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1

Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products  

PubMed Central

Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

2013-01-01

2

Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products.  

PubMed

Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

2013-03-01

3

Effect of Extrusion Cooking Conditions on the Nutritional Value, Storage Stability and Sensory Characteristics of a Maize-Based Snack Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of extrusion cooking on the nutritional value, storage stability and sensory characteristics of an indigenous maize-based snack food were examined. Samples were analysed for available lysine loss, protein dispersibility index (PDI), changes in total carbonyls (lipid oxidation) and sensory characteristics during storage (at 25, 30 and 40 °C). Extruded samples suffered low loss (10%) in available lysine but

O. O. Lasekan; W. Lasekan; M. A. Idowu; O. A. Ojo

1996-01-01

4

Effect of acid decontamination on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of beef strip loin steaks  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF ACID DECONTAMINATION ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF STRIP LOIN STEAKS A Thesis by Z IS CA DIXON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19B7 Major Subject: Food Scienc and Technology / / / EFFECT OF ACID DECONTAMINATION ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF STRIP LOIN STEAKS A Thesis by ZISCA DIXON Approved as to style...

Dixon, Zisca

2012-06-07

5

Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat meat batters and products with added carbohydrates  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF REDUCED-FAT MEAT BATTERS AND PRODUCTS WITH ADDED CARBOHYDRATES A Thesis by EMILIA MARIA ODIO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND SENSORY CHARACIERISTICS OF REDUCED-FAT MEAT BATTERS AND PRODUCTS WITH ADDED CARBOHYDRATES A Thesis by Emilia Maria Odio...

Odio, Emilia Maria

2012-06-07

6

Linking sensory characteristics to emotions: An example using dark chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual profile of an unbranded product arises via three sources of influence: (i) category effect – how consumers conceptualise the product category: (ii) sensory effect – how the sensory characteristics of a particular product differentiate it from other products in the category: (iii) liking effect – the disposition of consumers to the category and how much they like a

David M. H. Thomson; Christopher Crocker; Christopher G. Marketo

2010-01-01

7

Perceptual binding of sensory events: the inclusive characteristics model.  

PubMed

A conceptual model of a perceptual system is proposed, in which each neural level forms characteristics inclusive of the data held in the underlying level. As a result, the stimulus field can be expressed as a hierarchically ordered set of overlying sensory characteristics: from sensory features to higher inclusive characteristics binding sensory data to form whole images and scenes. Specific patterns of electrical activity reflecting inclusive characteristics are transmitted via reverse projections from the upper neural levels to the lower. This forms a downward excitation transmission cascade, stimulating those neural structures whose signals correspond to the higher inclusive characteristics of the given perceptual act. It is demonstrated that these mechanisms are in good agreement with experimental data obtained from psychological and neurophysiological studies and may support the binding of sensory events at all perceptual levels. PMID:14635989

Sergin, V Ya

2003-10-01

8

Using Sensory Properties of Food to Trigger Swallowing: A Review  

PubMed Central

The effect of food consistency on swallowing function has been widely studied, and it is well recognized that by delaying the flow of the food bolus, thickened liquids can help in the management of swallowing dysfunction. However, fewer studies have been carried out on the impact of food sensory properties and related liking on swallowing function. This paper reviews the role of taste, olfaction, and trigeminal perceptions on swallowing function and highlights the need for a deeper investigation of this aspect of patient diet modification. PMID:24915399

Loret, C.

2015-01-01

9

A new sensory vocabulary for crisp and crunchy dry model foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of a sensory descriptive panel for dry crusted, ‘crispy’ and ‘crunchy’ food products is presented. A sensory vocabulary comprising appearance, odour, taste, texture and sound is developed and the panel is trained to use these attributes. Model deep-fried battered snack and baked bread food products are used in the experiments with this panel. Special attention is given to

Garmt Dijksterhuis; Hannemieke Luyten; Rene de Wijk; Jos Mojet

2007-01-01

10

Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage  

PubMed Central

How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) 10 trained assessors evaluated the intensity of 30 coffee attributes after roasting at the 9th and 18th month of storage, respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed reduction in the sensory qualities of coffee beverages after 9 months storage of roasted coffee beans. The positive associated odor and flavor attributes decreased in their intensity, whereas the negative associated odor and flavor attributes increased significantly (P < 0.05). After 18 months of storage, the rancid odor and flavor which indicate oxidation processes were even considerably perceivable. Consequently, we can assume that changes in sensory quality characteristics of roasted and vacuum-packed coffee beans during storage are possible. PMID:24804030

Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen

2013-01-01

11

Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology.  

PubMed

Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology. PMID:22870229

Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D; Drea, Christine M

2012-01-01

12

Sight or Scent: Lemur Sensory Reliance in Detecting Food Quality Varies with Feeding Ecology  

PubMed Central

Visual and olfactory cues provide important information to foragers, yet we know little about species differences in sensory reliance during food selection. In a series of experimental foraging studies, we examined the relative reliance on vision versus olfaction in three diurnal, primate species with diverse feeding ecologies, including folivorous Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus coquereli), frugivorous ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata spp), and generalist ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We used animals with known color-vision status and foods for which different maturation stages (and hence quality) produce distinct visual and olfactory cues (the latter determined chemically). We first showed that lemurs preferentially selected high-quality foods over low-quality foods when visual and olfactory cues were simultaneously available for both food types. Next, using a novel apparatus in a series of discrimination trials, we either manipulated food quality (while holding sensory cues constant) or manipulated sensory cues (while holding food quality constant). Among our study subjects that showed relatively strong preferences for high-quality foods, folivores required both sensory cues combined to reliably identify their preferred foods, whereas generalists could identify their preferred foods using either cue alone, and frugivores could identify their preferred foods using olfactory, but not visual, cues alone. Moreover, when only high-quality foods were available, folivores and generalists used visual rather than olfactory cues to select food, whereas frugivores used both cue types equally. Lastly, individuals in all three of the study species predominantly relied on sight when choosing between low-quality foods, but species differed in the strength of their sensory biases. Our results generally emphasize visual over olfactory reliance in foraging lemurs, but we suggest that the relative sensory reliance of animals may vary with their feeding ecology. PMID:22870229

Rushmore, Julie; Leonhardt, Sara D.; Drea, Christine M.

2012-01-01

13

The Psycho-sensorial Value of the Food Products a Provocative Component in Purchase Decision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psycho-sensorial value is a specific, complex and determinant concept of the food products that is reflected by means of psycho-sensorial properties such as: shape, size, aspect, colour, taste, smell, fragrance, bouquet, density, clarity. The assessment of these properties by the consumers is decisive for the acceptance or the rejection of foods and classifies the products into savoury, or non-savoury,

Magdalena Bobe; Roxana Procopie

2011-01-01

14

Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

1983-01-01

15

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0-14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1×10 3-1.7×10 5 CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD 90) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D 10 doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, ?-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life.

Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, I.-hsin; Hsieh, Po-Chow

2006-05-01

16

Alliesthesia to food cues: Heterogeneity across stimuli and sensory modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative alliesthesia to olfactory and visual stimuli was assessed in 29 normal-weight women who, on alternate days, were either fasting or in a postprandial state after an ad libitum lunch. The participants were alternatively exposed to food and non-food pictures and odorants, and then rated for their hedonic appreciation (liking) and their desire to ingest (wanting) the evoked foods. While

Tao Jiang; Robert Soussignan; Daniel Rigaud; Sylviane Martin; Jean-Pierre Royet; Laurent Brondel; Benoist Schaal

2008-01-01

17

Quantification of sensory and food quality: the R-index analysis.  

PubMed

The accurate quantification of sensory difference/similarity between foods, as well as consumer acceptance/preference and concepts, is greatly needed to optimize and maintain food quality. The R-Index is one class of measures of the degree of difference/similarity, and was originally developed for sensory difference tests for food quality control, product development, and so on. The index is based on signal detection theory and is free of the response bias that can invalidate difference testing protocols, including categorization and same-different and A-Not A tests. It is also a nonparametric analysis, making no assumptions about sensory distributions, and is simple to compute and understand. The R-Index is also flexible in its application. Methods based on R-Index analysis have been used as detection and sensory difference tests, as simple alternatives to hedonic scaling, and for the measurement of consumer concepts. This review indicates the various computational strategies for the R-Index and its practical applications to consumer and sensory measurements in food science. PMID:19723222

Lee, Hye-Seong; van Hout, Danielle

2009-08-01

18

Sensory exploitation as an evolutionary origin to nuptial food gifts in insects.  

PubMed

Nuptial food gifts given by males to females at mating are widespread in insects, but their evolutionary origin remains obscure. Such gifts may arise as a form of sensory trap that exploits the normal gustatory responses of females, favouring the selective retention of sperm of gift-giving males. I tested this hypothesis by offering foreign food gifts, synthesized by males of one cricket species, to females of three non-gift-giving species. Females provisioned with novel food gifts were 'fooled' into accepting more sperm than they otherwise would in the absence of a gift. These results support the hypothesis that nuptial food gifts and post-copulatory female mating preferences coevolve through a unique form of sensory exploitation. PMID:10722214

Sakaluk, S K

2000-02-22

19

Sensory exploitation as an evolutionary origin to nuptial food gifts in insects.  

PubMed Central

Nuptial food gifts given by males to females at mating are widespread in insects, but their evolutionary origin remains obscure. Such gifts may arise as a form of sensory trap that exploits the normal gustatory responses of females, favouring the selective retention of sperm of gift-giving males. I tested this hypothesis by offering foreign food gifts, synthesized by males of one cricket species, to females of three non-gift-giving species. Females provisioned with novel food gifts were 'fooled' into accepting more sperm than they otherwise would in the absence of a gift. These results support the hypothesis that nuptial food gifts and post-copulatory female mating preferences coevolve through a unique form of sensory exploitation. PMID:10722214

Sakaluk, S K

2000-01-01

20

Sensory and chemical characteristics of ground goat meat products  

E-print Network

. 41 6 Trained sensory panel scores of feeling factors, tastes, and aflertastes for plain goat meat loaves aerobically stored at 4'C for 0, 3, or 6 days. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7 Trained sensory panel scores of texture attributes for plain goat... taste ratings were similar. There are no published studies documenting the relationship between the flavor intensity of goat meat and its acceptability as rated by consumers, nor has the ability of consumers to differentiate goat meat &om beef been...

Myers, Cheri Elizabeth

2012-06-07

21

Sensory exploitation as an evolutionary origin to nuptial food gifts in insects  

E-print Network

Sensory exploitation as an evolutionary origin to nuptial food gifts in insects Scott K. Sakaluk at mating are widespread in insects, but their evolutionary origin remains obscure. Such gifts may arise, synthesized by males of one cricket species, to females of three non- gift-giving species. Females provisioned

Sakaluk, Scott

22

Carcass characteristics, composition, physico-chemical, microbial and sensory quality of emu meat.  

PubMed

1. In order to investigate whether emu meat is a potential red meat alternative, this work was carried out with the objective of studying the carcass characteristics, proximate composition, physico-chemical and microbial characteristics and sensory attributes of emu meat. 2. Carcass characteristics clearly indicate that emus are a significant source of lean meat, fat, skin and edible by-products and these findings confirm earlier reports. 3. Proximate composition of emu meat indicated higher protein and ash content and lower fat, total lipids and cholesterol content than meat from other meat animals. 4. The pH, water holding capacity, collagen content and solubility, protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter and Warner-Bratzler shear force values of emu meat are similar to the earlier reports for meats from other food animals. 5. Emu meat is dark, cherry red in colour with significantly higher myoglobin content and the myoglobin is more prone to oxidation as evidenced by higher initial metmyoglobin percentage. The initial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values and free fatty acids percentage in emu meat were higher than those in meats from other species. 6. Sensory evaluation of cooked emu meat curry revealed highly acceptable scores relative to goat meat curry, the most preferred meat in India. 7. The study shows the potential of emu meat as a new source of low fat, quality meat proteins. However, more studies are required to elucidate the effect of age, sex, muscles, pre-slaughter and post-slaughter factors on different carcass and meat quality characteristics. PMID:23731092

Naveena, B M; Sen, A R; Muthukumar, M; Girish, P S; Praveen Kumar, Y; Kiran, M

2013-06-01

23

Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef stock containing glutathione Maillard reaction products prepared at various conditions.  

PubMed

The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup samples containing 9 types of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs produced under different reaction conditions on the flavor of the beef soup. The sensory characteristics of the beef stocks were examined using descriptive analysis. In consumer testing, 50 consumers evaluated the overall acceptability and flavor intensities of beef odor, salty taste, beef flavor, and seasoning flavor in the beef soup samples. It was found that the reaction conditions, including sugar type and pH, affected the sensory characteristics of the beef stock containing the GMRPs. The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 7 were characterized with strong beef flavor, chestnut flavor, and cooked rice flavor. However, the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 (XM7) was significantly stronger in beef-related sensory characteristics than the GMRPs reacted with glucose or fructose at pH 7 (GM7 and FM7). The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 3 had strong acid-related attributes whereas the GMRPs reacted at pH 11 exhibited strong sulfur-related attributes and a bitter taste. Overall, the beef soup containing XM7, which was perceived as having a strong beef odor and flavor, was rated the highest consumer acceptability score. This suggests that XM7 has feasibility as a flavor enhancer. To elucidate its effectiveness further, it is required to apply XM7 in various food systems at varying levels and to compare its flavor enhancing effects with other flavor enhancers such as monosodium L-glutamate in future studies. Practical Application: This study characterized sensory attributes of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) reacted under various conditions and evaluated their potential as a flavor enhancer by examining consumer acceptability of beef stock containing the GMRPs. This study showed that the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 had strong 71 beef flavor and the highest consumer acceptability score. The results of this study will provide valuable information for understanding sensory aspect of flavors generated by Maillard reaction of GSH and sugars, since most studies on Maillard reaction focused on chemical reactions. Also, the outcome of this study will help flavor and food industries' efforts to develop a new flavor enhancer for use in a variety of processed food products. PMID:21535706

Kwon, G Y; Hong, J H; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

2011-01-01

24

Sensory-specific satiety is impervious to the tasting of other foods with its assessment.  

PubMed

Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) refers to the reduction in pleasantness of a food with its consumption relative to other unconsumed foods. In a typical SSS paradigm, the participants receive a range of food items to taste and evaluate and then one of the foods is consumed ad libitum until satiation. After the consumption of the test food, all the foods (including the test food) are then again tasted and evaluated. If SSS is the result of habituation this evaluation of the test food after its consumption would be subject to dishabituation (i.e. recovery of SSS) if the other unconsumed foods are evaluated first. To examine whether this is the case a total of 57 participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Test Food First (TFF; n=28) or Test Food Last (TFL; n=29). We hypothesized that group TFF would show stronger SSS than TFL. We found clear indication of SSS, but the degree of SSS did not differ between the two groups (F[1,55]<1). This finding suggests that SSS is unaffected by the sequence of tasting food items with its assessment. The potential implications for understanding SSS in terms of habituation are discussed. PMID:20566398

Havermans, Remco C; Siep, Nicolette; Jansen, Anita

2010-10-01

25

Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in certain microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory parameters of kefir were studied during refrigerated storage. Kefir batches were prepared using 1% and 5% added kefir grains, and samples for analysis were taken 24 h after inoculation and then after 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage at 5±1 °C. After fermentation for 24 h after inoculation, lactobacilli and

A. Irigoyen; I. Arana; M. Castiella; P. Torre; F. C. Ibáñez

2005-01-01

26

Irradiated luncheon meat: microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life of luncheon meat, packs were exposed to doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kGy in a 60Co package irradiator. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperatures (1–4°C). Microbial population, chemical changes and sensory properties were evaluated every 2 weeks during 14 weeks of storage. The results

M Al-Bachir; A Mehio

2001-01-01

27

Hedonic impact, or `liking,' is a critical aspect of reward. Food and sex, for example, are potent sensory pleasures  

E-print Network

Hedonic impact, or `liking,' is a critical aspect of reward. Food and sex, for example, are potent pleasure may not always be beneficial. Rewards with large hedonic impact (e.g., junk food) may often sensory pleasures with liked hedonic impact, and it is widely acknowledged that the `liking' of food

Berridge, Kent

28

An inverse relationship between decoration and food colour preferences in satin bowerbirds does not support the sensory drive hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male bowerbirds collect and decorate their bowers with coloured objects that influence female choice. A recent version of the sensory drive hypothesis claims that female food colour preferences have driven the evolution of female preferences for the colour of male display traits. This hypothesis predicts a positive correlation between male display and food colour preferences. A positive correlation between food

Gerald Borgia; Jason Keagy

2006-01-01

29

Should healthy eating programmes incorporate interaction with foods in different sensory modalities? A review of the evidence.  

PubMed

Commercial interventions seeking to promote fruit and vegetable consumption by encouraging preschool- and school-aged children to engage with foods with 'all their senses' are increasing in number. We review the efficacy of such sensory interaction programmes and consider the components of these that are likely to encourage food acceptance. Repeated exposure to a food's flavour has robust empirical support in terms of its potential to increase food intake. However, children are naturally reluctant to taste new or disliked foods, and parents often struggle to provide sufficient taste opportunities for these foods to be adopted into the child's diet. We therefore explore whether prior exposure to a new food's non-taste sensory properties, such as its smell, sound, appearance or texture, might facilitate the food's introduction into the child's diet, by providing the child with an opportunity to become partially familiar with the food without invoking the distress associated with tasting it. We review the literature pertaining to the benefits associated with exposure to foods through each of the five sensory modalities in turn. We conclude by calling for further research into the potential for familiarisation with the visual, olfactory, somaesthetic and auditory properties of foods to enhance children's willingness to consume a variety of fruits and vegetables. PMID:22264626

Dazeley, Paul; Houston-Price, Carmel; Hill, Claire

2012-09-01

30

Learning Sensory Modalities and Educational Characteristics of Greek Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Dyslexia has been shown to affect the learning ability of individuals who experience difficulties in processing written information and developing effective study skills. Method: In the present study we assessed the relationship between dyslexia, the learning sensory modalities and educational characteristics in 20 dyslexic and 40…

Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Ekaterini; Zenakou, Elena; Kouvava, Sofia

2010-01-01

31

Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown Hydroponically at Ambient and  

E-print Network

04ICES-136 Biomass, Flavonol Levels and Sensory Characteristics of Allium cultivars Grown growth chambers to evaluate the effect of elevated CO2 (1200 ppm) versus ambient CO2 (400 ppm) on biomass planting (dap). Regardless of cultivar or dap, plants grown at elevated CO2 had greater biomass

Paré, Paul W.

32

Local Food Systems in Florida: Consumer Characteristics and Economic Impacts  

E-print Network

Local Food Systems in Florida: Consumer Characteristics and Economic Impacts By Alan W. Hodges, Ph, Food and Resource Economics Department PO Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32611 awhodges@ufl.edu; tel. 352 ....................................................................................................................................................................15 Food Purchasing Patterns

Florida, University of

33

Effect of oxygen on volatile and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon during secondary shelf life.  

PubMed

The oxidation of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during secondary shelf life was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) and sensory tests, with the support of multivariate statistical analyses such as OPLS-DA loading plot and PCA score plot. Four different oxidation conditions were established during a 1-week secondary shelf life. Samples collected on a regular basis were analyzed to determine the changes of volatile chemicals, with sensory characteristics evaluated through pattern recognition models. During secondary shelf life the separation among collected samples depended on the degree of oxidation in wine. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl decanoate, nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, 2-furancarboxylic acid, dodecanoic acid, and phenylacetaldehyde were determined to be associated with the oxidation of the wine. PCA sensory evaluation revealed that least oxidized wine and fresh wine was well-separated from more oxidized wines, demonstrating that sensory characteristics of less oxidized wines tend toward "fruity", "citrous", and "sweetness", while those of more oxidized wines are positively correlated with "animal", "bitterness", and "dairy". The study also demonstrates that OPLS-DA and PCA are very useful statistical tools for the understanding of wine oxidation. PMID:21954937

Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Bo-Sik; Park, Hyun-Jin

2011-11-01

34

Physiology&Behavior,Vol.29. pp. 409-417.PergamonPress, 1982.Printedin the U.S.A. How Sensory Properties of Foods Affect  

E-print Network

determine the amount of food eaten. Food intake Pleasantness Sensory-specific satiety Satiety Variety to a decrease in the pleasantness of that food after it is eaten, and to enhanced food intake if that property of chocolates, either simultaneously or successively, did not affect food intake compared with consump- tion

Rolls, Edmund T.

35

SWIMMING PATTERN AS AN INDICATOR OF THE ROLES OF COPEPOD SENSORY SYSTEMS IN THE RECOGNITION OF FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

The roles of copepod sensory systems in the recognition of food were investigated using the 'Bugwatcher', a video-computer system designed to track and describe quantitatively the swimming patterns of aquatic organisms. Copepods acclimated, or non-acclimated to a chemosensory sti...

36

Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

2012-01-01

37

[Effect of growing location on sensory properties and nutritional characteristics of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)].  

PubMed

The present research consisted of an evaluation of five genotypes harvested from six growing locations. Variables of sensory properties, cooking quality and nutritional characteristics were determined. Genotype with longer cooking time was BV which also present hard shell. Those of shorter cooking time were FMB and PV. In Calera frosting during pod filling, drastically reduced cooking time, sensory properties and tannins. Taking this location off, the analysis show little effect of genotype or growing location in regard to determined properties. The genotypes with lower content of tannins were PV and BV. The content of lectins were in general low for all samples and the diferences between genotypes were not statistically significant (p<0.05) but they did for growing location. PMID:8729253

Castellanos, J Z; Guzman-Maldonado, H; de Mejia, E G; Acosta-Gallegos, J A

1995-03-01

38

Sensory activity and food intake : a study of input-output relationships in two phytophageous insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships were studied between sensory responses and behavioural responses to the same stimulus. Sensory and behavioural reactions were both quantified according to stimulus type and concentration. Correlations between relative sensory responses and relative behavioural responses were determined to obtain some insight into processing in the central nervous system.The larvae of two phytophagous insects were studied: Pieris brassicae L. and

F. Blom

1978-01-01

39

A genetic approach for investigating vagal sensory roles in regulation of gastrointestinal function and food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by the vagus nerve plays important roles in regulation of GI function and feeding behavior. This innervation is composed of a large number of sensory pathways, each arising from a different population of sensory receptors. Progress in understanding the functions of these pathways has been impeded by their close association with vagal efferent,

Edward Alan Fox

2006-01-01

40

A genetic approach for investigating vagal sensory roles in regulation of gastrointestinal function and food intake.  

PubMed

Sensory innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by the vagus nerve plays important roles in regulation of GI function and feeding behavior. This innervation is composed of a large number of sensory pathways, each arising from a different population of sensory receptors. Progress in understanding the functions of these pathways has been impeded by their close association with vagal efferent, sympathetic, and enteric systems, which makes it difficult to selectively label or manipulate them. We suggest that a genetic approach may overcome these barriers. To illustrate the potential value of this strategy, as well as to gain insights into its application, investigations of CNS pathways and peripheral tissues involved in energy balance that benefited from the use of gene manipulations are reviewed. Next, our studies examining the feasibility of using mutations of developmental genes for manipulating individual vagal afferent pathways are reviewed. These experiments characterized mechanoreceptor morphology, density and distribution, and feeding patterns in four viable mutant mouse strains. In each strain a single population of vagal mechanoreceptors innervating the muscle wall of the GI tract was altered, and was associated with selective effects on feeding patterns, thus supporting the feasibility of this strategy. However, two limitations of this approach must be addressed for it to achieve its full potential. First, mutation effects in tissues outside the GI tract can contribute to changes in GI function or feeding. Additionally, knockouts of developmental genes are often lethal, preventing analysis of mature innervation and ingestive behavior. To address these issues, we propose to develop conditional gene knockouts restricted to specific GI tract tissues. Two genes of interest are brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which are essential for vagal afferent development. Creating conditional knockouts of these genes requires knowledge of their GI tract expression during development, which little is known about. Preliminary investigation revealed that during development BDNF and NT-3 are each expressed in several GI tract regions, and that their expression patterns overlap in some tissues, but are distinct in others. Importantly, GI tissues that express BDNF or NT-3 are innervated by vagal afferents, and expression of these neurotrophins occurs during the periods of axon invasion and receptor formation, consistent with roles for BDNF or NT-3 in these processes and in receptor survival. These results provide a basis for targeting BDNF or NT-3 knockouts to specific GI tract tissues, and potentially altering vagal afferent innervation only in that tissue (e.g., smooth muscle vs. mucosa). Conditional BDNF or NT-3 knockouts that are successful in selectively altering a vagal GI afferent pathway will be valuable for developing an understanding of that pathway's roles in GI function and food intake. PMID:16677865

Fox, Edward Alan

2006-06-30

41

Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

2010-01-01

42

Consumer characteristics influencing fast food consumption in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turkish fast food industry has grown rapidly since the 1980s. There are now more than 700 fast food restaurants in Turkey. Using the data from a consumer survey, this study investigates the relationship between consumers’ fast food consumption frequency and their socio-economic\\/demographic characteristics and attitudes. Using Chi-square test of independence, the study compares consumers’ fast food consumption frequencies of

Cuma Akbay; Gulgun Yildiz Tiryaki; Aykut Gul

2007-01-01

43

Wholesale food markets with `Chinese characteristics'  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a growing interest in the role of the Chinese wholesale food markets in agricultural development and the food distribution system. Despite this attention, very little is known about these institutions and the way that they operate. In this paper, some case studies are used to develop the profile of a number of important wholesale markets. After an

Fredoun Z. Ahmadi-Esfahani; Christopher G. Locke

1998-01-01

44

A novel approach to assess temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity technique to diverse Iberian meat products.  

PubMed

Although dynamic sensory techniques such as time-intensity (TI) have been applied to certain meat products, existing knowledge regarding the temporal sensory perception of muscle foods is still limited. The objective of the present study was to apply TI to the flavour and texture perception of three different Iberian meat products: liver pâté, dry-cured sausages ("salchichon") and dry-cured loin. Moreover, the advantages of using dynamic versus static sensory techniques were explored by subjecting the same products to a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). TI was a suitable technique to assess the impact of composition and structure of the three meat products on flavour and texture perception from a dynamic perspective. TI parameters extracted from the TI-curves and related to temporal perception enabled the detection of clear differences in sensory temporal perception between the meat products and provided additional insight on sensory perception compared to the conventional static sensory technique (QDA). PMID:23973565

Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia

2014-01-01

45

Effect of low dose irradiation on the microbial and sensory characteristics of fresh pork loins. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The effects of low dose (100 krad) irradiation on microflora, sensory characteristics, and development of oxidative rancidity of vacuum packed pork loins was investigated after irradiation and during low temperature (4/sup 0/C) storage up to 21 days. Irradiation reduced numbers of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobic bacteria (P<0.01), and staphylococci (P<0.05), with the effect on mesophiles and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms the greatest. Effect of irradiation on sensory characteristics of pork loin was minimal with no detectable differences between irradiated and nonirradiated pork after 14 days of storage. Irradiation of pork did not affect cooking loss or thiobarbituric acid values. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Olson, D.G.; Rust, R.E.; Kraft, A.A.; Walker, H.W.

1986-05-01

46

Retail Wastelands: Characteristics and Influential Factors of Food Deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying a census tract-level definition of food deserts, areas with limited access to affordable and healthy food, ERS has identified over 6,500 food desert tracts in the U.S. based on data from the 2000 Census of the Population. In this report, we examine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of these tracts to see how they differ from other tracts. We

Paula Dutko; Michele Ver Ploeg; Tracey L. Farrigan

2012-01-01

47

Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Characteristics and Children's Food Insecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of work documents the influence of neighborhood environments on child health and well-being. Food insecurity is likely linked to neighborhood characteristics via mechanisms of social disadvantage, including access to and availability of healthy foods and the social cohesion of neighbors. In this paper, we utilize restricted, geo-coded data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, which allows us

Rachel T. Kimbro; Justin T. Denney; Sarita Panchang

2012-01-01

48

Functional characteristics of cowpea flours in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionality of legume flours as food ingredients is influenced by genetic and agronomic factors, storage, composition and\\u000a processing. The processing of flour from dry cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) is a simpler technology than that utilized for oilseed flour production. A defatting step is not required because the crude\\u000a fat content of cowpeas is low (?1–2%); however, decortication (seed coat removal) is

K. H. McWatters

1990-01-01

49

Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention: The role of positive sensory experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

European consumers are skeptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if positive sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence

Klaus G. Grunert; Tino Bech-Larsen; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Øydis Ueland; Annika Åström

2004-01-01

50

Comparison of Pork Quality and Sensory Characteristics for Antibiotic Free Yorkshire Crossbreds Raised in Hoop Houses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare pork characteristics and to determine consumer acceptability of pork chops from antibiotic free Yorkshire crossbreds sired by Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY), Tamworth (TY) or Yorkshire (YY) boars and reared in hoop houses. The experiments were conducted at the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCA&TSU) Farm in Greensboro, NC and the Cherry Research Station Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) Alternative Swine Unit in Goldsboro, NC (source of antibiotic free Yorkshire sows used at both places). Twenty-four sows were artificially inseminated at each location in each of three trials. Litters were weaned at 4 wks old, and reared within deep-bedded outdoor hoop houses. To compare pork characteristics, 104 randomly selected animals were harvested at a USDA-inspected abattoir at approximately 200 d of age. Variables measured included pH, color score, L*, a*, b*, marbling score, drip loss, hot carcass weight, backfat thickness (BF), loin muscle area (LMA), and slice shear force. Sensory panel tests were also conducted at two time periods. The data was analyzed with GLM in SAS 9.01 including location, trial, and sire breed as fixed effects. Backfat thickness, LMA, color score and a* were different among breeding groups (p<0.05). The LBY pigs had thicker backfat and smaller LMA than the other breed types. The TY and YY had less backfat than all other breed groups. Color score was lower for YY than BY and LBY but intermediate for TY. The a* was lower for TY than other breeds except LBY which was intermediate. For one sensory panel test, YY pork was more preferred overall as well as for juiciness and texture compared to BY and LBY (p<0.05), but no impact of breed type was noted for the other test, with values similar for BY, LBY, TY and YY pork. This information may help small farmers make decisions about breed types to use for outdoor production. PMID:25049527

Whitley, N.; Hanson, D.; Morrow, W.; See, M. T.; Oh, S.-H.

2012-01-01

51

Interaction of non-meat ingredients on sensory characteristics and chemical characteristics of pork loin chops during vacuum-packaged refrigerated storage  

E-print Network

(0, 1, 2, 3 and 4%), potassium lactate (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4%) and sodium diacetate (0, .05, .10, .15 and .20%) on the color, sensory characteristics, package purge, water holding capacity, and pH of pork chops stored in vacuum-packaging for 0, 7, 14, 21...

Ford, Tara K.

2005-11-01

52

Seeing with sound? exploring different characteristics of a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device.  

PubMed

Sensory substitution devices convert live visual images into auditory signals, for example with a web camera (to record the images), a computer (to perform the conversion) and headphones (to listen to the sounds). In a series of three experiments, the performance of one such device ('The vOICe') was assessed under various conditions on blindfolded sighted participants. The main task that we used involved identifying and locating objects placed on a table by holding a webcam (like a flashlight) or wearing it on the head (like a miner's light). Identifying objects on a table was easier with a hand-held device, but locating the objects was easier with a head-mounted device. Brightness converted into loudness was less effective than the reverse contrast (dark being loud), suggesting that performance under these conditions (natural indoor lighting, novice users) is related more to the properties of the auditory signal (ie the amount of noise in it) than the cross-modal association between loudness and brightness. Individual differences in musical memory (detecting pitch changes in two sequences of notes) was related to the time taken to identify or recognise objects, but individual differences in self-reported vividness of visual imagery did not reliably predict performance across the experiments. In general, the results suggest that the auditory characteristics of the device may be more important for initial learning than visual associations. PMID:22208131

Brown, David; Macpherson, Tom; Ward, Jamie

2011-01-01

53

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of whey protein hydrolysates generated at different total solids levels.  

PubMed

Whey protein hydrolysates were generated at different total solids (TS) levels (50-300 g/l) using the commercially available proteolytic preparation Debitrase HYW20, while enzyme to substrate ratio, pH and temperature were maintained constant. Hydrolysis proceeded at a faster rate at lower TS reaching a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 16.6% at 300 g TS/l, compared with a DH of 22.7% at 50 g TS/l after 6 h hydrolysis. The slower breakdown of intact whey proteins at high TS was quantified by gel-permeation HPLC. Reversed-phase (RP) HPLC of hydrolysate samples of equivalent DH (approximately 15%) generated at different TS levels indicated that certain hydrophobic peptide peaks were present at higher levels in hydrolysates generated at low TS. Sensory evaluation showed that hydrolysates with equivalent DH values were significantly (P < 0.0005) less bitter when generated at 300 g TS/l (mean bitterness score = 25.4%) than hydrolysates generated at 50 g TS/l (mean bitterness score = 39.9%). A specific hydrophobic peptide peak present at higher concentrations in hydrolysates generated at low TS was isolated and identified as beta-lactoglobulin f(43-57), a fragment having the physical and chemical characteristics of a bitter peptide. PMID:15909678

Spellman, David; O'Cuinn, Gerard; FitzGerald, Richard J

2005-05-01

54

Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.  

PubMed

The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p?

Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

2014-09-01

55

A Comparison of the Nutritional Value, Sensory Qualities, and Food Safety of Organically and Conventionally Produced Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. William Lockeretz, Professor, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 12155 Given the significant increase in consumer interest in organic food products, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic produce. Studies comparing foods derived from organic and conventional growing systems were assessed for

Diane Bourn; John Prescott

2002-01-01

56

Effect of product composition on sensory characteristics of acidified milk products  

E-print Network

The sensory properties of sour creams with different concentrations of milk fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), and diacetyl were evaluated by consumer taste panel. The data was analyzed by Response Surface Methodology to find combinations of ingredients...

Lai, Pao-Hsueh

2012-06-07

57

VOLATILE, TASTE COMPONENTS AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL BRAND OYSTER SAUCES: COMPARISONS AND RELATIONSHIPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to compare the volatile compounds, the taste compounds and the sensory attributes; also to determine the relationship between them in four commercial brand oyster sauces. The volatile compounds were extracted and detected by Headspace- Solid phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The sensory evaluation was carried out by 11 trained panelists. In

Trang H. D Nguyen; Xi Chang Wang

2011-01-01

58

Differentiation of French virgin olive oil RDOs by sensory characteristics, fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory and chemical characteristics (fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions) of the five registered designations of origin (RDOs) of French virgin olive oils (‘Aix-en-Provence’, ‘Haute-Provence’, ‘Nyons’, ‘Nice’ and ‘Vallée des Baux de Provence’) (n=539) were determined over a six year harvest period. The evaluation of fruity, bitter and pungent oils was insufficient for describing the RDOs, so it was necessary

Denis Ollivier; Jacques Artaud; Christian Pinatel; Jean-Pierre Durbec; Michel Guérère

2006-01-01

59

Cognitive, sensory, and psychosocial characteristics in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.  

PubMed

Forty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ages 2-61 years were given a neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive, sensory, and behavioral functioning. These tests included the Wechsler scales of intelligence, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency Test, D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS Sorting Test, Wide Range Achievement Test: Math and Reading Subtests, Purdue Pegboard, The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale, and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Parent Rating Scale. On the age appropriate Wechsler scale, the mean Verbal Comprehension was 81 (n = 36), Working Memory was 81 (n = 36), Perceptual Reasoning was 78 (n = 24) and Full Scale IQ was 75 (n = 26). Memory for a word list (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) was in the average range with a mean of 89 (n = 19). Fine motor speed was slow on the Purdue with mean scores 3-4 standard deviations below norms. All subjects were microsmic on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Of these 42 patients, only 6 were able to complete all auditory and visual tests; 52% were unable to complete the visual tests due to impaired vision. A wide range of behavioral issues were endorsed on questionnaires given to parents. Most had social skill deficits but no pattern of either externalizing or internalizing problems. We identify a characteristic neuro-behavioral profile in our cohort comprised of reduced IQ, impaired fine-motor function, and decreased olfaction. PMID:24194441

Brinckman, Danielle D; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Blumhorst, Catherine; Biesecker, Leslie G; Sapp, Julie C; Johnston, Jennifer J; Wiggs, Edythe A

2013-12-01

60

Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, ?-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of ?-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel. PMID:25319201

Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Sipos, László

2014-11-01

61

Role of sensory cues on food searching behavior of a captive Manta birostris (Chondrichtyes, Mobulidae).  

PubMed

This study reports on the first experimental research designed specifically for Manta birostris behavior. The authors attempted to learn about the feeding behavior and environmental cues influencing this behavior, as well as general cognitive ability. The preconditioned Manta's ability to identify food, on the basis of a fraction of the ordinary food signal complex, was tested. The opening of cephalic fins was considered a good indicator of feeding motivation level. The study subject animal used its biological clock to predict time and also associated a specific location with food, suggesting an ability to build up a cognitive map of its environment. Both underwater visual stimuli and olfactory stimuli had a very intense effect on food searching behavior over a 30 m distance, in contrast to visual signs from above the water surface. In addition, although an underwater visual signal resulted in a more intense response than from an olfactory signal, the specimen did not discriminate between different objects tested on the basis of visual sensation. It could therefore be suggested that food searching behavior of Mantas are governed by triggering stimuli, including smell or visual recognition, and modulated by the cognitive spatial map stored in their long-term memory. These findings will hopefully prove useful while devising protecting policies in the natural environment and/or while keeping these animals in captivity. Zoo Biol 27:294-304, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360625

Ari, Csilla; Correia, João P

2008-07-01

62

Occurrence, sensory impact, formation, and fate of damascenone in grapes, wines, and other foods and beverages.  

PubMed

Among plant-derived odorants, damascenone is one of the most ubiquitous, sometimes occurring as an apparent natural product but more commonly occurring in processed foodstuffs and beverages. It has been widely reported as a component of alcoholic beverages, particularly of wines made from the grape Vitis vinifera . Although damascenone has one of the lowest ortho- and retronasal detection thresholds of any odorant, its contribution to the sensory properties of most products remains poorly understood. Damascenone can be formed by acid-catalyzed hydrolyses of plant-derived apocarotenoids, in both aglycon and glycoconjugated forms. These reactions can account for the formation of damascenone in some, but not all, products. In wine, damascenone can also be subject to degradation processes, particularly by reaction with sulfur dioxide. PMID:21866982

Sefton, Mark A; Skouroumounis, George K; Elsey, Gordon M; Taylor, Dennis K

2011-09-28

63

Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) powder on chicken breast meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) was investigated on meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results showed that treatment of aqueous extract obtained from sprouted mung powder and mung powder have beneficial effect (P?sensory scores observed for marinated meat samples than control groups. PMID:24966439

Yogesh, K; Ali, Jamshed

2014-07-01

64

Sensory information and associative cues used in food detection by wild vervet monkeys.  

PubMed

Understanding animals' spatial perception is a critical step toward discerning their cognitive processes. The spatial sense is multimodal and based on both the external world and mental representations of that world. Navigation in each species depends upon its evolutionary history, physiology, and ecological niche. We carried out foraging experiments on wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, to determine the types of cues used to detect food and whether associative cues could be used to find hidden food. Our first and second set of experiments differentiated between vervets' use of global spatial cues (including the arrangement of feeding platforms within the surrounding vegetation) and/or local layout cues (the position of platforms relative to one another), relative to the use of goal-object cues on each platform. Our third experiment provided an associative cue to the presence of food with global spatial, local layout, and goal-object cues disguised. Vervets located food above chance levels when goal-object cues and associative cues were present, and visual signals were the predominant goal-object cues that they attended to. With similar sample sizes and methods as previous studies on New World monkeys, vervets were not able to locate food using only global spatial cues and local layout cues, unlike all five species of platyrrhines thus far tested. Relative to these platyrrhines, the spatial location of food may need to stay the same for a longer time period before vervets encode this information, and goal-object cues may be more salient for them in small-scale space. PMID:24045849

Teichroeb, Julie A; Chapman, Colin A

2014-05-01

65

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

2012-08-01

66

Rheological properties and sensory characteristics of set-type soy yogurt.  

PubMed

The study examined chemical composition and rheological and sensory properties of probiotic soy yogurt during 28 day storage at 4 degrees C. Soymilk supplemented with 2% (w/v) inulin or 1% (w/v) each of raffinose and glucose was used as a base for soy yogurt manufacture. Viability of probiotic organisms and their metabolic activity measured as production of organic acids and aldehyde content responsible for beany flavor, as well as rheological and sensory properties of soy yogurt, were examined. Inulin or raffinose/glucose supplementation in soymilk increased the bacterial population by one log cycle and the amount of lactic acid. Probiotic bacteria metabolized more aldehyde than yogurt culture and substantially reduced the beaniness in soy yogurt as determined by sensory evaluation. The probiotic soy yogurts showed more viscous and pseudoplastic properties than the control soy yogurts, but the sensory evaluation results showed preference for the control soy yogurts which were slightly less viscous. Control soy yogurt provided better mouth feel than probiotic soy yogurts. PMID:17979230

Donkor, Osaana N; Henriksson, A; Vasiljevic, T; Shah, N P

2007-11-28

67

Local Food Systems in North-Central Florida: Consumer Characteristics and Economic Impacts  

E-print Network

Local Food Systems in North-Central Florida: Consumer Characteristics and Economic Impacts By Alan University of Florida, Food and Resource Economics Department awhodges@ufl.edu; tel. 352-294-7674 February 6 ....................................................................................................................................................................13 Food Purchasing Patterns

Florida, University of

68

Compositional and sensory characteristics of three native sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman.  

PubMed

Three native sun-dried date varieties grown in Oman, namely, Fard, Khasab, and Khalas, were examined for their proximate composition, sugars, dietary fiber, minerals, and organic acids as well as sensory characteristics. The study was conducted on sun-dried dates due to their higher consumption compared with fresh dates. All results are expressed as mean value +/- standard deveiation (n = 3) on a fresh weight basis except for sensory analysis. Date varieties were found to be low in fat and protein, but rich in sugars, dietary fiber, and minerals. They were found to be a good source of energy (278-301 kcal/100 g), due to the high sugar content. Total sugar content ranged from 56.1 to 62.2 g/100 g, being lowest in Khasab and highest in Khalas. Total dietary fiber content of dates varied from 6.26 to 8.44 g/100 g, of which 84-94% was insoluble fiber. Twelve minerals were studied in dates, among which the major minerals were potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Date varieties were also found to be an excellent source of selenium (ranging from 0.36 to 0.53 mg/100 g). Six organic acids were positively identified, among which malic acid predominated in all varieties. Differences (p < 0.05) in the contents of dietary fiber, organic acids, and certain minerals were observed among the three date varieties examined. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that among the nine sensory attributes studied, only the attributes color and desirability were rated as being of significantly (p < 0.01) higher intensity in Fard than in Khasab, whereas flesh firmness was lower (p < 0.01). Thus, these results suggest that although all three dates serve as a good source of vital nutrients, the Khalas variety, which is considered as premium quality, had significantly higher contents of sugar and selenium and a significantly higher energy value than the other varieties studied. PMID:16159190

Al-Farsi, Mohamed; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Morris, Anne; Baron, Mark; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2005-09-21

69

The effect of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of pork loin chops  

E-print Network

and Subcutaneous Fat on the Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Pork Loin Chops. (May 1988) Mara Kaye Boxer B. S. , Colorado State University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. Vanderzant Dr. K. S. Kubena Pork loin chops of high, intermediate... and low intramuscular fat were trimmed free of subcutaneous fat and then packaged and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film for 0-6 days or in high oxygen barrier (HOB) film for 0-28 days at 4t1oC. In general, degr ee of marbling had no significant...

Boxer, Mara Kaye

2012-06-07

70

Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ?PD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier seeds, while grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of < -1.5 MPa versus vines with MD > -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a continuous relationship between physiological water status (stress) and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point that may be related to early season PD in controlling grape development as well as composition. Soils analyses revealed the preferred fruit was on vines in areas where soils were shallower rather than any definitive characteristic related to particle size distribution or nutrient availability, suggesting that in this vineyard soil available water is the major controlling factor.

Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

2014-05-01

71

Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products--A Review  

PubMed Central

Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elzbieta; Bieganska-Marecik, Roza; Kidon, Marcin

2014-01-01

72

Chemical, microbiological, textural, color, and sensory characteristics of pressed ewe milk cheeses with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during ripening.  

PubMed

Adding saffron to dairy products represents an innovative practice to introduce them to niche markets. This paper represents a contribution to this field, as few studies have evaluated the influence of this spice on general aspects and ripening parameters of cheese. In this work, pasteurized ewe milk pressed cheeses with saffron were made to study compositional, microbiological, color, textural, and sensory characteristics in relation to saffron concentration and ripening time. The main changes were observed on sensory characteristics and color. In addition, compositional, textural, and microbiological changes could be observed; among them, saffron cheeses were firmer and more elastic but less prone to fracture. A remarkable result that could lead to further studies is that saffron addition slightly slowed down growth of total and lactic acid bacteria. This resulted in a slightly lower rate of pH decrease during pressing and, as a consequence, lower salt and water content. Compositional differences were not evident by the end of the ripening period. PMID:22818440

Licón, C C; Carmona, M; Molina, A; Berruga, M I

2012-08-01

73

Transglutaminase cross-linking effect on sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of Maillard reaction products from soybean protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

To improve the yield of Maillard peptides, a microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was used to increase the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in soybean protein hydrolysates by using a cross-linking reaction. The sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of corresponding Maillard Reaction Products (MSPC) was then evaluated. After cross-linking treatment the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in protein hydrolysates and the yield of Maillard peptides increased by 21.19% and 8.71%, respectively, which contributed to the improved mouthfulness of MSPC. The bitter amino acids were significantly decreased and the umami acids were markedly increased in MSPC. Volatile compounds identified by GC-MS analysis showed that the content of the important meaty flavour compounds (such as 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide) of MSPC were dramatically higher than that of MRPs from uncross-linking peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation, it was confirmed that MTGase cross-linking improved the flavour Characteristics and did not affect the antioxidant activity of MSPC. PMID:23017405

Song, Na; Tan, Chen; Huang, Meigui; Liu, Ping; Eric, Karangwa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin; Jia, Chengsheng

2013-01-01

74

Protective action of Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 on vacuum-packaged raw beef. Effect on sensory and structural characteristics.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 was examined for its effectiveness as protective culture in the biopreservation of vacuum-packaged fresh beef stored during 60 days at 2 degrees C. For this purpose, L. curvatus CRL705, producer of lactocin 705 and lactocin AL705, was inoculated on the meat surface (10(6)cfu g(-1)). This microorganism became the dominating population throughout the storage period controlling the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta and spoilage lactic acid bacteria naturally present on the meat. When the microstructural characteristics of the meat were evaluated using light microscopy, beef samples inoculated with the bioprotective culture showed a 10days delay for the appearance of tissue degradation signs. Sensory analysis demonstrated that beef samples treated with L. curvatus CRL705 only developed an "acid" off-flavor after 60 days of refrigerated storage, and no undesirable off-odors were found. Therefore, inoculation with this bacteriocinogenic strain would provide an additional hurdle to improve storage life of refrigerated vacuum-packaged beef without affecting its sensory and structural characteristics. PMID:20416799

Castellano, P; González, C; Carduza, F; Vignolo, G

2010-07-01

75

Inferences about the location of food in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in two sensory modalities.  

PubMed

The authors tested the ability of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to make inferences about hidden food. In Experiment 1, we showed the content of 2 boxes, 1 of which was baited (visual condition, VC) or we shook both boxes producing noise from the baited box (auditory condition, AC). Seven subjects (out of 8) were above chance in the VC, whereas only 1 was above chance in AC. During treatment, by manipulating empty and filled objects subjects experienced the relation between noise and content. When tested again, 7 capuchins were above chance in the VC and 3 in AC. In Experiment 2, we gave visual or auditory information only about the empty box and, consequently, successful choice implied inferential reasoning. All subjects (out of 4) were above chance in the VC, and 2 in the AC. Control tests ruled out the possibility that success resulted from simply avoiding the shaken noiseless box, or from the use of arbitrary auditory information. Similar to apes (Call, 2004), capuchins were capable of inferential reasoning. PMID:18489231

Sabbatini, Gloria; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

2008-05-01

76

Comparison of six crossbred lamb types: sensory, physical and nutritional meat quality characteristics.  

PubMed

The effect of crossbreeding on lamb meat quality was examined on the M. longissimus dorsi and M. semimembranosus of South African lamb breed combinations. The lambs were sired by Dormer (D) and Suffolk (S) rams and born to Merino (M), Dohne Merino (DM) and SA Mutton Merino (SAMM) ewes to give six breed combinations. Ratings of sensory attributes on the M. semimembranosus of the different lamb breed combinations were obtained from a trained descriptive panel. The moisture, total lipids, protein, ash, mineral content and fatty acid composition of the M. semimembranosus were also obtained. Physical parameters measured on the M. longissimus dorsi were: pH(48), drip loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Breed did not have a significant effect (P>0.05) on the sensory quality of lamb, except for D×SAMM lambs which only showed a significantly higher (P?0.05) initial juiciness compared to S×M. However, breed had a significant effect on pH(48), WBS, protein content and the fatty acid and mineral composition. PMID:22063769

Hoffman, L C; Muller, M; Cloete, S W P; Schmidt, D

2003-12-01

77

Microbial and sensory characteristics of camel meat during refrigerated storage as affected by gamma irradiation.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to assess the microbiological profile of fresh camel meat and the possibility of improving microbial quality and extending the refrigerated storage life of meat by using low-dose gamma irradiation. Camel meat samples were subjected to 0 (control), 1.5 and 3 kGy doses and stored at 3 +/- 1 degrees C. the microbial and sensory attributes were evaluated. Exposure to 1.5 kGy dose significantly reduced the initial counts of Aerobic Plate Counts (APCs), psychrophilic bacteria, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococci. Moreover, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli were below the detection levels. Irradiation at 3 kGy significantly reduced the initial counts of APCs LAB and Enterococci by 99.5, 93.5 and 93.9%, respectively. Pseudomonas, coliforms, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and E. coli were not found at dose of 3 kGy during entire storage period, also psychrophilic bacteria and molds and yeasts were below the detection levels during 6 days of storage. This study shows that irradiation had no significant effects on the sensory attributes of camel meat. Refrigerated shelf-life of the meat irradiated at 1.5 and 3 kGy were 15 and 21 days, respectively, compared to 7 days for non-irradiated controls. PMID:18814652

Fallah, Aziz A; Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Rahnama, Mohammad

2008-03-15

78

Effect of storage time and temperature on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial apricot jam.  

PubMed

Storage conditions are important factors for jam quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability and sensorial profile of apricot jam during storage for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. For that purpose, special attention was paid to total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), colour, free amino acids (FAA), total sugars (TS) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The decreasing parameter for jam at the end of storage under 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C, respectively, were 16.81%, 34.30% and 56.01% for FAA, and 5.52%, 9.02% and 7.46% for TS; likewise, the increasing were 19.81%, 22.94% and 25.07% for TA, 3.15%, 4.08% and 4.47% for TSS, 15.96%, 112.76% and 150% for HMF. Jam stability was better at 5 °C than 25 °C and 37 °C. The interaction time-temperature factor had significant effects on pH, TS, FAA and HMF, unlike TA, TSS and sensorial profile. PMID:24128444

Touati, Noureddine; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Aguayo, Encarna; Louaileche, Hayette

2014-02-15

79

Sensory and physical characteristics of enhanced vs. non-enhanced meat from mature cows.  

PubMed

Semitendinosus and longissimus muscles were removed from both sides of 10 mature Simmental cows ranging from 10 to 13 yrs. After aging for 7 days, one side was injected with a commercial salt mixture to a pumped gain of 15%; the other side served as control. Muscles were aged for a further 7 days before analysis. Injection significantly increased meat pH by 0.3 units in longissimus samples and reduced shear force values from about 50N in control samples to 37N for longissimus samples and 42N for semitendinosus samples. Injection also increased juiciness and tenderness scores by approximately 1unit when assessed by a trained sensory panel using 1-8 scales. Beef flavour, however, was more atypical in injected samples, which were also more salty. Injected samples were also pinker during storage and after cooking. PMID:22061543

Hoffman, L C

2006-02-01

80

Influence of salt content and processing time on sensory characteristics of cooked "lacón".  

PubMed

The influence of salt content and processing time on the sensory properties of cooked "lacón" were determined. "Lacón" is a traditional dry-cured and ripened meat product made in the north-west of Spain from the fore leg of the pig, following a similar process to that of dry-cured ham. Six batches of "lacón" were salted with different amounts of salt (LS (3 days of salting), MS (4 days of salting) and HS (5 days of salting)) and ripened during two times (56 and 84 days of dry-ripening). Cured odour in all batches studied, red colour and rancid odour in MS and HS batches, flavour intensity in MS batch and fat yellowness, rancid flavour and hardness in the HS batch were significantly different with respect to the time of processing. Appearance, odour, flavour and texture were not significantly affected by the salt content (P>0.05). However, the saltiness score showed significant differences with respect to the salt levels in all studied batches (56 and 84 days of process). The principal component analysis showed that physicochemical traits were the most important ones concerning the quality of dry-cured "lacón" and offered a good separation of the mean samples according to the dry ripening days and salt level. PMID:21168978

Purriños, Laura; Bermúdez, Roberto; Temperán, Sara; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

2011-04-01

81

Sensory, physical and chemical characteristics of cooked ham manufactured from rapidly chilled and earlier deboned M. semimembranosus.  

PubMed

Effects of rapid chilling of carcasses (at -31°C in the first 3h of chilling, and then at 2-4°C) and earlier deboning (8h post-mortem), compared to rapid (till 24h post-mortem) and conventional chilling (at 2-4°C, till 24h post-mortem), on quality characteristics of pork M. semimebranosus and cooked ham were investigated. Quality measurements included pH value, colour (CIEL a b values) and total aerobic count of M. semimebranosus, as well as sensory (colour, juiciness, texture, and flavour), physical (pH value, colour - CIEL a b values and texture - Warner-Bratzler shear and penetration forces) and chemical (protein, total fat, and moisture content) characteristics of cooked ham. The cooked ham was manufactured from pieces of M. semimebranosus with ultimate lightness (CIEL value) lower than 50. Rapid chilling and earlier deboning significantly increased quantity of M. semimebranosus desirable for cooked ham manufacturing. Earlier start of pork fabrication did not affect important quality characteristics of cooked ham. PMID:22910801

Tomovi?, Vladimir M; Jokanovi?, Marija R; Petrovi?, Ljiljana S; Tomovi?, Mila S; Tasi?, Tatjana A; Ikoni?, Predrag M; Sumi?, Zdravko M; Soji?, Branislav V; Skaljac, Snežana B; Sošo, Milena M

2013-01-01

82

The Influence of Socio-Economic Characteristics on Food  

E-print Network

information presented in the media, has been shown to have a positive effect on market demand for food in the newspaper. The results also indicate that households with children, single individuals, and those over 65 of newly introduced food products (Senaur, 1991). Yet the effects of food marketing can greatly increase

Neimark, Alexander V.

83

Understanding school food service characteristics associated with higher competitive food revenues can help focus efforts to improve school food environments.  

PubMed

Many school food services sell extra foods and beverages, popularly referred to as “competitive foods,” in addition to USDA school meals. On the basis of national survey data, most competitive foods and beverages selected by students are of low nutritional value. Recent federal legislation will allow schools that participate in USDA school meal programs to sell competitive foods only if the food items they sell meet nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of limiting competitive foods on local school food service finances. However, national data indicate that only in a subset of schools do food services receive large amounts of revenues from competitive foods. These food services are typically located in secondary schools in more affluent districts, serving higher proportions of students who do not receive free or reduced price meals. Compared to other food services, these food services couple higher competitive food revenues with lower school meal participation. Increasing school meal participation could increase meal revenues to offset any loss of competitive food revenues. Replacing less-healthful competitive items with healthier options could also help maintain school food service revenues while improving the school food environment. Nationally consistent nutrition standards for competitive foods may encourage development and marketing of healthful products. PMID:22867067

Guthrie, Joanne F; Newman, Constance; Ralston, Katherine; Prell, Mark; Ollinger, Michael

2012-08-01

84

Contribution to aroma characteristics of mutton process flavor from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sheep bone protein assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry.  

PubMed

Changes in the aroma characteristics of mutton process flavors (MPFs) prepared from sheep bone protein hydrolysates (SBPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). Five attributes (muttony, meaty, roasted, mouthful, and simulate) were selected to assess MPFs. The results of DSA showed a distinct difference among the control sample MPF0 and other MPF samples with added SBPHs for different DHs of almost all sensory attributes. MPF5 (DH 25.92%) was the strongest in the muttony, meaty, and roasted attributes, whereas MPF6 (DH 30.89%) was the strongest in the simulate and roasted attributes. Thirty-six compounds were identified as odor-active compounds for the evaluation of the sensory characteristics of MPFs via GC-MS-O analysis. The results of correlation analysis among odor-active compounds, molecular weight, and DSA further confirmed that the SBPH with a DH range of 25.92-30.89% may be a desirable precursor for the sensory characteristics of MPF. PMID:23416288

Zhan, Ping; Tian, Honglei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liping

2013-03-15

85

Characteristics of bilateral hand function in individuals with unilateral dystonia due to perinatal stroke: sensory and motor aspects.  

PubMed

The authors assessed bilateral motor and sensory function in individuals with upper limb dystonia due to unilateral perinatal stroke and explored interrelationships of motor function and sensory ability. Reach kinematics and tactile sensation were measured in 7 participants with dystonia and 9 healthy volunteers. The dystonia group had poorer motor (hold time, reach time, shoulder/elbow correlation) and sensory (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) outcomes than the control group on the nondominant side. On the dominant side, only sensation (spatial discrimination, stereognosis) was poorer in the dystonia group compared with the control group. In the dystonia group, although sensory and motor outcomes were uncorrelated, dystonia severity was related to poorer stereognosis, longer hold and reach times, and decreased shoulder/elbow coordination. Findings of bilateral sensory deficits in dystonia can be explained by neural reorganization. Visual compensation for somatosensory changes in the nonstroke hemisphere may explain the lack of bilateral impairments in reaching. PMID:24396131

de Campos, Ana Carolina; Kukke, Sahana N; Hallett, Mark; Alter, Katharine E; Damiano, Diane L

2014-05-01

86

Sensory characteristics of chronic non-specific low back pain: a subgroup investigation.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that patients with chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) can be broadly classified based on clinical features that represent either predominantly a mechanical pain (MP) or non-mechanical pain (NMP) profile. The aim of this study was to establish if patients with CNSLBP who report features of NMP demonstrate differences in pain thresholds compared to those who report MP characteristics and pain-free controls. This study was a cross-sectional design investigating whether pressure pain threshold (PPT) and/or cold pain threshold (CPT) at three anatomical locations differed between patients with mechanical CNSLBP (n = 17) versus non-mechanical CNSLBP (n = 19 and healthy controls (n = 19) whilst controlling for confounders. The results of this study provide evidence of increased CPT at the wrist in the NMP profile group compared to both the MP profile and control subjects, when controlling for gender, sleep and depression (NMP versus MP group Odds Ratio (OR): 18.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5-133.1, p = 0.004). There was no evidence of lowered PPT at any site after adjustment for confounding factors. Those with an MP profile had similar pain thresholds to pain-free controls, whereas the NMP profile group demonstrated elevated CPT's consistent with central amplification of pain. These findings may represent different pain mechanisms associated with these patient profiles and may have implications for targeted management. PMID:24731602

O'Sullivan, Peter; Waller, Robert; Wright, Anthony; Gardner, Joseph; Johnston, Richard; Payne, Carly; Shannon, Aedin; Ware, Brendan; Smith, Anne

2014-08-01

87

Consumer attitudes toward GM food with hypothetical functional characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their introduction in the early 1990s, genetically modified organisms in agriculture tended to emphasize improved yield. Europeans, perceiving unacceptable risk and too little benefit, resoundingly disapproved of GMO use in agro-food processes. More recently, research has turned to developing products that use GMO components that better match consumer interest, including nutritionally enhanced foods, environmentally friendly crops, and other areas.

Floriana Marin; Sandra Notaro

2007-01-01

88

CONSUMER RESPONSE TO GMO FOODS: BRANDING, CERTIFICATION, AND CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two consumer choice models were developed using conjoint analysis to evaluate the effect of potential strategies to gain consumer acceptance of GMO foods. Results indicate that a government certification program would be more effective than the use of a familiar brand in assuring consumers of the safety of GMO foods.

Gregory A. Baker; Michael A. Mazzocco

2002-01-01

89

Chemical characteristics of arsenic in a marine food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various chemical forms of 74As accumulated from either water or food by the marine food chain [Fucus spiralis (L.)? Littorina littoralis (L.)?Nucella lapillus] have been separated and characterized. Arsenic components were separated by differential extraction followed by high-voltage paper electrophoresis\\/paper chromatography of the water-soluble fraction and thin-layer chromatography of the lipid-soluble fraction. The algae assimilates arsenic mainly (60%) as

D. W. Klumpp; P. J. Peterson

1981-01-01

90

A comparison of slice characteristics and sensory characteristics of bacon from immunologically castrated barrows with bacon from physically castrated barrows, boars, and gilts.  

PubMed

The objectives were to compare slice characteristics and sensory attributes of bacon from immunologically castrated (IC) barrows with bacon from other sexes using a trained sensory panel. Bacon was obtained for sensory evaluation from 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, trimmed and squared bellies (n = 180) of IC barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males (IM), and gilts were used. Data were analyzed as a general linear mixed model and pen (n = 48) served as the experimental unit. Treatment (sex or diet) was a fixed effect in all 3 experiments. In Exp. 2, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n = 96) from IC and PC barrows fed 0 or 30% or a withdrawal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) program when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose (25 wk of age) were used. In Exp. 3, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n = 96) from IC and PC barrows fed the same experimental diets as in experiment 2 but slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose (27 wk of age) were used. Data from Exp. 2 and 3 were analyzed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design and pen was the experimental unit. Bellies from all 3 experiments were processed using the same protocols. In Exp. 1, IM had the greatest (P < 0.0001) boar aroma and flavor scores among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for boar aroma or flavor. Intact males had the least (P < 0.0001) desirable cured bacon aroma and flavor among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for bacon aroma or flavor. There were no differences in bacon aroma or off-flavor between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Bacon from PC barrows was saltier (P < 0.01) than bacon from IC barrows when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose. There were no differences in bacon aroma, off-aroma, bacon flavor, or saltiness between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Total slice area of bacon slices from IC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose were less (P < 0.01) than PC barrows, but the differences diminished (P = 0.16) when slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose. Overall, panelists successfully detected boar odor and flavor in Exp. 1. Immunological castration was as effective as physical castration at eliminating boar aroma and boar flavor in bacon even when feeding differing DDGS feeding programs or when slaughtered at 5 or 7 wk after the second dose. PMID:25367526

Little, K L; Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Boler, D D

2014-12-01

91

Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose. PMID:20127544

Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

2010-04-01

92

Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging–food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC\\/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types:

Panagiota D. Zygoura; Evangelos K. Paleologos; Michael G. Kontominas

2011-01-01

93

Changes in the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations caused by ionizing radiation: Effect of food simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which the affinity of the surrounding medium for the migrant, as well as the packaging material, affects the specific migration characteristics of the latter. For this purpose, migration tests were conducted with vinylidene chloride copolymer (PVDC\\/PVC) in contact with the EU specified solvents simulating all food types:

Panagiota D. Zygoura; Evangelos K. Paleologos; Michael G. Kontominas

2011-01-01

94

Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.  

PubMed

The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (P<0.05; 0.70 log CFU/g) of Salmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (P<0.05) psychrotrophic growth. SDLA patties had more purge (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) subjective color scores. There were not large differences in sensory characteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05). PMID:23639886

Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

2013-09-01

95

The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1  

PubMed Central

Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ?10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when ?-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

2013-01-01

96

Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitterness and astringency are found in a variety of foods, including nuts, fruits, chocolate, tea, wine, and soymilk. In fruits and bever- ages, the taste of bitterness and the tactile sensation of astringency are elicited primarily by flavanol polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins). Variations in proanthocyanidin composition, such as polymer size, extent of galloylation, and formation of deriv- atives, affect

Isabelle Lesschaeve; Ann C Noble

97

CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR FOOD SAFETY ATTRIBUTES IN FRESH APPLES: MARKET SEGMENTS, CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS, AND MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has yielded conflicting results on consumer valuation of food safety characteristics. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to evaluate consumer responses to hypothetical apple products in a nationwide survey. Product characteristics include price, quality, pesticide use levels and the corresponding cancer risk, and type of government inspection. Consumers expressed a broad preference for reduced pesticide usage. Four

Gregory A. Baker

1999-01-01

98

Manipulating Digestion with Foods Designed to Change the Physical Characteristics of Digesta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore how foods can be designed to modulate digestion and to promote health by changing the physical properties of digesta. The physical characteristics of digesta are discussed along with their impact on the physiology of digestion with special reference to sites where these characteristics are likely to influence digestive efficiency. Evidence is reviewed regarding the effects of supplementation with

Roger G. Lentle; Patrick W. M. Janssen

2010-01-01

99

Effect of incorporation of mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) powder on quality characteristics of Papad (Indian snack food).  

PubMed

Papad is familiarly known as an Indian food adjunct or snack food. In this study, attempts have been made to increase the protein, minerals and crude fibre content of the papad with incorporation of Pleurotus sajor-caju powder to develop a novel snack food. Mushroom powder was added in different proportions with other ingredients of the papad and the prepared papad was subjected to physicochemical and sensorial analyses. Mushrooms pretreated with 1% potassium metabisulphite followed by whey treatment had better colour and reduced drying time. Drying at 50°C produced more amount of mushroom powder (350 ?) and had higher acceptability of rehydrated samples. The papad enriched with 20% mushroom powder showed increased values of protein (15.8%), minerals (38.87%) and crude fibre (218.18%) content and had maximum sensory score. Therefore, papad supplemented with oyster mushroom powder may help to reduce protein malnutrition, constipation and mineral deficiency disorders. PMID:22574961

Parab, D N; Dhalagade, J R; Sahoo, A K; Ranveer, R C

2012-11-01

100

Influence of oxygen exclusion and temperature on pathogenic bacteria levels and sensory characteristics of packed ostrich steaks throughout refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ostrich steaks (290) were obtained from Iliofibularis muscles. For microbiological and pH determinations, samples were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 11994 (80 steaks) or Escherichia coli ATCC 12806 (80), then air- or vacuum-packed and stored at either 4±1°C or 10±1°C. Analyses were carried out on days 0, 3, 6 and 9 of storage. For sensory evaluation, samples (130) were air-

Beatriz González-Montalvo; Rosa Capita; José Alfredo Guevara-Franco; Miguel Prieto; Carlos Alonso-Calleja

2007-01-01

101

Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with the Location of Food Stores and Food Service Places  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: Names and addresses of places to buy food in Mississippi, North Carolina, Maryland, and Minnesota were obtained from respective departments of health and agriculture. Ad- dresses were geocoded to census tracts. Median house values were used to estimate neighborhood wealth, while the proportion of black residents was used to measure neighborhood racial segregation. Results: Compared to the poorest neighborhoods,

Kimberly Morland; Steve Wing; Ana Diez Roux; Charles Poole

2002-01-01

102

Sensory syndromes.  

PubMed

Somatosensory deficit syndromes represent a common impairment following stroke and have a prevalence rate of around 80% in stroke survivors. These deficits restrict the ability of survivors to explore and manipulate their environment and are generally associated with a negative impact on quality of life and personal safety. Sensory impairments affect different sensory modalities in diverse locations at varying degrees, ranging from complete hemianesthesia of multiple modalities to dissociated impairment of somatosensory submodalities within a particular region of the body. Sensory impairments induce typical syndromal patterns which can be differentiated by means of a careful neurological examination, allowing the investigator to deduce location and size of the underlying stroke. In particular, a stroke located in the brainstem, thalamus, and the corticoparietal cortex result in well-differentiable sensory syndromes. Sensory function following stroke can be regained during rehabilitation even without specific sensory training. However, there is emerging evidence that specialized sensory interventions can result in improvement of somatosensory and motor function. Herein, we summarize the clinical presentations, examination, differential diagnoses, and therapy of sensory syndromes in stroke. PMID:22377851

Klingner, Carsten M; Witte, Otto W; Günther, Albrecht

2012-01-01

103

Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Eggs Obtained from Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil, Dried Whitebait and/or Fructo-oligosaccharide  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the effects of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait as a source of ?-3 fatty acids (?-3 FA), which could be used to produce eggs enriched with ?-3 FA, and of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as a source of prebiotics on performance of hens (commercial Hy-Line Brown laying hens), and FA composition, internal quality, and sensory characteristics of the eggs. Dietary FOS increased egg weight. The amounts of ?-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the eggs from the hens fed the flaxseed oil alone or flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diets were higher than those of the control. Hedonic scores for off-flavor, fishy flavor, buttery taste and overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil+ dried whitebait were lower (p<0.05) than those of the control. Overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing soybean oil+dried whitebait was lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. However, all the sensory attributes of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil, dried whitebait and FOS were not significantly different from those of the control. These results confirmed that flaxseed oil increases the ALA content in the eggs and a combination of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait increases EPA and DHA in the eggs. Of significance was that addition of FOS to the flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diet improves the sensory characteristics of the eggs enriched with ?-3 FA. PMID:25050046

Yi, Haechang; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M.; Shin, Sung Woo

2014-01-01

104

Sensory deprivation versus sensory variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared verbal and physiological reactions to sensory deprivation (SD) and extreme sensory variation (SV). 22 male undergraduates were confined to a cubicle for 8 hr. in each condition on 2 different occasions. 2 other 8-hr sessions were spent in a relatively normal, nonconfined condition. Ss found SD more boring, dislikable, and anxiety and depression provoking than SV. More unreality stress

Marvin Zuckerman; Harold Persky; Lynne Miller; Bernard Levine

1970-01-01

105

Oleoylethanolamide excites vagal sensory neurones, induces visceral pain and reduces short-term food intake in mice via capsaicin receptor TRPV1.  

PubMed

Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid that regulates feeding and body weight. Although the effects of OEA are believed to depend on activation of vagal sensory afferent neurones, the mechanisms involved in exciting these neurones are unclear. Here we show that OEA directly excited nodose ganglion neurones, the cell bodies of vagal afferents. OEA depolarized these neurones and evoked inward currents that were restricted to capsaicin-sensitive cells. These currents were fully blocked by the TRPV1 inhibitor, capsazepine, and no responses to OEA were observed in neurones cultured from TRPV1-null mice. Similarly, OEA induced a rise in Ca(+) concentration in wild-type but not TRPV1-deficient neurones, and responses to OEA were greater at 37 degrees C compared to room temperature. Significantly, OEA administration in mice induced visceral pain-related behaviours that were inhibited by capsazepine and absent in TRPV1-null animals. Further, OEA reduced 30-min food intake in wild-type but not in TRPV1-null mice. Thus, the acute behavioural effects of OEA may result from visceral malaise via the activation of TRPV1. PMID:15695242

Wang, Xiangbin; Miyares, Rosa Linda; Ahern, Gerard P

2005-04-15

106

Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time. PMID:12423921

Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-02-15

107

Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.  

PubMed

A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

2013-09-01

108

Quantification of Consumer Attitudes to Health and Hedonic Characteristics of Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health and Taste Attitudes Questionnaires were developed to assess consumers» orientations toward the health and hedonic characteristics of foods. Items were generated in a qualitative study. The original 37 items on health and 44 on taste were rated from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” by a representative sample of 1005 Finnish adults (18–81 years). The number of items was reduced

K ROININEN; L LÄHTEENMÄKI; H TUORILA

1999-01-01

109

The market for genetically modified foods: consumer characteristics and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis was used to explore consumer preferences for food products that are the product of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The results of a cluster analysis indicated that consumers fell into three homogeneous groups based on their preference for a branded, low-priced, or GMO-free product. There were some differences between the segments based on the sociodemographic characteristics of age, education,

Gregory A. Baker; Thomas A. Burnham

2001-01-01

110

Measurement Characteristics of the Women’s Health Initiative Food Frequency Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) is the largest research program ever initiated in the United States with a focus on diet and health. Therefore, it is important to understand and document the measurement characteristics of the key dietary assessment instrument: the WHI food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).METHODS: Data are from 113 women screened for participation in the WHI in 1995.

Ruth E. Patterson; Alan R. Kristal; Lesley Fels Tinker; Rachel A. Carter; Mary Pat Bolton; Tanya Agurs-Collins

1999-01-01

111

Influence of wastewater characteristics on methane potential in food-processing industry wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we identified the influence of wastewater characteristics on the theoretical and practical methane potential using different food industrial wastewaters as substrates. Ten composite wastewater samples from five industries were investigated. The ultimate practical methane yields (Bo) were compared to the theoretical methane yields (Bo,th) in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the tested wastewaters and the influence

L. Maya-Altamira; A. Baun; I. Angelidaki; J. E. Schmidt

2008-01-01

112

Food hazard characteristics and risk reduction behaviour : The view of consumers on the island of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to explore the risk characteristics associated with food hazards on the island of Ireland and to assess how the public deal with perceived risks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative investigation involving 12 focus groups was conducted on the island of Ireland. Content analysis was undertaken, with the assistance of the qualitative software tool QSR N6. Findings

Mary McCarthy; Mary Brennan; Christopher Ritson; Martine de Boer

2006-01-01

113

Comparison of physical, chemical, and sensorial characteristics between U.S.-imported and Northwestern Mexico retail beef.  

PubMed

To compare beef from Northwestern Mexico (NMEX) and that imported from the United States in physical-chemical (PC) and sensory traits, samples of ribeye (m. Longissimus dorsi thoracis, LDT) and knuckle (m. Vastus lateralis, VL) of Mexican (64 LDT; 51 VL) and U.S. (28 LDT; 25 VL) origin were purchased randomly from select retail stores located in 3 cities of NMEX. PC evaluation measured contents of moisture, fat and cholesterol, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), pH, CIE L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss, and normalized fatty acid profile (FAP). Trained panelists evaluated raw and cooked samples for 2 and 6 different organoleptic traits, respectively. Mexican and U.S.-imported LDT steaks did not differ (P>0.05) in PC traits. VL samples differed in L*, b*, hue*, WBSF, and fat content by country of origin (COO). The WBSF for cooked VL samples from the United States was lower (P < 0.05) and fat content was greater (P<0.05) than those for NMEX steaks. The FAP varied between muscles; Mexican LDT had a higher content of C18:0, while VL from the United States had a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a higher PUFA/Saturated ratio (P<0.05). Although sensory traits tended to be rated higher for Mexican LDT and VL steaks, no statistical differences with U.S.-imported samples were detected (P > 0.05). Results indicated that domestic and U.S. retail steaks sold in the NMEX are similar in eating quality and PC, whereas differences observed in FAP deserve further attention from a nutritional standpoint. PMID:21535586

González-Rios, H; Peña-Ramos, A; Valenzuela, M; Zamorano-García, L; Cumplido-Barbeitia, G; González-Méndez, N F; Huerta-Leidenz, N

2010-01-01

114

Mercury biomagnification through food webs is affected by physical and chemical characteristics of lakes.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) contamination in aquatic systems remains a global concern because the organic form, methyl Hg (MeHg), can biomagnify to harmful concentrations in fish, fish-eating wildlife, and humans. Food web transfer of MeHg has been explored using models of log MeHg versus relative trophic position (nitrogen isotopes, ?(15)N), but regression slopes vary across systems for unknown reasons. In this study, MeHg biomagnification was determined for 11 lake food webs in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, and compared to physical and chemical lake characteristics using principal component and multiple regression analyses. MeHg biomagnification (regression slopes of log MeHg versus baseline-adjusted ?(15)N for fishes and invertebrates) varied significantly across lakes and was higher in systems with lower aqueous nutrient/MeHg/chloride scores. This is one of the largest, consistent data sets available on MeHg biomagnification through temperate lake food webs and the first study to use a principal component and multiple regression approach to understand how lake chemical and physical characteristics interact to affect biomagnification among systems. Overall, our results show that the magnitude of MeHg biomagnification through lake food webs is related to the chemical and physical characteristics of the systems, but the underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:24099312

Clayden, Meredith G; Kidd, Karen A; Wyn, Brianna; Kirk, Jane L; Muir, Derek C G; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

2013-11-01

115

Pork quality, processing, and sensory characteristics of dry-cured hams as influenced by Duroc crossing and sex.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate Duroc (DU) crossing for Carso dry-cured ham production. One hundred fifty-four pigs (81 females and 73 castrates) of four different genotypes, pure Landrace pigs (LAN), offspring of LAN females crossed with Large White (LW) males (LWxLAN), offspring of LAN females crossed with DU males (DUxLAN), and offspring of LWxLAN females crossed with DU males (DUx[LWxLAN]), were chosen in the weight range of 105 to 120 kg (112.7 +/- 0.4 kg). Raw material quality was evaluated for ham fatness (intra- and intermuscular and subcutaneous) and meat quality (pH, color, water-holding capacity) of longissimus dorsi, biceps femoris, and semimembranosus muscles. Ham weight losses were recorded at different stages of processing. The biceps femoris and semimembranosus muscles were analyzed for chemical composition before (lipid, moisture, total nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen) and after (moisture, salt, total nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen) processing. Chemical and sensory analyses were performed on 96 dry hams (12 castrates and 12 females per genotype). Biceps femoris and semimembranosus muscles were evaluated for color, saltiness, aroma, and texture. Pigs of the four genotypes had similar ham fatness as estimated by subcutaneous fat thickness. Duroc crosses exhibited higher intramuscular fat content, marbling, and intermuscular fat. Crossing with DU resulted in lower weight losses during ham processing. Castrates were fatter and had more intra- and intermuscular fat and lower ham processing weight losses than females. A strong negative relationship between ham fatness and ham processing losses was observed. Chemical and sensory traits of dry ham muscles were little affected by DU crossing. Lower salt content of biceps femoris was found in DU crosses. Dry hams from female pigs had higher total and nonprotein nitrogen, but drier, firmer texture and higher resistance to cutting force compared to dry hams from castrated pigs. Crossing with DU demonstrated some disadvantages (more intermuscular fat, more slice visible fat) and advantages (lower weight loss and salt intake) for the quality of dry-cured ham. PMID:12002336

Candek-Potokar, M; Monin, G; Zlender, B

2002-04-01

116

Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during 6 months of dietary energy restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine characteristics of craved foods in relation to dietary energy restriction (ER) with high (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets.Design:Assessments of food cravings before and during a randomized controlled trial of HG and LG diets provided for 6 months.Subjects:Thirty-two healthy, overweight women aged 20–42 years.Measurements:Self-reported food cravings and dietary intake, body weight, weight history and measures of eating

C H Gilhooly; S K Das; J K Golden; M A McCrory; G E Dallal; E Saltzman; F M Kramer; S B Roberts

2007-01-01

117

Effects of electron-beam irradiation on the shelf life, microbial populations and sensory characteristics of summer truffles (Tuber aestivum) packaged under modified atmospheres.  

PubMed

The effects of two doses of electron-beam irradiation (1.5 kGy and 2.5 kGy) on the microbial populations (total mesophilic aerobes, Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, molds and yeasts) and sensory characteristics of Tuber aestivum packaged under modified atmospheres were monitored immediately after treatment, and weekly during 42 days of storage at 4 °C. Treatment with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy reduced the pseudomonads populations by 4.3 and 5.5 logs, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased by 5.4 logs with the 1.5 kGy dose and counts below the detection limit (<1.0 log cfu/g) were obtained with the 2.5 kGy dose. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were less affected by the ionizing radiation treatments and they became the dominant microbial populations throughout storage with microbial counts up to 7.1 log cfu/g. The carbon dioxide levels inside the packages containing irradiated truffles were lower than those of the non-irradiated ones, suggesting a decrease in the respiration rate of the treated ascocarps. The treatments with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy e-beam did not negatively affect the sensory characteristics of truffles, but a visible superficial yeast growth was detected in truffles irradiated with 1.5 kGy at the end of their shelf life (day 28). Treatment with 2.5 kGy e-beam has prolonged the shelf life to 42 days, compared with 21 days for the untreated samples. PMID:21056786

Rivera, Carmen Susana; Blanco, Domingo; Marco, Pedro; Oria, Rosa; Venturini, María Eugenia

2011-02-01

118

Effect of fat level on physicochemical, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of dry-ripened "chorizo" from Celta pig breed.  

PubMed

A traditional Spanish dry-ripened sausage "chorizo" from Celta pig breed was formulated with 10, 20 and 30% of back fat (LF, MF and HF, respectively). An increase in fat content significantly affected the chemical composition of the sausages at the end of ripening (higher fat content and lower protein content and moisture) and physico-chemical parameters (lower pH, aw, hardness, springiness and chewiness and higher TBARS index, L*, a* and b* values). With the increase of fat in the sausage formulation a higher total content of free fatty acids (FFA) was also obtained, showing a greater lipolysis than in LF sausages. All these parameters were significantly affected by ripening time. A lower total content of volatile compounds were found in HF sausages, being detected 3 alcohols, 4 aldehydes, 12 esters, 3 ketones, 7 aliphatic and 4 aromatic hydrocarbons. Sensorial analysis showed differences for fat level and fat-lean cohesiveness within appearance attributes; odour intensity and spices odour within odour attributes and hardness within texture attributes. PMID:23811106

Gómez, María; Lorenzo, José M

2013-11-01

119

Does Food Insecurity Affect Parental Characteristics and Child Behavior? Testing Mediation Effects  

PubMed Central

Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent’s self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity’s relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecurity’s relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures. PMID:20873019

Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M. Matta; Kim, Youngmi

2014-01-01

120

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

BONADIE, E.P.

2000-08-22

121

EFFECT OF THE PARTIAL SUBSTITUTION OF SUCROSE BY NEOTAME ON THE SENSORY AND CONSISTENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAIN YOGURT EFECTO DE LA SUSTITUCIÓN PARCIAL DE SACAROSA POR NEOTAME EN LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS SENSORIALES Y DE CONSISTENCIA DE YOGUR NATURAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the partial substitution of sucrose by neotame on the sensory and physical characteristics of plain yogurt. Yogurts consisted of a 100 % sucrose control and 3 formulations with 25, 37.5, and 50 % of the sucrose substituted by neotame. Sweetness of all treatments was evaluated using time- intensity (TI)

C. Hernández-Morales; A. Hernández-Montes; A. Villegas-de Gante

2007-01-01

122

Food intake, growth rate, food conversion and food choice in broilers fed on diets high in rapeseed meal and pea meal, with observations on sensory evaluation of the resulting poultry meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Experiments were done to measure the effects of 100 and 200?g\\/kg of either pea meal or low glucosinolate, low erucic acid rapeseed meal on food intake and growth, food choice and meat organoleptic quality in broiler chickens.2.?The test diets were formulated to be iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous with a soy–wheat control diet. In all diets, lysine was fixed at 11·0?g\\/kg and

L. McNeill; K. Bernard; M. G. MacLeod

2004-01-01

123

Chemical, Physical, and Sensory Characteristics of Mozzarella Cheese Fortified Using Protein-Chelated Iron or Ferric Chloride1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mozzarella cheese containing 25 and 50 mg of iron\\/ kg of cheese was manufactured from milk that had been fortified with casein-chelated iron, whey protein- chelated iron, or FeCl3. Chemical, physical, and sen- sory characteristics were compared with those of a control cheese. Physical properties were assessed by testing melting, apparent viscosity, and browning of heated cheese. Cheeses were evaluated

Wendy Haws Rice; Donald J. McMahon

1998-01-01

124

Sensory Profiles of Sweeteners in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ŠEDIVÁ A., PANOVSK Á Z., POKORN Ý J. (2006): Sensory profiles of sweeteners in aqueous solutions. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 283-287. Sensory profiles of saccharin, acesulfame K, aspartame, and neotame were compared with that of sucrose in three different types of water (tap water, commerical Crystalis water, and distilled water) under the conditions of the respec- tive ISO standards.

JAN POKORNÝ

125

The effect of marbling and subcutaneous fat on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of beef strip loin steaks  

E-print Network

characteristics of beef strip loin steaks packaged and stored in pVC or HOB film. Microbial distributions were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. on PVC-wrapped samples and by Lactobacillus spp. on samples packaged in HOB film by the end of the storage periods. Nean... specific study on the growth of bacteria on beef adipose tissue was performed by Berry et al. (1973) . Pseudomonas fluorescens and a Flavobacterium species were inoculated on sterile beef fat from ribs and briskets. Inoculated samples were stored in PVC...

Correale, Karen Kross

2012-06-07

126

Rural and Urban Differences in the Associations between Characteristics of the Community Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the relationship between measures of the household and retail food environments and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in both urban and rural environmental contexts. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Data for FV intake and other characteristics were collected via survey instrument and geocoded to the objective food

Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.

2011-01-01

127

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption. PMID:19648503

Coates, W; Ayerza, R

2009-11-01

128

Effects of conventional feeds vs. table food waste on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pork  

E-print Network

, 4) complete, mixed sorghum-soybean diet containing 16-14% crude protein for growing-finishing periods, fed ad libitum, 5) complete mi~ed corn-soybean diet containing 16-14% crude protein for growing-finishing periods, fed ad libitum and 6) free... similar to those fed the conventional diets for carcass characteristics, processing parameters and proximate analyses, palatability data showed that loin chops, ham center-cut slices and bacon from pigs fed table food waste were less flavorful than...

Mohr, Darrell Chester

2012-06-07

129

Effects of electron-beam and gamma irradiation treatments on the microbial populations, respiratory activity and sensory characteristics of Tuber melanosporum truffles packaged under modified atmospheres.  

PubMed

The effects of electron-beam or gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 kGy and 2.5 kGy of either one) on the microbial populations, respiratory activity and sensory characteristics of Tuber melanosporum packaged under modified atmospheres were monitored immediately after treatment, and subsequently every seven days during 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Treatments with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy reduced the total mesophilic aerobes counts respectively by 4.3 and 5.6 log cfu/g for electron-beam treatment, and by 6.4 and 6.6 log cfu/g for gamma irradiation. Other microbial groups studied (Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, lactic acid bacteria, mesophilic aerobic spores, molds and yeasts) were not detected after the treatments. A decrease in the respiratory activity was detected in all the irradiated batches, indicating that the carbon dioxide levels were lower and the oxygen levels higher than those of the non-irradiated ones. Two species of yeasts, Candida sake and Candida membranifaciens var. santamariae, survived the irradiation treatments and became the dominant microbial populations with counts of up to 7.0 log cfu/g. The growth of these microorganisms was visible on the surface of irradiated truffles from day 21 onwards, affecting the flavor and the general acceptability of the ascocarps. Moreover, a watery exudate was detected in the treated truffles from the third week onwards, so the application of irradiation treatments in doses equal to or above 1.5 kGy did not preserve the quality characteristics of T. melanosporum truffles beyond 28 days. PMID:21839373

Rivera, Carmen Susana; Venturini, María Eugenia; Marco, Pedro; Oria, Rosa; Blanco, Domingo

2011-10-01

130

Sensory meat quality, ultimate pH values, blood parameters and carcass characteristics in reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) grazed on natural pastures or fed a commercial feed mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory properties in meat, ultimate muscle pH values, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics from reindeer grazed on natural pasture (n=23) or fed a commercial feed mixture (n=17) were studied. Reindeer fed commercial feed generally had lower ultimate pH values (increased glycogen stores) in all three muscles measured (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris) compared with the animals grazing natural

E. Wiklund; L. Johansson; G. Malmfors

2003-01-01

131

High-fat hyperphagia in neurotrophin-4 deficient mice reveals potential role of vagal intestinal sensory innervation in long-term controls of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) deficient mice exhibit substantial loss of intestinal vagal afferent innervation and short-term deficits in feeding behavior, suggesting reduced satiation. However, they do not show long-term changes in feeding or body weight because of compensatory behaviors. The present study examined whether high-fat hyperphagia induction would overcome compensation and reveal long-term effects associated with the reduced vagal sensory innervation of

Mardi S. Byerly; Edward A. Fox

2006-01-01

132

Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This entire issue is devoted to the problem of producing enough food for the world population and of distributing it equitably. Areas covered include reports on the latest agricultural research, biological research concerned with more efficient photosynthesis, nutrition, and the world social structure, politics, and economics of food. (MA)

Science, 1975

1975-01-01

133

Modulation of prey capture kinematics and the role of lingual sensory feedback in the lizard Pogona vitticeps.  

PubMed

Most organisms feed on a variety of prey that may differ dramatically in their physical and behavioural characteristics (e.g. mobility, mass, texture, etc.). Thus the ability to modulate prey capture behaviour in accordance with the characteristics of the food appears crucial. In animals that use rapid tongue movements to capture prey (frogs and chameleons), the coordination of jaws and tongue is based on visual cues gathered prior to the prey capture event. However, most iguanian lizards have much slower tongue-based prey capture systems suggesting that sensory feedback from the tongue may play an important role in coordinating jaw and tongue movements. We investigated the modulation of prey capture kinematics in the agamid lizard Pogona vitticeps when feeding on a range of food items differing in their physical characteristics. As the lizard is a dietary generalist, we expected it to be able to modulate its prey capture kinematics as a function of the (mechanical) demands imposed by the prey. Additionally, we investigated the role of lingual sensory feedback by transecting the trigeminal sensory afferents. Our findings demonstrated that P. vitticeps modulates its prey capture kinematics according to specific prey properties (e.g. size). In addition, transection of the trigeminal sensory nerves had a strong effect on prey capture kinematics. However, significant prey type effects and prey type by transection effects suggest that other sources of sensory information are also used to modulate the prey capture kinematics in P. vitticeps. PMID:17368008

Schaerlaeken, Vicky; Meyers, Jay J; Herrel, Anthony

2007-01-01

134

The Availability of Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants in the United States Associations with Neighborhood Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parallel to the rising obesity epidemic, food consumption patterns and household expenditures show a marked upward trend in total energy intake derived from away-from- home sources. Methods: This study conducted cross-sectional multivariate analyses to examine associations between local-area racial, ethnic, and income characteristics and the availability of full-service and fast-food restaurants. Based on a U.S. national census of 28,050

Lisa M. Powell; Frank J. Chaloupka; Yanjun Bao

135

Dual Sensory Innervation of Pulmonary Neuroepithelial Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the different populations of sensory nerve The correlation between the physiologically and mor- terminals that selectively contact pulmonary neuroepithelial phologically defined lung receptors, however, is far from bodies (NEBs) in rat lungs were investigated after chemical satisfactory. Although the number of studies dealing with denervation with capsaicin and compared with control lungs. the morphology of the sensory

Inge Brouns; Jeroen Van Genechten; Hiroyuki Hayashi; Mariusz Gajda; Toshiaki Gomi; Geoff Burnstock; Jean-Pierre Timmermans; Dirk Adriaensen

136

EDITORIAL: Sensory coding in the natural environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand sensory systems, it is necessary to characterize the response properties of the neural components and the performance characteristics of the system as a whole. How should we select sensory stimuli for these physiological and perceptual experiments? One popular choice is to use physically simple stimuli, such as flashed spots and bars. Another strong tradition is to choose mathematically

B. Olshausen; P. Reinagel

2003-01-01

137

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2011-01-01

138

The effects of label design characteristics on perceptions of genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the effects on perceptions of labelling food for genetically modified content. Background: there is increasing public pressure for the compulsory labelling of genetically modified food content on all food products, and yet little is known about how the design and content of such food labels will influence product perceptions. The current research draws upon warning label research

E. Hellier; M. Tucker; L. Newbold; J. Edworthy; J. Griffin; N. Coulson

2012-01-01

139

Effect of trimethylamine oxide and betaine in swine diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and sensory quality of pork.  

PubMed

Two growth experiments and one digestibility experiment were conducted to study the effect of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and betaine in swine diets. In Exp. 1, 36 limit-fed pigs averaging 19.1 kg in initial weight were used to study the effect of adding TMAO at 10 g/kg of feed or betaine at an equivalent level of methyl groups (10.5 g/kg feed) to a high-fat (11.3% ether extract) basal diet. Dietary addition of TMAO increased ADG by 61 g/d, reduced number of days to market by 8.3 d (P<.02), and tended (P<.09) to improve gain/feed (G/F) compared with the control diet. Betaine had no effect on growth performance of pigs. Adding TMAO or betaine to diets had no effect on percent carcass fat, percent carcass lean, or dressing percentage. Dietary supplementation of TMAO reduced (P<.05) plasma triacylglycerol level (TAG) compared with the control diet. There was no effect of dietary TMAO or betaine on sensory quality characteristics of pork. In Exp. 2, 48 ad libitum-fed pigs averaging 21.7 kg initial BW and 104.7 kg final BW were used to determine the effect of adding low and intermediate levels of TMAO (1, 2, or 5 g/kg) to diets. Adding 1 g of TMAO increased G/F (P<.01) compared with control pigs. When using orthogonal contrasts, adding 2 g of TMAO reduced (P<.05) P2 backfat thickness and tended to increase (P<.09) lean percentage compared with the control diet. Trimethylamine oxide gave a quadratic effect (P<.05) on plasma TAG levels. Adding 1 and 2 g of TMAO increased plasma TAG, but 5 g of TMAO decreased it compared with the control diet. In Exp. 3, 12 barrows of 42.3 kg average initial BW and 50.0 kg final BW were used to investigate the effect of supplementing diets with 1 g of TMAO and 1.27 g of betaine/kg of feed on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. The addition of TMAO increased (P<0.03) apparent total tract digestibility of fat (HCl-EE). Betaine had no such effect. Adding TMAO to diets influenced growth performance and carcass quality in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:10461993

Overland, M; Rørvik, K A; Skrede, A

1999-08-01

140

[Characteristics of rat ceruloplasmin from the serum of animals, which received salts of silver with food].  

PubMed

Abiogenic Ag(I) ions have electronic structure, similar to Cu(I) ions and can compete with Cu(I) for binding sites of proteins which transport copper from extracellular media to sites of cuproenzyme formation in the cell. Rodents receiving Ag-salts with food develop extracellular deficiency of copper associated with ceruloplasmin (Cp, the major copper-transporting protein in blood serum of vertebrates). The present work focuses on the studies of biochemical and physicochemical properties of Cp, obtained from blood serum of rats, which received AgCl with food for 4 weeks (Ag-rats). Cp-fractions from blood serum of Ag-rats (Ag-Cp) were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography with stepped gradient of NaCl. Each fraction was tested for oxidase and ferroxidase activities by direct measurement of catalytic activity in the gel, and for specific activity in holo-Cp in oxidation of chromogenic substrate. Molecular mass, electrophoretic mobility and ratio of apo- and holo-forms in Ag-Cp fractions were evaluated by immunoblotting. Ag-Cp samples did not contain products of spontaneous partial proteolytic degradation, characteristic of holo-Cp samples. Fractions of Ag-Cp and holo-Cp (from blood serum of control rats) were compared by optical spectra, tertiary structure, susceptibility to thermal denaturation, and by atomic Cu and Ag content. Ag-Cp contained 1-2% Cp, which is similar by spectral and catalytic properties with holo-Cp. [Ag]:[Cu] ration in Ag-Cp samples was about 4:1. As evidenced by circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetric studies, the major apo-fraction of Ag-Cp lacked tertiary structure of native Cp and was significantly misfolded, which might explain its resistance to spontaneous partial proteolytic degradation. PMID:21268857

Skvortsov, A N; Il'icheva, E Iu; Zatulovski?, E A; Savel'ev, A N; Tsymbalenko, N B; Shavlovski?, M M; Puchkova, L V

2010-01-01

141

Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and plasma glucose and urea in dogs fed a commercial dog food once or three times daily  

PubMed Central

Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and levels of glucose and urea in the plasma were determined in 8 dogs that received 2 different dog foods once or 3 times daily. One dog food (A) was 5 times more expensive than the other (B). Fecal pH and consistency, digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) were determined. Blood samples were taken from 30 min before to 60 min after a meal. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP, and fecal consistency were higher, and daily fecal excretion and fecal pH were lower when dogs were fed food A (P < 0.001). The feeding schedule had no effect on plasma glucose and urea. Neither feeding frequency nor food × frequency interactions was significant for the parameters studied. PMID:20440906

Brambillasca, Sebastian; Purtscher, Frederick; Britos, Alejandro; Repetto, Jose L.; Cajarville, Cecilia

2010-01-01

142

Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods and\\/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and\\/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functional food and supplement users. The present study compared Dutch functional food and supplement

Nynke de Jong; Marga C. Ocké; Hester A. C. Branderhorst; Roland Friele

2003-01-01

143

Your health!? Transforming health perception into food product characteristics in consumer-oriented product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: food perception, health, consumer orientation, product development<\\/font>Food is part of everyday life and few things have changed more drastically in the last century than the way food is produced, processed, distributed, marketed and consumed. Food companies want to be more successful in product development, therefore this needs to be consumer oriented.This thesis develops a conceptual framework that enables transforming

S. J. Sijtsema

2003-01-01

144

Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

2012-01-01

145

Furans in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furans represent a class of compounds that have been reported in a wide variety of foods. Normally, they result from thermal decomposition reactions, and, as such, are important in foods. They also possess unique sensory properties and, thus, can significantly contribute to food flavor. This review shall attempt to summarize their food occurrences, organoleptic properties, and formation pathways.

Joseph A. Maga; Ira Katz

1979-01-01

146

Effects of High Pressure–Low Temperature treatment on freezing behavior, sensorial properties and air cell distribution in sugar rich dairy based frozen food foam and emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic principles of High Pressure Low Temperature treatment (HPLT) of foods have been extensively explored in several studies over the last decade. Research activities in this field mostly focused on the inactivation of microorganisms, textural damage in plant and animal tissue and mechanisms behind nucleation and ice formation. Of central concern in the present study is the effect of

Marcus Volkert; Max Puaud; Hans-Jürgen Wille; Dietrich Knorr

147

Characteristics associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the use of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics associated with the use of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63,561 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational week 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. We used linear binomial regression with frequent versus rare use of organic food as outcome variable and characteristics of the respondent as independent variables. The outcome variable was derived from self-reported frequency of organic food use in six main food groups (milk/dairy, bread/cereal, eggs, vegetables, fruit and meat). Results Organic eggs and vegetables were the food items which were most frequently reported to be used "often" or "mostly". The proportion of women reporting frequent intake of organic food was 9.1% (n = 5754). This group included more women in the lower (<25 years) and higher (>40 years) age-groups, with normal or low body mass index, who were vegetarians, exercised regularly (3+times weekly), consumed alcohol and smoked cigarettes during pregnancy (p < 0.001 for all, except alcohol: p=0.044). Further, participants with frequent organic consumption included more women in the lower (?12 years) or higher (17 years +) category of educational attainment, women who were students or had a partner being a student, who belonged to the lowest household income group (both respondent and her partner earned <300 000 NOK), who entered the study 2005-2007, and who lived in an urban area (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions The socio-economic characteristics of pregnant Norwegian women with frequent organic consumption did not unambiguously follow those typically associated with better health, such as higher levels of education and income. Rather, lower household income, and both lowest and highest levels of education were associated with a higher prevalence of frequent organic consumption. The results indicate that personal and socio-economic characteristics are important covariates and need to be included in future studies of potential health outcomes related to organic food consumption during pregnancy. PMID:21172040

2010-01-01

148

Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork back fat replaced by dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.  

PubMed

The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20%, 15%, and 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with a makgeolli lees fiber were investigated regarding approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, emulsion stability, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory evaluation. The moisture and ash contents, redness, and yellowness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurters containing makgeolli lees fiber than in the control with 30% fat. With increasing fat levels, samples displayed higher pH, lightness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, apparent viscosity, and sensory quality, while displaying lower cooking loss and total expressible fluid. The results show that fat levels of frankfurters with added makgeolli lees fiber can be successfully reduced. Thus, 20% fat frankfurters with the addition of 2% makgeolli lees fiber are similar in quality to regular frankfurters with 30% fat. PMID:24200582

Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

2014-02-01

149

The effect of thermal processing condition on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®.  

PubMed

The effect of different thermal processing conditions just after fermentation on physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes of salami and chorizo slices dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®, was evaluated. Meat and common additives were mixed, stuffed and fermented. Previous to drying the sausages were subjected to thermal treatment at 53 °C at different exposure times (0, 50, 65, 80, 95 and 110 min). Finally, the sausages were sliced and dried using QDS process®. Color, instrumental texture and sensory analysis were performed. Lightness (L*) after fermentation increased with thermal processing in both products while redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) decreased only in salami. Thermal treatment after fermentation increased the initial force (F0). Cooked appearance, cooked fat odor, cooked flavor and stringiness increased when the thermal processing time was increased. Thermal processing of salami and chorizo at 53 °C for 50 min and drying up to 30% of weight loss resulted in a similar product to that obtained without thermal processing. PMID:24200559

Ferrini, G; Arnau, J; Guàrdia, M D; Comaposada, J

2014-02-01

150

[Quality of ecologically produced foods of animal origin].  

PubMed

The production of organic (ecological) food of animal origin is done in many ways and uses many different breeds. Therefore a real comparison with conventionally produced food is difficult. From the limited number of published data it appears, that the characteristics of quality of the products, the nutritional, hygienic, sensorial and technological factors, are not very different in both systems of production. In some factors organic food gets better marks, in others the conventionally produced food. The differences are in the production system (process quality) during lifetime of the animals. PMID:9763737

Honikel, K O

1998-08-01

151

Characteristics of food-allergic patients placing them at risk for a fatal anaphylactic episode.  

PubMed

Food allergy is a growing public health and food safety concern. Twelve million Americans-4% of the population-suffer from the disease, and the prevalence is increasing. There is no cure for food allergy; strict avoidance is the only way to prevent a reaction. Food allergy is a major cause of anaphylaxis, a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that results in an estimated 30,000 emergency department visits and 100 to 150 deaths annually. Factors that place food-allergic patients at greater risk for a fatal anaphylactic episode include asthma; being a teen or young adult; peanut, tree nut, and seafood allergy; not carrying epinephrine; restaurant food; spending time in schools and child care settings; and lack of information from health care providers. Better education of patients and their families about managing their food allergy and high-risk situations can help to prevent future fatalities. PMID:19063826

Muñoz-Furlong, Anne; Weiss, Christopher C

2009-01-01

152

Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory 'Hardness' and 'Chewiness' Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994  

PubMed Central

Texture and ‘tenderness’ in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers’ satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of ‘chewiness’ (9-points) and ‘hardness’ (7-points) were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods. PMID:25049732

Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Chikuni, Koichi

2013-01-01

153

[Transfer characteristics of cadmium in soil-vegetable-insect food chain].  

PubMed

Taking two kinds of vegetables (Brassica rapa and Amaranthus mangostanus) and one insect species (Prodenia litura) as test materials, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the transfer characteristics of cadmium (Cd) in soil-vegetable-insect food chain and the distribution patters of different Cd chemical forms in the organs of the two vegetables. With the increasing concentration of applied Cd in soil, the biomass of the two vegetables decreased significantly, while the Cd concentration in the vegetables had a significant increase. The Cd concentration in the vegetable organs decreased in the order of stem > root > leaf for A. mangostanus, and of stem > leaf > root for B. rapa. The Cd concentration in P. litura larvae also increased with the increasing concentration of Cd in soil, and the maximum Cd concentration in the P. litura larvae on B. rapa and A. mangostanus was 36.7 and 46.3 mg x kg(-1), respectively. In the feces of the larvae on B. rapa and A. mangostanus, the Cd concentration was up to 190 and 229.8 mg x kg(-1), respectively, suggesting that the most part of Cd absorbed by P. litura larvae was excreted out of their bodies via feces. In the organs of the two vegetables, NaCl-extractable Cd was the dominant Cd form (> 70%), followed by d-H2O- and ethanol-extractable Cd, while the HAc-extractable Cd (insoluble cadmium phosphate), HCl-extractable Cd (insoluble cadmium oxalate), and residual Cd only had a very low concentration. Such a present pattern of different Cd forms in vegetable organs could be conducive to the Cd transfer in the food chain. P. litura could ease Cd poison by excreting large amount of absorbed Cd via feces, and effectively restrict the transfer of Cd to next trophic level. Since B. rapa and A. mangostanus could accumulate large amount of Cd in their biomass, the two vegetables were suggested not to be planted in highly Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:23431799

Ding, Ping; Zhuang, Ping; Li, Zhi-An; Xia, Han-Ping; Tai, Yi-Ping; Lu, Huan-Ping

2012-11-01

154

Characteristics and Determinants of Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses the persistence of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. Although pervasive poverty and low agricultural\\u000a productivity are important factors in understanding food insecurity in the region, broader global processes are examined.\\u000a It is argued therefore that, while poverty undermines individual and household access to sufficient food through market purchase,\\u000a land inequalities, corruption, structural adjustment programs, civil conflict, HIV\\/AIDS

Paul Mkandawire; Nathaniel D. Aguda

155

Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border  

PubMed Central

Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA). The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers) in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are experiencing food insecurity; and for those living in rural or underserved areas such as the colonias, the worst forms of food insecurity are an ongoing reality. The rates of households with adult and child food insecurity in this border area are alarming and among the highest reported. Clearly, systematic and sustained action on federal, state, and community levels is needed to reduce household, adult, and child food insecurity that integrates cultural tailoring of interventions and programs to address food and management skills, multi-sector partnerships and networks, expansion of food and nutrition assistance programs, and enhanced research efforts. PMID:21569496

2011-01-01

156

Color as a factor in food choice.  

PubMed

From birth, nature teaches us to make judgements on our environment based in large measure on color. As such, it plays a key role in food choice by influencing taste thresholds, sweetness perception, food preference, pleasantness, and acceptability. Its role is elusive and difficult to quantify, however, which at times has placed color in a secondary role to the other sensory characteristics, a position not entirely consistent with the facts. Color, in a quantitative sense, has been shown to be able to replace sugar and still maintain sweetness perception in flavored foods. It interferes with judgments of flavor intensity and identification and in so doing has been shown to dramatically influence the pleasantness and acceptability of foods. Studies in the literature have used cross-sectional population panels to study these effects, but a recent investigation of color-sensory interactions in beverages has compared the response of a college age group with the response of a panel consisting of a more mature population. Interestingly, the older group showed significant differences from the college age group in their response to the effects of color on several sensory parameters as well as showing a direct correlation between beverage consumption and color. Color is often taken for granted, but this position must be reevaluated in view of such studies and the need to create more appealing foods for different segments of our society. PMID:8424857

Clydesdale, F M

1993-01-01

157

Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

Nord, Mark

2009-01-01

158

The Effect of Padding Foam on the Compression Characteristics of Some Agglomerated Food Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected padding foam was used to reduce attrition in agglomerated food powders. This is a widely used strategy in fruits and vegetables during harvesting and processing to minimize impact damage. The objective of this research was to determine the padding effect on some agglomerated food powders when plastic foams of different thicknesses were added in the powder bed at different

H. Yan; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2001-01-01

159

Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

PubMed Central

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues. PMID:21624149

2011-01-01

160

Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City  

PubMed Central

The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods. PMID:21359162

LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

2011-01-01

161

Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.  

PubMed

The "enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation" method was employed to obtain oxidized tallow. Nine beeflike flavours (BFs) were prepared through Maillard reaction with oxidized tallow and other ingredients. Volatile compounds of oxidized tallow and beeflike flavours were analysed by SPME/GC-MS. Six sensory attributes (meaty, beefy, tallowy, simulate, burnt and off-flavour) were selected to assess BFs. Thirty four odour-active compounds were identified to represent beef odour through GC-O analysis based on detection frequency method. GC-MS profiles of oxidized tallow were correlated with GC-O responses and sensory attributes of BFs using partial least squares regression modelling (PLSR). Twenty nine compounds were considered as the potential precursors of oxidized tallow. Among them, tetradecanoic acid, d-limonene, 1,7-heptandiol, 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, (Z)-4-undecenal, (Z)-4-decenal, (E)-4-nonenal and 5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone were unique products generated from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation of tallow, while hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, pentanal, acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-pentylfuran, ?-nonalactone, 2-undecenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal and (Z)-2-heptenal were common products generated from thermal oxidation of tallow. PMID:23270941

Shi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaoming; Song, Shiqing; Tan, Chen; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin

2013-01-15

162

Introduction to Food Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality and safety of the food supply. All food products require analysis as part of a quality management program throughout the development process (including raw ingredients), through production, and after a product is in the market. In addition, analysis is done of problem samples and competitor products. The characteristics of foods (i.e., chemical composition, physical properties, sensory properties) are used to answer specific questions for regulatory purposes and typical quality control. The nature of the sample and the specific reason for the analysis commonly dictate the choice of analytical methods. Speed, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness often are key factors in this choice. Validation of the method for the specific food matrix being analyzed is necessary to ensure usefulness of the method. Making an appropriate choice of the analytical technique for a specific application requires a good knowledge of the various techniques (Fig. 1.1). For example, your choice of method to determine the salt content of potato chips would be different if it is for nutrition labeling than for quality control. The success of any analytical method relies on the proper selection and preparation of the food sample, carefully performing the analysis, and doing the appropriate calculations and interpretation of the data. Methods of analysis developed and endorsed by several nonprofit scientific organizations allow for standardized comparisons of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of less standard procedures. Such official methods are critical in the analysis of foods, to ensure that they meet the legal requirements established by governmental agencies. Government regulations and international standards most relevant to the analysis of foods are mentioned here but covered in more detail in Chap. 2, and nutrition labeling regulations in the USA are covered in Chap. 3. Internet addresses for many of the organizations and government agencies discussed are given at the end of this chapter.

Nielsen, S. Suzanne

163

Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.  

PubMed

Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. PMID:25109863

Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

2014-09-01

164

Meat quality of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (Aepyceros melampus): The effect of gender and age on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of kudu and impala meat.  

PubMed

Game meat has distinct sensory characteristics and favourable fatty acid profiles which differ between species. The SFA's percentage was found to be higher in impala meat (51.12%) than kudu meat (34.87%) whilst the total PUFA was higher in kudu (38.88%) than impala (34.06%). Stearic acid (22.67%) was the major fatty acid in impala and oleic acid in kudu (24.35). Linoleic acid, C20:3n-6 and C22:6n-3 were higher in kudu while C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:5n-3 were higher in impala. The PUFA:SFA ratio for kudu (1.22) was higher than for impala (0.73) while impala had a higher n-6 PUFA's to n-3 PUFA ratio (3.76) than kudu (2.20). Kudu was higher in cholesterol (71.42±2.61mg/100gmuscle) than impala (52.54±2.73mg/100gmuscle). Sensory evaluation showed impala had a more intense game aroma and flavour while the initial juiciness of cooked samples of kudu was higher. The results show kudu and impala can be marketed for their unique flavours and aromas as well as being a healthy substitute for other red meats. PMID:20416629

Hoffman, L C; Mostert, A C; Laubscher, L L

2009-12-01

165

Sensory Conversion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

Medelius, Pedro

166

Characteristics of differential inhibition during selection between food-related and aversive responses.  

PubMed

The same stimulus (a flash of light at a frequency of 6 Hz) was used in dogs to develop a food-related conditioned reflex reinforced by attractive food and an aversive conditioned reflex (avoidance/escape from paw stimulation) and differential inhibition to it (unavoidable series). This was followed by alternate experiments with selection of reinforcement and use of a differential stimulus (at a frequency of 0.6 Hz). In both series of experiments, dogs showed changes in food-related excitability (hunger, saturation). The numbers of investigative responses arising in response to the differential and positive conditioned stimuli and their latent periods were recorded. In conditions allowing selection (with electrodes on the paw and a pedal before the animal), dogs were found to differ in the extent to which one of these motivations dominated. Differential inhibition was less complete in those no-choice series in which the dominant motivation was used. In conditions allowing selection between the food-related and aversive reactions, responses to the differential stimulus depended on the balance between these motivations: the food-related motivation dominated after two days of starvation, while the aversive motivation dominated after satiation. PMID:17763986

Chilingaryan, L I; Preobrazhenskaya, L A

2007-09-01

167

Signaling by Sensory Receptors  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

2012-01-01

168

Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The "rate" of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (?(15)N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to ?(15)N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes (?(15)N; ?(13)C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. PMID:22982939

Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xioawa; Whittle, Mike; Swanson, Heidi K; Johnston, Tom; Guildford, Stephanie

2012-11-01

169

Behavioural consequences of sensory plasticity in guppies  

PubMed Central

Sensory plasticity, whereby individuals compensate for sensory deprivation in one sense by an improvement in the performance of an alternative sense, is a well-documented phenomenon in nature. Despite this, the behavioural and ecological consequences of sensory plasticity have not been addressed. Here we show experimentally that some components (vision and chemoreception) of the sensory system of guppies are developmentally plastic, and that this plasticity has important consequences for foraging behaviour. Guppies reared under low light conditions had a significantly stronger response to chemical food cues encountered in isolation than fish reared at higher light levels. Conversely, they exhibited a weaker response to visual-only cues. When visual and olfactory/gustatory cues were presented together, no difference between the strength of response for fish reared at different light intensities was evident. Our data suggest that guppies can compensate for experience of a visually poor, low light environment via a sensory switch from vision to olfaction/gustation. This switch from sight to chemoreception may allow individuals to carry out the foraging behaviour that is essential to their survival in a visually poor environment. These considerations are especially important given the increasing frequency of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems. Compensatory phenotypic plasticity as demonstrated by our study may provide a hitherto unconsidered buffer that could allow animals to perform fundamental behaviours in the face of considerable change to the sensory environment. PMID:20053643

Chapman, Ben B.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Tosh, Colin R.; Krause, Jens

2010-01-01

170

Behavioural consequences of sensory plasticity in guppies.  

PubMed

Sensory plasticity, whereby individuals compensate for sensory deprivation in one sense by an improvement in the performance of an alternative sense, is a well-documented phenomenon in nature. Despite this, the behavioural and ecological consequences of sensory plasticity have not been addressed. Here we show experimentally that some components (vision and chemoreception) of the sensory system of guppies are developmentally plastic, and that this plasticity has important consequences for foraging behaviour. Guppies reared under low light conditions had a significantly stronger response to chemical food cues encountered in isolation than fish reared at higher light levels. Conversely, they exhibited a weaker response to visual-only cues. When visual and olfactory/gustatory cues were presented together, no difference between the strength of response for fish reared at different light intensities was evident. Our data suggest that guppies can compensate for experience of a visually poor, low light environment via a sensory switch from vision to olfaction/gustation. This switch from sight to chemoreception may allow individuals to carry out the foraging behaviour that is essential to their survival in a visually poor environment. These considerations are especially important given the increasing frequency of anthropogenic changes to ecosystems. Compensatory phenotypic plasticity as demonstrated by our study may provide a hitherto unconsidered buffer that could allow animals to perform fundamental behaviours in the face of considerable change to the sensory environment. PMID:20053643

Chapman, Ben B; Morrell, Lesley J; Tosh, Colin R; Krause, Jens

2010-05-01

171

Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia.  

PubMed

In this review we explore the relationship between synaesthesia and sensory substitution and argue that sensory substitution does indeed show properties of synaesthesia. Both are associated with atypical perceptual experiences elicited by the processing of a qualitatively different stimulus to that which normally gives rise to that experience. In the most common forms of sensory substitution, perceptual processing of an auditory or tactile signal (which has been converted from a visual signal) is experienced as visual-like in addition to retaining auditory/tactile characteristics. We consider different lines of evidence that support, to varying degrees, the assumption that sensory substitution is associated with visual-like experiences. We then go on to analyse the key similarities and differences between sensory substitution and synaesthesia. Lastly, we propose two testable predictions: firstly that, in an expert user of a sensory substitution device, the substituting modality should not be lost. Secondly that stimulation within the substituting modality, but by means other than a sensory substitution device, should still produce sensation in the normally substituted modality. PMID:22885223

Ward, Jamie; Wright, Thomas

2014-04-01

172

Do Fast-Food Chains Price Discriminate on the Race and Income Characteristics of an Area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports tests for differences in prices charged by fast-food restaurants that serve markets with customers of widely divergent incomes and ethnic backgrounds. The data contain detailed prices on items sold at over 400 Burger King, Wendy's, KFC, and Roy Rogers restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania locations. I find significant differences in price based on the race and

Kathryn Graddy

1997-01-01

173

Seasonal variation in leaf characteristics and food selection by larval noctuids on an evergreen Mediterranean shrub  

E-print Network

of both relative preference and total consumption, to this seasonal variation in chemical and physical their consumption of young leaves relative to old leaves and developing fruits in response to seasonal changes. Food, and preference for nutritionally superior spring-produced young leaves. This study examines this hypothesis by (i

Alonso, Conchita

174

NEARSHORE-OFFSHORE PATTERNS IN FOOD WEB CHARACTERISTICS IN LAKE SUPERIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

We are exploring the use of food web properties to characterize nearshore and offshore habitats in the Great lakes. We analyzed the stable isotope signatures of benthos (predominantly Diporeia hoyi) and plankton from Lake Superior habitats ranging from 20m to 300m depth......

175

The contribution of nondeprivation factors in the production of sensory deprivation effects: The psychology of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the premise that both social cue factors, or demand characteristics, and sensory deprivation operations combine in producing commonly observed effects of sensory deprivation, an experiment is reported which tests the hypothesis that sensory deprivation effects can be produced by manipulating demand characteristics while holding the effect of the physical environment constant. Experimental Ss were exposed to pre-experimental conditions which

Martin T. Orne; Karl E. Scheibe

1964-01-01

176

The impact of ultimate pH on muscle characteristics and sensory attributes of the longissimus thoracis within the dark cutting (Canada B4) beef carcass grade.  

PubMed

Canada B4 beef carcasses are penalized because the longissimus thoracis (LT) at the grade site (12-13th ribs) is darker than the color threshold for normal bright cherry-red beef. Previous studies have shown that not all B4 carcasses have pH>6.0; therefore, the relationship between LT pH and meat quality was investigated by collecting thirty half-carcasses comprised of the following: ten Canada AA (AA, control), ten B4 with LT pH>6.0 (CL, classic), and ten B4 with LT pH<6.0 (AT, atypical). LT from CL carcasses had the lowest mean lactate level, lowest glucidic potential and highest mean pH value. LT muscle from CL and AT carcasses was dark and had decreased purge, drip loss and cooking loss. Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel results showed that AT beef was toughest (P<0.0001), substantiating economic penalty. Causal mechanisms for AT carcasses may be inconsistent with traditional DFD theory because of close to normal final muscle pH. PMID:25173716

Holdstock, J; Aalhus, J L; Uttaro, B A; López-Campos, O; Larsen, I L; Bruce, H L

2014-12-01

177

Evaluation of physical, chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of low-fat precooked lamb and fresh pork sausages made with konjac flour  

E-print Network

. . . . . . Structured I ipids. . Protein-Based Fat Substitutes. Gums (Hydrocolloids). . Konjac Flour. . Low-Fat Processing and Equipment. . . . . Implications For This Study. . 111 UTILIZATION OF KONJAC FLOUR IN A CURED, SMOKED LOW-FAT LAMB SAUSAGE... and wet-milled flour increasing the yellowness of cooked pork patties. Gums (Hydrocolloids) Hydrocolloids (gums) have been used to produce high-quality low-fat and no-fat food products. They are defined as long-chain polymeric materials that thicken...

Osburn, Wesley Neil

2012-06-07

178

Characteristics of Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and feasibility for utilization as human food.  

E-print Network

??The characteristics of Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and the feasibility of utilization of this species for human consumption were investigated. In the first experimental phase,… (more)

Lin, Dongdong

1993-01-01

179

[Sensory Systems of Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter contains six articles: (1) "Early Flavor Experiences: When Do They Start?" Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp); (2) "Infant Massage" (Tiffany Field); (3) "The Infant's Sixth Sense: Awareness and Regulation of Bodily Processes" (Stephen W. Porges); (4) "Sensory Contributions to Action: A Sensory Integrative Approach" (Marie E.…

Zero To Three, 1993

1993-01-01

180

Food security and marine capture fisheries: characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives.  

PubMed

World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic contamination, coastal degradation and climate change. Looking towards 2050, the question is how fisheries governance, and the national and international policy and legal frameworks within which it is nested, will ensure a sustainable harvest, maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and adapt to climate change. This paper looks at global fisheries production, the state of resources, contribution to food security and governance. It describes the main changes affecting the sector, including geographical expansion, fishing capacity-building, natural variability, environmental degradation and climate change. It identifies drivers and future challenges, while suggesting how new science, policies and interventions could best address those challenges. PMID:20713390

Garcia, Serge M; Rosenberg, Andrew A

2010-09-27

181

Food security and marine capture fisheries: characteristics, trends, drivers and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

World population is expected to grow from the present 6.8 billion people to about 9 billion by 2050. The growing need for nutritious and healthy food will increase the demand for fisheries products from marine sources, whose productivity is already highly stressed by excessive fishing pressure, growing organic pollution, toxic contamination, coastal degradation and climate change. Looking towards 2050, the question is how fisheries governance, and the national and international policy and legal frameworks within which it is nested, will ensure a sustainable harvest, maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functions, and adapt to climate change. This paper looks at global fisheries production, the state of resources, contribution to food security and governance. It describes the main changes affecting the sector, including geographical expansion, fishing capacity-building, natural variability, environmental degradation and climate change. It identifies drivers and future challenges, while suggesting how new science, policies and interventions could best address those challenges. PMID:20713390

Garcia, Serge M.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

2010-01-01

182

Influence of lake characteristics on the biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in lake trout food webs.  

PubMed

The biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and major organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied using lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other food web organisms collected from 17 lakes in Canada and the northeastern United States between 1998 and 2001. Whole lake trout (n = 357) concentrations of the sum (Sigma) of 57 PCB congeners ranged between 1.67 and 2,890 ng/g wet weight (median 61.5 ng/g wet wt). Slimy sculpin had the highest mean concentrations of SigmaPCB of all forage fish (32-73 ng/g wet wt). Positive relationships between log (lipid wt) concentrations of PCB congener 153, PCB congener 52, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, or dieldrin and trophic level (determined using stable nitrogen isotope ratios) were found for most of the 17 food webs, indicating biomagnification of these PCBs and OCPs. The p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene had the highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of the 14 individual compounds studied, averaging 4.0 +/- 1.8 across the 17 lakes, followed by trans-nonachlor (3.6 +/- 1.5) and PCB congener 153 (3.4 +/- 1.2). Average TMFs for 14 individual PCBs or OCPs were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient, implying that the rate of accumulation along the food web is dependent on hydrophobicity and recalcitrance. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between TMFs of SigmaPCBs, hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, and lindane and lake area, latitude, and longitude, but not for 11 other PCBs or OCPs. Overall, the results of the present study show that biomagnification of PCBs and most OCPs, as measured by TMFs, is only weakly influenced by such factors as latitude and longitude. Exceptions are hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and hexachlorobenzene, which had generally greater TMFs in northern lakes, possibly due to lower rates of elimination and biotransformation in the food web. PMID:18444699

Houde, Magali; Muir, Derek C G; Kidd, Karen A; Guildford, Stephanie; Drouillard, Ken; Evans, Marlene S; Wang, Xiaowa; Whittle, D Michael; Haffner, Doug; Kling, Hedy

2008-10-01

183

Expansion characteristics of a nutritious extruded snack food using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of screw speed (220–340 rpm), feed moisture (11.0–15.0%, wet basis) and feed rate (22.0–26.0 kg\\/h, wet basis) on the physical properties (i.e., bulk density, expansion, porosity) of a nutritionally balanced extruded snack food. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the responses were obtained. Responses were most affected by changes in

EmirAy?e ?zer; ?enol ?bano?lu; Paul Ainsworth; Cahide Ya?mur

2004-01-01

184

Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.  

PubMed

This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. PMID:24794619

Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

2014-06-16

185

[Comparative characteristics of antioxidant capacity and energy content of some foods].  

PubMed

The paper presents a comparative evaluation of antioxidant capacity and energy values of different foods groups in order to identify the most efficient combinations for correction of metabolic disorders associated with an imbalance in antioxidant system. In study integral method for determining of antioxidant and energy indicators (patent No 2,455,703) has been used. It has been revealed that the highest antioxidant-energy capacity (AE) of fresh juices has a pomegranate juice (AE = 3895.9 +/- 241.4 mg/L x kJ(-1)), other fresh juices inferior to him on this indicator: grenade>orange>lemon=apple> pomelo > mandarin > persimmon > kiwi > pears > avocado. Among dairy products the highest AE belongs to boiled fermented milk--"ryazhenka" (AE = 40.9 +/- 2.7 mg/L x kJ(-1)), other dairy products can be placed in line with index AE: ryazhenka ==>kefir > yogurt. Most of fresh juices were significantly superior to antioxidant-energy potential of other foods. Despite the fact that dairy products AE were lower than AE of some juices, they were much superior to AE values of fastfood products (biscuits, potato chips, popcorn). This demonstrates need to reduce the quota of fast foods in the diet to prevent the risk of reduction potential of the endogenous antioxidant system. PMID:24006756

Basov, A A; Bykov, I M

2013-01-01

186

Novel approaches and application of contemporary sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of the iron-fortified foods have been frequently listed as causes of unsuccessful iron fortification programs. An excellent prospect for improving consumer acceptance of iron-fortified foods is the incorporation of a thorough, organized, and unified approach to sensory evaluation practices into iron fortification programs for product optimization. The information gained from systematic sensory evaluation allows for the manipulation of the sensory attributes, and thus improvement of the sensory properties of the fortified food. However, iron fortification programs have not systematically measured the effect of fortification on the sensory quality of the food. Because sensory evaluation is an important criterion in successful iron fortification, an integrated approach is necessary. Therefore, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work closely with each other to select the most suitable sensory tests and methods. The objectives of this article are to: (1) critically review and discuss some traditional and contemporary approaches and applications of sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs, and (2) demonstrate the importance of incorporating a multidisciplinary, systematic sensory evaluation approach in iron fortification programs.

Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

2003-01-01

187

Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of heated honey, honey mixed with ghee and their food consumption pattern by rats  

PubMed Central

Honey and ghee are the two food substances used widely in our diet. In Ayurveda, it is quoted that heated honey and honey mixed with equal amount of ghee produce deleterious effects. Hence, it was of our interest to study the physicochemical characteristics and chemical constituents of heated honey and honey mixed with ghee, and their effect on daily food intake and organ weights of rats. The specific gravity of samples showed a significant decrease in honey and ghee samples heated to 140°C. The pH of honey heated to 140°C was elevated with a reduction in the specific gravity. There was a significant rise in hydroxymethyl furfuraldehyde (HMF) in 60º and 140°C heated honey samples. The browning and total antioxidant of honey mixed ghee samples was significantly higher when compared to ghee samples. Further, the authors have also evaluated the effects of consumption of heated honey, ghee, honey mixed with equal amount of ghee and heated honey mixed with heated ghee in rats. The feeding of heated honey and honey mixed with ghee for 6 weeks showed no significant change in the food intake, weight gain and relative organ weights. The study revealed that the heated honey mixed with ghee produces HMF which may cause deleterious effects. PMID:22131701

Annapoorani, A.; Anilakumar, K. R.; Khanum, Farhath; Murthy, N. Anjaneya; Bawa, A. S.

2010-01-01

188

Migration and sensory evaluation of irradiated polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects on ionising irradiation on polymer additives, monomers and polymers themselves have been investigated. Changes of initial concentrations of certain additives and monomers, a change in their specific migration as well as sensory changes of the polymers were examined. Polymer stabilizers such as Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168 used in polyethylene were found to be degraded by ionising radiation. Decreased concentrations of stabilisers in polyolefins led to lower specific migration, however, not to lower overall migration into food simulants. Irganox 1076 levels in polystyrene did not change up to irradiation doses of 54 kGy. Sensory properties of LDPE, HDPE, PA6 and PA12 worsened, while sensory properties of PS improved with increasing irradiation doses.

Stoffers, Niels H.; Linssen, Jozef P. H.; Franz, Roland; Welle, Frank

2004-09-01

189

Changes in starch physical characteristics following digestion of foods in the human small intestine.  

PubMed

Factors controlling the concentration of resistant starch (RS) in foods are of considerable interest on account of the potential for this type of fibre to deliver health benefits to consumers. The present study was aimed at establishing changes in starch granule morphology as a result of human small-intestinal digestion. Volunteers with ileostomy consumed six selected foods: breakfast cereal (muesli), white bread, oven-baked French fries, canned mixed beans and a custard containing either a low-amylose maize starch (LAMS) or a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS). Analysis showed that digesta total RS (as a fraction of ingested starch) was: muesli, 8.9 %; bread, 4.8 %; fries, 4.2 %; bean mix, 35.9 %; LAMS custard, 4.0 %; HAMS custard, 29.1 %. Chromatographic analysis showed that undigested food contained three major starch fractions. These had average molecular weights (MW) of 43,500 kDa, 420 kDa and 8.5 kDa and were rich in amylopectin, higher-MW amylose and low-MW amylose, respectively. The low-MW amylose fraction became enriched preferentially in the stomal effluent while the medium-MW starch fraction showed the greatest loss. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy showed that absorbance at 1022 per cm decreased after digestion while the absorbance band at 1047 per cm became greater. Such changes have been suggested to indicate shifts from less ordered to more ordered granule structures. Further analysis of amylose composition by scanning iodine spectra indicated that the MW of amylose in ileal digesta was lower than that of undigested amylose. It appears that high-MW amylose is preferentially digested and that MW, rather than amylose content alone, is associated with resistance of starch to digestion in the upper gut of humans. PMID:20412607

Zhou, Zhongkai; Topping, David L; Morell, Matthew K; Bird, Anthony R

2010-08-01

190

A Comparison between Older Persons with Down Syndrome and a Control Group: Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status and Sensori-Motor Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase in life expectancy within the general population has resulted in an increasing number of elderly adults with intellectual disability, and this is reflected in the increased life expectancy in persons with Down syndrome, currently about 56 years. The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristics, the functional status and…

Carmeli, Eli; Kessel, Shlomo; Merrick, Joav; Bar-Chad, Shmuel

2004-01-01

191

The biomechanics of sensory organs Sanjay P. Sane1,  

E-print Network

The biomechanics of sensory organs Sanjay P. Sane1,Ã? and Matthew J. McHenry Ã? National Centre filter of the sensory input. This biomechanical filtering is readily apparent in the case of several of the mechan- osensory organs, it is necessary to conduct focused studies on the biomechanical characteristics

McHenry, Matt

192

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function.

BONADIE, E.P.

2000-10-26

193

Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the\\u000a particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual\\u000a smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects\\u000a smoking behavior. The

Deirdre Lawrence; Brie Cadman; Allison C Hoffman

2011-01-01

194

A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

2012-08-01

195

Effect of food characteristics, storage conditions, and electron beam irradiation on active agent release from polyamide-coated LDPE films.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation, storage conditions, and model food pH on the release characteristics of trans-cinnamaldehyde incorporated into polyamide-coated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films. Active agent release rate on irradiated films (up to 20.0 kGy) decreased by 69% compared with the nonirradiated controls, from 0.252 to 0.086 microg/mL/h. Storage temperature (4, 21, and 35 degrees C) and pH (4, 7, and 10) of the food simulant solutions (10% aqueous ethanol) affected the release rate of trans-cinnamaldehyde. As expected, antimicrobial release rate decreased to 0.013 microg/mL/h at the refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C) compared to the higher temperatures (0.029 and 0.035 microg/mL/h at 21 and 35 degrees C). The fastest release rate occurred when exposed to the acidic food simulant solution (pH 4). In aqueous solution, trans-cinnamaldehyde was highly unstable to ionizing radiation, with loss in concentration from 24.50 to 1.36 microg/mL after exposure to 2.0 kGy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation up to 10.0 kGy did not affect the structural conformation of LDPE/polyamide films and the trans-cinnamaldehyde in the films, though it induced changes in the functional group of trans-cinnamaldehyde when dose increased up to 20.0 kGy. Studies with a radiation-stable compound (naphthalene) showed that ionizing radiation induced the crosslinking in polymer networks of LDPE/polyamide film and caused slow and gradual release of the compound. This study demonstrated that irradiation serves as a controlling factor for release of active compounds, with potential applications in the development of antimicrobial packaging systems. PMID:18298724

Han, J; Castell-Perez, M E; Moreira, R G

2008-03-01

196

Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of ground beef as affected by gamma irradiation, food additives and edible coating film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current interest in "minimally processed foods" has attracted the attention for combination of mild treatments to improve food safety and shelf-life extention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and incorporation of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on microbial and biochemistry characteristics of ground beef. Ground beef patties (23% fat ) were purchased from a local grocery store (IGA, Laval, Que., Canada) and divided into 3 separate treatment groups: (i) control (ground beef without additive), (ii) ground beef with 0.5% (w/w) ascorbic acid, and (iii) ground beef with 0.5% ascorbic acid and coated with a protein-based coating containing selected spices. Samples were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy final dose at the CIC. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth, total thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and free sulfydryl content. At the end of the storage period, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Brochothrix thermosphacta were enumerated. Regardless of the treatment group, irradiation significantly ( p?0.05) reduced the total aerobic plate counts (APC). Irradiation doses of 1, 2, and 3 kGy produced immediate reduction of 2, 3, and 4 log units of APCs, respectively. Also, shelf-life periods were higher for ground beef samples containing food additives. Lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were more resistant to irradiation than Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. Concentration of TBARS and free sulfydryl concentrations were stabilized during post-irradiation storage for samples containing ascorbic acid and coated with the protein-based coating containing spices.

Ouattara, B.; Giroux, M.; Yefsah, R.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Saucier, L.; Borsa, J.; Lacroix, M.

2002-03-01

197

Sensory Quality of Stored Croissant-Type Bakery Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

HOZOVÁ B., KUKUROVÁ I., TURICOVÁ R., DODOK L. (2002): Sensory quality of stored croissant-type bakery products. Czech J. Food Sci., 20: 105-112. The results are presented of the estimation of sensory quality (shape, odour, colour, taste, consistency, crust, crumb etc.), m ould and yeast counts, a w value, and pH in 8 bakery croissant-type products with nougat cream filling during

BERNADETTA HOZOVÁ; IVETA KUKUROVÁ; RENATA TURICOVÁ; LADISLAV DODOK

198

Effects of age on sensory-specific satiety?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of age on sensory-specific satiety were investigated in adolescents (aged 12-15 y), young adults (22-35 y), older adults (45-60 y), and elderly subjects (65- 82 y) (n = 24 per group). Subjects rated the pleasantness of the sensory properties and their desire to eat five foods and then ate either a fixed amount (300 g) or as much

Barbara J Rolls; Teresa M McDermott

199

Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food.  

PubMed

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanuts (Arachis hypogoea), and mango (Mangifera indica) were processed separately and then combined, on the basis of their amino acid scores and energy content, into a complementary food for children of weaning age. The finger millet and kidney beans were processed by germination, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation. A mixture containing, on a dry matter basis, 65.2, 19.1, 8.0, and 7.7% of the processed finger millet, kidney beans, peanuts, and mango, respectively, gave a composite protein with an in vitro protein digestibility of 90.2% and an amino acid chemical score of 0.84. This mixture had an energy density of 16.3 kJ.g(-1) of dry matter and a decreased antinutrient content and showed a measurable improvement in the in vitro extractability for calcium, iron, and zinc. A 33% (w/v) pap made from a mix of the processed ingredients had an energy density of 5.4 kJ.g(-1) of pap, which is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of well-nourished children of 6-24 months of age at three servings a day and at the FAO average breast-feeding frequency. PMID:11982437

Mbithi-Mwikya, Stephen; Van Camp, John; Mamiro, Peter R S; Ooghe, Wilfried; Kolsteren, Patrick; Huyghebaert, Andre

2002-05-01

200

Evaluation of sorghum genotypes for agronomic and food quality characteristics for pitimi (rice-like product)  

E-print Network

and the largest panicles were the following: A155, A155 x 82T182, A155 x 82T189, A160 x 82T182, A160 x 82T189, and ATx378 x 82T182. Hybrids and R-lines parents had harder kernels and higher yield of pearled grains than the A-lines. Aroma, taste, texture... parental lines of sorghum. . . . . . . . 35 7 Specific combining ability of 40 hybrids for their agronomic characteristics 36 8 Combined analysis of variance for 54 sorghum genotypes for grain hardness, pearling yield, total starch, and water...

Blanchet, Claire Louise Colette

2012-06-07

201

EXPERIMENTAL AND SUBJECT FACTORS DETERMINING RESPONSES TO SENSORY DEPRIVATION, SOCIAL ISOLATION, AND CONFINEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

INVESTIGATED DIFFERENT FACTORS INVOLVED IN SENSORY DEPRIVATION (SD) EXPERIMENTS: SENSORY RESTRICTION, SOCIAL ISOLATION, CONFINEMENT, PRIOR KNOWLEDGE OF SD EFFECTS, AND SEX AND SENSATION-SEEKING PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS. 36 MALE AND 36 FEMALE SS WERE CONFINED IN 1 OF 3 CONDITIONS ON 1 OCCASION AND WERE TESTED AGAIN ON ANOTHER DAY SPENT OUTSIDE THE LABORATORY. CONFINEMENT WITHOUT SOCIAL OR SENSORY ISOLATION PRODUCED GENERALIZED

MARVIN ZUCKERMAN; HAROLD PERSKY; KATHERINE E. LINK

1968-01-01

202

Time 2 tlk 2nite: use of electronic media by adolescents during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and foods served.  

PubMed

We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) for girls and older teens. In addition, higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) were also seen among those whose parents had low education levels or were black or Asian; having parental rules about media use significantly reduced these odds. Frequent mealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (P<0.05) and scores indicating less importance placed on mealtimes (P<0.001). Furthermore, frequent mealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (P<0.05). The ubiquitous use of mealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy. PMID:24361006

Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2014-07-01

203

Sparsity and compressed coding in sensory systems.  

PubMed

Considering that many natural stimuli are sparse, can a sensory system evolve to take advantage of this sparsity? We explore this question and show that significant downstream reductions in the numbers of neurons transmitting stimuli observed in early sensory pathways might be a consequence of this sparsity. First, we model an early sensory pathway using an idealized neuronal network comprised of receptors and downstream sensory neurons. Then, by revealing a linear structure intrinsic to neuronal network dynamics, our work points to a potential mechanism for transmitting sparse stimuli, related to compressed-sensing (CS) type data acquisition. Through simulation, we examine the characteristics of networks that are optimal in sparsity encoding, and the impact of localized receptive fields beyond conventional CS theory. The results of this work suggest a new network framework of signal sparsity, freeing the notion from any dependence on specific component-space representations. We expect our CS network mechanism to provide guidance for studying sparse stimulus transmission along realistic sensory pathways as well as engineering network designs that utilize sparsity encoding. PMID:25144745

Barranca, Victor J; Kova?i?, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

2014-08-01

204

Sensory marketing: the multi-sensory brand-experience concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the multi-sensory brand-experience concept in relation to the human mind and senses. It also seeks to propose a sensory marketing (SM) model of the multi-sensory brand-experience hypothesis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigating the multi-sensory brand-experience concept within the context of discovery. The qualitative study

Bertil Hultén

2011-01-01

205

Different beers with different hops. Relevant compounds for their aroma characteristics.  

PubMed

Hop-derived aroma characteristics in beer are very important for the quality of beer. This study compared the differences of hop aroma characteristics and the compounds contained in beer by changing the variety of hops applying the idea of "food metabolomics" on the GC×GC/TOF-MS analysis data, to clarify which aroma compounds contribute to the differences of hop aroma profiles indicated by sensory descriptors. As a result, by focusing only on hop-derived compounds, 67 compounds were strongly correlated with one or more of the sensory descriptors. Furthermore, the odor descriptions of each key compound corresponded well to each sensory descriptor. Thus, these compounds are likely to be the key compounds explaining the differences of hop aroma characteristics in beer. This study led to the suggestion that understanding the relationship between the comprehensive nontarget analysis by GC×GC-TOF/MS and organoleptic evaluation using PCA is effective in estimating the key compounds. PMID:23627300

Inui, Takako; Tsuchiya, Fumihiko; Ishimaru, Mariko; Oka, Kaneo; Komura, Hajime

2013-05-22

206

Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

2010-01-01

207

Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

Carpenter, Marian

208

Studying Sensory Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

Ackerly, Spafford C.

2001-01-01

209

Separate and unequal: The influence of neighborhood and school characteristics on spatial proximity between fast food and schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSocial science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fast food restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school

Naa Oyo A. Kwate; Ji Meng Loh

2010-01-01

210

Female sensory bias may allow honest chemical signaling by male Iberian rock lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some mate choice theories propose that only male signals that are honest and condition-dependent can be stable, while another\\u000a hypothesis states that males evolve signals that exploit the sensory system of females. However, sensory traps might evolve\\u000a into honest signals if they are differentially costly for males. We tested whether a pre-existing sensory bias for food chemicals\\u000a explained chemosensory preferences

José Martín; Pilar López

2008-01-01

211

Sensory quality and energy use for scrambled eggs and beef patties heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens  

SciTech Connect

Scrambled eggs (96 portions) and beef patties (96 portions) were heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens to determine energy use in heating and sensory quality of food. For both products, significantly (P < 0.01) more energy (BTU) was used for heating in the convection than in the microwave oven and respective amounts (BTU) were 28658.7 and 9385.7 for eggs; 31313.3 and 9365.0 for beef patties. All scores for sensory quality were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for eggs heated in the microwave than in the convection, but for beef patties, scores were higher for all characteristics and significantly (P < 0.01) higher for appearance, flavor, and general acceptability after heating in the convection rather than the microwave oven.

Cremer, M.L.

1982-05-01

212

Phase-specific responses to different qualities of food in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: developmental, morphological and reproductive characteristics.  

PubMed

Solitarious female adults are known to produce smaller hatchlings than those produced by gregarious adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. This study investigated developmental, morphological and reproductive responses to different qualities of food in hatchlings of different phases. Mortality was higher, the duration of nymphal development longer and adult body weight lighter with a low-quality food than a high-quality food. Gregarious hatchlings showed better survivorship, grew faster and became larger adults than did solitarious ones. The incidence of locusts exhibiting extra molting, which was typically observed in the solitarious phase, was dramatically increased when a low-quality food was given to the solitarious hatchlings. Low-quality food caused locusts to shift morphometric ratios toward the values typical of gregarious forms; smaller F/C (hind femur length/maximum head width) and larger E/F (elytra length/hind femur length). Solitarious hatchlings grown at either high- or low-quality foods and then given high-quality food after adult emergence revealed that food qualities during the nymphal stage influence their progeny quality and quantity via adult body size that influenced reproductive performance. Female adults showed an overshooting response to a shift from low- to high-quality food by increasing egg production that was specific to body size. This study may suggest that gregarious hatchlings are better adapted to adverse food conditions than solitarious counterparts and extra molting is induced even among gregarious hatchlings under poor food conditions. PMID:21315076

Maeno, Koutaro; Tanaka, Seiji

2011-04-01

213

Sensory education program development, application and its therapeutic effect in children  

PubMed Central

There has recently been Increased interest in the emotional intelligence (EQ) of elementary school students, which is recognized as a more important value than IQ (intelligence quotient) for predict of their success in school or later life. However, there are few sensory education programs, available to improve the EQ of elementary school student's in Korea. This study was conducted to develop an educational program that reflects the characteristics and contents of traditional rice culture and verify the effects of those programs on the EQ of children. The program was developed based on the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation) model and participants were elementary school students in 3rd and 4th grade (n = 120) in Cheonan, Korea. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used. EQ scores pertaining to the basic sense group, culture group, and food group were significantly improved after the sensory educational program(P < 0.05), but no change was observed in the control group. These findings indicate that sensory education contributed to improving elementary school children's Emotional Intelligence (EI) and their actual understanding about Korean traditional rice culture. PMID:24611113

Chung, Hae-Kyung

2014-01-01

214

Sensory education program development, application and its therapeutic effect in children.  

PubMed

There has recently been Increased interest in the emotional intelligence (EQ) of elementary school students, which is recognized as a more important value than IQ (intelligence quotient) for predict of their success in school or later life. However, there are few sensory education programs, available to improve the EQ of elementary school student's in Korea. This study was conducted to develop an educational program that reflects the characteristics and contents of traditional rice culture and verify the effects of those programs on the EQ of children. The program was developed based on the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation) model and participants were elementary school students in 3(rd) and 4(th) grade (n = 120) in Cheonan, Korea. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used. EQ scores pertaining to the basic sense group, culture group, and food group were significantly improved after the sensory educational program(P < 0.05), but no change was observed in the control group. These findings indicate that sensory education contributed to improving elementary school children's Emotional Intelligence (EI) and their actual understanding about Korean traditional rice culture. PMID:24611113

Kim, Mi-Hye; Chung, Hae-Kyung

2014-02-01

215

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES  

E-print Network

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES ANNUAL REPORT OF SPONSORED RESEARCH PROJECTS AND SERVICE of Agricultural and Food Sciences was engaged in sponsored research and development activities amounting to 2 nutrition, ecological landscape design, environment, food safety, food sensory analysis, human nutrition

Shihadeh, Alan

216

Auditory sensory gating deficit and cortical thickness in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Both an EEG P50 sensory gating deficit and abnormalities of the temporal lobe structure are considered characteristic of schizophrenia. The standard P50 sensory gating measure does not foster differential assessment of left- and right-hemisphere contributions, but its analogous MEG M50 component may be used to measure gating of distinct auditory source dipoles localizing to left- and right-hemisphere primary auditory cortex. The present study sought to determine how sensory gating ratio may relate to cortical thickness at the site of the auditory dipole localization. A standard auditory paired-click paradigm was used during MEG for patients (n=22) and normal controls (n=11). Sensory gating ratios were determined by measuring the strength of the 50 ms response to the second click divided by that of the first click (S2/S1). Cortical thickness was assessed by two reliable raters using 3D sMRI. Results showed that: (1) patients had a P50 and left M50 sensory gating deficit relative to controls; (2) cortex in both hemispheres was thicker in the control group; (3) in schizophrenia, poorer left-hemisphere M50 sensory gating correlated with thinner left-hemisphere auditory cortical thickness; and (4) poorer right-hemisphere M50 auditory sensory gating ratio correlated with thinner right-hemisphere auditory cortical thickness in patients. The MEG-assessed hemisphere-specific auditory sensory gating ratio may be driven by this structural abnormality in auditory cortex. PMID:16012689

Thoma, R J; Hanlon, F M; Sanchez, N; Weisend, M P; Huang, M; Jones, A; Miller, G A; Canive, J M

2004-01-01

217

Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ? the binding problem ? as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

Harvey, Joshua Paul

2013-01-01

218

Instabilities in sensory processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

Balakrishnan, J.

2014-07-01

219

Foraging costs drive female resistance to a sensory trap  

PubMed Central

Male ornaments can evolve through the exploitation of female perceptual biases such as those involved in responding to cues from food. This type of sensory exploitation may lead to confusion between the male signals and the cues that females use to find/recognize food. Such interference would be costly to females and may be one reason why females evolve resistance to the male ornaments. Using a group of species of viviparous fish where resistance to a sensory trap has evolved, we demonstrate that females exposed to an ornament that resembles food have a diminished foraging efficiency, that this effect is apparent when foraging on a food item with which the ornament shares visual attributes, and that not all species are equally affected by such confusion. Our results lend support to the model of ornamental evolution through chase-away sexual conflict. PMID:22298856

Garcia, Constantino Macias; Lemus, Yolitzi Saldivar

2012-01-01

220

Foraging costs drive female resistance to a sensory trap.  

PubMed

Male ornaments can evolve through the exploitation of female perceptual biases such as those involved in responding to cues from food. This type of sensory exploitation may lead to confusion between the male signals and the cues that females use to find/recognize food. Such interference would be costly to females and may be one reason why females evolve resistance to the male ornaments. Using a group of species of viviparous fish where resistance to a sensory trap has evolved, we demonstrate that females exposed to an ornament that resembles food have a diminished foraging efficiency, that this effect is apparent when foraging on a food item with which the ornament shares visual attributes, and that not all species are equally affected by such confusion. Our results lend support to the model of ornamental evolution through chase-away sexual conflict. PMID:22298856

Garcia, Constantino Macías; Lemus, Yolitzi Saldívar

2012-06-01

221

BRIEF COMMUNICATION Long-Term Sensory-Specific Satiety: Evidence From an Ethiopian Refugee Camp  

E-print Network

PHYSIOL BEHAV 34(6) 1017-1020, 1985.--The reduction in appetite which occurs during a meal is partly specific to the foods which have been eaten earlier in a meal. This has been called "sensory-specific satiety. " In the experiment described here, a long-term form of sensory-specific satiety has been demonstrated. Refugees in an Ethiopian refugee camp reported that the taste of 3 foods which they had been eating for approximately 6 months was less pleasant than that of 3 new foods, whereas refugees who had been eating the regular diet for only two days found its taste as pleasant as that of the different foods. This long-term sensory-specific satiety may have nutritional implications when only a limited variety of food is available, as may occur in refugee camps. It will be useful to determine the extent to which this long-term sensory-specific satiety can be prevented by provision of perhaps even a limited range of spices, flavorings or foods. Satiety Sensory-specific satiety Famine Refugee Hunger Variety Monotony Long-term sensory-specific satiety DURING investigations of the neural control of feeding, a population of neurons has been found in the lateral hypothalamus and substantia innominata of the monkey which responds to the sight and/or taste of food. It was found in these

E. T. Rolls; A. W. L. De Waal

1985-01-01

222

Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.  

PubMed

In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess. PMID:22929998

Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

2012-12-01

223

Sensory-specific Satiety: Comparison of Taste and Texture Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respective contributions of taste (saltiness and sweetness) and texture (the hardness dimension) to sensory-specific satiety (SSS) were compared. Sixteen male and 16 female, young, normal-weight adults rated the pleasantness of taste, pleasantness of texture and desire to eat on visual analog scales for eight test foods, were then given one of the foods to eatad libitumfor lunch, and re-rated

JEAN-XAVIER GUINARD; PATRICE BRUN

1998-01-01

224

Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

2014-01-01

225

Verification of retail food outlet location data from a local health department using ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology: assessing differences by neighborhood characteristics.  

PubMed

Obtaining valid and accurate data on community food environments is critical for research evaluating associations between the food environment and health outcomes. This study utilized ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology to validate a food outlet retail list obtained from an urban local health department in Baltimore, Maryland in 2009. Ten percent of outlets (n=169) were assessed, and differences in accuracy were explored by neighborhood characteristics (96 census tracts) to determine if discrepancies were differential or non-differential. Inaccuracies were largely unrelated to a variety of neighborhood-level variables, with the exception of number of vacant housing units. Although remote-sensing technologies are a promising low-cost alternative to direct observation, this study demonstrated only moderate levels of agreement with ground-truthing. PMID:22818588

Rossen, Lauren M; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

2012-09-01

226

Phase-specific responses to different qualities of food in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: Developmental, morphological and reproductive characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitarious female adults are known to produce smaller hatchlings than those produced by gregarious adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. This study investigated developmental, morphological and reproductive responses to different qualities of food in hatchlings of different phases. Mortality was higher, the duration of nymphal development longer and adult body weight lighter with a low-quality food than a high-quality

Koutaro Maeno; Seiji Tanaka

2011-01-01

227

Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

2013-01-01

228

Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

2013-09-01

229

Importance of parasites and their life cycle characteristics in determining the structure of a large marine food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Despite their documented effects on trophic interactions and community structure, parasites are rarely included in food web analyses. The transmission routes of most parasitic helminths follow closely the trophic relationships among their successive hosts and are thus embedded in food webs, in a way that may influence energy flow and the structure of the web. 2. We investigated

ROSS M. THOMPSON; KIM N. MOURITSEN; ROBERT POULIN

230

The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut  

PubMed Central

Background Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n?=?94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1?month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access. PMID:22720722

2012-01-01

231

Food Chain & Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

B, Ms.

2011-10-27

232

Sensory receptors in monotremes.  

PubMed

This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence of weak electric fields in water. Perhaps the electric sense is used to detect moving prey in moist soil. PMID:9720114

Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

1998-07-29

233

HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. Methods: The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ? 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Results: Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts (<200) were noted in 24 patients (13 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Clinically, the patients were classified as asymptomatic (n=34) and symptomatic (n=16). Among the symptomatic patients, nine were on antiretroviral therapy since less than one year (seven of these were on regimen containing stavudine). Ten patients aged more than 40-years had symptomatic neuropathy. No significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy (p=0.21). Impaired vibration (100%) and absent ankle jerks (75%) were commoner than reduced pin sensitivity (46.6%). Twenty two patients had abnormal NCS results (18 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Axonal distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in 14 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Subclinical involvement as evidenced by abnormal NCSs was noted in 5 asymptomatic patients who were all on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Symptomatic neuropathy was seen predominantly in HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy. All patients receiving stavudine containing regimen had severe symptomatic neuropathy within 1 year. There was an increase in the likelihood of symptomatic neuropathy among patients aged > 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy. PMID:25177587

S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

2014-01-01

234

Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I

Michaela Auer-Grumbach

2008-01-01

235

Temperament and Sensory Features of Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3–7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Methods Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt & Carey, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (Carey & McDevitt, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three dimensional constructs of sensory features (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsivness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. Results The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Conclusions Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally associated with sensory response patterns. Shared mechanisms underlying sensory responsiveness, temperament, and social withdrawal may be fruitful to explore in future studies. PMID:22366913

Brock, Matthew E.; Freuler, Ashley; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Poe, Michele D.; Sabatino, Antoinette

2012-01-01

236

[Effect of food deprivation on quantitative and time characteristics of feeding of goldfish Carassius auratus in norm and under action of adrenaline].  

PubMed

There was studied effect of intraperitoneally administered adrenaline (0.14 mg/kg) on volume and time characteristics of feeding (duration of single, grouped, and total nutrition) of goldfish Carassius auratus (L.) previously maintained on normal and restricted (for 10 and 15 days) diet. The fish on restricted diet demonstrated the biphasic alimentary response to the adrenaline administration, similar with that in the normally fed fish: a decrease of volume, duration of the grouped and total feeding at the first phase of action of hormone and an increase--at the second phase; however, the value of the response at the first phase of the hormone action was lower, whereas at the second phase--higher than in the fish obtaining a sufficient amount of food prior to the experiment. Duration of the single feeding rose in fish of all groups including the control one, the maximum increase being observed in the goldfish submitted to food deprivation. The glycogen content in hepatopancreas of the normally fed goldfish exceeded by the end of the experiment 4.5-6 times that in the food-deprived ones. The obtained results confirm suggestion that a decrease of the level of reserve substances in the body leads to a decrease of the fish receptivity to the stress hormone--adrenaline and, hence, to a change of the value of its effects on the food-searching goldfish activity, with preservation of dynamics of the parameters. PMID:21938911

Garina, D V

2011-01-01

237

Treatment of sensory defensiveness in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study explored the relationship between sensory defen- siveness and anxiety, as well as the impact of a sensory integration treatment protocol on normal adults. Fifteen adult subjects identified as having sensory defensiveness completed the Adult Sensory Questionnaire (ASQ), Adult Sensory Interview (ADULT-SI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) at pre-test and post-test intervals to measure sensory defensiveness and anxiety.

Beth Pfeiffer; Moya Kinnealey

2003-01-01

238

Sensory Optimization by Stochastic Tuning  

PubMed Central

Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system’s preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit, and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: the higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics, and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

2013-01-01

239

Differential Regulation of the Expression of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 (CRF2) in Hypothalamus and Amygdala of the Immature Rat by Sensory Input and Food Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological consequences of activating corticotropin- releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) are not fully understood. The neuroanatomic distribution of this CRF receptor family member is consistent with roles in mediating the actions of CRF and similar ligands on food intake control and integrative as- pects of stress-related behaviors. However, CRF2 expression in the adult rat is not influenced by

Mariam Eghbal-Ahmadi; Sarit Avishai-Eliner; Carolyn G. Hatalski; Tallie Z. Baram

1999-01-01

240

Retailing organic foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past five years consumer demand for organic food has risen dramatically in the wake of a series of high profile scares about food safety. This paper provides a case study of the retailing of organic foods. The case study includes an outline of the characteristics and development of the organic food market, an examination of the different players

Peter Jones; Colin Clarke-Hill; Peter Shears; David Hillier

2001-01-01

241

The availability of healthy food options in fast food outlets in six rural counties  

E-print Network

can play a role in food choice as food selection may be limited to those foods available in the environment. Rural environments may have less availability of healthy foods due to unique characteristics of these areas. Fast food establishments usually...

Creel, Jennifer Sue

2009-05-15

242

Characteristics of the pigments from anthocyan-containing food plants, raw material for production of bioflavonoid dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on the composition of anthocyans of the fruits and pulp of the food plants bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillis L), high-bush cranberry (Viburnum opulus L.), elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), cherry (Cerasus vulgaris Mill.), crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.), cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris Pers.), currant (Ribes nigrum L.), and mulberry (Morus nigra L.) growing in the Ukraine. The anthocyan pigments differ qualitatively

E. N. Kananykhina; I. V. Pilipenko

2000-01-01

243

Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

2014-05-01

244

[Sensory input and basal ganglia].  

PubMed

Non-motor symptoms including sensory signs have recently been stressed in basal ganglia (BG) disorders. Why do sensory symptoms appear in BG disorders? Four closed loops have been shown between cortex and BG, but no sensory cortical-BG loops. I review two points: fiber connections between the somatosensory cortex and BG to explain sensory symptoms, and pain and basal ganglia. Somatosensory system and BG Many animal studies have shown somatosensory cortex- striatum- globus pallidus- motor thalamus connections, but no connections to the sensory thalamus. This indicates that sensory system may modulate four closed loops between the cortices and BG (motor loop, oculomotor loop, prefrontal loop and limbic loop) as an open loop system. Based on the above findings, two possible mechanisms may explain somatosensory symptoms in BG disorders. Motor modulation abnormalities may be considered as sensory symptoms in patients with BG disorders. Some sensory cognition abnormalities due to abnormal modulation of the prefrontal- BG loop may be considered as sensory symptoms. Pain and dopamine Two systems contribute to pain signs in patients with BG disorders. Descending pain modulation system: several brainstem nuclei send descending pain modulation fibers to the spinal cord mediated by serotonin or noradrenalin. These nuclei are facilitated by D2 neurons from the striatum. Striatal dopamine must suppress the pain information input at the spinal cord. Ascending pain relief system D2 neurons from the ventral tegmental area to anterior cingulate cortex, accumbens and amygdala may reduce pain feeling at the association cortices. In summary, dopamine system will reduce pain at the spinal cord and association cortices. Dopamine depletion, therefore, will enhance the pain sensation. PMID:23196445

Ugawa, Yoshikazu

2012-01-01

245

Generation of the Central Masticatory Pattern and Its Modification by Sensory Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian mastication results from the interaction of an intrinsic rhythmical neural pattern and sensory feedback generated by the interaction of the effecter system (muscles, bones, joints, teeth, soft tissues) with food. The main variables that explain variation in the pattern of human mastication are the subjects themselves, their age, the type of food being eaten, and time during a sequence

James P. Lund; Arlette Kolta

2006-01-01

246

Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies  

PubMed Central

Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

2013-01-01

247

Effect of glucose and pH on the microbial flora and sensory characteristics of normal and dark, firm, dry beef steaks displayed in polyvinyl chloride film and in vacuum packages  

E-print Network

of carbohydrates on the microb1al flora and shelf life of normal and DFO meat. pH determination . Number and types of bacteria Sensory evaluation . Effect of adding ac1ds on the m1crobial flora and shelf life of normal and DFD meat. Glucose concentration 1n... meat samples. Analys1s of data RESULTS M1crobial aspects of normal beef steaks with and without added glucose displayed in PVC f1lm. Microbial aspects of DFD beef steaks with and w1thout added glucose displayed in PVC f1lm. Microb1al aspects...

Chesser, Linda Kay

2012-06-07

248

Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

Kalpidou, Maria

2012-01-01

249

New approaches to the extraction of pesticides from foods and the determination of the solvent characteristics of pressurized hot water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is an account of three unique and separate studies. These studies are related, however, in that they are all concerned with techniques of sample extraction and chromatography. The first of these three studies describes a method for the determination of paraquat (PQ) and diquat (DQ), quaternary ammonium herbicides, from foods. The method uses a selective, pH-controlled solid-phase extraction

Tina Marie Pawlowski

1999-01-01

250

Microhistological characteristics of selected aquatic plants of Florida, with techniques for the study of manatee food habits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was initiated in 1978 to develop a technique of identifying and quantifying the digestive tract contents of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and to serve as a manual for the identification and analysis of ingesta collected from manatee carcasses salvaged in Florida. This report includes key microhistological characters found useful in identifying fragments of 83 plant species and three invertebrate groups. Many species of aquatic and wetland plants and invertebrates are available to manatees in Florida as potential foods.

Hurst, L.A.; Beck, C.A.

1988-01-01

251

Sensory Biophysics of Marine Mammals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

THe underwater existence of marine mammals has encouraged a variety of special biophysical adaptations to their environment. Their sensory and communication systems reflect the transmission properties of sea water. For example, vision is keen in spectra t...

W. A. Watkins, D. Wartzok

1985-01-01

252

Sensory irritation: risk assessment approaches.  

PubMed

Irritation of eyes and upper airways--sensory irritation--is commonly used as a parameter for setting occupational exposure limits and is a common complaint in occupants of non-industrial buildings. Sensory irritation occurs from stimulation of receptors on trigeminal nerves. In general, chemically reactive compounds are more potent than non-reactive congeners. Animal studies allow prediction of sensory irritation effects in humans; the concentration-effect relationships are often steep. In humans, thresholds and suprathreshold effects can be obtained from short-term ( approximately seconds) exposures and from longer exposures ( approximately hours). Sensory irritation may develop over time and odour cues may influence reported sensory irritation symptoms; generally, the slope of the irritant effect is steeper than the slope of odour cues. A best available no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) should be based on a combined estimate from the three types of study. The NOAEL/5 is considered sufficient to protect individuals not especially sensitive. The present knowledge suggests that especially sensitive individuals may be protected by an additional uncertainty factor (UF) of 2, suggesting a combined UF of 10. In published studies, the combined UF is up to 300, highlighting the need of evidence-based UFs. Combined effects of sensory irritants can be considered additive as a first approximation. PMID:17241726

Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Wolkoff, Peder; Alarie, Yves

2007-06-01

253

Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

1972-01-01

254

Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveExamine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)–accepting stores in Leon County, Florida.

Samantha Rigby; Angela F. Leone; HwaHwan Kim; Connie Betterley; Mary Ann Johnson; Hilda Kurtz; Jung Sun Lee

255

The limits and motivating potential of sensory stimuli as reinforcers for autistic children.  

PubMed

This study investigated the reinforcing properties, limits, and motivating potentials of sensory stimuli with autistic children. In the first phase of the study, four intellectually retarded autistic children were exposed to three different types of sensory stimulation (vibration, music, and strobe light) as well as edible and social reinforcers for ten-second intervals contingent upon six simple bar pressing responses. In the second phase, the same events were used as reinforcers for correct responses in learning object labels. The results indicated that: (a) sensory stimuli can be used effectively as reinforcers to maintain high, durable rates of responding in a simple pressing task; (b) ranked preferences for sensory stimuli revealed a unique configuration of responding for each child; and (c) sensory stimuli have motivating potentials comparable to those of the traditional food and social reinforcers even when training receptive language tasks. PMID:7298542

Ferrari, M; Harris, S L

1981-01-01

256

Meeting the Sensory Needs of Young Children in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics of modulation disorders that have been reported with sensory integration dysfunction and provide strategies for supporting positive development and engagement. Although not well understood, scientists are beginning to link structural and chemical imbalances of the brain with responses…

Howe, Malia; Brittain, Lea Ann; McCathren, Rebecca

2004-01-01

257

Phonology: An Emergent Consequence of Memory Constraints and Sensory Input.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a theoretical model that attempts to account for the early stages of language acquisition in terms of interaction between biological constraints and input characteristics. Notes that the model uses the implications of stochastic representations of the sensory input in a volatile and limited memory. Argues that phonological structure is a…

Lacerda, Francisco

2003-01-01

258

Sensory signals from the gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

The sensory input to the CNS provides a basis for reflexes that control and coordinate gut function, integrates this with behavioral responses such as the regulation of food intake and also mediate sensations. Diverse sub-populations of afferents have been identified according to the morphologic appearance of their terminal distribution in mucosa, muscle and mesentery, their pathway to the CNS and their functional properties in detecting mechanical activity and the local chemical environment. Mechanosensitivity to distension shows remarkable plasticity and can be influenced by a wide range of chemical mediators released as a consequence of ischemia, injury and inflammation. Chemosensitivity is also a property of vagal mucosal afferents that sample the chemical milieu within the lamina propria for chemicals absorbed across the epithelium or released from enteroendocrine cells that are strategically positioned to "taste" luminal contents. A complex interplay between ion channels and receptors underlies gastrointestinal sensing mechanisms and determines appropriate responses during normal digestion and in pathophysiology. PMID:16131978

Grundy, David

2005-09-01

259

Biofilm Formation and Adherence Characteristics of Listeria ivanovii Strains Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of Listeria ivanovii isolates to exist as biofilm structures. The ability of Listeria ivanovii isolates to adhere to a surface was determined using a microtiter plate adherence assay whereas the role of cell surface properties in biofilm formation was assessed using the coaggregation and autoaggregation assays. Seven reference bacterial strains were used for the coaggregation assay. The degree of coaggregation and autoaggregation was determined. The architecture of the biofilms was examined under SEM. A total of 44 (88%) strains adhered to the wells of the microtiter plate while 6 (12%) did not adhere. The coaggregation index ranged from 12 to 77% while the autoaggregation index varied from 11 to 55%. The partner strains of S. aureus, S. pyogenes, P. shigelloides, and S. sonnei displayed coaggregation indices of 75% each, while S. Typhimurium, A. hydrophila, and P. aeruginosa registered coaggregation indices of 67%, 58%, and 50%, respectively. The ability of L. ivanovii isolates to form single and multispecies biofilms at 25°C is of great concern to the food industry where these organisms may adhere to kitchen utensils and other environments leading to cross-contamination of food processed in these areas. PMID:23365535

Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.

2012-01-01

260

The Dielectric Loss Characteristic of Ice by Dielectric Heating Method for The Thawing of Foods or Biomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thawing of ice crystal is very important for thawing of frozen foods and cryopreserved biomaterials. It was found that an alternative current (AC) electric field may effect the thawing process of frozen foods and cryopreserved biomaterials. In the present study, the spectrum of dielectric loss of ice crystal (50Hz~1.8GHz) was measured at various temperatures(-60°C to -2°C). The experiments of heating ice crystal using electric field were done to investigate the absorption of AC electric energy, which changes with the frequency of electric field. In order to evaluate the rapidness and the uniformity of thawing quantitatively, a numerical simulation of one-dimensional heat transfer was also conducted based on the measured spectrum of the dielectric loss of ice. The results showed that AC electric field have the uniform heating effect, only when the value of the frequency multiplied by dielectric loss (f?") decreases as the temperature increases. One of the optimum frequencies for a rapid and uniform thawing was found to be at around 3MHz.

Bai, Xianglan; Shirakashi, Ryo; Nishio, Shigefumi

261

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

262

Study of sensory properties of emollients used in cosmetics and their correlation with physicochemical properties.  

PubMed

Eight liquid emollients (mineral oil, sunflower oil, squalane, decyl oleate, isopropyl myristate, octyldodecanol, dimethicone, and cyclomethicone) were characterized by instrumental and sensory methods and evaluated to determine the relationship between sensory and instrumental measures. Sensory analysis was carried out by a panel of 14 assessors, who evaluated the following attributes: difficulty of spreading, gloss, residue, stickiness, slipperiness, softness, and oiliness. The physicochemical properties measured were spreadability (at one-half minute and at one minute), viscosity, and superficial tension. Data collected were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear partial least squares regression analysis (PLS). In consideration of their physicochemical characteristics, the studied emollients were sorted into three groups, in which the silicones distinctly separate from the rest. Sensory characteristics enabled the discrimination of four groups of emollients where, besides the two silicones, isopropyl myristate was also differentiated. PLS revealed that emollient sensory attributes could be well predicted by instrumental measurements. PMID:16116522

Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Solana, Gerardo

2005-01-01

263

Changes in the adult vertebrate auditory sensory epithelium after trauma.  

PubMed

Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

Oesterle, Elizabeth C

2013-03-01

264

Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef) samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. Results As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7%) produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6%) produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5%) belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2%) contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. Conclusions The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals. PMID:22397509

2012-01-01

265

Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.  

PubMed

Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was identified between beet and cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. PMID:25124655

Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2014-09-01

266

M50 sensory gating predicts negative symptoms in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Impaired auditory sensory gating is considered characteristic of schizophrenia and a marker of the information processing deficit inherent to that disorder. Predominance of negative symptoms also reflects the degree of deficit in schizophrenia and is associated with poorer pre-morbid functioning, lower IQ, and poorer outcomes. However, a consistent relationship between auditory sensory gating and negative symptoms in schizophrenia has yet to be demonstrated. The absence of such a finding is surprising, since both impaired auditory gating and negative symptoms have been linked with impaired fronto-temporal cortical function. The present study measured auditory gating using the P50 event related potential (ERP) in a paired-click paradigm and capitalized on the relative localization advantage of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess auditory sensory gating in terms of the event related field (ERF) M50 source dipoles on bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG). The primary hypothesis was that there would be a positive correlation between lateralized M50 auditory sensory gating measures and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A standard paired-click paradigm was used during simultaneous EEG and MEG data collection to determine S2/S1 sensory gating ratios in a group of 20 patients for both neuroimaging techniques. Participants were administered the Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Consistent with previous reports, there was no relationship between ERP P50 sensory gating and negative symptoms. However, right (not left) hemisphere ERF M50 sensory gating ratio was significantly and positively correlated with negative symptoms. This finding is compatible with information processing theories of negative symptoms and with more recent findings of fronto-temporal abnormality in patients with predominantly negative symptoms. PMID:15653276

Thoma, Robert J; Hanlon, Faith M; Moses, Sandra N; Ricker, Daniel; Huang, Mingxiong; Edgar, Christopher; Irwin, Jessica; Torres, Fernando; Weisend, Michael P; Adler, Lawrence E; Miller, Gregory A; Canive, Jose M

2005-03-01

267

Sensory axon regeneration: rebuilding functional connections in the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Functional regeneration within the adult spinal cord remains a formidable task. A major barrier to regeneration of sensory axons into the spinal cord is the dorsal root entry zone. This region displays many of the inhibitory features characteristic of other central nervous system injuries. Several experimental treatments, including inactivation of inhibitory molecules (such as Nogo and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans) or administration of neurotrophic factors (such as nerve growth factor, neurotrophin3, glial derived neurotrophic factor and artemin), have been found to promote anatomical and functional regeneration across this barrier. There have been relatively few experiments, however, to determine if regenerating axons project back to their appropriate target areas within the spinal cord. This review focuses on recent advances in sensory axon regeneration, including studies assessing the ability of sensory axons to reconnect with their original synaptic targets. PMID:22137336

Smith, George M.; Falone, Anthony E.; Frank, Eric

2011-01-01

268

Flavor and Texture Characteristics of Foods Containing Z-Trim Corn and Oat Fibers as Fat and Flour Replacers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of partial replacement of fat and flour in f oods with Z-Trim corn and oat fibers, brownies and ground beef pa tties containing Z-Trim were evaluated for flavor and texture characteristics. A cake-like brownie formulation containing 26% fat (control) was pre- pared with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% fat repl acement using four levels of

K. WARNER; G. E. INGLETT

269

Rheological Principles for Food Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food scientists are routinely confronted with the need to measure physical properties related to sensory texture and processing needs. These properties are determined by rheological methods, where rheology is a science devoted to the deformation and flow of all materials. Rheological properties should be considered a subset of the textural properties of foods, because the sensory detection of texture encompasses factors beyond rheological properties. Specifically, rheological methods accurately measure "force," "deformation," and "flow," and food scientists and engineers must determine how best to apply this information. For example, the flow of salad dressing from a bottle, the snapping of a candy bar, or the pumping of cream through a homogenizer are each related to the rheological properties of these materials. In this chapter, we describe fundamental concepts pertinent to the understanding of the subject and discuss typical examples of rheological tests for common foods. A glossary is included as Sect. 30.6 to clarify and summarize rheological definitions throughout the chapter.

Daubert, Christopher R.; Foegeding, E. Allen

270

Presynaptic inhibition of spinal sensory feedback ensures smooth movement.  

PubMed

The precision of skilled movement depends on sensory feedback and its refinement by local inhibitory microcircuits. One specialized set of spinal GABAergic interneurons forms axo-axonic contacts with the central terminals of sensory afferents, exerting presynaptic inhibitory control over sensory-motor transmission. The inability to achieve selective access to the GABAergic neurons responsible for this unorthodox inhibitory mechanism has left unresolved the contribution of presynaptic inhibition to motor behaviour. We used Gad2 as a genetic entry point to manipulate the interneurons that contact sensory terminals, and show that activation of these interneurons in mice elicits the defining physiological characteristics of presynaptic inhibition. Selective genetic ablation of Gad2-expressing interneurons severely perturbs goal-directed reaching movements, uncovering a pronounced and stereotypic forelimb motor oscillation, the core features of which are captured by modelling the consequences of sensory feedback at high gain. Our findings define the neural substrate of a genetically hardwired gain control system crucial for the smooth execution of movement. PMID:24784215

Fink, Andrew J P; Croce, Katherine R; Huang, Z Josh; Abbott, L F; Jessell, Thomas M; Azim, Eiman

2014-05-01

271

Sensory integration does not lead to sensory calibration  

PubMed Central

One generally has the impression that one feels one's hand at the same location as one sees it. However, because our brain deals with possibly conflicting visual and proprioceptive information about hand position by combining it into an optimal estimate of the hand's location, mutual calibration is not necessary to achieve such a coherent percept. Does sensory integration nevertheless entail sensory calibration? We asked subjects to move their hand between visual targets. Blocks of trials without any visual feedback about their hand's position were alternated with blocks with veridical visual feedback. Whenever vision was removed, individual subjects' hands slowly drifted toward the same position to which they had drifted on previous blocks without visual feedback. The time course of the observed drift depended in a predictable manner (assuming optimal sensory combination) on the variable errors in the blocks with and without visual feedback. We conclude that the optimal use of unaligned sensory information, rather than changes within either of the senses or an accumulation of execution errors, is the cause of the frequently observed movement drift. The conclusion that seeing one's hand does not lead to an alignment between vision and proprioception has important consequences for the interpretation of previous work on visuomotor adaptation. PMID:17130453

Smeets, Jeroen B. J.; van den Dobbelsteen, John J.; de Grave, Denise D. J.; van Beers, Robert J.; Brenner, Eli

2006-01-01

272

Sensor Selection and Chemo-Sensory Optimization: Toward an Adaptable Chemo-Sensory System  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to “adapt” in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID:22319492

Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

2011-01-01

273

Surface Texture of Foods: Perception and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface texture is generally accepted as a key sensory factor of food materials and has great impact on consumers' perception and expectation of a food product. However, no authentic definition has been given in the literature for the term surface texture. Its real meaning is often rather confusing, varying from case to case and from person to person. A general

Jianshe Chen

2007-01-01

274

Layered Network Model of Sensory Cortex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to ...

B. J. Travis

1986-01-01

275

Making Sense of Sensory Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

Hendrix, Marie

2010-01-01

276

Sensory Threads Karen Martin1  

E-print Network

/carnival and hobbyist robotics. Sensory Threads continues in this vein, bringing in new partners to explore how sensor frequencies, non-visible light spectrum. Yet these imperceptible streams interact with us regularly as we go School of Economics 6 School of Management, University of Southampton #12;aiming to provoke sensitivities

Roussos, George

277

Research report Sensory cortical dynamics  

E-print Network

transmission). Tradition- ally, fast neural computation is viewed as occurring in essentially stable or `hard in the pattern of sensory drive (i.e. experience-based cortical plasticity, [5]). These long- term changes capable of rapid processing, and a plastic net- work capable of long-term change*/are conventionally

Kohn, Adam

278

Visualizing an Olfactory Sensory Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a genetic approach to visualize axons from olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor, as they project to the olfactory bulb. Neurons expressing a specific receptor project to only two topographically fixed loci among the 1800 glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb. Our data provide direct support for a model in which a topographic map of

Peter Mombaerts; Fan Wang; Catherine Dulac; Steve K. Chao; Adriana Nemes; Monica Mendelsohn; James Edmondson; Richard Axel

1996-01-01

279

Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

Skapof, Jerome

280

Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict  

PubMed Central

Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

Arnqvist, Goran

2006-01-01

281

Augmenting sensory-motor conflict promotes adaptation of postural behaviors in a virtual environment.  

PubMed

We present results from a series of studies that investigated how multimodal mismatches in a virtual environment modified postural response organization. Adaptation of motor commands to functional circumstances is driven directly by error signals. Thus, motor relearning should increase when performing in environments containing sensory mismatch. We hypothesized that kinematics of the response would be linked to specific characteristics of the sensory array. Sensory weighting was varied by: 1) rotating the visual field about the talo-crural joint or the interaural axis, 2) adding stochastic vibrations at the sole of the foot, and 3) combining galvanic vestibular stimulation with rotations of the visual field. Results indicated that postural responses are shaped by the location of a sensory disturbance and also by the processing demands of the environmental array. Sensory-motor demands need to be structured when developing therapeutic interventions for patients with balance disorders. PMID:22254574

Keshner, Emily A; Slaboda, Jill C; Buddharaju, Ravi; Lanaria, Lois; Norman, Jeremy

2011-01-01

282

Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.  

PubMed

We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. PMID:21569808

Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

2011-08-01

283

Oxidative stability and sensory evaluation of microencapsulated flaxseed oil.  

PubMed

Cold pressed flaxseed oil was microencapsulated by spray drying using an emulsion containing modified starch. The fatty acid composition, moisture, water activity, wettability, water holding capacity, water solubility, crystallinity, and particle size distribution of the microcapsules were determined. The stability of the microcapsules and the crude oil were assessed. An acceptance test was used for the sensory evaluation of a powdered supplement containing the microcapsules. The fatty acid composition was not significantly affected by the microencapsulation. The moisture, water activity, wettability, water solubility and crystallinity were appropriate for dry powders. The microcapsules had no cracks and showed better oxidative stability compared with the crude oil. Storage under vacuum prevented oxidation of the microcapsules. In sensory evaluation, all quality scores of the supplement containing microcapsules were mid-range or higher. The microencapsulation improved the oxidative stability of the oil and this procedure was satisfactorily applied in powdered food. PMID:23962202

Barroso, Ana Karina Mauro; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Freitas, Suely Pereira; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena Miguez da

2014-01-01

284

The phenomenology of food cravings: The role of mental imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to investigate the role of mental imagery in the experience of food cravings. A sample of 130 undergraduate students was first asked to recall and rate a previous food craving experience. Second, they were asked to imagine themselves eating their favourite food and to rate the involvement of different sensory modalities. It was found that mental imagery

M. Tiggemann; E. Kemps

2005-01-01

285

Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 12851293 The influence of sensory information on patch residence time in wolf spiders  

E-print Network

of sensory cues without food reward on residence time in wolf spiders, as well as the interaction of visual, even without food rewards, are sufficient criteria to influence residence time. Spiders tended October 1995; MS number: A7310R) Abstract. Foraging models emphasize reward and/or prey capture rates

Persons, Matthew H.

286

Endocannabinoid Hedonic Hotspot for Sensory Pleasure: Anandamide in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Enhances ‘Liking’ of a Sweet Reward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabinoid drugs such as ?9-THC are euphoric and rewarding, and also stimulate food intake in humans and animals. Little is known about how naturally occurring endogenous brain cannabinoids mediate pleasure from food or other natural sensory rewards. The taste reactivity paradigm measures effects of brain manipulations on affective orofacial reactions to intraorally administered pleasant and unpleasant tastes. Here we tested

Stephen V Mahler; Kyle S Smith; Kent C Berridge

2007-01-01

287

Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres’s theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of two age groups, 2- to 5-yr-olds (n = 231) and 6- to 10-yr-olds (n = 223). With each group, we tested several CFA models for goodness of fit with the data. The accepted model was identical for each group and indicated that tactile, vestibular–proprioceptive, visual, and auditory systems form distinct, valid factors that are not age dependent. In contrast, alternative models that grouped items according to sensory processing problems (e.g., over- or underresponsiveness within or across sensory systems) did not yield valid factors. Results indicate that distinct sensory system constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data. PMID:25184467

Su, Chia-Ting

2014-01-01

288

Validity of sensory systems as distinct constructs.  

PubMed

This study investigated the validity of sensory systems as distinct measurable constructs as part of a larger project examining Ayres's theory of sensory integration. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test whether sensory questionnaire items represent distinct sensory system constructs. Data were obtained from clinical records of two age groups, 2- to 5-yr-olds (n = 231) and 6- to 10-yr-olds (n = 223). With each group, we tested several CFA models for goodness of fit with the data. The accepted model was identical for each group and indicated that tactile, vestibular-proprioceptive, visual, and auditory systems form distinct, valid factors that are not age dependent. In contrast, alternative models that grouped items according to sensory processing problems (e.g., over- or underresponsiveness within or across sensory systems) did not yield valid factors. Results indicate that distinct sensory system constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data. PMID:25184467

Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L Diane

2014-01-01

289

Sensory perception in overdenture patients.  

PubMed

The discussion of overdentures has been confined to their capacity to use abutment teeth to improve neuromuscular control of mandibular movement. Use of overdentures has been favored often because of their mechanical advantages, but seldom because of the sensory role of the retained abutment teeth. Even though the retained teeth may be periodontally diseased, they still may provide sufficient support for the transmission of masticatory pressures and sufficient periodontal ligament receptors to initiate a jaw opening reflex. Whereas conflicting evidence shows that the periodontal nerve receptors play a role in mandibular positional sensibility (proprioception), pressure perception by the periodontal ligament remains a primary stimulus for the jaw opening reflex. Additional investigations will be essential to a complete understanding of the role of the periodontal ligament receptors. However, recognition of the importance of the periodontal ligament receptors to the overdenture patient as a source of sensory input is vital. PMID:1066472

Kay, W D; Abes, M S

1976-06-01

290

The Sensory Neurons of Touch  

PubMed Central

The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

2013-01-01

291

Electronic noses in food analysis.  

PubMed

Gas sensor array technology combined with multivariate data processing methods as artificial neural network has been demonstrated to have a promising potential for rapid non-destructive analysis of food quality. It may be applicable in quality control of raw material, food processing or products. This technique cannot completely replace reference methods like the use of sensory panels as the technique requires a frequent calibration against some valid reference method. As with all new techniques there remain some basic problems to be solved concerning sample handling and instrumental performance. The emerging research activity in the development of chemical sensors including hardware and software combined with applied research makes it realistic to expect applications with this technique implemented on-line in the food industry in near future. In particular, promising applications on meat seem to be within the field of spoilage, off-flavor, sensory analysis and fermentation processes. PMID:11548159

Haugen, J E

2001-01-01

292

VESTA Viticulture Course: Sensory Evaluation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Viticulture and Enology Science and Technology Alliance, offers presentations and slides from the lectures of VIN 266: Sensory Evaluation. From the presenter, Ray Johnson, the three lectures included are: Enhancing Winetasting: Decanting, Enhancing Winetasting: Glassware, and Winetasting Methodology Basic Techniques. Users must have Microsoft's Silverlight installed to view the presentations, which vary in length from about 6 minutes to 16 minutes.

2010-11-09

293

Sensory Augmentation for the Blind  

PubMed Central

Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

Karcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; Konig, Peter

2012-01-01

294

Enhanced sensory perception in synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous findings imply that synaesthetic experience may have consequences for sensory processing of stimuli that do not themselves\\u000a trigger synaesthesia. For example, synaesthetes who experience colour show enhanced perceptual processing of colour compared\\u000a to non-synaesthetes. This study aimed to investigate whether enhanced perceptual processing was a core property of synaesthesia\\u000a by contrasting tactile and colour sensitivity in synaesthetes who experience

Michael J. Banissy; Vincent Walsh; Jamie Ward

2009-01-01

295

Morphology of Electroreceptive Sensory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of electroreceptive organs in lampreys and their larvae, different fishes, aquatic amphibians, and monotreme\\u000a mammals is described. The sense organs vary from superficial end buds in lampreys, to ampullary organs and tuberous organs\\u000a in many fishes and amphibians, to specialized mucous glands in the monotremes. The sensory cells are quite different. Some\\u000a have a bundle of apical microvilli,

Jørgen Mørup Jørgensen

296

Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper

297

Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

2010-01-01

298

Robotic Arc Welding: Research in Sensory Feedback Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic arc welding and its dependence on sensory feed-back control for successful application is discussed. Problems unique to arc weld sensing are identified and sensor requirements are categorized as a function of welding design requirements, joint imperfections, weld shape deviations, and process characteristics. The two most prevalent approaches of weld sensing, i.e., optical and through-the arc sensing, are covered.

George E. Cook

1983-01-01

299

Nature and consequences of non-covalent interactions between flavonoids and macronutrients in foods.  

PubMed

Many of the potential health benefits of flavonoids have been associated with their specific chemical and biological properties including their ability to interact and bind non-covalently to macronutrients in foods. While flavonoid-protein interactions and binding have been the subject of intensive study, significantly less is understood about non-covalent interactions with carbohydrates and lipids. These interactions with macronutrients are likely to impact both the flavonoid properties in foods, such as their radical scavenging activity, and the food or beverage matrix itself, including their taste, texture and other sensorial properties. Overall, non-covalent binding of flavonoids with macronutrients is primarily driven by van der Waals interactions. From the flavonoid perspective, these interactions are modulated by characteristics such as degree of polymerization, molecular flexibility, number of external hydroxyl groups, or number of terminal galloyl groups. From the macronutrient standpoint, electrostatic and ionic interactions are generally predominant with carbohydrates, while hydrophobic interactions are generally predominant with lipids and mainly limited to interactions with flavonols. All of these interactions are involved in flavonoid-protein interactions. While primarily associated with undesirable characteristics in foods and beverages, such as astringency, negative impact on macronutrient digestibility and hazing, more recent efforts have attempted to leverage these interactions to develop controlled delivery systems or strategies to enhance flavonoids bioavailability. This paper aims at reviewing the fundamental bases for non-covalent interactions, their occurrence in food and beverage systems and their impact on the physico-chemical, organoleptic and some nutritional properties of food. PMID:24326533

Bordenave, Nicolas; Hamaker, Bruce R; Ferruzzi, Mario G

2014-01-01

300

Is fast food addictive?  

PubMed

Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

2011-09-01

301

Sensory analysis of acidified dairy products using response surface methodology  

E-print Network

/dislike, preference, or acceptance (hedonic) (2). The hedonic scale has been the most useful tool for the sensory evaluation of food and beverages. On this scale, each point is identified by an easy and clear verbal descriptor. Each descriptor should be equidistant... from the preceding or subsequent one in psychological terms. For interpretation of the results of a 9-point hedonic scale, the descriptors are converted to numbers by assigning a value of one to "dislike extremely" to a value of 9 to represent "like...

Rocha, Maria de Guadalupe

2012-06-07

302

Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: implications for in-mouth sensory properties.  

PubMed

Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency. PMID:23289627

McRae, Jacqui M; Schulkin, Alex; Kassara, Stella; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A

2013-01-23

303

Differences in sensory ecology contribute to resource partitioning in the bats Myotis bechsteinii and Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coexisting animal species frequently differ in resource use in at least one niche dimension and thus avoid competition. While\\u000a a range of morphological differences that lead to differentiation in animals' mechanical access to food have been identified,\\u000a the role of sensory differences in within-guild niche differentiation has received less attention. We tested the hypothesis\\u000a that differences in sensory access to

Björn M. Siemers; Susan M. Swift

2006-01-01

304

Effect of facial sensory re-training on sensory thresholds.  

PubMed

Nearly 100% of patients experience trauma to the trigeminal nerve during orthognathic surgery, impairing sensation and sensory function on the face. In a recent randomized clinical trial, people who performed sensory re-training exercises reported less difficulty related to residual numbness and decreased lip sensitivity than those who performed standard opening exercises only. We hypothesized that re-training reduces the impaired performance on neurosensory tests of tactile function that is commonly observed post-surgically. We analyzed thresholds for contact detection, two-point discrimination, and two-point perception, obtained during the clinical trial before and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, to assess tactile detection and discriminative sensitivities, and subjective interpretation of tactile stimulation, respectively. Post-surgery, the retrained persons exhibited less impairment, on average, than non-retrained persons only in two-point perception (P < 0.025), suggesting that retrained persons experienced or interpreted the tactile stimuli differently than did non-retrained persons. PMID:17525360

Essick, G K; Phillips, C; Zuniga, J

2007-06-01

305

Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for intelligent behavior will be reviewed. A robot control system for autonomous behavior that uses learned SMC will be proposed. Techniques for the extraction of salient parameters from sensory and motor data will be discussed. Experiments with Robonaut will be discussed and preliminary data presented.

Peters, Richard Alan, II

2003-01-01

306

A Mixed-methods Investigation of Sensory Response Patterns in Barth Syndrome: A Clinical Phenotype?  

PubMed Central

Barth syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects approximately 1/500,000 boys each year. While treatment of medical complications associated with Barth is of primary importance, there is a concomitant need to look at behavioral and clinical features of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of atypical sensory processing in 21 boys with Barth syndrome and to explore if phenotypic patterns of sensory responsiveness may be useful in early diagnosis. Using a mixed methods approach, we found that sensory issues related to feeding and eating were ubiquitous in our sample, with some behaviors such as strong gag reflex identifiable early in development. Specifically, boys with Barth had a strong preference for salty, cheesy, and spicy foods while having an overall restricted repertoire of foods they would eat (e.g. picky eaters). In boys with Barth as they age, auditory sensitivity and auditory filtering issues also emerged as potential sensory-related behaviors affecting academic performance and participation. Overall, this study suggests that early identification of sensory patterns in Barth may assist in differential diagnosis and create opportunities for early interventions that may minimize the impact of these behaviors on function and participation. PMID:22711649

Reynolds, Stacey; Kreider, Consuelo; Bendixen, Roxanna

2012-01-01

307

Operationally realistic validation for prediction of cocoa sensory qualities by high-throughput mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The potential of analytical chemistry to predict sensory qualities of food materials is a major current theme. Standard practice is cross-validation (CV), where a set of chemical and associated sensory data is partitioned so chemometric models can be developed on training subsets, and validated on held-out subsets. CV demonstrates prediction, but is an unlikely scenario for industrial operations, where concomitant data acquisition for model development and test materials would be unwieldy. We evaluated cocoa materials of diverse provenance, and analyzed on different dates to those used in model development. Liquor extracts were analyzed by flow-injection electrospray-mass spectrometry (FIE-MS), a novel method for sensory quality prediction. FIE-MS enabled prediction of sensory qualities described by trained human panelists. Optimal models came from the Weka data-mining algorithm SimpleLinearRegression, which learns a model for the attribute giving minimal training error, which was (-)-epicatechin. This flavonoid likewise dominated partial least-squares (PLS)-regression models. Refinements of PLS (orthogonal-PLS or orthogonal signal correction) gave poorer generalization to different test sets, as did support vector machines, whose hyperparameters could not be optimized in training to avoid overfitting. In conclusion, if chemometric overfitting is avoided, chemical analysis can predict sensory qualities of food materials under operationally realistic conditions. PMID:20557115

Wood, Jacqueline E; Allaway, David; Boult, Emma; Scott, Ian M

2010-07-15

308

Sensory processing abilities of children with ADHD  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensory processing abilities of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children without disabilities, and to analyze the relationship between sensory processing difficulties and behavioural symptoms presented by children with ADHD. METHOD : Thirty-seven children with ADHD were compared with thirty-seven controls using a translated and adapted version of the "Sensory Profile" answered by the parents/caregivers. For the ADHD group, Sensory Profile scores were correlated to behavioural symptoms assessed using the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the Behavioural Teacher Rating Scale (EACI-P). The statistical analyses were conducted using the Mann Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS : Children with ADHD showed significant impairments compared to the control group in sensory processing and modulation, as well as in behavioural and emotional responses as observed in 11 out of 14 sections and 6 out of 9 factors. Differences in all Sensory Profile response patterns were also observed between the two groups of children. Sensory Profile scores showed a moderately negative correlation with CBCL and EACI-P scores in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION : These results indicate that children with ADHD may present sensory processing impairments, which may contribute to the inappropriate behavioural and learning responses displayed by children with ADHD. It also suggests the importance of understanding the sensory processing difficulties and its possible contribution to the ADHD symptomatology. PMID:25076000

Shimizu, Vitoria T.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.; Miranda, Monica C.

2014-01-01

309

Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers  

PubMed Central

We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

310

Longitudinal follow-up of factors associated with food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders longitudinally. Additionally explored were the stability of the relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity from time 1 to time 2 and the association between food selectivity and restricted and repetitive behavior at time 2. A total of 52 parents of children with autism were surveyed approximately 20 months after completing an initial questionnaire. First and second surveys each contained identical parent-response item to categorize food selectivity level and a scale to measure sensory over-responsivity. A new scale to measure restricted and repetitive behaviors was added at time 2. Results comparing time 1 to time 2 indicated no change in food selectivity level and a stable, significant relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity. The measure of restrictive and repetitive behavior (time 2) was found to significantly predict membership in the severe food selectivity group. However, when sensory over-responsivity and both restricted and repetitive behaviors were included in the regression model, only sensory over-responsivity significantly predicted severe food selectivity. These results support conclusions about the chronicity of food selectivity in young children with autism and the consistent relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity. PMID:24121181

Suarez, Michelle A; Nelson, Nickola W; Curtis, Amy B

2014-11-01

311

Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons  

PubMed Central

Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system. PMID:24509431

Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

2014-01-01

312

Morphology and Intrinsic Excitability of Regenerating Sensory and Motor Neurons Grown on a Line Micropattern  

PubMed Central

Axonal regeneration is one of the greatest challenges in severe injuries of peripheral nerve. To provide the bridge needed for regeneration, biological or synthetic tubular nerve constructs with aligned architecture have been developed. A key point for improving axonal regeneration is assessing the effects of substrate geometry on neuronal behavior. In the present study, we used an extracellular matrix-micropatterned substrate comprising 3 µm wide lines aimed to physically mimic the in vivo longitudinal axonal growth of mice peripheral sensory and motor neurons. Adult sensory neurons or embryonic motoneurons were seeded and processed for morphological and electrical activity analyses after two days in vitro. We show that micropattern-guided sensory neurons grow one or two axons without secondary branching. Motoneurons polarity was kept on micropattern with a long axon and small dendrites. The micro-patterned substrate maintains the growth promoting effects of conditioning injury and demonstrates, for the first time, that neurite initiation and extension could be differentially regulated by conditioning injury among DRG sensory neuron subpopulations. The micro-patterned substrate impacts the excitability of sensory neurons and promotes the apparition of firing action potentials characteristic for a subclass of mechanosensitive neurons. The line pattern is quite relevant for assessing the regenerative and developmental growth of sensory and motoneurons and offers a unique model for the analysis of the impact of geometry on the expression and the activity of mechanosensitive channels in DRG sensory neurons. PMID:25329060

Benzina, Ouafa; Cloitre, Thierry; Martin, Marta; Raoul, Cedric; Gergely, Csilla; Scamps, Frederique

2014-01-01

313

A new pressure sensory mechanism for prey detection in birds: the use of principles of seabed dynamics?  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in birds. Red knots (Calidris canutus), sandpipers that occur worldwide in coastal intertidal areas, are able to detect their favourite hard-shelled prey even when buried in sand beyond the reach of their bills. In operant conditioning experiments designed to find out whether the birds could tell buckets containing only wet sand from buckets containing hard objects in wet sand, we show that they detect the presence not only of deeply buried live bivalves but also of stones. The latter finding virtually excludes, under experimental conditions, prey-detection mechanisms based on vision, acoustics, smell, taste, vibrational signals emitted by prey, temperature gradients and electromagnetic fields. A failure to discriminate between food and non-food trays with dry sand indicates that pore water is involved. Based on the presence of large arrays of Herbst corpuscles (sensory organs that can measure the acceleration due to changes in pressure), the specifics of foraging technique and the characteristics of sediments on which red knots feed, we deduce that the sensory mechanism involves the perception of pressure gradients that are formed when bills probe in soft sediments in which inanimate objects block pore water flow. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been described before. It is argued that repeated probing in soft, wet sediments allows red knots to induce a residual pressure build-up of sufficient strength to detect the pressure disturbance caused by a nearby object. The cyclic process of shaking loosely packed sand grains followed by gravitational settling into a closer packing, leads, owing to insufficient drainage of the sediment, to a locally increased pressure disturbance that is 'pumped up' at each shake.

Piersma, T.; Aelst, R. van; Kurk, K.; Berkhoudt, H.; Maas, L. R. M.

1998-01-01

314

Food safety  

MedlinePLUS

Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and ... Poor food handling and inadequate food safety can cause infection ... include stomach problems. Foodborne illness may be severe and ...

315

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

316

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...

317

Food allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Allergy to food ... contain gluten (See: Celiac disease ) A true food allergy is much less common. Normally, your body's immune ... releases substances that cause the symptoms of food allergies. Any food can cause an allergic reaction, but ...

318

The CCHamide 1 receptor modulates sensory perception and olfactory behavior in starved Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The olfactory response of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to food odor is modulated by starvation. Here we show that this modulation is not restricted to food odors and their detecting sensory neurons but rather increases the behavioral response to odors as different as food odors, repellents and pheromones. The increased behavioral responsiveness is paralleled by an increased physiological sensitivity of sensory neurons regardless whether they express olfactory or ionotropic receptors and regardless whether they are housed in basiconic, coeloconic, or trichoid sensilla. Silencing several genes that become up-regulated under starvation confirmed the involvement of the short neuropeptide f receptor in the starvation effect. In addition it revealed that the CCHamide-1 receptor is another important factor governing starvation-induced olfactory modifications. PMID:24067446

Farhan, Abu; Gulati, Jyotasana; Gro?e-Wilde, Ewald; Vogel, Heiko; Hansson, Bill S.; Knaden, Markus

2013-01-01

319

Pulsed Light Treatments for Food Preservation. A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers demand high-quality processed foods with minimal changes in nutritional and sensory properties. Nonthermal methods\\u000a are considered to keep food quality attributes better than traditional thermal processing. Pulsed light (PL) is an emerging\\u000a nonthermal technology for decontamination of food surfaces and food packages, consisting of short time high-peak pulses of\\u000a broad spectrum white light. It is considered an alternative to

Gemma Oms-Oliu; Olga Martín-Belloso; Robert Soliva-Fortuny

2010-01-01

320

Food irradiation and sterilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

Josephson, Edward S.

321

Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents.  

PubMed

We learned previously that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) use affective processes to shift flavor preference, and cognitive associations (colors) to avoid food, subsequent to avoidance conditioning. We conducted three experiments with captive red-winged blackbirds to reconcile varied consequences of treated food with conditioned sensory cues. In Experiment 1, we compared food avoidance conditioned with lithium chloride (LiCl) or naloxone hydrochloride (NHCl) to evaluate cue-consequence specificity. All blackbirds conditioned with LiCl (gastrointestinal toxin) avoided the color (red) and flavor (NaCl) of food experienced during conditioning; birds conditioned with NHCl (opioid antagonist) avoided only the color (not the flavor) of food subsequent to conditioning. In Experiment 2, we conditioned experimentally naïve blackbirds using free choice of colored (red) and flavored (NaCl) food paired with an anthraquinone- (postingestive, cathartic purgative), methiocarb- (postingestive, cholinesterase inhibitor), or methyl anthranilate-based repellent (preingestive, trigeminal irritant). Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents avoided the color and flavor of foods experienced during conditioning; methyl anthranilate conditioned only color (not flavor) avoidance. In Experiment 3, we used a third group of blackbirds to evaluate effects of novel comparison cues (blue, citric acid) subsequent to conditioning with red and NaCl paired with anthraquinone or methiocarb. Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents did not avoid conditioned color or flavor cues when novel comparison cues were presented during the test. Thus, blackbirds cognitively associate pre- and postingestive consequences with visual cues, and reliably integrate visual and gustatory experience with postingestive consequences to procure nutrients and avoid toxins. PMID:20971129

Werner, Scott J; Provenza, Frederick D

2011-02-01

322

WHAT IS LACKING, STATEMENT ON SENSORY DEPRIVATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PAPER, WHICH ANNOUNCES THE THEME OF A SEMINAR ON THEORIES OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING, QUESTIONS THE VIEW THAT A CHILD'S POOR SCHOOL PERFORMANCE DERIVES FROM AN IMPOVERISHED SENSORY EXPERIENCE. A DEPRIVED TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT IS DEPICTED TO CAST DOUBTS ON THIS THEORY. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE EFFECTS OF SENSORY DEPRIVATION IS INCLUDED. THIS…

REGAN, J.

323

Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

2013-01-01

324

Sensory transduction in cough-associated nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before a tussive stimulus in the airways can evoke a cough reflex it must first cause action potential discharge in cough-associated vagal sensory nerves. This is initiated by the stimulus first interacting with the receptors and ion channels in the terminal membrane of the sensory fiber in a manner that leads to membrane depolarization. If the stimulus-induced membrane depolarization, referred

Marian Kollarik; Bradley J. Undem

2006-01-01

325

Sensory Evaluation Based on Ensemble Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory evaluation is one of the key steps in recipe product design. With the development of compute intelligence technology, many methods such as artificial neural network, decision tree, regression, etc are used to solve the problems in sensory evaluation. This becomes more and more popular. But the generalization ability using single model needs to be improved. This paper uses bagging

Tao Li; Daping Liu; Xiangqian Ding; Hongwei Liu; Xiaoliang Yuan

2008-01-01

326

Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

327

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2012-07-01

328

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2011-07-01

329

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2013-07-01

330

38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17.149 Section 17.149 Pensions, Bonuses...MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other...

2010-07-01

331

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... December 2009 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 is a condition ...

332

Effects of experience on striatal sensory responses.  

PubMed

It has been well documented that striatal neurons encode and process sensory information. It was the aim of the present experiment to determine the extent to which behavioral experience influenced striatal sensory responses. Single units were recorded in the striatum of awake restrained cats as they were adapted to the recording situation. To facilitate recording, cats were rewarded with milk for remaining quiet and motionless. As animals evidenced familiarity with the testing environment, striatal neurons showed heightened sensory receptivity. These results indicate the important influence of behavioral determinants of striatal sensory responses. The nature of the behavioral experience may determine the way in which sensory information is processed in this part of the basal ganglia. PMID:7970169

Lidsky, T I; Schneider, J S

1994-06-20

333

Thermoelectricity and noncellular sensory transduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sharks and rays possess electrosensors that provide environmental data assisting such tasks as prey detection and mate location. These organs are also incredibly sensitive to minute changes in temperature, and their reaction to temperature is unlike any other thermoreceptor known in nature. We have collected samples of the extracellular gel that fills the electrosensitive organs, and, while characterizing its material properties, we have found an average thermopower of roughly 300 microvolts/Kelvin. We will discuss the implications of these data in terms of a novel, noncellular mode of sensory transduction, in which a thermal fluctuation is translated into an electrical stimulus by the gel. We will also contrast the gel to more established thermoelectric materials.

Brown, Brandon

2003-03-01

334

Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.  

PubMed

Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

Harvey, Joshua Paul

2013-06-01

335

Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of foods by fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology. Fermentation ensures not only increased shelf life and microbiological safety of a food but also may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria because of their unique metabolic characteristics are involved in many fermentation

Elizabeth Caplice; Gerald F Fitzgerald

1999-01-01

336

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

337

[Comparative characteristics of state control of food quality and safety in various countries of the world. I. State control of quality and safety of food products in Germany and Denmark].  

PubMed

The official control of food safety and quality is the most important tool for governmental protection of public health and consumers rights in foodstuffs business sector. Although historically each country developed it's own system reflecting national culture, economy etc., tremendous efforts were made in recent decades to pursue international harmonization of national food laws and regulation. The major goal of harmonization is to ensure that food laws and regulations of various countries are based on sound science and that consumers of various countries benefit from advances of new technologies. Germany and Denmark are members of European Union. Therefore basic principles of official foodstuffs control of both countries have been harmonized with respective EU directives. In contrast to Russia, the systems in both countries are not based on pre-market product certification and are focused instead on approval of manufacturing, storage and sale facilities as well as products related business practices of foodstuff suppliers. PMID:11550457

Berman, V A

2001-01-01

338

Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides\\u000a insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in\\u000a the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the\\u000a risk

Joseph R Sharkey; Wesley R Dean; Cassandra M Johnson

2011-01-01

339

Characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from meat and milk products of different origins and association with food producing animals as main contamination sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC contaminated foodstuff. Food producing animals constitute important reservoirs of STEC and serve as source of food contamination. In this study, we have analyzed 593 foodborne STEC strains for their serotypes and for nine virulence genes (stx1, stx1c,

Annett Martin; Lothar Beutin

2011-01-01

340

Food consumption in Gerris (Hemiptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters influencing food consumption in larvae and adults of five species of Gerris were studied. An experimental components analysis was utilized with emphasis placed on measurements of the length of time the insects spent handling food items, and the amount of food in the gut at any one time. The following characteristics were noted: (1) The maximum feeding time

G. S. Jamieson; G. G. E. Scudder

1977-01-01

341

Sensory control of hypothalamic hyperphagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were made of the effect of caloric content, texture and positive and negative taste qualities of diet on the food intake of normal and hyperphagic rats. On a powdered lab chow diet, the hyperphagics eat two to three times as much as normals. When this diet is adulterated by the addition of various proportions of nonnutritive cellulose, normals increase

Philip Teitelbaum

1955-01-01

342

Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.  

PubMed

One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role. PMID:23220697

Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter

2014-04-01

343

Yield Stress in Foods: Measurements and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the presence of true yield stress has been debated, it has been accepted as an engineering reality. Now, yield stress is routinely measured and used in the food industry not only for basic process calculations and manufacturing practices, but also as a test for sensory and quality indices and to determine the effect of composition and manufacturing procedures on

Adriano Sun; Sundaram Gunasekaran

2009-01-01

344

From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for…

Lynch, Meghan

2012-01-01

345

Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.  

PubMed

Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2011-01-01

346

Sensory organs of adult Amphilina foliacea (Amphilinida).  

PubMed

The distribution and morphological diversity of the sensory structures on the body surface, proboscis and caudal cavity of adult Amphilina foliacea have been investigated. Fifteen different types of receptors are described. Along with nonciliated and uniciated receptors bi- and multiciliated receptors have been found for the first time. The zonal distribution of the sensory structures and their coincidence within the same areas of the body surface have been revealed. The concentration of sensory structures at the posterior end may indirectly confirm a hypothesis of the unavailability of developed attachment disk in ancestors of amphilinids. PMID:11034167

Dudicheva, V A; Biserova, N M

2000-01-01

347

Electromagnetic characterization of metallic sensory alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

2013-01-01

348

Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

2012-01-01

349

Food ProtectionTrends,Vol. 25, No. 12, Pages 981990 2005, International Association for Food Protection  

E-print Network

on food workers' self-reported food safety practices and beliefs about factors that impacted their ability; management and coworker emphasis on food safety; worker characteristics;negative consequences for those who do not prepare food safely;food safety education and training; restaurant procedures; and glove

350

An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism  

PubMed Central

Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

2012-01-01

351

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

352

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... More Information Health and Nutrition Information for Preschoolers Food Safety Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. This makes ... That's why it's important to follow the recommended food safety guidelines. Keep food safe to eat by following ...

353

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Resources My Membership About the AAAAI Food Allergy Conditions & Treatments Acute Severe Asthma Allergen Allergic Asthma ... Agammaglobulinemia (XLA) Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your ...

354

FEESST: a new bedside endoscopic test of the motor and sensory components of swallowing.  

PubMed

We here introduce an office or bedside method of evaluating both the motor and sensory components of swallowing, called fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing (FEESST). FEESST combines the established endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with a technique that determines laryngopharyngeal (LP) sensory discrimination thresholds by endoscopically delivering air pulse stimuli to the mucosa innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve. Endoscopic assessment of LP sensory capacity followed by endoscopic visualization of deglutition was prospectively performed 148 times on 133 patients with dysphagia over an 8-month period. The patients had a variety of underlying diagnoses, with stroke and chronic neurologic disease predominating (n = 94). Subsequent to LP sensory testing, a complete dysphagia evaluation was conducted. Various food and liquid consistencies were dyed green, and attention was paid to their management throughout the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Evidence of latent swallow initiation, pharyngeal pooling and/or residue, laryngeal penetration, laryngeal aspiration, and/or reflux was noted. Recommendations for therapeutic intervention were based on information obtained during the FEESST and often involved the employment of compensatory swallowing strategies, modification of the diet or its presentation, placement on non-oral feeding status, and/or referral to other related specialists. All patients successfully completed the examination. In 111 of the evaluations (75%), severe (>6.0 mm Hg air pulse pressure [APP]) unilateral or bilateral LP sensory deficits were found. With puree consistencies, 31% of evaluations with severe deficits, compared to 5% of evaluations with either normal sensitivity or moderate (4.0 to 6.0 mm Hg APP) LP sensory deficits, displayed aspiration (p < .001, chi2 test). With puree consistencies, 69% of evaluations with severe deficits, compared to 24% with normal or moderate deficits, displayed laryngeal penetration (p < .001, chi2 test). FEESST allows the clinician to obtain a comprehensive bedside assessment of swallowing that is performed as the initial swallowing evaluation for the patient with dysphagia. PMID:9596214

Aviv, J E; Kim, T; Sacco, R L; Kaplan, S; Goodhart, K; Diamond, B; Close, L G

1998-05-01

355

Food Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

356

Food Packaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

Engineering K-Phd Program

357

Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia: a neuroaxonal dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), a rare hereditary ataxia, is characterized by progressive dysfunction of central\\u000a sensory pathways. Its pathological features have not been previously documented. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with\\u000a ADSA who died of congestive heart failure. Autopsy specimens of brain, thoracolumbar spinal cord, peripheral nerve and skeletal\\u000a muscle were examined. There was no abnormality

Jeremy J. Moeller; Robert J. B. Macaulay; Paul N. Valdmanis; Lyle E. Weston; Guy A. Rouleau; Nicolas Dupré

2008-01-01

358

Sensory circumventricular organs in health and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized brain structures located around the third and fourth ventricles. They differ\\u000a from the rest of the brain parenchyma in that they are highly vascularised areas that lack a blood–brain barrier. These neurohaemal\\u000a organs are classified as “sensory”, when they contain neurons that can receive chemical inputs from the bloodstream. This\\u000a review focuses on the sensory

Sílvia Sisó; Martin Jeffrey; Lorenzo González

2010-01-01

359

Sensory and attention abnormalities in autistic spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience, describe and exhibit unusual patterns of sensation and attention. These anomalies have been hypothesized to result from overarousal and consequent overfocused attention. Parents of individuals with ASD rated items in three domains, ‘sensory overreactivity’, ‘sensory underreactivity’ and ‘sensory seeking behaviors’, of an expanded version of the Sensory Profile, a 103-item rating scale

Miriam Liss; Celine Saulnier; Deborah Fein; Marcel Kinsbourne

2006-01-01

360

Control of food handling by cutaneous receptor input in squirrels.  

PubMed

In a complementary neuroanatomical study by Brenowitz in 1980, it was shown that tree squirrels (Sciurus niger) have a higher relative density of mechanoreceptors in their glabrous forepaw skin than do ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). The main purpose of this sudy was to test the prediction that tree squirrels would depend upon somatic sensory (cutaneous) input from their forepaws to a greater extent than would ground squirrels in food handling behavior. In addition, a series of more general questions about the sensory control of food handling was examined. First, using different sized food items, it was shown that food handling (rate of manipulation) is subject to sensory control, in general. Secondly, comparision of sham-operated groups with groups receiving median nerve (innervating the palmar surface) lesions showed that cutaneous input from the volar surface of the forepaw contributes to the sensory control in both species of squirrels. Thirdly, comparison of lesion effects in the two species showed that, as predicted, tree squirrels depend upon cutaneous input from their volar forepaw to a greater extent than do ground squirrels. Fourthly, by reanalyzing the above data it was shown that there is continued sensory feedback from food items rather than only an initial evaluation of them. PMID:7437901

Brenowitz, G L

1980-01-01

361

Anthropogenic Noise Affects Behavior across Sensory Modalities.  

PubMed

Abstract Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals. PMID:25226190

Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R

2014-10-01

362

Influence of nanoencapsulation on the sensory properties of cosmetic formulations containing lipoic acid.  

PubMed

Sensory analysis has become a valuable tool in qualifying consumer perception regarding cosmetic products. This study aims to explore the application of discriminative and affective consumers sensory analysis in evaluating the influence of nanoencapsulation on the sensory properties and rheological characteristics of a cosmetic formulation containing lipoic acid. The nanocapsules were prepared by the pre-formed polymer precipitation method. Semisolid formulations were prepared using a silicone emulsion system, and these pseudoplastic fluids were characterized using rheological methods. The panellists (n = 88) analysed the formulations with and without nanoencapsulated lipoic acid as paired comparisons within the discriminative and affective sensory analysis. In these measurements, spreadability, stickiness, oiliness and sulphur odour were evaluated. The panellists had no previous training in conducting these measurements. It was shown that nanotechnology can change some sensory characteristics of the formulations. The spreadability, stickiness and oiliness are the attributes for which the panellists noted differences with statistical significance. The spreadability difference could be due to the results found in the rheological profiles and consistency indexes between formulations. In the discriminative analysis, the panellists could not detect any noticeable differences in the sulphur odour or residual properties between samples, attributes that would influence whether consumers adhered to the selected treatment. Considering affective analysis, the consumers communicated that the formulation containing the nanoencapsulated lipoic acid, which presented less consistency, was preferred based on the reduction in immediate stickiness and residual sulphur odour. The free lipoic acid formulation was preferred in terms of residual oiliness and spreadability. PMID:23075068

Külkamp-Guerreiro, I C; Berlitz, S J; Contri, R V; Alves, L R; Henrique, E G; Barreiros, V R M; Guterres, S S

2013-02-01

363

Longitudinal Follow-up of Factors Associated with Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders longitudinally. Additionally explored were the stability of the relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity from time 1 to time 2 and the association between food selectivity and restricted and repetitive behavior at time…

Suarez, Michelle A.; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

2014-01-01

364

Choosing organics: a path analysis of factors underlying the selection of organic food among Australian consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path analysis of attitudinal, motivational, demographic and behavioural factors influencing food choice among Australian consumers who had consumed at least some organic food in the preceding 12 months showed that concern with the naturalness of food and the sensory and emotional experience of eating were the major determinants of increasing levels of organic consumption. Increasing consumption was also related to

Stewart Lockie; Kristen Lyons; Geoffrey Lawrence; Janet Grice

2004-01-01

365

Effects of various oilseed proteins on the sensory and storage stability properties of vacuum packaged frankfurters  

E-print Network

LIST OF FIGURES X11 CHAPTERS GENERAL INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 13 Overall design Manufacturing 13 15 IV EFFECT OF OILSEED PROTEINS AT TWQ REPLACEMENT LEVELS ON CHEMICAL SENSORY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES... (Cassens et al. , 1975). Increasing costs of conven- tional protein foods (meat, milk, eggs) have encouraged sau- sage manufacturers to research the use of alternative protein sources, such as oilseed proteins as a replacement for some of the meat...

Brown, John Axtell

2012-06-07

366

Information for Decision Making and Stimulus Identification is Multiplexed in Sensory Cortex  

PubMed Central

In recordings from anterior piriform cortex (APC) in awake behaving mice we find that neuronal firing early in the olfactory pathway simultaneously conveys fundamentally different information: odor value – is the odor rewarded? - and identity - what is the smell? Thus, this sensory system performs early multiplexing of information reflecting stimulus–specific characteristics with that used for decision-making. PMID:23792942

Gire, David H.; Whitesell, Jennifer D.; Doucette, Wilder; Restrepo, Diego

2013-01-01

367

Effect of Some Stabilizers on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Type Frozen Yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of using some stabilizers on the viscosity, over-run, melting characteristics and sensory properties of frozen yogurt was investigated in this study. The ice cream mix in all groups was 10% fat, 13% sucrose, 13% MSNF (milk non-fat solids). stabilizers that were tried were Panisol ex (P), salab (s) and a mix of stabilizers and emulsifiers (M) include (sodium

Marzieh Moeenfard; Mostafa Mazaheri Tehrani

2008-01-01

368

Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific\\u000a patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based\\u000a cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes were differentiated by taste\\u000a and smell sensitivity and movement-related sensory behavior. Further, sensory processing subtypes

Robyn L. Young; Amy E. Z. Baker; Manya T. Angley

2010-01-01

369

Sensory influences on homing of stunted rat pups.  

PubMed

The effects of 2 methods of restricting food intake--large-litter rearing and rotation between lactating and nonlactating females--on sensory factors involved in homing to the nest by rat pups were examined. Homing was observed in the unaltered home cage, when olfactory cues were altered and when visual cues were altered. Stunted animals homed less in the unaltered cage than did well-nourished controls as a result of a maturational delay. Prior to eye opening, stunted animals showed greater disruption of homing when olfactory cues were altered and after eye opening they showed greater disruption when visual cues were altered. These effects could reflect decreased sensitivity, an inability to use alternate cues, or behavioral disruption by novel stimulation. Nonnutritional factors were also found to affect homing as the 2 well-nourished groups differed in their behaviors. These differences appeared to be due to animals reared in small litters maturing more slowly than animals rotated between females. PMID:7274575

Fleischer, S F; Turkewitz, G; Finklestein, H

1981-01-01

370

Related Links — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has launched an online mapping tool that locates food deserts. The Food Desert Locator also provides data on population characteristics where residents have limited access to affordable and nutritious foods, including low-income communities. The tool can be used to help advocates expand the availability of nutritious foods in these areas.

371

Sensory attributes of dishes containing shrimp paste with different concentrations of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides.  

PubMed

The shrimp paste called belacan is a traditional umami taste condiment extensively used in Malaysia that is rich in glutamate and 5'-nucleotides. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides of various types of foods prepared with belacan and to measure their sensory attributes. The concentration of free glutamic acid found in different brands of belacan was 180-530mg/100g and in local dishes 601-4207mg/100g. The total amount of 5'-nucleotides in belacan samples ranged from 0.85 to 42.25?g/g. A Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) using a list of 17 sensory attributes showed a good correlation between belacan concentration in the final food and a range of positive sensory attributes, except for bitter, sweet, sour taste and astringency. Belacan also contains bitter, sweet and sour compounds that change the positive attributes of belacan at higher concentrations. The highest aroma attributes were linked to nasi goreng belacan (belacan fried rice) while the highest flavour attributes were found in sambal belacan. There was a 32 folds significant increase of umami attributes with the addition of belacan to final foods. The optimum amount of belacan was 0.45% for asam pedas (tamarind flavoured dish with belacan), 18% for sambal belacan (chilli belacan), 1.5-2.5% for kangkong goreng belacan (stir fried water convolous with belacan), and 2% for nasi goreng belacan. PMID:20600418

Jinap, S; Ilya-Nur, A R; Tang, S C; Hajeb, P; Shahrim, K; Khairunnisak, M

2010-10-01

372

Sensory Jump Test as a measure of sensory (visual) lateralization in dogs ( Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory lateralization in dogs (n = 74) was investigated in this study using our innovation, the Sensory Jump Test. This required the modification of head halters to create three different ocular treatments (binocular, right, and left monocular vision) for eye preference assessment in a jumping task. Ten jumps were recorded as a jump set for each treatment. Measurements recorded included

Lisa M. Tomkins; Kent A. Williams; Peter C. Thomson; Paul D. McGreevy

2010-01-01

373

Ruggedness and other performance characteristics of low-pressure gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the fast analysis of multiple pesticide residues in food crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-pressure gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (LP-GC–MS) using a quadrupole MS instrument was further optimized and evaluated for the fast analysis of multiple pesticide residues in food crops. Performance of two different LP-GC–MS column configurations was compared in various experiments, including ruggedness tests with repeated injections of pesticides in matrix extracts. The tested column configurations employed the same 3m × 0.15mm i.d.

Kate?ina Maštovská; Jana Hajšlová; Steven J. Lehotay

2004-01-01

374

Feeding current characteristics of three morphologically different bivalve suspension feeders, Crassostrea gigas , Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule , in relation to food competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have shown rapid expansion in the Oosterschelde estuary, while stocks of native bivalves declined slightly or remained stable.\\u000a This indicates that they might have an advantage over native bivalve filter feeders. Hence, at the scale of individual bivalves,\\u000a we studied whether this advantage occurs in optimizing food intake over native bivalves. We investigated feeding current

Karin Troost; Eize J. Stamhuis; Luca A. van Duren; Wim J. Wolff

2009-01-01

375

First record of the temperate species Daphnia curvirostris Eylmann, 1887 emend. Johnson, 1952 (Cladocera: Daphniidae) in Mexico and its demographic characteristics in relation to algal food density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daphnia curvirostris is a typical European species but has also been recorded in Canada and USA. This is a new record for Mexico and the taxon\\u000a was collected from the Chimaliapan wetlands (State of Mexico, Mexico). Taxonomic descriptions of it are provided using both\\u000a light and scanning-electron microscopes. When cultured on the green alga Scenedesmus acutus at three food levels

S. Nandini; Marcelo Silva-Briano; Gerardo García García; S. S. S. Sarma; Araceli Adabache-Ortiz; Ricardo Galván de la Rosa

2009-01-01

376

Effect of ionising radiation treatment on the specific migration characteristics of packaging–food simulant combinations: effect of type and dose of radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration levels of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticiser from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film into the European Union specified aqueous food simulants (distilled water, 3% w\\/v acetic acid and 10% v\\/v ethanol) were monitored as a function of time. Migration testing was carried out at 40°C for 10 days. Determination of the analyte was performed by applying an analytical methodology based

P. D. Zygoura; E. K. Paleologos; M. G. Kontominas

2011-01-01

377

Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction.  

PubMed

Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists between food neophobia and both the variety in one person's diet and previous exposures to different foods. In this review, the more recent findings about food neophobia will be concisely described. Given the suggested connection between the exposure to different foods and food neophobia, this review will focus on the relation between this attitude and human chemosensory abilities. Olfaction, in particular, is a sensory modality that has a central role in flavor perception and in food preference acquisition. Therefore, the latest evidences about its relation with food neophobia will be discussed along with the applied and cognitive implications. PMID:24596565

Demattè, M Luisa; Endrizzi, Isabella; Gasperi, Flavia

2014-01-01

378

Application of the Dynamic Gastric Model to evaluate the effect of food on the drug release characteristics of a hydrophilic matrix formulation.  

PubMed

Characterisation of the effect of food on the bio-performance of modified and extended release dosage forms can be very challenging due to the need to replicate the dynamic biochemical conditions of the human gut as well as the complex physical processing modalities under fed state. Classical compendial methods are useful for testing the quality of pharmaceutical dosage forms but typically have limitations in the accurate prediction of food-effect in-vivo. Preliminary evaluation of the Dynamic Gastric Model (DGM) shows that it can provide substantially more detailed mechanistic information on dosage form properties compared to conventional compendial testing. The potential effect of food on the drug release and physical properties of a hydrophilic matrix formulation containing a model drug, hydrochlorothiazide, was studied using compendial methods, bio-relevant media and the DGM (in combination with an off-line intestinal model). Whilst the compendial methods with biorelevant media provided good correlation with the dissolution rates observed using the DGM/intestinal model under simulated fasted state, the quantification of simulated fed state performance changes was much more challenging using the compendial methods. Classical compendial studies using biorelevant FeSSIF and FaSSIF media could not readily discern differences in dissolution performance under fasted and fed states; however, the DGM could detect significant changes in both physical properties as well as drug release performance under fed state processing. PMID:24657141

Chessa, S; Huatan, H; Levina, M; Mehta, R Y; Ferrizzi, D; Rajabi-Siahboomi, A R

2014-05-15

379

Cellular and Network Mechanisms Underlying Information Processing in a Simple Sensory System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic, biophysically-based compartmental models were constructed of several primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system. A dynamic atlas of the afferent input to these cells was used to set spatio-temporal parameters for the simulated stimulus-dependent synaptic inputs. We examined the roles of dendritic morphology, passive membrane properties, and active conductances on the frequency tuning of the neurons. The sensitivity of narrow-band low pass interneurons could be explained entirely by the electronic structure of the dendritic arbors and the dynamic sensitivity of the SIZ. The dynamic characteristics of interneurons with higher frequency sensitivity required models with voltage-dependent dendritic conductances.

Jacobs, Gwen; Henze, Chris; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

380

Use of gamma-irradiation technology in combination with edible coating to produce shelf-stable foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of low-dose gamma-irradiation combined with edible coatings to produce shelf-stable foods. Three types of commercially distributed food products were investigated: precooked shrimps, ready to cook pizzas, and fresh strawberries. Samples were coated with various formulations of protein-based solutions and irradiated at total doses between 0 and 3 kGy. Samples were stored at 4°C and evaluated periodically for microbial growth. Sensorial analysis was also performed using a nine-point hedonic scale to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics (odor, taste and appearance). The results showed significant ( p?0.05) combined effect of gamma-irradiation and coating on microbial growth (APCs and Pseudomonas putida). The shelf-life extension periods ranged from 3 to 10 days for shrimps and from 7 to 20 days for pizzas, compared to uncoated/unirradiated products. No significant ( p>0.05) detrimental effect of gamma-irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, taste, appearance) was observed. In strawberries, coating with irradiated protein solutions resulted in significant reduction of the percentage of mold contamination.

Ouattara, B.; Sabato, S. F.; Lacroix, M.

2002-03-01

381

Sensory reweighting dynamics in human postural control.  

PubMed

Healthy humans control balance during stance by using an active feedback mechanism that generates corrective torque based on a combination of movement and orientation cues from visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. Previous studies found that the contribution of each of these sensory systems changes depending on perturbations applied during stance and on environmental conditions. The process of adjusting the sensory contributions to balance control is referred to as sensory reweighting. To investigate the dynamics of reweighting for the sensory modalities of vision and proprioception, 14 healthy young subjects were exposed to six different combinations of continuous visual scene and platform tilt stimuli while sway responses were recorded. Stimuli consisted of two components: 1) a pseudorandom component whose amplitude periodically switched between low and high amplitudes and 2) a low-amplitude sinusoidal component whose amplitude remained constant throughout a trial. These two stimuli were mathematically independent of one another and, thus, permitted separate analyses of sway responses to the two components. For all six stimulus combinations, the sway responses to the constant-amplitude sine were influenced by the changing amplitude of the pseudorandom component in a manner consistent with sensory reweighting. Results show clear evidence of intra- and intermodality reweighting. Reweighting dynamics were asymmetric, with slower reweighting dynamics following a high-to-low transition in the pseudorandom stimulus amplitude compared with low-to-high amplitude shifts, and were also slower for inter- compared with intramodality reweighting. PMID:24501263

Assländer, Lorenz; Peterka, Robert J

2014-05-01

382

The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Keegan TH, Hurley S, Goldberg D, Nelson DO, Reynolds P, Bernstein L, Horn-Ross PL, Gomez SL. The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort.

383

Food masquerade.  

PubMed

Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann

2010-01-01

384

Local Food Systems: Concepts, Impacts, and Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This comprehensive overview of local food systems explores alternative definitions of local food, estimates market size and reach, describes the characteristics of local consumers and producers, and examines early indications of the economic and health im...

M. Da Pra, M. Hand, S. Clark, S. Martinez, S. Pollack, S. Vogel

2010-01-01

385

Enhanced sensory sampling precedes self-initiated locomotion in an electric fish.  

PubMed

Cortical activity precedes self-initiated movements by several seconds in mammals; this observation has led into inquiries on the nature of volition. Preparatory neural activity is known to be associated with decision making and movement planning. Self-initiated locomotion has been linked to increased active sensory sampling; however, the precise temporal relationship between sensory acquisition and voluntary movement initiation has not been established. Based on long-term monitoring of sensory sampling activity that is readily observable in freely behaving pulse-type electric fish, we show that heightened sensory acquisition precedes spontaneous initiation of swimming. Gymnotus sp. revealed a bimodal distribution of electric organ discharge rate (EODR) demonstrating down- and up-states of sensory sampling and neural activity; movements only occurred during up-states and up-states were initiated before movement onset. EODR during voluntary swimming initiation exhibited greater trial-to-trial variability than the sound-evoked increases in EODR. The sampling variability declined after voluntary movement onset as previously observed for the neural variability associated with decision making in primates. Spontaneous movements occurred randomly without a characteristic timescale, and no significant temporal correlation was found between successive movement intervals. Using statistical analyses of spontaneous exploratory behaviours and associated preparatory sensory sampling increase, we conclude that electric fish exhibit key attributes of volitional movements, and that voluntary behaviours in vertebrates may generally be preceded by increased sensory sampling. Our results suggest that comparative studies of the neural basis of volition may therefore be possible in pulse-type electric fish, given the substantial homologies between the telencephali of teleost fish and mammals. PMID:25320268

Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

2014-10-15

386

Development of auditory sensory memory from 2 to 6 years: an MMN study.  

PubMed

Short-term storage of auditory information is thought to be a precondition for cognitive development, and deficits in short-term memory are believed to underlie learning disabilities and specific language disorders. We examined the development of the duration of auditory sensory memory in normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years. To probe the lifetime of auditory sensory memory we elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the late auditory evoked potential, with tone stimuli of two different frequencies presented with various interstimulus intervals between 500 and 5,000 ms. Our findings suggest that memory traces for tone characteristics have a duration of 1-2 s in 2- and 3-year-old children, more than 2 s in 4-year-olds and 3-5 s in 6-year-olds. The results provide insights into the maturational processes involved in auditory sensory memory during the sensitive period of cognitive development. PMID:18607525

Glass, Elisabeth; Sachse, Steffi; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

2008-08-01

387

Feeding State, Insulin and NPR-1 Modulate Chemoreceptor Gene Expression via Integration of Sensory and Circuit Inputs  

PubMed Central

Feeding state and food availability can dramatically alter an animals' sensory response to chemicals in its environment. Dynamic changes in the expression of chemoreceptor genes may underlie some of these food and state-dependent changes in chemosensory behavior, but the mechanisms underlying these expression changes are unknown. Here, we identified a KIN-29 (SIK)-dependent chemoreceptor, srh-234, in C. elegans whose expression in the ADL sensory neuron type is regulated by integration of sensory and internal feeding state signals. We show that in addition to KIN-29, signaling is mediated by the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor, OCR-2 TRPV channel, and NPR-1 neuropeptide receptor. Cell-specific rescue experiments suggest that DAF-2 and OCR-2 act in ADL, while NPR-1 acts in the RMG interneurons. NPR-1-mediated regulation of srh-234 is dependent on gap-junctions, implying that circuit inputs regulate the expression of chemoreceptor genes in sensory neurons. Using physical and genetic manipulation of ADL neurons, we show that sensory inputs from food presence and ADL neural output regulate srh-234 expression. While KIN-29 and DAF-2 act primarily via the MEF-2 (MEF2) and DAF-16 (FOXO) transcription factors to regulate srh-234 expression in ADL neurons, OCR-2 and NPR-1 likely act via a calcium-dependent but MEF-2- and DAF-16-independent pathway. Together, our results suggest that sensory- and circuit-mediated regulation of chemoreceptor genes via multiple pathways may allow animals to precisely regulate and fine-tune their chemosensory responses as a function of internal and external conditions. PMID:25357003

Gruner, Matthew; Nelson, Dru; Winbush, Ari; Hintz, Rebecca; Ryu, Leesun; Chung, Samuel H.; Kim, Kyuhyung; Gabel, Chrisopher V.; van der Linden, Alexander M.

2014-01-01

388

Effect of ionising radiation treatment on the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations: effect of type and dose of radiation.  

PubMed

Migration levels of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticiser from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film into the European Union specified aqueous food simulants (distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid and 10% v/v ethanol) were monitored as a function of time. Migration testing was carried out at 40°C for 10 days. Determination of the analyte was performed by applying an analytical methodology based on surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction prior to gas chromatographic-flame ionisation detection. PVC cling film used was subjected to ionising treatment with a [(60)Co] source, as well as to electron-beam irradiation at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy, with the aim to compare the effect of type and dose of radiation on the specific migration behaviour of PVC. Equilibrium concentrations of acetyl tributyl citrate into the aqueous solvents covered the ranges 173-422 µg l(-1) and 296-513 µg l(-1) for gamma- and electron-irradiated PVC, respectively. Hence, e-beam irradiation resulted in significantly higher ATBC migration compared with gamma treatment. The highest extraction efficiency of the 10% ethanol solution was common in both gamma and e-beam treatments; distilled water demonstrated the lowest migration. Gamma-irradiation at intermediate doses up to 5 kGy produced no statistically significant (p > 0.05) effect on ATBC migration into all three aqueous simulants; however, this does not apply for high-energy electrons. Both ionising treatments were similar in that they resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in plasticiser migrating amounts between non-irradiated and irradiated at doses of 15 and 25 kGy samples. Gamma-radiation did not affect the kinetics of plasticiser migration. On the contrary, electron-beam radiation produced shorter equilibration times for all food-simulating solvents tested at 40°C. The above values regarding ATBC migration into aqueous food simulants are far below the European Union restriction (1 mg kg(-1) body weight) for both types of ionising radiation. Thus, PVC cling film may be used in food irradiation applications in contact with aqueous foodstuffs. PMID:21400321

Zygoura, P D; Paleologos, E K; Kontominas, M G

2011-05-01

389

Sensory quality of functional beverages: bitterness perception and bitter masking of olive leaf extract fortified fruit smoothies.  

PubMed

Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains high amounts of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of these polyphenols makes OLE a promising ingredient for functional food. OLE causes very strong bitterness perception and can therefore only be formulated in low concentrations. In this research, bitter detection and recognition thresholds of OLE-fortified fruit smoothies were determined by a trained sensory panel (n = 11). Masking of the OLE's bitter taste was investigated with addition of sodium cyclamate, sodium chloride, and sucrose by means of a standardized ranking method and a scale test. Detection (5.78 mg/100 g) and recognition thresholds (8.05 mg/100 g) of OLE polyphenols confirmed the low formulation limits when bitterness was not masked by other substances. At higher polyphenol levels of 20 mg/100 g, sodium cyclamate and sucrose were able to reduce bitter taste perception by 39.9% and 24.9%, respectively, whereas sodium chloride could not effectively mask bitterness. Practical Application: Development of functional food poses new challenges for the food industry. A major problem in this field is the high bitterness of natural polyphenol-containing extracts with potential health benefits. This research was conducted to understand the sensory impact of olive leaf extract (OLE), a novel food ingredient with very bitter taste. In product development, the data of this research can be considered for formulation limits and the general sensory quality of OLE-fortified food and beverages. PMID:20722953

Kranz, Peter; Braun, Nina; Schulze, Nadine; Kunz, Benno

2010-08-01

390

Characteristic 0 Positive characteristic  

E-print Network

Characteristic 0 Positive characteristic Unlikely formal intersections Piotr Kowalski Instytut Matematyczny Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego June 14, 2012 Kowalski Unlikely formal intersections #12;Characteristic(A) + dim(V ) - dim(W). Kowalski Unlikely formal intersections #12;Characteristic 0 Positive characteristic

Kowalski, Piotr

391

Functional reorganization of barrel cortex following atypical sensory rearing experiences: the effect on cortical spike synchrony.  

E-print Network

??Functional reorganization of primary sensory cortex following peripheral sensory deprivation and other atypical sensory experience typically focused on changes in single neuron deficits till date.… (more)

Ghoshal, Ayan

2011-01-01

392

Food labeling  

MedlinePLUS

... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared primarily ...

393

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... National Institutes of Health for research in food allergy. We are committed to supporting efforts to help ...

394

Food Labeling  

MedlinePLUS

... dietary proteins, vitamins, and minerals in each serving Definitions for terms such as low-fat and high-fiber Information to help you see how a food fits into an overall daily diet Food and Drug Administration

395

Protein Foods  

MedlinePLUS

... Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ? ... Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free ...

396

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food web reading. Build a food web and design a creature. Requires downloaded program. Download your assignment Food Web Assignment Sheet. Use the following sites and activities to answer the questions. Do not start the creature creator until Mr. Wood has seen your food web and completed assignment and allowed you to move on. Type your answers on the sheet and edit it to fit one page. When ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-10-06

397

Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.

2009-10-21

398

Identification of the characteristics that drive consumer liking of butter.  

PubMed

This study identified and explored the sensory characteristics that drive consumer liking of butter. A trained descriptive panel evaluated 27 commercial butters using a defined sensory language. Two focus groups were conducted with butter consumers to gain an understanding of consumer use and consumption habits. Six representative butters and 2 vegetable oil spreads were selected for consumer acceptance testing. Both internal and external preference mapping techniques were applied to interpret consumer data. Key discriminating sensory characteristics of butters included color intensity; diacetyl, cooked, grassy, and milk fat flavors; and salty taste. From focus groups and quantitative consumer testing, the key butter features were a desirable flavor and a natural image. Negative aspects included price and cholesterol. Five consumer clusters with distinct butter and spread flavor likes and dislikes were identified. Butter is a desirable product to consumers. Sensory expectations of butter vary among consumers, and butters with specific sensory characteristics could be marketed to specific target market segments. PMID:17430906

Krause, A J; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

2007-05-01

399

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)

2006-10-31

400

Food Sources  

Cancer.gov

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

401

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Which Germs Are to Blame? Foods from animals, raw foods, and unwashed vegetables all can contain germs that ... and vegetables well before eating them. Only eat foods that are properly cooked. If you cut into chicken and it looks pink and raw inside, tell a grown-up. Look at what ...

402

Food allergy.  

PubMed

Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and is estimated to affect >2% and possibly up to 10% of the population. Food allergies are defined by an immune response triggered by food proteins. Emerging data suggest that carbohydrate moieties on food proteins, specifically mammalian meats, may also elicit allergic responses. Food is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community, which can be fatal. The underlying mechanisms of food allergy usually involve food-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies, but cell-mediated disorders account for a variety of chronic or subacute skin and gastrointestinal reactions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an emerging food-related chronic disorder. The diagnosis of food allergy is complicated by the observation that detection of food-specific immunoglobulin E (sensitization) does not necessarily indicate clinical allergy. Diagnosis requires a careful medical history, laboratory studies, and, in many cases, oral food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Novel diagnostic methods, many of which rely upon evaluating immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes, may improve diagnosis and prognosis in the future. Current management relies upon allergen avoidance and preparation to promptly treat severe reactions with epinephrine. Studies suggest that some children with milk or egg allergy might tolerate extensively heated forms, for example milk or egg baked into muffins, without symptoms and possibly with some immunotherapeutic benefits. Novel therapeutic strategies are under study, including oral and sublingual immunotherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, anti-immunoglobulin E antibodies, and modified vaccines. PMID:21913199

Sicherer, Scott H

2011-01-01

403

Flies require bilateral sensory input to track odor gradients in flight.  

PubMed

Fruit flies make their living "on the fly" in search of attractive food odors. Flies balance the strength of self-induced bilateral visual motion and bilateral wind cues, but it is unknown whether they also use bilateral olfactory cues to track odors in flight. Tracking an odor gradient requires comparisons across spatially separated chemosensory organs and has been observed in several walking insects, including Drosophila. The olfactory antennae are separated by a fraction of a millimeter, and most sensory neurons project bilaterally and also symmetrically activate the first-order olfactory relay; both properties would seem to constrain the capacity for gradient tracking. Nevertheless, using a modified flight simulator that enables maneuvers in the yaw axis, we found that flies readily steer directly toward a laterally positioned odor plume. This capability is abolished by occluding sensory input to one antenna. Mechanosensory input from the Johnston's organ and olfactory input from the third antennal segment cooperate to direct small-angle yaw turns up the plume gradient. We additionally show that sensory signals from the left antenna contribute disproportionately more to odor tracking than signals from the right, providing further evidence of sensory lateralization in invertebrates. PMID:19576769

Duistermars, Brian J; Chow, Dawnis M; Frye, Mark A

2009-08-11

404

Multivariate analysis of the sensory changes in the dehydrated cowpea leaves.  

PubMed

Processing of foods, especially dehydration is known to result in alteration of sensory and nutritional qualities. Cowpea leaves is one of the common leafy vegetables consumed in Kenya that contain high levels of pro-vitamin A compounds and has good carotene retention during processing. A tasting panel was trained using a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) test that was developed and used to characterize the sensory properties of dehydrated cowpea leaves. The panel identified sensory attributes in dehydrated cowpea leaves that were important in discriminating the dehydrated samples from the fresh material. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the QDA scores. The first principal component (PC1) which accounted for 85% of the variance was an index of the interrelationship among variables in differentiating the samples while PC2, which accounted for the remaining variance measured the attributes influence in discriminating samples. The results of the sensory attributes mean scores showed that aroma, texture and appearance had high influence in discriminating between the fresh, the sun-dried and the solar-dried samples. The solar dried products were close to the fresh material, which was characterized, as soft and tender with an appealing dark green color, than the sun dried product. The sun dried products differed from the other products more on appearance. PMID:18969564

Nyambaka, Hudson; Ryley, Janice

2004-09-01

405

The sensory basis of olfactory search behavior in banded kokopu ( Galaxias fasciatus).  

PubMed

The sensory basis of olfactory search behavior was investigated in the banded kokopu, Galaxias fasciatus, using a flow tank. In the presence of a 2 cm s(-1) current flow, banded kokopu use both water current and chemical information to locate a food odor source. The superficial neuromasts of the lateral line system mediate the rheotactic component of the odor search. A physical block of one olfactory nostril did not affect the olfactory search strategy employed by banded kokopu in still water or in the presence of a current flow. Thus, there is no evidence that banded kokopu perform a bilateral comparison of the olfactory stimulus during their odor search. Previously, olfaction and gustation have been the only sensory systems shown to directly mediate orientation and movement towards odor sources in fish. The use of hydrodynamic cues by fish in location of an olfactory source has been previously proposed, but without direct experimental identification of the sensory systems employed. This study identifies the contributing roles of both olfactory and hydrodynamic sensory systems to the olfactory search repertoire of fish. PMID:12209343

Baker, Cindy F; Montgomery, John C; Dennis, Todd E

2002-08-01

406

[Food labeling and the prevention of overweight and obesity: a systematic review].  

PubMed

This article reports on a systematic review of articles on food labeling and the prevention of obesity and overweight, in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, LILACS, and CINAHL databases. The DeCS/MeSH descriptors were obesity and food labeling. 207 articles were retrieved. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 articles were selected: 11 were on food labeling and its impact on final food product consumption; 2 were on fast food establishments; 1 on sensory attributes as compared to health recommendations; and 2 on follow-up of interventions. Labeling has a positive effect on final food product consumption, in contrast with fast food restaurants. Sensory attributes were more effective than recommendations on the labels. Follow-up of interventions confirmed the long-term effect of the target interventions. PMID:22124486

Sebastián-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

2011-11-01

407

Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca, and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards  

Microsoft Academic Search

American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al, Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age,

Donald W. Sparling

1991-01-01

408

Indigenous Fermented Foods of the Himalayas: Microbiology and Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different ethnic people in the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China (Tibet) use indigenous fermented food products to provide basic components of diet with diverse characteristics of nutrition, flavour, palatability and texture. For many centuries, the people of these regions prepared and consumed more than forty varieties of common as well as lesser-known indigenous fermented foods and beverages.

Jyoti Prakash TAMANG

409

World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

White, Betty F.; And Others

410

Iced Storage Characteristics of Northern Squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iced storage characteristics of freshwater Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were investigated and the proximate composition and physical nature of squawfish were determined. Quality changes were monitored over 24 days of storage by chemical, physical, microbiological, and sensorial methods of analysis. The Torrymeter readings, K values, and descriptive sensory evaluation demonstrated that squawfish kept well in ice for 15 days.

D. Lin; Michael T. Morrissey

1994-01-01

411

Schizophrenia, Sensory Gating, and Nicotinic Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of human and animal investigations has sug- gested that altered expression and function of the a7- nicotinic cholinergic receptor may be responsible for the auditory sensory gating deficit characterized in schizophrenia patients and their relatives as diminished suppression of an auditory-evoked response (P50) to repeated stimuli. This finding, in conjunction with evi- dence for familial transmission of this

Lawrence E. Adler; Ann Olincy; Merilyne Waldo; Josette Q. Harris; Jay Qriffith; Karen Stevens; Karen Flach; Herbert Nagamoto; Paula Bickford; Sherry Leonard; Robert Freedman

412

Original Paper Sensory ecology of predatorprey interactions  

E-print Network

Original Paper Sensory ecology of predator­prey interactions: responses of the AN2 interneuron in the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus to the echolocation calls of sympatric bats James H. Fullard the responses of the AN2 interneuron in the Pacific field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus, a cell implicated

Fullard, James H.

413

Child's Play: A Sensory-Integrative Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to demonstrate the direct relationship of physical play to sensory integration, this descriptive study measured fine and gross motor activities, and the repetition and duration of preferred activities among 179 children between 2 and 8 years of age who participated in 3 early childhood programs in California. Data were collected by…

Hartman, Jeanette Allison

414

Specialist and Generalist Strategies in Sensory Evolution  

E-print Network

and Laryngology Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory of Auditory Physiology Massachusetts Eye & Ear sensoryevolution, adaptability, spe- cialization, neurocomputation,evo- lutionary robotics Sensors are the conduits the sensory system to include not only the end-organs of sensation, which transduce physical energy

Cariani, Peter

415

Error Correction, Sensory Prediction, and Adaptation  

E-print Network

to the next. The sensors that record motion of a robot do so with far more precision than one finds in the response of our proprioceptive neurons. The transmission lines that connect a robot's motors and sensors to the controller move informa- tion at the speed of light, and the controller can process sensory information

Smith, Maurice

416

Reciprocal actions between sensory signals and sleep.  

PubMed

To the best of our knowledge, there is no simple way to induce neural networks to shift from waking mode into sleeping mode. Our best guess is that a whole group of neurons would be involved and that the process would develop in a period of time and a sequence which are mostly unknown. The quasi-total sensory deprivation elicits a new behavioral state called somnolence. Auditory stimulation as well as total auditory deprivation alter sleep architecture. Auditory units exhibiting firing shifts on passing to sleep (augmenting or diminishing) are postulated to be locked to sleep-related networks. Those ( approximately 50%) that did not change during sleep are postulated to continue informing the brain as in wakefulness. A rhythmic functional plasticity of involved networks is postulated. A number of auditory and visual cells have demonstrated a firing phase locking to the hippocampal theta rhythm. This phase locking occurs both during wakefulness and sleep phases. The theta rhythm may act as an organizer of sensory information in visual and auditory systems, in all behavioral states adding a temporal dimension to the sensory processing. Sensory information from the environment and body continuously modulates the central nervous system activity, over which sleep phenomenology must develop. It also produces a basal tonus during wakefulness and sleep, determining changes in the networks that contribute to sleep development and maintenance and, eventually, it also leads to sleep interruption. PMID:11025336

Velluti, R A; Peña, J L; Pedemonte, M

2000-01-01

417

Sensory acuity and reasoning in delusional disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic research on delusional disorder (DD) is limited. The goal of this study was to assess DD patients in the following areas: sensory capacities, decision-making style, and complex reasoning. Ten DD patients and 10 matched normal controls completed the following (1) smell, taste, and vision testing; (2) a probabilistic inference test in which subjects made probability decisions; and (3) a

Charles R. Conway; Anna M. Bollini; Brevick G. Graham; Richard S. E. Keefe; Susan S. Schiffman; Joseph P. McEvoy

2002-01-01

418

Sensory nerves in lung and airways.  

PubMed

Sensory nerves innervating the lung and airways play an important role in regulating various cardiopulmonary functions and maintaining homeostasis under both healthy and disease conditions. Their activities conducted by both vagal and sympathetic afferents are also responsible for eliciting important defense reflexes that protect the lung and body from potential health-hazardous effects of airborne particulates and chemical irritants. This article reviews the morphology, transduction properties, reflex functions, and respiratory sensations of these receptors, focusing primarily on recent findings derived from using new technologies such as neural immunochemistry, isolated airway-nerve preparation, cultured airway neurons, patch-clamp electrophysiology, transgenic mice, and other cellular and molecular approaches. Studies of the signal transduction of mechanosensitive afferents have revealed a new concept of sensory unit and cellular mechanism of activation, and identified additional types of sensory receptors in the lung. Chemosensitive properties of these lung afferents are further characterized by the expression of specific ligand-gated ion channels on nerve terminals, ganglion origin, and responses to the action of various inflammatory cells, mediators, and cytokines during acute and chronic airway inflammation and injuries. Increasing interest and extensive investigations have been focused on uncovering the mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity of these airway afferents, and their role in the manifestation of various symptoms under pathophysiological conditions. Several important and challenging questions regarding these sensory nerves are discussed. Searching for these answers will be a critical step in developing the translational research and effective treatments of airway diseases. PMID:24692141

Lee, Lu-Yuan; Yu, Jerry

2014-01-01

419

Sensory perception for an agricultural robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis develops the sensory systems for an intelligent agricultural robot to selectively harvest ripe fruit, and a mathematical model for multi-sensor fusion that is used to quantitatively define fruit ripeness. The robot uses a structured light range scanner to detect fruits based on their three-dimensional shape and determines fruit ripeness by electronically sensing natural aromatic and nonaromatic gases emitted

Meny Benady

1993-01-01

420

Enhancing the Sensory Integration of Aphasic Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated was the effect on the sensory integration of 24 aphasic students, of a 7-month sensorimotor program-designed to stimulate the tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems; motor planning ability; bilateral integration; postural and equilibrium responses; visual form and space perception; and motor development. ( DLS)

DePauw, Karen Pamelia

1978-01-01

421

A physical basis for sensory perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

Norwich, Kenneth H.

2014-11-01

422

Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

Shuman, Theresa

423

Teaching through Sensory-Motor Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in the collection are articles on sensory-motor sequencing experiences in learning by R.G. Heckelman, integrating form perception by Floria Coon-Teters, building patterns of retention by Harold Helms, hand-eye coordination by Shirley Linn, laterality and directionality by Sheila Benyon, body image and body awareness by Grace Petitclerc,…

Arena, John I., Ed.

424

Autism and My Sensory Based World  

E-print Network

Autism and My Sensory Based World Temple Grandin #12;· A good teacher is gently insistent · Early disorders (co-morbid) Autism spectrum Dyslexia Learning problems ADHD Asperger Head injury Oppositional Takes longer to shift back and forth between two different things #12;Ami Klin Viewer with Autism (Red

Stephens, Graeme L.

425

Characterising reward outcome signals in sensory cortex?  

PubMed Central

Reward outcome signalling in the sensory cortex is held as important for linking stimuli to their consequences and for modulating perceptual learning in response to incentives. Evidence for reward outcome signalling has been found in sensory regions including the visual, auditory and somatosensory cortices across a range of different paradigms, but it is unknown whether the population of neurons signalling rewarding outcomes are the same as those processing predictive stimuli. We addressed this question using a multivariate analysis of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in a task where subjects were engaged in instrumental learning with visual predictive cues and auditory signalled reward feedback. We found evidence that outcome signals in sensory regions localise to the same areas involved in stimulus processing. These outcome signals are non-specific and we show that the neuronal populations involved in stimulus representation are not their exclusive target, in keeping with theoretical models of value learning. Thus, our results reveal one likely mechanism through which rewarding outcomes are linked to predictive sensory stimuli, a link that may be key for both reward and perceptual learning. PMID:23811411

FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.

2013-01-01

426

Sensory interaction and descriptions of fabric hand.  

PubMed

82 subjects who viewed and felt fabrics (sensory interaction group) used different categories of terms to describe fabric hand than did 38 subjects who only felt the fabrics. Therefore, the methods used to measure fabric hand that isolate the senses may not accurately assess the way in which subjects describe fabric hand in nonlaboratory settings. PMID:8532445

Burns, L D; Chandler, J; Brown, D M; Cameron, B; Dallas, M J

1995-08-01

427

Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.  

PubMed

Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21111574

Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

428

Smell and other sensory disturbances in migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmophobia or hyperosmia featured in 25 of 50 migraineurs during the headache phase of their attacks. Pleasant or unpleasant odours could precipitate migraines in 11 patients in this series. Other sensory disturbances and precipitants were also studied. Neurological precipitation of attacks provides further support for a primary neural rather than a vascular pathogenesis of migraine.

J. N. Blau; F. Solomon

1985-01-01

429

SENSORY CODING: INFORMATION MAXIMIZATION AND REDUNDANCY REDUCTION  

E-print Network

is as follows: 1. bet on what is the task fulfilled by the particular sensory system under consideration; 2, is what has been called the ''infomax principle'' by R. Linsker (1988): one ask for a neural network which of neurons, synaptic resources) limit the amount of information that can be conveyed by the network

Parga, Néstor

430

The Great Lakes Food Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

Baker, Marjane L.

1997-01-01

431

Experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center is described. A sensory evaluation of the high density foods was conducted first to test the acceptability of the products. A shelf-life study of the high density foods was also conducted for three different time lengths at three different temperatures. The nutritional analysis of the high density foods is at present incomplete.

Ahmed, S. M.

1981-01-01

432

Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons  

SciTech Connect

Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues.

Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R. (VA Medical Center-Wadsworth, Los Angeles, CA (USA))

1989-05-01

433

Advances in the neurobiological bases for food `liking' versus `wanting' D.C. Castro , K.C. Berridge  

E-print Network

, and discuss their role in generating food pleasure and appetite. � 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1Advances in the neurobiological bases for food `liking' versus `wanting' D.C. Castro , K Pleasure Parabrachial nucleus Optogenetics Reward Motivation The neural basis of food sensory pleasure has

Berridge, Kent

434

Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking  

PubMed Central

Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

2010-01-01

435

Sensory Detection and Responses to Toxic Gases  

PubMed Central

The inhalation of reactive gases and vapors can lead to severe damage of the airways and lung, compromising the function of the respiratory system. Exposures to oxidizing, electrophilic, acidic, or basic gases frequently occur in occupational and ambient environments. Corrosive gases and vapors such as chlorine, phosgene, and chloropicrin were used as warfare agents and in terrorist acts. Chemical airway exposures are detected by the olfactory, gustatory, and nociceptive sensory systems that initiate protective physiological and behavioral responses. This review focuses on the role of airway nociceptive sensory neurons in chemical sensing and discusses the recent discovery of neuronal receptors for reactive chemicals. Using physiological, imaging, and genetic approaches, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels in sensory neurons were shown to respond to a wide range of noxious chemical stimuli, initiating pain, respiratory depression, cough, glandular secretions, and other protective responses. TRPA1, a TRP ion channel expressed in chemosensory C-fibers, is activated by almost all oxidizing and electrophilic chemicals, including chlorine, acrolein, tear gas agents, and methyl isocyanate, the highly noxious chemical released in the Bhopal disaster. Chemicals likely activate TRPA1 through covalent protein modification. Animal studies using TRPA1 antagonists or TRPA1-deficient mice confirmed the role of TRPA1 in chemically induced respiratory reflexes, pain, and inflammation in vivo. New research shows that sensory neurons are not merely passive sensors of chemical exposures. Sensory channels such as TRPA1 are essential for maintenance of airway inflammation in asthma and may contribute to the progression of airway injury following high-level chemical exposures. PMID:20601631

Bessac, Bret F.; Jordt, Sven-Eric

2010-01-01

436

Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to clinicians about the underlying symptoms and treatment of these patients. PMID:19132764

Brock, Christina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; Drewes, Asbj?rn Mohr

2009-01-01

437

Sensory Feedback Control of Mammalian Vocalizations  

PubMed Central

Somatosensory and auditory feedback mechanisms are dynamic components of the vocal motor pattern generator in mammals. This review explores how sensory cues arising from central auditory and somatosensory pathways actively guide the production of both simple sounds and complex phrases in mammals. While human speech is a uniquely sophisticated example of mammalian vocal behavior, other mammals can serve as examples of how sensory feedback guides complex vocal patterns. Echolocating bats in particular are unique in their absolute dependence on voice control for survival: these animals must constantly adjust the acoustic and temporal patterns of their orientation sounds to efficiently navigate and forage for insects at high speeds under the cover of darkness. Many species of bats also utter a broad repertoire of communication sounds. The functional neuroanatomy of the bat vocal motor pathway is basically identical to other mammals, but the acute significance of sensory feedback in echolocation has made this a profitable model system for studying general principles of sensorimotor integration with regard to vocalizing. Bats and humans are similar in that they both maintain precise control of many different voice parameters, both exhibit a similar suite of responses to altered auditory feedback, and for both the efficacy of sensory feedback depends upon behavioral context. By comparing similarities and differences in the ways sensory feedback influences voice in humans and bats, we may shed light on the basic architecture of the mammalian vocal motor system and perhaps be able to better distinguish those features of human vocal control that evolved uniquely in support of speech and language. PMID:17449116

Smotherman, Michael S.

2007-01-01

438

Parent and Teacher Report: Comparing Results from the Sensory Profile and the Sensory Profile School Companion  

E-print Network

processing. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55, 75?82. Cohen, I. L., Schmidt-Lackner, S., Romanczyk, R., & Sudhalter, V. (2003). The PDD Behavior Inventory: A rating scale for assessing response to intervention in children with pervasive... PARENT AND TEACHER REPORT: COMPARING RESULTS FROM THE SENSORY PROFILE AND SENSORY PROFILE SCHOOL COMPANION BY Copyright 2008 Jessica Saiter Clark Submitted to the graduate degree program in Occupational Therapy and the Graduate...

Clark, Jessica Saiter

2008-08-13

439

Preference for full-fat over low-fat foods among individuals suffering from coronary heart disease and healthy controls.  

PubMed

Dietary behaviour can modify the risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary fat contributes to the sensory characteristics of many foods, but there are individual differences in liking for regular and reduced fat products. Preference for dietary fat might differ between healthy individuals and those of diagnosed CHD status. Preference for full-fat versus low-fat foods was assessed in a group suffering from CHD (N=24) and a healthy control group (N=41). Preferences were evaluated using a series of paired preference tests including 34 food pairs. Further, patterns across fat preference and a range of known risk factors for CHD were examined. The study was conducted in Sweden; March 2004 until May 2006. Overall the full-fat food items were preferred to the low-fat alternatives by both patients and control participants. The pattern of preference responses diverged significantly between patients and controls on only four of the 34 food items, in both directions, why preference related to total fat content per se is not confirmed as differentiating significantly between a group diagnosed with CHD compared to a healthy control group. PMID:19682474

Rapp, Erika; Oström, Asa; Osika, Walter; Englund, Anders; Annett, Judith; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt

2009-10-19

440

Reported Sensory Processing of Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigators have identified delays and differences in cognitive, language, motor, and sensory development in children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this study was to determine the parent-reported frequency of sensory processing issues in children with DS aged 3-10 years, and the parent-reported functional impact of those sensory

Bruni, Maryanne; Cameron, Debra; Dua, Shelly; Noy, Sarah

2010-01-01

441

Sensory deprivation and the enhancement of hypnotic susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the effect of sensory deprivation upon hypnotic susceptibility. 10 volunteer college-age females initially resistant to hypnosis were placed in a light- and sound-attenuated sensory deprivation cubicle for a maximum of 6 hr. or until sensory deprivation phenomena were elicited. A hypnotic induction was undertaken via a communication system, while S remained in the deprivation cubicle, at a point when

Joseph Reyher

1969-01-01

442