J. Minshew; Jessica A. Hobson

2008-01-01

442

Barriers to Participation in the Food Stamp Program Among Food Pantry Clients in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial numbers of food pantry clients are eligible for food stamps but do not receive them. Background characteristics of 14317 food pantry users in Los Angeles were analyzed to provide information helpful in food stamp outreach programs. Ninety per- cent of food pantry users were living well below poverty level, 59% were Hispanic, and 44% were homeless. Only 15% of

Susan J. Algert; Michael Reibel; Marian J. Renvall

443

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC INFLUENCES ON THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD SAFETY IN FOOD SHOPPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceived importance of food safety is instrumental in the success of consumer information programs to promote public health and to market safer foods. This paper examines how the belief of a household's main meal planner about the importance of food safety in food shopping is influenced by the person's or the household's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Results suggest food

Chung-Tung Jordan Lin

1995-01-01

444

Food Authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food adulteration is as old as the marketing of food. Discusses the work of the Ministry of Food working party on food authenticity who are working to develop tests to enable some modern food frauds being perpetrated to be detected. Comments too on recent reports on detecting fraud in fish products, emanating from the Steering Group on Chemical Aspects of

D. C. E. Roberts

1994-01-01

445

Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents.  

PubMed

We learned previously that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) use affective processes to shift flavor preference, and cognitive associations (colors) to avoid food, subsequent to avoidance conditioning. We conducted three experiments with captive red-winged blackbirds to reconcile varied consequences of treated food with conditioned sensory cues. In Experiment 1, we compared food avoidance conditioned with lithium chloride (LiCl) or naloxone hydrochloride (NHCl) to evaluate cue-consequence specificity. All blackbirds conditioned with LiCl (gastrointestinal toxin) avoided the color (red) and flavor (NaCl) of food experienced during conditioning; birds conditioned with NHCl (opioid antagonist) avoided only the color (not the flavor) of food subsequent to conditioning. In Experiment 2, we conditioned experimentally naïve blackbirds using free choice of colored (red) and flavored (NaCl) food paired with an anthraquinone- (postingestive, cathartic purgative), methiocarb- (postingestive, cholinesterase inhibitor), or methyl anthranilate-based repellent (preingestive, trigeminal irritant). Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents avoided the color and flavor of foods experienced during conditioning; methyl anthranilate conditioned only color (not flavor) avoidance. In Experiment 3, we used a third group of blackbirds to evaluate effects of novel comparison cues (blue, citric acid) subsequent to conditioning with red and NaCl paired with anthraquinone or methiocarb. Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents did not avoid conditioned color or flavor cues when novel comparison cues were presented during the test. Thus, blackbirds cognitively associate pre- and postingestive consequences with visual cues, and reliably integrate visual and gustatory experience with postingestive consequences to procure nutrients and avoid toxins. PMID:20971129

Werner, Scott J; Provenza, Frederick D

2010-10-31

446

Extraction of Sensory Parameters from a Neural Map by Primary Sensory Interneurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the anatomical basis for the representation of stimulus parameters within a neural map and examine the extraction of these parameters by sensory interneurons (INs) in the cricket cercal sensory system. The extraction of air current direction by these sensory interneurons can be understood largely in terms of the anatomy of the system. There are two critical anatomical constraints.

Gwen A. Jacobs; Frederic E. Theunissen

2000-01-01

447

Differential Treatment of Toddlers with Sensory Processing Disorders in Relation to Their Temperament and Sensory Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major question posed in the current study was how temperament and sensory processing variables predict maternal behavior in interactions with toddlers identified as having sensory processing disorders. Partici- pants were 49 mothers and infants with sensory processing disorders. They were videotaped in a free-play interaction. Observations were coded using general interaction criteria and criteria of teaching behavior (mediation). A

Pnina S. Klein; Renat Laish-Mishali; Nurit Jaegermann

448

Physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh potato-based pasta (gnocchi).  

PubMed

This study dealt with the characterization and quality assessment of 3 kinds of potato-based pasta (gnocchi) made with steam-cooked, potato puree (water added to potato flakes), and reconstituted potatoes as main ingredients. The aim of the research was to evaluate the quality of the products in terms of physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics. Water content, water activity, color (L* and h°), and texture (texture profile analysis [TPA] and shearing test) were evaluated on both raw and cooked samples. In addition, on the recovered cooking water the loss of solid substances was determined and on the cooked gnocchi a sensory assessment was performed. Eight sensory attributes (yellowness, hardness, gumminess, adhesiveness, potato taste, sweet taste, flour taste, and sapidity) were investigated. Statistically significant differences among products were obtained, especially concerning textural properties. In fact, sample made with reconstituted potatoes and emulsifiers resulted the hardest (8.53 ± 1.22 N), the gummiest (2.90 ± 0.05 N), and the "chewiest" (2.90 ± 0.58 N) after cooking. Gnocchi made with potato puree or reconstituted potatoes significantly differed from the one produced with steam-cooked potatoes in terms of sensory properties (yellowness, hardness, flour taste, and sapidity). Pearson's correlation analysis between some textural instrumental and sensory parameters showed significant correlation coefficients (0.532 < r < 0.810). Score plot of principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed obtained results from physicochemical and sensory analyses, in terms of high discriminant capacity of colorimetric and textural characteristics. PMID:21535629

Alessandrini, Laura; Balestra, Federica; Romani, Santina; Rocculi, Pietro; Rosa, Marco Dalla

2010-10-15

449

Improving Oral Communication Skills of Students in Food Science Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communication activities about food evaluation were incorporated into food preparation courses. Oral reports replaced quizzes and an oral presentation replaced the final exam. A rubric was developed to help students evaluate ingredient functions, procedures, techniques, temperatures, and sensory evaluation. Oral report scores, self-evaluations,…

Reitmeier, C. A.; Svendsen, L. K.; Vrchota, D. A.

2004-01-01

450

Generation of Product Structures During Drying of Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensorial profile, nutritional quality, and rehydration properties of dried food depend on the structure of the dehydrated material. The molecular, supramolecular, micro-, and macrostructure is influenced by the applied drying conditions. During drying of foods, specific product structures can be generated. For instance, during drying at elevated temperatures, Maillard reactions are accelerated. Thus, peptides and reducing sugar molecules are

Stefan Palzer; Cedric Dubois; Alessandro Gianfrancesco

2012-01-01

451

Food Industry  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Shell Egg Producer Registration; Reportable Food Registry for Industry; Acidified and Low-Acid Canned Foods. -. -. Items of Interest. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/industry

452

Food Irradiation  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... radiation to food) is a technology that improves the safety and extends the ... Sterilized foods are useful in hospitals for patients with severely impaired ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

453

Food Allergies  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... FDA guidance for the food industry states that food allergen advisory statements, eg, “may contain [allergen]” or “produced in a facility that also uses ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

454

Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.  

PubMed

Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2011-10-20

455

Food allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical expression of food hypersensitivity or food allergy is usually the end-result of a series of complex interactions among ingested food antigens, the digestive tract, tissue mast cells and circulating basophils, and food antigen-specific IgE. In some well-defined, food-induced diseases, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, additional immunologic mechanisms are involved. An understanding of the nature of antigens in foods capable

Dean D. Metcalfe

1985-01-01

456

Sensory and physical alterations after mastectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little scientific investigation has been conducted to examine the sensory and physical alterations experienced by women after mastectomy. No researchers have systematically examined the changes over time. In this study women were interviewed at five time periods during the first year after mastectomy (at 1, 4, 7, 10, and 12 months). Sensory alterations such as “numbness”; and “tightness”; were categorized

Letha M. Lierman

1988-01-01

457

Multidivisional graduate education program in sensory engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory engineering is defined to be the science and technology of synthetic environments. This emerging discipline incorporates such technologies as virtual environments and virtual reality, data visualization, human sensory system modeling, human-machine interface, and perception, cognition and performance characterization. An educational curriculum requires basic science in the fields of computer science, electrical engineering, psychology, physiology, the biomedical sciences, and mathematics.

J. Sadowsky; R. W. Massof

1994-01-01

458

Comparison of sensory panels: a ring trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing requirement for sensory laboratories to show that the results they provide are repeatable by other laboratories has meant that ways of measuring this are required. One way to achieve this is to undertake ring trials on the same product, using different panels. If the sensory method is used correctly, and the panels are trained, the same conclusions should

Jean A McEwan

1999-01-01

459

Sensory Perception and Communication in Electric Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electric fish of the Amazon Basin and Nile River are equipped with electric-generator-receiver organs for both sensory perception and communication. These fish are superbly adapted for life in turbulent, muddy streams and, therefore, provide and excellent illustration of the input of environmental information into central nervous systems via specialized sensory windows.