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Sample records for food store environment

  1. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (p<0.001) with <50% of stores offering lower-sodium canned vegetables, tuna, salad dressing, soy sauce, and hot dogs. Lower-sodium products were also less frequently offered in small stores than large (two or more cash registers) stores. Reduced-sodium soy sauce cost more than regular soy sauce (p<0.001) in stores offering both options in the same size bottle. Few restaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam. PMID:27227418

  2. Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores.

    PubMed

    Farley, Thomas A; Rice, Janet; Bodor, J Nicholas; Cohen, Deborah A; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Rose, Donald

    2009-09-01

    Dietary patterns may be influenced by the availability and accessibility within stores of different types of foods. However, little is known about the amount of shelf space used for healthy and unhealthy foods in different types of stores. We conducted measurements of the length of shelf space used for fruits, vegetables, and snack foods items in 419 stores in 217 urban census tracts in southern Louisiana and in Los Angeles County. Although supermarkets offered far more shelf space of fruits and vegetables than did other types of stores, they also devoted more shelf space to unhealthy snacks (mean 205 m for all of these items combined) than to fruits and vegetables (mean 117 m, p < 0.001). After supermarkets, drug stores devoted the most shelf space to unhealthy items. The ratio of the total shelf space for fruits and vegetables to the total shelf space for these unhealthy snack items was the lowest (0.10 or below) and very similar in convenience stores, drug stores, and liquor stores, was in a middle range (0.18 to 0.30) in small food stores, and was highest in medium-sized food stores (0.40 to 0.61) and supermarkets (0.55 to 0.72). Simple measurements of shelf space can be used by researchers to characterize the healthfulness of the food environment and by policymakers to establish criteria for favorable policy treatment of stores. PMID:19603271

  3. Measuring the food environment: a systematic technique for characterizing food stores using display counts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics-such as the number and placement of display stands-on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment. PMID:22701497

  4. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J. Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment. PMID:22701497

  5. Food environment and childhood obesity: the effect of dollar stores.

    PubMed

    Drichoutis, Andreas C; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Rouse, Heather L; Thomsen, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of dollar stores on children's Body Mass Index (BMI). We use a dataset compiled by the Arkansas Center for Health Improvement that reflects a BMI screening program for public school children in the state of Arkansas. We combine propensity score matching with difference-in-differences methods to deal with time-invariant as well time-varying unobserved factors. We find no evidence that the presence of dollar stores within a reasonably close proximity of the child's residence increases BMI. In fact, we see an increase in BMI when dollar stores leave a child's neighborhood. Given the proliferation of dollar stores in rural and low-income urban areas, the question of whether dollar stores are contributing to high rates of childhood obesity is policy relevant. However, our results provide some evidence that exposure to dollar stores is not a causal factor. PMID:26626186

  6. Marketing of Food in the Grocery Store Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goals/hypothesis: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or any marketing using health or nutrition information beyond minimum requirements) is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat (approx. 20% daily value), sodium (...

  7. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  8. The social dynamics of healthy food shopping and store choice in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Hillier, Amy; Karpyn, Allison; Glanz, Karen

    2014-12-01

    To respond to the high prevalence of obesity and its associated health consequences, recent food research and policy have focused on neighborhood food environments, especially the links between health and retail mix, proximity of food outlets, and types of foods available. In addition, the social environment exerts important influences on food-related behaviors, through mechanisms like role-modeling, social support, and social norms. This study examined the social dynamics of residents' health-related food-shopping behaviors in 2010-11 in urban Philadelphia, where we conducted 25 semi-structured resident interviews-the foundation for this paper-in addition to 514 structured interviews and a food environment audit. In interviews, participants demonstrated adaptability and resourcefulness in their food shopping; they chose to shop at stores that met a range of social needs. Those needs ranged from practical financial considerations, to fundamental issues of safety, to mundane concerns about convenience, and juggling multiple work and family responsibilities. The majority of participants were highly motivated to adapt their shopping patterns to accommodate personal financial constraints. In addition, they selectively shopped at stores frequented by people who shared their race/ethnicity, income and education, and they sought stores where they had positive interactions with personnel and proprietors. In deciding where to shop in this urban context, participants adapted their routines to avoid unsafe places and the threat of violence. Participants also discussed the importance of convenient stores that allowed for easy parking, accommodation of physical disabilities or special needs, and integration of food shopping into other daily activities like meeting children at school. Food research and policies should explicitly attend to the social dynamics that influence food-shopping behavior. In our social relationships, interactions, and responsibilities, there are

  9. Formative Evaluation for a Healthy Corner Store Initiative in Pitt County, North Carolina: Assessing the Rural Food Environment, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Bringolf, Karamie R.; Lawton, Katherine K.; McGuirt, Jared T.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth; Morgan, Jo; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity prevalence in the rural United States is higher than in urban or suburban areas, perhaps as a result of the food environment. Because rural residents live farther from supermarkets than their urban- and suburban-dwelling counterparts, they may be more reliant on smaller corner stores that offer fewer healthful food items. Methods As part of a Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) healthy corner store initiative, we reviewed audit tools in the fall of 2010 to measure the consumer food environment in eastern North Carolina and chose the NEMS-S-Rev (Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Stores-Revised) to assess 42 food stores. During the spring and summer of 2011, 2 trained graduate assistants audited stores, achieving interrater reliability of at least 80%. NEMS-S-Rev scores of stores in rural versus urban areas were compared. Results Overall, healthful foods were less available and of lower quality in rural areas than in urban areas. NEMS-S-Rev scores indicated that healthful foods were more likely to be available and had similar pricing and quality in rural corner stores than in urban corner stores. Conclusion Food store audit data provided a baseline to implement and evaluate a CPPW healthy corner store initiative in Pitt County. This work serves as a case study, providing lessons learned for engaging community partners when conducting rural food store audits. PMID:23866165

  10. What Role Do Local Grocery Stores Play in Urban Food Environments? A Case Study of Hartford-Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katie S.; Ghosh, Debarchana; Page, Martha; Wolff, Michele; McMinimee, Kate; Zhang, Mengyao

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research on urban food environments emphasizes limited access to healthy food, with fewer large supermarkets and higher food prices. Many residents of Hartford, Connecticut, which is often considered a food desert, buy most of their food from small and medium-sized grocery stores. We examined the food environment in greater Hartford, comparing stores in Hartford to those in the surrounding suburbs, and by store size (small, medium, and large). Methods We surveyed all small (over 1,000 ft2), medium, and large-sized supermarkets within a 2-mile radius of Hartford (36 total stores). We measured the distance to stores, availability, price and quality of a market basket of 25 items, and rated each store on internal and external appearance. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for mapping distance to the stores and variation of food availability, quality, and appearance. Results Contrary to common literature, no significant differences were found in food availability and price between Hartford and suburban stores. However, produce quality, internal, and external store appearance were significantly lower in Hartford compared to suburban stores (all p<0.05). Medium-sized stores had significantly lower prices than small or large supermarkets (p<0.05). Large stores had better scores for internal (p<0.05), external, and produce quality (p<0.01). Most Hartford residents live within 0.5 to 1 mile distance to a grocery store. Discussion Classifying urban areas with few large supermarkets as ‘food deserts’ may overlook the availability of healthy foods and low prices that exist within small and medium-sized groceries common in inner cities. Improving produce quality and store appearance can potentially impact the food purchasing decisions of low-income residents in Hartford. PMID:24718579

  11. Validation of food store environment secondary data source and the role of neighborhood deprivation in Appalachia, Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Based on the need for better measurement of the retail food environment in rural settings and to examine how deprivation may be unique in rural settings, the aims of this study were: 1) to validate one commercially available data source with direct field observations of food retailers; and 2) to examine the association between modified neighborhood deprivation and the modified retail food environment score (mRFEI). Methods Secondary data were obtained from a commercial database, InfoUSA in 2011, on all retail food outlets for each census tract. In 2011, direct observation identifying all listed food retailers was conducted in 14 counties in Kentucky. Sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were compared. Neighborhood deprivation index was derived from American Community Survey data. Multinomial regression was used to examine associations between neighborhood deprivation and the mRFEI score (indicator of retailers selling healthy foods such as low-fat foods and fruits and vegetables relative to retailers selling more energy dense foods). Results The sensitivity of the commercial database was high for traditional food retailers (grocery stores, supermarkets, convenience stores), with a range of 0.96-1.00, but lower for non-traditional food retailers; dollar stores (0.20) and Farmer’s Markets (0.50). For traditional food outlets, the PPV for smaller non-chain grocery stores was 38%, and large chain supermarkets was 87%. Compared to those with no stores in their neighborhoods, those with a supercenter [OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.27. 0.97)] or convenience store [OR 0.67 (95% CI 0.51, 0.89)] in their neighborhood have lower odds of living in a low deprivation neighborhood relative to a high deprivation neighborhood. Conclusion The secondary commercial database used in this study was insufficient to characterize the rural retail food environment. Our findings suggest that neighborhoods with high neighborhood deprivation are associated with having certain

  12. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food stores that sold tobacco products in three North Carolina counties. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression were used to examine associations between community and consumer environments. Correlations between community nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity environments ranged from slight to fair (− 0.35 to 0.20) and from poor to fair (− 0.01 to − 0.38) between consumer environments. Significant relationships between consumer tobacco and nutrition environments were found after controlling for store and neighborhood characteristics. For example, stores with higher amounts of interior tobacco marketing had higher healthy food availability (p = 0.001), while stores with higher amounts of exterior tobacco marketing had lower healthy food availability (p = 0.02). Community and consumer environments for nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity were interrelated. Measures that assess single aspects of community or consumer environments could miss characteristics that may influence customer purchasing. Even chain supermarkets, typically regarded as healthful food sources compared to smaller food stores, may expose customers to tobacco marketing inside. Future research could explore combining efforts to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing tobacco marketing, healthy food availability and physical activity opportunities at retail food outlets. PMID:26516620

  13. Measuring the healthfulness of food retail stores: variations by store type and neighbourhood deprivation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumer nutrition environment has been conceptualised as in-store environmental factors that influence food shopping habits. More healthful in-store environments could be characterised as those which promote healthful food choices such as selling good quality healthy foods or placing them in prominent locations to prompt purchasing. Research measuring the full-range of in-store environmental factors concurrently is limited. Purpose To develop a summary score of ‘healthfulness’ composed of nine in-store factors that influence food shopping behaviour, and to assess this score by store type and neighbourhood deprivation. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 601 retail food stores, including supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores, was completed in Hampshire, United Kingdom between July 2010 and June 2011. The survey measured nine variables (variety, price, quality, promotions, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives and single fruit sale) to assess the healthfulness of retail food stores on seven healthy and five less healthy foods that are markers of diet quality. Four steps were completed to create nine individual variable scores and another three to create an overall score of healthfulness for each store. Results Analysis of variance showed strong evidence of a difference in overall healthfulness by store type (p < 0.001). Large and premium supermarkets offered the most healthful shopping environments for consumers. Discount supermarkets, ‘world’, convenience and petrol stores offered less healthful environments to consumers however there was variation across the healthfulness spectrum. No relationship between overall healthfulness and neighbourhood deprivation was observed (p = 0.1). Conclusions A new composite measure of nine variables that can influence food choices was developed to provide an overall assessment of the healthfulness of retail food stores. This composite score could be

  14. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C.; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers’ grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and socio-cultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers. PMID:26800243

  15. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers' grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and sociocultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers. PMID:26800243

  16. Small Food Stores and Availability of Nutritious Foods: A Comparison of Database and In-Store Measures, Northern California, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara; Kelly, Maggi; Adler, Nancy; Yen, Irene H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Small food stores are prevalent in urban neighborhoods, but the availability of nutritious food at such stores is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine whether data from 3 sources would yield a single, homogenous, healthful food store category that can be used to accurately characterize community nutrition environments for public health research. Methods We conducted in-store surveys in 2009 on store type and the availability of nutritious food in a sample of nonchain food stores (n = 102) in 6 predominantly urban counties in Northern California (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Sacramento, San Francisco, and Santa Clara). We compared survey results with commercial database information and neighborhood sociodemographic data by using independent sample t tests and classification and regression trees. Results Sampled small food stores yielded a heterogeneous group of stores in terms of store type and nutritious food options. Most stores were identified as convenience (54%) or specialty stores (22%); others were small grocery stores (19%) and large grocery stores (5%). Convenience and specialty stores were smaller and carried fewer nutritious and fresh food items. The availability of nutritious food and produce was better in stores in neighborhoods that had a higher percentage of white residents and a lower population density but did not differ significantly by neighborhood income. Conclusion Commercial databases alone may not adequately categorize small food stores and the availability of nutritious foods. Alternative measures are needed to more accurately inform research and policies that seek to address disparities in diet-related health conditions. PMID:22789445

  17. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. METHODS This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool’s abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. RESULTS Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these

  18. Are You Storing Food Safely?

    MedlinePlus

    ... which causes botulism. Keeping foods chilled at proper temperatures is one of the best ways to prevent ... for leaving items needing refrigeration out at room temperature. Never allow meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, or produce ...

  19. Snack food advertising in stores around public schools in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Villamor, Eduardo; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in school-age children is emerging as a public heath concern. Food marketing influences preferences and increases children's requests for food. This study sought to describe the type of snack foods advertised to children in stores in and around public schools and assess if there is an association between child-oriented snack food advertising and proximity to schools. All food stores located inside and within a 200 square meter radius from two preschools and two primary schools were surveyed. We assessed store type, number and type of snack food advertisements including those child-oriented inside and outside stores. We surveyed 55 stores and found 321 snack food advertisements. Most were on sweetened beverages (37%) and soft drinks (30%). Ninety-two (29%) were child-oriented. Atoles (100.0%), cereals (94.1%), and ice cream and frozen desserts (71.4%) had the greatest proportion of child-oriented advertising. We found more child-oriented advertisements in stores that were closer (<170 m) to schools compared to those farther away. In conclusion, the food industry is flooding the market, taking advantage of the lack of strict regulation in Guatemala. Child-oriented advertisements are available in almost all stores within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to an obesogenic environment. PMID:25821350

  20. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced. PMID:21566563

  1. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters

  2. Storing Empty Calories and Chronic Disease Risk: Snack-Food Products, Nutritive Content, and Manufacturers in Philadelphia Corner Stores

    PubMed Central

    Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child’s food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, low-income school neighborhoods. We recorded the manufacturer, calories, fat, sugar, and sodium for all snack items, excluding candy and prepared foods. We then compared the nutritive content of assessed snack items to established dietary recommendations and a school nutrition standard. In total, stores stocked 452 kinds of snacks, with only 15% of items common between all three neighborhoods. Total and unique snacks and snack food manufacturers varied by neighborhood, but distributions in snack type varied negligibly: overall, there were no fruit snacks, no vegetable snacks, and only 3.6% of all snacks (by liberal definition) were whole grain. The remainder (96.4% of snacks) was highly processed foods. Five of 65 manufacturers supplied 73.4% of all kinds of snack foods. Depending on serving size definition, 80.0-91.5% of snack foods were “unhealthy” (by the school nutrition standard), including seven of 11 wholegrain products. A single snack item could supply 6-14% of a day’s recommended calories, fat, sugar, and sodium on average (or 56-169% at the extreme) for a “typical” child. We conclude that corner store snack food inventories are almost entirely unhealthful, and we discuss possible implications and next steps for research and intervention. PMID:20405225

  3. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  4. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  5. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  6. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  7. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.1 Section 278.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD...

  8. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  9. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention. PMID:26827618

  10. The Good Food Junction: a Community-Based Food Store Intervention to Address Nutritional Health Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Ridalls, Tracy; Abonyi, Sylvia; Vatanparast, Hassan; Whiting, Susan; Walker, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    knowledge this is the first large-scale study of a full-service grocery store intervention in a former food desert in Canada that has used multiple data sources, as well as longitudinal analyses, to examine its effects. Its findings will contribute significantly to the knowledge base on food environment interventions. PMID:27079140

  11. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level. PMID:19887625

  12. Chemical Effects in Food Stored at Room Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karel, Marcus

    1984-01-01

    Nonenzymatic browning and lipid oxidation, two important chemical deteriorative mechanisms, are discussed. The first is the major cause of darkening of concentrated and dehydrated stored foods and is also the cause of various cooked and stale flavors in food. The second is the major cause of rancidity in foods. (JN)

  13. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment. PMID:21491151

  14. Disparities of food availability and affordability within convenience stores in Bexar County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T S; Salazar, Camerino I; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our "grab and go" society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ (2) = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ (2) = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ (2) = 13.68, P < 0.001). On average, the price of diet cola (t = -2.12, P = 0.044) and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber) was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices. PMID:23935645

  15. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    PubMed

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. PMID:27208014

  16. Choosing Whole-Grain Foods: 10 Tips for Purchasing and Storing Whole-Grain Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Choosing Whole-Grain Foods You are here Home Choosing Whole-Grain Foods ... 10 TIPS NUTRITION EDUCATION SERIES Choosing Whole-Grain Foods 10 tips for purchasing and storing whole-grain ...

  17. CENTRAL FOOD STORE FACILITIES FOR COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLOOMFIELD, BYRON C.

    INSPECTION OF A NUMBER OF INSTALLATIONS WAS ORIENTED TOWARD ARCHITECTURAL AND PLANNING QUESTIONS INVOLVING ECONOMICS AND SERVICES OF CENTRAL FOOD STORE FACILITIES. COMMENCING WITH THE PURCHASING PHILOSOPHY WHICH OVERVIEWS THE ORGANIZATION OF FOODS PURCHASING, SELECTION OF PERSONNEL, SPECIFICATIONS FOR PURCHASING, TECHNIQUES FOR PURCHASING, AND…

  18. Food marketing targeting youth and families: what do we know about stores where moms actually shop?

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Rooney, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop. PMID:24163701

  19. Healthful food availability in stores and restaurants--American Samoa, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Kumar, Gayathri; Ayscue, Patrick; Santos, Marjorie; McGuire, Lisa C; Blanck, Heidi M; Nua, Motusa Tuileama

    2015-03-20

    American Samoa, one of the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands, has documented the highest prevalence of adults with obesity (75%) in the world. The nutritionally poor food and beverage environment of food retail venues has been suspected to be a contributing factor, although an evaluation of these venues in American Samoa has not been conducted. In January 2014, American Samoa established an Obesity Task Force to develop policies and strategies to combat obesity. To inform the efforts of the task force, the American Samoa Department of Health and CDC conducted a baseline assessment of the availability, pricing, and promotion of healthful foods at retail food venues. Previously validated food environment assessment tools were modified to incorporate American Samoa foods and administered in a geographically representative sample of 70 stores (nine grocery stores and 61 convenience stores) and 20 restaurants. In convenience stores, healthful items were not found as available as less healthful counterparts, and some healthful items were more expensive than their less healthful counterparts. For restaurants, 70% offered at least one healthful entrée, whereas only 30% had healthful side dishes, such as vegetables. Actions to promote healthy eating, such as providing calorie information, were rare among restaurants. Improving availability, affordability, and the promotion of healthful foods in American Samoa stores and restaurants could support healthy eating among American Samoa residents. PMID:25789743

  20. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. Methods The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Results Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. Conclusions The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China. PMID:26938866

  1. Qualitative study of influences on food store choice

    PubMed Central

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; McSweeney, Jean; Sparks, Carla; West, Delia Smith

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive sampling was used to select rural and urban communities (3 African-American and 2 Caucasian focus groups; n=48) in Arkansas from June to November 2010, allowing examination of potential racial or rurality differences. Primary household food shoppers (n=48) (96% female, 63% African-American, mean age=48.1±13.9 years old, mean BMI=30.5±7.8) discussed reasons for choosing their primary store. Qualitative analysis techniques—content analysis and constant comparison—were used to identify themes. Four themes emerged: proximity to home or work, financial considerations and strategies, availability/quality of fruits, vegetables, and meat, and store characteristics (e.g., safety, cleanliness/smell, customer service, nonfood merchandise availability, and brand availability). While there were persistent rurality differences, the relevant factors were similar between African-American and Caucasian participants. These findings have important implications for future policies and programs promoting environmental changes related to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in rural areas that appear to have significant challenges in food store choice. PMID:22771756

  2. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  3. Distance to food stores & adolescent male fruit and vegetable consumption: mediation effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these...

  4. Validating self-reported food expenditures against food store and eating-out receipts

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Liu, Zhongyuan; Acheson, Molly; Rehm, Colin D; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective food store and eating-out receipts with self-reported household food expenditures. Design and setting The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) was based on a representative sample of King County adults, Washington, USA. Self-reported household food expenditures were modeled on the Flexible Consumer Behavior Survey (FCBS) Module from 2007–2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Objective food expenditure data were collected using receipts. Self-reported food expenditures for 447 participants were compared to receipts using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and kappa statistics. Bias by socio-demographics was also examined. Results Self-reported expenditures closely matched with objective receipt data. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between receipts and self-reported data on total food expenditures, expenditures at food stores, or eating out. However, the highest income strata showed weaker agreement. Bland Altman plots confirmed no significant bias across both methods - mean difference: 6.4; agreement limits: −123.5, 143.4 for total food expenditures, mean difference 5.7 for food stores, and mean difference 1.7 for eating-out. Kappa statistics showed good agreement for each (kappa 0.51, 0.41 and 0.49 respectively. Households with higher education and income had significantly more number of receipts and higher food expenditures. Conclusion Self-reported food expenditures using NHANES questions, both for food stores and eating-out, serve as a decent proxy for objective household food expenditures from receipts. This method should be used with caution among high income populations, or with high food expenditures. This is the first validation of the FCBS food expenditures question using food store and eating-out receipts. PMID:26486299

  5. Associations of Neighborhood Characteristics With the Location and Type of Food Stores

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Latetia V.; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated associations between local food environment and neighborhood racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Methods. Poisson regression was used to examine the association of food stores and liquor stores with racial/ethnic composition and income in selected census tracts in North Carolina, Maryland, and New York. Results. Predominantly minority and racially mixed neighborhoods had more than twice as many grocery stores as predominantly White neighborhoods (for predominantly Black tracts, adjusted stores per population ratio [SR]=2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.2, 3.2; and for mixed tracts, SR=2.2; 95% CI=1.9, 2.7) and half as many supermarkets (for predominantly Black tracts, SR=0.5; 95% CI=0.3, 0.7; and for mixed tracts, SR=0.7; 95% CI=0.5, 1.0, respectively). Low-income neighborhoods had 4 times as many grocery stores as the wealthiest neighborhoods (SR=4.3; 95% CI=3.6, 5.2) and half as many supermarkets (SR=0.5; 95% CI=0.3, 0.8). In general, poorer areas and non-White areas also tended to have fewer fruit and vegetable markets, bakeries, specialty stores, and natural food stores. Liquor stores were more common in poorer than in richer areas (SR=1.3; 95% CI=1.0, 1.6). Conclusions. Local food environments vary substantially by neighborhood racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition and may contribute to disparities in health. PMID:16380567

  6. Distance to Store, Food Prices, and Obesity in Urban Food Deserts

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Hunter, Gerald; Zenk, Shannon N.; Huang, Christina; Beckman, Robin; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Background Lack of access to healthy foods may explain why residents of low-income neighborhoods and African Americans in the U.S. have high rates of obesity. The findings on where people shop and how that may influence health are mixed. However, multiple policy initiatives are underway to increase access in communities that currently lack healthy options. Few studies have simultaneously measured obesity, distance, and prices of the store used for primary food shopping. Purpose To examine the relationship among distance to store, food prices, and obesity. Methods The Pittsburgh Hill/Homewood Research on Eating, Shopping, and Health study conducted baseline interviews with 1,372 households between May and December 2011 in two low-income, majority African American neighborhoods without a supermarket. Audits of 16 stores where participants reported doing their major food shopping were conducted. Data were analyzed between February 2012 and February 2013. Results Distance to store and prices were positively associated with obesity (p<0.05). When distance to store and food prices were jointly modeled, only prices remained significant (p<0.01), with higher prices predicting a lower likelihood of obesity. Although low- and high-price stores did not differ in availability, they significantly differed in their display and marketing of junk foods relative to healthy foods. Conclusions Placing supermarkets in food deserts to improve access may not be as important as simultaneously offering better prices for healthy foods relative to junk foods, actively marketing healthy foods, and enabling consumers to resist the influence of junk food marketing. PMID:25217097

  7. Association between fast food purchasing and the local food environment

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Lukar E; Kavanagh, A M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, an instrument was created to measure the healthy and unhealthy characteristics of food environments and investigate associations between the whole of the food environment and fast food consumption. Design and subjects: In consultation with other academic researchers in this field, food stores were categorised to either healthy or unhealthy and weighted (between +10 and −10) by their likely contribution to healthy/unhealthy eating practices. A healthy and unhealthy food environment score (FES) was created using these weightings. Using a cross-sectional study design, multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate the effects of the whole food environment on the fast food purchasing habits of 2547 individuals. Results: Respondents in areas with the highest tertile of the healthy FES had a lower likelihood of purchasing fast food both infrequently and frequently compared with respondents who never purchased, however only infrequent purchasing remained significant when simultaneously modelled with the unhealthy FES (odds ratio (OR) 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.83). Although a lower likelihood of frequent fast food purchasing was also associated with living in the highest tertile of the unhealthy FES, no association remained once the healthy FES was included in the models. In our binary models, respondents living in areas with a higher unhealthy FES than healthy FES were more likely to purchase fast food infrequently (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00–1.82) however no association was found for frequent purchasing. Conclusion: Our study provides some evidence to suggest that healthier food environments may discourage fast food purchasing. PMID:23208414

  8. Distance to food stores & adolescent male fruit and vegetable consumption: mediation effects

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Cullen, Karen W; Thompson, Debbe

    2007-01-01

    Background The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these associations would aide the design of new interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between distance to food stores and restaurants and fruit and vegetable consumption and the possible mediating role of psychosocial variables and home availability. Methods Fruit and vegetable consumption of 204 Boy Scouts was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 2003. Participant addresses were geo-coded and distance to different types of food stores and restaurants calculated. Fruit and vegetable preferences, home availability and self-efficacy were measured. Regression models were run with backward deletion of non-significant environmental and psychosocial variables. Mediation tests were performed. Results Residing further away from a small food store (SFS) (convenience store and drug store) was associated with increased fruit and juice and low fat vegetable consumption. Residing closer to a fast food restaurant was associated with increased high fat vegetable and fruit and juice consumption. Vegetable preferences partially mediated (26%) the relationship between low fat vegetable consumption and distance to the nearest SFS. Conclusion Distance to SFS and fast food restaurants were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among male adolescents. Vegetable preferences partially mediated the distance to low fat vegetable relationship. More research is needed to elucidate how environmental variables impact children's dietary intake. PMID:17850673

  9. Microwave Heating as an Alternative Quarantine Method for Disinfestation of Stored Food Grains

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Girish; Shah, Narendra G.

    2013-01-01

    Insects and pests constitute a major threat to food supplies all over the world. Some estimates put the loss of food grains because of infestation to about 40% of the world production. Contemporary disinfestation methods are chemical fumigation, ionizing radiation, controlled atmosphere, conventional hot air treatment, and dielectric heating, that is, radio frequency and microwave energy, and so forth. Though chemical fumigation is being used extensively in stored food grains, regulatory issues, insect resistance, and environmental concerns demand technically effective and environmentally sound quarantine methods. Recent studies have indicated that microwave treatment is a potential means of replacing other techniques because of selective heating, pollution free environment, equivalent or better quality retention, energy minimization, and so forth. The current paper reviews the recent advances in Microwave (MW) disinfestation of stored food products and its principle and experimental results from previous studies in order to establish the usefulness of this technology. PMID:26904615

  10. Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food.

    PubMed

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2011-07-01

    In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors. PMID:21830348

  11. A food store intervention trial improves caregiver psychosocial factors and children's dietary intake in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Davison, Nicola; Ramirez, Vickie; Cheung, Leo W K; Murphy, Suzanne; Novotny, Rachel

    2010-02-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are at epidemic levels in low-income ethnic minority populations. The purpose of this study is to decrease risk for obesity in children by modifying the food environment and conducting point-of-purchase promotions that will lead to changes in psychosocial factors and behaviors associated with healthier food choices among low-income communities with a preponderance of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. We implemented an intervention trial over a 9-11-month period in five food stores in two low-income multiethnic communities in Hawaii, targeting both children and their adult caregivers. The Healthy Foods Hawaii (HFH) intervention consisted of an environmental component to increase store stocking of nutritious foods, point-of-purchase promotions, interactive sessions, and involved local producers and distributors. We evaluated the impact of the program on 116 child-caregiver dyads, sampled from two intervention and two comparison areas before and after intervention implementation. Program impacts were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. The HFH program had a significant impact on caregiver knowledge and the perception that healthy foods are convenient. Intervention children significantly increased their Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score for servings of grains, their total consumption of water, and showed an average 8.5 point (out of 90 total, eliminating the 10 points for variety, giving a 9.4% increase) increase in overall HEI score. A food store intervention was effective in improving healthy food knowledge and perception that healthy foods are convenient among caregivers, and increased the consumption of several targeted healthy foods by their children. Greater intensity, sustained food system change, and further targeting for children are needed to show greater and sustained change in food-related behaviors in low-income Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities. PMID:20107467

  12. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., stores selling only accessory foods, including spices, candy, soft drinks, tea, or coffee; ice cream... Revenue Code of 1986 and Treas. Reg. § 301.6109-2 (26 CFR 301.6109-2). (ii) Social Security Number. In... special meal, or an offer of a free food item or beverage (excluding alcoholic beverages)....

  13. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., stores selling only accessory foods, including spices, candy, soft drinks, tea, or coffee; ice cream... Revenue Code of 1986 and Treas. Reg. § 301.6109-2 (26 CFR 301.6109-2). (ii) Social Security Number. In... special meal, or an offer of a free food item or beverage (excluding alcoholic beverages)....

  14. Characterizing the food environment: Pitfalls and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Drewnowski, Adam; Duncan, Glen E; Hurvitz, Philip M; Saelens, Brian E; Scharnhorst, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess a county population’s exposure to different types of food sources reported to affect both diet quality and obesity rates. Design: Food permit records obtained from the local health department served to establish the full census of food stores and restaurants. Employing prior categorization schemes which classified the relative healthfulness of food sources based on establishment type (i.e. supermarkets versus convenience stores, or full-service versus fast food restaurants), food establishments were assigned to the healthy, unhealthy, or undetermined groups. Setting: King County, WA. Subjects: Full census of food sources. Results: According to all categorization schemes, most food establishments in King County fell into the unhealthy and undetermined groups. The use of the food permit data showed that large stores, which included supermarkets as healthy food establishments, contained a sizeable number of bakery/delis, fish/meat, ethnic and standard quick service restaurants, and coffee shops, all food sources that, when housed in a separate venue or owned by a different business establishment, were classified as either unhealthy or of undetermined value to health. Conclusions: To fully assess the potential health effects of exposure to the extant food environment, future research would need to establish the health value of foods in the many such common establishments as individually owned grocery stores and ethnic food stores and restaurants. Within- venue exposure to foods should also be investigated. PMID:23570695

  15. The rationale behind small food store interventions in low-income urban neighborhoods: insights from New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Bodor, J Nicholas; Ulmer, Vanessa M; Dunaway, Lauren Futrell; Farley, Thomas A; Rose, Donald

    2010-06-01

    Environmental approaches to the obesity problem in the US have garnered favor due to growing evidence that changes to the environment are at the root of the epidemic. Low-income urban neighborhoods, where obesity rates are disproportionately high, typically lack supermarkets yet have a high density of small food stores. This may increase the risk for unhealthy diets and obesity for neighborhood residents, because small stores carry mostly energy-dense foods and few fruits and vegetables. This paper pulls together various studies and pilot work conducted in New Orleans to explore the rationale behind small store interventions. Many low-income residents in New Orleans live within walking distance of small food stores and shop at them frequently. Marketing research has documented that changes to in-store shelf space and displays of specific foods affect the sales of these foods. Initiatives in New Orleans and elsewhere have demonstrated some success with improving healthy food availability in small stores, and an intercept survey of customers at small stores suggests that customers would purchase more fruits and vegetables if available. Efforts to encourage small store operators to offer a healthier mix of foods may, in the end, depend on the profitability of such changes. Evidence from a typical small store in New Orleans indicates that a greater percentage of gross profits come from snack foods and beverages than from fruits and vegetables. More research is needed to better understand the financial operations of small food stores and whether altering the mix of foods is economically feasible. PMID:20410086

  16. Fast food restaurants and food stores: longitudinal associations with diet in young adults: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of cross-sectional, small-sample research has led to policy strategies to reduce food deserts – neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy foods – by limiting fast food restaurants and small food stores and increasing access to supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods. Methods We used 15 years of longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of U.S. young adults (n=5,115, 18–30 years at baseline), with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived food resource measures. Using repeated measures from four examination periods (n=15,854 person-exam observations) and conditional regression (conditioned on the individual), we modeled fast food consumption, diet quality, and meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations as a function of fast food chain, supermarket, or grocery store availability (counts per population) within 1 kilometer (km), 1–2.9km, 3–4.9km, and 5–8km of respondents’ homes. Models were sex-stratified, controlled for individual sociodemographics and neighborhood poverty, and tested for interaction by individual-level income. Results Fast food consumption was related to fast food availability in low-income respondents, particularly within 1–2.9km of homes among men [coefficient (95% CI) up to: 0.34 (0.16, 0.51)]. Greater supermarket availability was generally unrelated to diet quality and fruit and vegetable intake and relationships between grocery store availability and diet outcomes were mixed. Conclusions Our findings provide some evidence for zoning restrictions on fast food restaurants within 3km of low-income residents, but suggest that increased access to food stores may require complementary or alternative strategies to promote dietary behavior change. PMID:21747011

  17. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... regarding Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) retailer eligibility requirements (78 FR 51136... Food and Nutrition Service Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility--Listening Sessions AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  18. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Rule Concerning Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices, 54 FR 35456 (Aug. 28, 1989). \\4... Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777 (May 13... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal...

  19. Presence of Candy and Snack Food at Checkout in Chain Stores: Results of a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Kernan, William D; Menafro, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Community health professionals must use multiple strategies to address the rising rates of childhood obesity in the United States. One such strategy is to address the underlying causes of childhood obesity, including lack of exercise and the consumption of calorically-dense snack foods. This study examines the presence of candy and snack food in the checkout lines of all retail chain stores in a selected community to determine the presence of these products, the ways in which these products are promoted, and the type of physical environment through which customers navigate during the checkout process. The findings confirm that candy, soft drinks, snacks, and ice cream were present in a large majority of these retail stores. Further, this pilot study found that many of these stores "corral" customers through the check-out line in such a way that it is necessary to pass these snack foods directly. Three themes for discussion emerged from the review of the data collected, including product marketing, product packaging, and product placement. Implications for childhood health are presented in the context of these marketing strategies. The results and subsequent discussion provide important insight into the ways in which the presence of candy and snack food at checkout lines might contribute to childhood obesity rates. PMID:27101366

  20. There’s more to food store choice than proximity: a questionnaire development study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proximity of food stores is associated with dietary intake and obesity; however, individuals frequently shop at stores that are not the most proximal. Little is known about other factors that influence food store choice. The current research describes the development of the Food Store Selection Questionnaire (FSSQ) and describes preliminary results of field testing the questionnaire. Methods Development of the FSSQ involved a multidisciplinary literature review, qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts, and expert and community reviews. Field testing consisted of 100 primary household food shoppers (93% female, 64% African American), in rural and urban Arkansas communities, rating FSSQ items as to their importance in store choice and indicating their top two reasons. After eliminating 14 items due to low mean importance scores and high correlations with other items, the final FSSQ questionnaire consists of 49 items. Results Items rated highest in importance were: meat freshness; store maintenance; store cleanliness; meat varieties; and store safety. Items most commonly rated as top reasons were: low prices; proximity to home; fruit/vegetable freshness; fruit/vegetable variety; and store cleanliness. Conclusions The FSSQ is a comprehensive questionnaire for detailing key reasons in food store choice. Although proximity to home was a consideration for participants, there were clearly other key factors in their choice of a food store. Understanding the relative importance of these different dimensions driving food store choice in specific communities may be beneficial in informing policies and programs designed to support healthy dietary intake and obesity prevention. PMID:23773428

  1. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    PubMed

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages. PMID:19961886

  2. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.7 Section 278.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD...

  3. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.7 Section 278.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD...

  4. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.7 Section 278.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD...

  5. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.7 Section 278.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD...

  6. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.7 Section 278.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD...

  7. Where Are the Fresh Fruits and Vegetables?: A Systematic Exploration of Access to Food Stores Offering Fresh Fruits and Vegetables as Told by Midwestern African American Women

    PubMed Central

    SHEATS, JYLANA L.; DE LEON, BERNADETTE; ONA, FERNANDO F.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study systematically examined Midwestern African American women’s (n = 273) access to food stores offering more than 5 fresh fruits and vegetables daily. Access to potential (within 0.5 miles of household) and realized (where participant buys fruits and vegetables most often) food stores was assessed. Descriptive analyses revealed that participants lived closer to food stores not offering more than 5 fresh fruits and vegetables daily. Participants purchased fresh fruits and vegetables from food stores that were an average of 1.2 miles further than the closest food stores offering more than 5 fresh fruits and vegetables daily to their household. Results highlight complexities of the food environment and the need to further investigate factors influencing food-related behaviors. PMID:25844109

  8. The impact of parameters of store illumination on food shopper response.

    PubMed

    Berčík, Jakub; Horská, Elena; Wang, Regina W Y; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Customer behavior in sales areas is strongly influenced by the perception of surroundings and feelings of well-being. By using dynamic retail solutions of basic, accent and dramatic lighting it is possible to attract attention, create a unique in-store environment and give customers a reason to stay and return to the store. The simplest and also the most successful method to reach customer attention in food selection (buying) process is through eye-catchingly illuminated visuals of products. Visual senses has evolved to top ranks in the sensory hierarchy, therefore visual stimuli have a tendency to overcome all other senses. The paper deals with a comprehensive interdisciplinary research of the influence of light and color on the emotional state of consumers (valence) on the food market. It integrates the measurement of light intensity, color temperature or emitted color spectrum in grocery stores, recognition of emotional response and the time of its occurrence among respondents due to different lighting types and color in simulated laboratory conditions. The research is focused on accent lighting in the segment of fresh unpackaged food. Using a mobile 16-channel electroencephalograph (EEG equipment) from EPOC company and a mini camera we observed the response time and the emotional status (valence), in order to reveal true consumer preferences in different lighting conditions (color temperature and color rendering index) and their non-traditional color (yellow, purple, red, blue and green) for the selected food type. The paper suggests possibilities for rational combination of the effective, efficient and energy-saving accent lighting, by which the retailer can achieve not only an eye-catching and attractive presentation of merchandised products, but also significant savings within operating their stores. PMID:27083127

  9. Assessment of a University Campus Food Environment, California, 2015

    PubMed Central

    DeGreef, Kelsey; Fishler, Madison; Gipson, Rachel; Koyano, Kelly; Neill, Dawn B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction University campuses offer an opportunity to study the extent to which modifying the food environment influences eating, but in-depth characterizations of campus food environments are needed to identify potential targets for intervention. The objective of this project was to describe the availability, accessibility, and quality of healthful food choices in dining venues and food stores at or near a public, 4-year university in California. Methods Trained assessors used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for campus dining (NEMS-CD) to evaluate all 18 campus dining venues, and NEMS for stores (NEMS-S) to evaluate 2 on-campus and 37 off-campus food stores. We calculated prevalence of healthful and unhealthful constructs (eg, availability of selected food items, presence of signage encouraging healthful eating, pricing options that encourage healthful eating), based on the NEMS and compared scores across different types of venues. Results NEMS-CD scores ranged from 4 to 47 (mean [SD], 26.0 [14.4]) out of a possible maximum score of 97; 12% of entrées and 36% of main dish salads served in these venues were classified as healthful. NEMS-S score for the 2 on-campus food stores (24 for both) was intermediate between off-campus convenience stores (mean [SD], 12.0 [5.3]) and grocery/supermarket stores (mean [SD], 31.1 [10.0]), with a possible maximum score of 54. Conclusion Standardized environmental evaluation provides insights into both positive and negative aspects of campus community food venues. Environmental assessment identifies potential targets for modification and baseline data for designing and implementing action-oriented research aimed at improving the campus food environment’s support of healthful food choices for college students. PMID:26851337

  10. Beyond Neighborhood Food Environments: Distance Traveled to Food Establishments in 5 US Cities, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate conceptualizations of neighborhood environments are important in the design of policies and programs aiming to improve access to healthy food. Neighborhood environments are often defined by administrative units or buffers around points of interest. An individual may eat and shop for food within or outside these areas, which may not reflect accessibility of food establishments. This article examines the relevance of different definitions of food environments. Methods We collected data on trips to food establishments using a 1-week food and travel diary and global positioning system devices. Spatial-temporal clustering methods were applied to identify homes and food establishments visited by study participants. Results We identified 513 visits to food establishments (sit-down restaurants, fast-food/convenience stores, malls or stores, groceries/supermarkets) by 135 participants in 5 US cities. The average distance between the food establishments and homes was 2.6 miles (standard deviation, 3.7 miles). Only 34% of the visited food establishments were within participants’ neighborhood census tract. Buffers of 1 or 2 miles around the home covered 55% to 65% of visited food establishments. There was a significant difference in the mean distances to food establishments types (P = .008). On average, participants traveled the longest distances to restaurants and the shortest distances to groceries/supermarkets. Conclusion Many definitions of the neighborhood food environment are misaligned with individual travel patterns, which may help explain the mixed findings in studies of neighborhood food environments. Neighborhood environments defined by actual travel activity may provide more insight on how the food environment influences dietary and food shopping choices. PMID:26247426

  11. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money penalties in lieu of disqualifications. 278.6 Section 278.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND...

  12. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money penalties in lieu of disqualifications. 278.6 Section 278.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND...

  13. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 278.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... requirements for handling redemption certificates (at 7 CFR 278.5(a)) until their Federal Reserve...

  14. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 278.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... requirements for handling redemption certificates (at 7 CFR 278.5(a)) until their Federal Reserve...

  15. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 278.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... requirements for handling redemption certificates (at 7 CFR 278.5(a)) until their Federal Reserve...

  16. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 278.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... requirements for handling redemption certificates (at 7 CFR 278.5(a)) until their Federal Reserve...

  17. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 278.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... requirements for handling redemption certificates (at 7 CFR 278.5(a)) until their Federal Reserve...

  18. Neighbourhood food environments and obesity in southeast Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Paul L; Nicholas Bodor, J; Swalm, Chris M; Rice, Janet C; Rose, Donald

    2012-07-01

    Supermarkets might influence food choices, and more distal outcomes like obesity, by increasing the availability of healthy foods. However, recent evidence about their effects is ambiguous, perhaps because supermarkets also increase the availability of unhealthy options. We develop an alternative measure of food environment quality that characterizes urban neighborhoods by the relative amounts of healthy (e.g. fruits and vegetables) to unhealthy foods (e.g. energy-dense snacks). Using data from 307 food stores and 1243 telephone interviews with residents in urban southeastern Louisiana, we estimate a multilevel multinomial logistic model for overweight status. We find that higher quality food environments - but not food store types - decrease the risk of obesity (RR 0.474, 95% CI 0.269-0.835) and overweight (RR 0.532, 95% CI 0.312-0.907). The findings suggest a need to move beyond a sole consideration of food store types to a more nuanced view of the food environment when planning for change. PMID:22480887

  19. Field validation of listings of food stores and commercial physical activity establishments from secondary data

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Kestens, Yan; Léger, Karine; Gauvin, Lise

    2008-01-01

    Background Food- and activity-related establishments are increasingly viewed as neighbourhood resources that potentially condition health-related behaviour. The primary objective of the current study was to establish, using ground truthing (on-site verification), the validity of measures of availability of food stores and physical activity establishments that were obtained from commercial database and Internet searches. A secondary objective was to examine differences in validity results according to neighbourhood characteristics and commercial establishment categories. Methods Lists of food stores and physical activity-related establishments in 12 census tracts within the Montreal metropolitan region were compiled using a commercial database (n = 171 establishments) and Internet search engines (n = 123 establishments). Ground truthing through field observations was performed to assess the presence of listed establishments and identify those absent. Percentage agreement, sensitivity (proportion of establishments found in the field that were listed), and positive predictive value (proportion of listed establishments found in the field) were calculated and contrasted according to data sources, census tracts characteristics, and establishment categories. Results Agreement with field observations was good (0.73) for the commercial list, and moderate (0.60) for the Internet-based list. The commercial list was superior to the Internet-based list for correctly listing establishments present in the field (sensitivity), but slightly inferior in terms of the likelihood that a listed establishment was present in the field (positive predictive value). Agreement was higher for food stores than for activity-related establishments. Conclusion Commercial data sources may provide a valid alternative to field observations and could prove a valuable tool in the evaluation of commercial environments relevant to eating behaviour. In contrast, this study did not find strong evidence in

  20. Finding Food Deserts: A Comparison of Methods Measuring Spatial Access to Food Stores.

    PubMed

    Jaskiewicz, Lara; Block, Daniel; Chavez, Noel

    2016-05-01

    Public health research has increasingly focused on how access to resources affects health behaviors. Mapping environmental factors, such as distance to a supermarket, can identify intervention points toward improving food access in low-income and minority communities. However, the existing literature provides little guidance on choosing the most appropriate measures of spatial access. This study compared the results of different measures of spatial access to large food stores and the locations of high and low access identified by each. The data set included U.S. Census population data and the locations of large food stores in the six-county area around Chicago, Illinois. Six measures of spatial access were calculated at the census block group level and the results compared. The analysis found that there was little agreement in the identified locations of high or low access between measures. This study illustrates the importance of considering the access measure used when conducting research, interpreting results, or comparing studies. Future research should explore the correlation of different measures with health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:26494034

  1. Obesity prevalence and the local food environment

    PubMed Central

    Morland, Kimberly B.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in access to healthy foods have been identified particularly in the United States. Fewer studies have measured the effects these disparities have on diet-related health outcomes. This study measured the association between the presence of food establishments and obesity among 1295 adults living in the southern region of the United States. The prevalence of obesity was lower in areas that had supermarkets and higher in area with small grocery stores or fast food restaurants. Our findings are consistent with other studies showing that types of food stores and restaurants influence food choices and, subsequently, diet-related health outcomes. PMID:19022700

  2. Lessons Learned From Small Store Programs to Increase Healthy Food Access

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Laska, Melissa N.; Karpyn, Allison; Klingler, Kristen; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To document implementation challenges and opportunities associated with small store interventions. Methods Case study analysis of small store interventions conducted in 4 regions of the US. We systematically generated matrices to compare and contrast lessons learned to advance implementation science. Results Seven thematic areas were identified including: establishing relationships with stores, store owner and customer relationships, selection of intervention approaches, stocking healthier foods, evaluation, maintenance of changes, and dissemination. Conclusions This information provides guidance to researchers and practitioners wishing to design, implement, and evaluate small store interventions. PMID:24629559

  3. Feasibility of increasing access to healthy foods in neighborhood corner stores.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Keelia; Gustat, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of working with neighborhood corner stores to increase the availability of fresh fruit and vegetables in low-income neighborhoods in New Orleans was assessed. Household interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 97), corner store customer intercept interviews (n = 60) and interviews with corner store operators (owners/managers) (n = 12) were conducted in three neighborhoods without supermarkets. Regional produce wholesalers were contacted by phone. Results indicated that the majority of neighborhood residents use supermarkets or super stores as their primary food source. Those who did shop at corner stores typically purchased prepared foods and/or beverages making up nearly one third of their daily energy intake. Most individuals would be likely to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables from the corner stores if these foods were offered. Store operators identified cost, infrastructure and lack of customer demand as major barriers to stocking more fresh produce. Produce wholesalers did not see much business opportunity in supplying fresh produce to neighborhood corner stores on a small scale. Increasing availability of fresh fruit and vegetables in corner stores may be more feasible with the addition of systems changes that provide incentives and make it easier for neighborhood corner stores to stock and sell fresh produce. PMID:23546554

  4. Baltimore City Stores Increased The Availability Of Healthy Food After WIC Policy Change.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Laura K; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Appel, Lawrence; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Bilal, Usama; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    As part of a 2009 revision to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, the Department of Agriculture required WIC-authorized stores to stock additional varieties of healthy food. The long-term effects of this policy on access to healthy food are unknown. Using surveys conducted in 118 Baltimore City, Maryland, food stores in 2006 and 2012, we examined associations of the change in healthy food availability with store type, neighborhood demographics, and the 2009 WIC policy change. Overall, healthy food availability improved significantly between 2006 and 2012, with the greatest increases in corner stores and in census tracts with more than 60 percent black residents. On an 11-point scale measuring availability of fruit (3 points), vegetables (4 points), bread (2 points), and milk (2 points), the WIC policy change was associated with a 0.72-point increase in WIC-relevant healthy food availability, while joining WIC was associated with a 0.99-point increase. Stores that carry a limited variety of food items may be more receptive to stocking healthier food than previously thought, particularly within neighborhoods with a majority of black residents. Policies targeting healthy food availability have the potential to increase availability and decrease health disparities. PMID:26526242

  5. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas. PMID:26618317

  6. The nutrient content of US household food purchases by store types

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Dalia; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about where households shop for packaged foods, what foods and beverages they purchase, and the nutrient content of these purchases. The objectives are to describe volume trends and nutrient content (food groups and nutrient profiles) of household packaged foods purchases (PFP) by store-type. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of US households’ food purchases (Nielsen Homescan) from 2000 to 2012 (n=652,023 household-year observations) with survey weights used for national representativeness. Household PFP trends (% volume) by store-type, household purchases of key food and beverage groups based on caloric contribution by store-type, and mean caloric and nutrient densities (sugars, saturated fat and sodium) of household PFP by store-type are analyzed. Data were collected from 2000–2012. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results The proportion of total volume of household PFP significantly increased from 2000 to 2012 for mass-merchandisers (13.1 to 23.9%), convenience-stores (3.6 to 5.9%) and warehouse-club (6.2 to 9.8%), and significantly decreased for grocery-chains (58.5 to 46.3%) and non-chain grocerys (10.3 to 5.2%). Top common sources of calories (%) from household PFP by food/beverage group include: savory snacks, grain-based desserts and regular soft-drinks. The energy, total sugar, sodium and saturated fat densities of household PFP from mass-merchandisers, warehouse-club and convenience-stores were higher, compared to grocery-stores. Conclusions PFP from stores with poorer nutrient density (more energy, total sugar, sodium and saturated fat-dense), such as warehouse-club, mass-merchandisers and convenience-stores are growing, representing a potential US public health concern. PMID:26437868

  7. Spatial-Temporal Modeling of Neighborhood Sociodemographic Characteristics and Food Stores

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua L.; Peterson, Marc; Rummo, Pasquale; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    The literature on food stores, neighborhood poverty, and race/ethnicity is mixed and lacks methods of accounting for complex spatial and temporal clustering of food resources. We used quarterly data on supermarket and convenience store locations from Nielsen TDLinx (Nielsen Holdings N.V., New York, New York) spanning 7 years (2006–2012) and census tract-based neighborhood sociodemographic data from the American Community Survey (2006–2010) to assess associations between neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and food store distributions in the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) of 4 US cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and San Francisco, California). We fitted a space-time Poisson regression model that accounted for the complex spatial-temporal correlation structure of store locations by introducing space-time random effects in an intrinsic conditionally autoregressive model within a Bayesian framework. After accounting for census tract–level area, population, their interaction, and spatial and temporal variability, census tract poverty was significantly and positively associated with increasing expected numbers of supermarkets among tracts in all 4 MSAs. A similar positive association was observed for convenience stores in Birmingham, Minneapolis, and San Francisco; in Chicago, a positive association was observed only for predominantly white and predominantly black tracts. Our findings suggest a positive association between greater numbers of food stores and higher neighborhood poverty, with implications for policy approaches related to food store access by neighborhood poverty. PMID:25515169

  8. Food, energy, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Pardue, S L

    2010-04-01

    During the 2009 annual meeting of the Poultry Science Association, a symposium entitled "Global Views of New Agriculture: Food, Energy, and the Environment" was held that focused on several major issues affecting agriculture. Issues included future funding for basic agricultural research, sustainability, bioenergy, and their effects on global food markets. In many ways, a subtitle for the symposium could have been "Agriculture-Why What We Do Matters." It matters because of the fiscal and physical realities the planet will face in the coming decades relative to human population growth and the increasing demands to feed a hungry world. The challenges are daunting and the technologies to address them will require us to reevaluate the structure and policies we have established relative to agricultural research. In this case, change is all the more difficult because the traditional model of agricultural research has been so successful. One only needs to note the remarkable increases in productivity of the past half century of commodities such as corn and soybeans or feed efficiencies among broilers, laying hens, and turkeys to recognize the significant advancements that have been achieved. However, these historic gains have frequently required increased inputs, most notably fossil fuels. Food production in the future will likely be confronted with concerns involving energy, water, climate change, and the threat of agroterrorism. For example, we will need to develop crops that are more drought-resistant and more tolerant to a wider range of salinities as access to fresh water becomes more problematic. Animal agriculture will also need to adapt to diets composed of atypical feedstuffs. Whether future generations will inherit a world described by Paul Roberts in his books The End of Oil and The End of Food will be in part determined by the research model we adopt in the near term. PMID:20308413

  9. Associations between retail food store exterior advertisements and community demographic and socioeconomic composition.

    PubMed

    Isgor, Zeynep; Powell, Lisa; Rimkus, Leah; Chaloupka, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the association between the prevalence of various types of outdoor food and beverage advertising found on the building exteriors and properties of retail food outlets and community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition in a nationwide sample of food outlets in the U.S. Our major finding from multivariable analysis is that food stores in low-income communities have higher prevalence of all food and beverage ads, including those for unhealthy products such as regular soda, controlling for community racial/ethnic composition and other covariates. This adds to growing research pointing to socioeconomic disparities in food and beverage marketing exposure. PMID:26945871

  10. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Ownership of the firm; (G) Employer Identification Numbers and Social Security Numbers; (H) Food Stamp..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disqualification of retail food stores and...

  11. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Ownership of the firm; (G) Employer Identification Numbers and Social Security Numbers; (H) Food Stamp..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disqualification of retail food stores and...

  12. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Ownership of the firm; (G) Employer Identification Numbers and Social Security Numbers; (H) Food Stamp..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disqualification of retail food stores and...

  13. Running to the Store? The Relationship between Neighborhood Environments and the Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Cathleen; Smith, Ken R; Fan, Jessie X; Brown, Barbara B; Yamada, Ikuho; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2009-01-01

    We expand the search for modifiable features of neighborhood environments that alter obesity risk in two ways. First, we examine residents’ access to neighborhood retail food options in combination with neighborhood features that facilitate physical activity. Second, we evaluate neighborhood features for both low income and non-low income neighborhoods (bottom quartile of median neighborhood income vs. the top three quartiles). Our analyses use data from the Utah Population Database merged with U.S. Census data and Dun & Bradstreet business data for Salt Lake County, Utah. Linear regressions for BMI and logistic regressions for the likelihood of being obese are estimated using various measures of the individual’s neighborhood food options and walkability features. As expected, walkability indicators of older neighborhoods and neighborhoods where a higher fraction of the population walks to work is related to a lower BMI/obesity risk, although the strength of the effects varies by neighborhood income. Surprisingly, the walkability indicator of neighborhoods with higher intersection density was linked to higher BMI/obesity risk. The expected inverse relationship between the walkability indicator of population density and BMI/obesity risk is found only in low income neighborhoods. We find a strong association between neighborhood retail food options and BMI/obesity risk with the magnitude of the effects again varying by neighborhood income. For individuals living in non-low income neighborhoods, having one or more convenience stores, full-service restaurants, or fast food restaurants is associated with reduced BMI/obesity risk, compared to having no neighborhood food outlets. The presence of at least one healthy grocery option in low income neighborhoods is also associated with a reduction in BMI/obesity risk relative to no food outlets. Finally, multiple food options within a neighborhood reduce BMI/obesity risk, relative to no food options, for individuals

  14. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast-food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D M; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Many small grocery stores or "bodegas" sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a niche in the food environment similar to fast-food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast-food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast-food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast-food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets, including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and subscores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t tests and χ(2) statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast-food restaurants were more likely to provide nutrition information, and bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast-food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas 13.09, fast food 14.31; P=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs 11.54; P=0.01) and fast-food restaurants (16.27 vs 11.60; P<0.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  15. Comparing nutrition environments in bodegas and fast food restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Laszlo; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Sheehan, Daniel; Milinkovic, Karla; Baecker, Aileen; Bader, Michael D. M.; Weiss, Christopher; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many small grocery stores or “bodegas” sell prepared or ready-to-eat items, filling a similar niche in the food environment as fast food restaurants. However, little comparative information is available about the nutrition environments of bodegas and fast food outlets. This study compared the nutrition environments of bodegas and national chain fast food restaurants using a common audit instrument, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R) protocol. The analytic sample included 109 bodegas and 107 fast food restaurants located in New York City neighborhoods in the upper third and lower third of the census tract poverty rate distribution. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 102 food outlets including 31 from the analytic sample and 71 from a supplementary convenience sample. The analysis compared scores on individual NEMS-R items, a total summary score, and sub-scores indicating healthy food availability, nutrition information, promotions of healthy or unhealthy eating, and price incentives for healthy eating, using t-tests and chi-square statistics to evaluate differences by outlet type and neighborhood poverty. Fast food restaurants were more likely to provide nutritional information, while bodegas scored higher on healthy food availability, promotions, and pricing. Bodegas and fast food restaurants had similar NEMS-R total scores (bodegas: 13.09, fast food: 14.31, p=0.22). NEMS-R total scores were higher (indicating healthier environments) in low- than high-poverty neighborhoods among both bodegas (14.79 vs. 11.54, p=0.01) and fast food restaurants (16.27 vs. 11.60, p<.01). Results imply different policy measures to improve nutrition environments in the two types of food outlets. PMID:24035459

  16. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  17. Relation between local food environments and obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Edwards, Joy; Raine, Kim D; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background Outside of the United States, evidence for associations between exposure to fast-food establishments and risk for obesity among adults is limited and equivocal. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the relative availability of different types of food retailers around people's homes was associated with obesity among adults in Edmonton, Canada, and if this association varied as a function of distance between food locations and people's homes. Methods Data from a population health survey of 2900 adults (18 years or older) conducted in 2002 was linked with geographic measures of access to food retailers. Based upon a ratio of the number of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to supermarkets and specialty food stores, a Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI) was calculated for 800 m and 1600 m buffers around people's homes. In a series of logistic regressions, associations between the RFEI and the level of obesity among adults were examined. Results The median RFEI for adults in Edmonton was 4.00 within an 800 m buffer around their residence and 6.46 within a 1600 m buffer around their residence. Approximately 14% of the respondents were classified as being obese. The odds of a resident being obese were significantly lower (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.59 – 0.95) if they lived in an area with the lowest RFEI (below 3.0) in comparison to the highest RFEI (5.0 and above). These associations existed regardless of the covariates included in the model. No significant associations were observed between RFEI within a 1600 m buffer of the home and obesity. Conclusion The lower the ratio of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores to grocery stores and produce vendors near people's homes, the lower the odds of being obese. Thus the proximity of the obesogenic environment to individuals appears to be an important factor in their risk for obesity. PMID:19538709

  18. Neighborhood food environment role in modifying psychosocial stress-diet relationships

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Izumi, Betty T.; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A.; Lockett, Murlisa

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item. Chronic stress was derived from five subscales; major life events was a count of 9 items. The neighborhood food environment was measured as availability of large grocery stores, small grocery stores, and convenience stores, as well as proportion of restaurants that were fast food. Two-level hierarchical regression models were estimated. Snack food intake was positively associated with convenience store availability and negatively associated with large grocery store availability. The measures of chronic stress and major life events were generally not associated with either dietary behavior overall, although Latinos were less likely to eat out at high levels of major life events than African Americans. Stress-neighborhood food environment interactions were not statistically significant. Important questions remain regarding the role of the neighborhood food environment in the stress-diet relationship that warrant further investigation. PMID:23415977

  19. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world’s developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Methods We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. Results 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight

  20. Exploring the distribution of food stores in British Columbia: associations with neighbourhood socio-demographic factors and urban form.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer L; Carpiano, Richard M; Fleming, Stuart; Lauster, Nathanael

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have identified disparities in access to food retailers among urban neighbourhoods with varied socio-demographic characteristics; but few studies have examined whether key zoning and siting mechanisms described in the urban planning literature explain differences in food store access. This study assessed associations between socio-demographic and urban planning variables with the availability of large supermarkets and stores selling fresh food within one kilometre buffers from residential addresses and the proximity to the closest food stores across 630 census tracts in British Columbia, Canada. Multivariate regression results indicated that neighbourhoods with higher median household income had significantly decreased access to food stores. Inclusion of urban planning factors in multivariate models, particularly housing and transportation considerations, explained much of the relation between area income and food store access, and were significant predictors of food store availability and proximity. Public health research and practice addressing food availability would benefit by incorporating theoretical perspectives from urban planning theory. PMID:21565544

  1. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents. PMID:27281518

  2. Food & Environment. Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Through articles and activities designed for the senior secondary level, students examine the food production system in British Columbia and the world and explore creative, sustainable alternatives for food production. A description of raising food in the first world with the critical issues of energy use and environmental degradation precedes a…

  3. Differences in Food Environment Perceptions and Spatial Attributes of Food Shopping between Residents of Low and High Food Access Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A.; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. Design A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an eight-county food environment field census used to define the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) healthier food retail tract and USDA ERS (United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service) food desert measure. Participants 968 residents in eight South Carolina counties. Main Outcome Measures Residents’ food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Analysis Linear and logistic regression. Results Compared to residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled further to their primary food store (USDA ERS: 8.8 vs. 7.1 miles, p=0.03; CDC: 9.2 vs. 6.1 miles, p<0.001), accumulated more total shopping miles per week; CDC 28.0 vs. 15.4 miles, p<0.001) and showed differences in perceived healthy food availability (p<0.001) and shopping access (p<0.001). Conclusions and Implications These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. PMID:24560861

  4. Physical, consumer, and social aspects of measuring the food environment among diverse low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

    2009-04-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting. PMID:19285208

  5. Healthy Bodegas: Increasing and Promoting Healthy Foods at Corner Stores in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donya A.; Baronberg, Sabrina; Silver, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of an initiative to increase the stock and promotion of healthy foods in 55 corner stores in underserved neighborhoods. Methods. We evaluated the intervention through in-store observations and preintervention and postintervention surveys of all 55 store owners as well as surveys with customers at a subset of stores. Results. We observed an average of 4 changes on a 15-point criteria scale. The most common were placing refrigerated water at eye level, stocking canned fruit with no sugar added, offering a healthy sandwich, and identifying healthier items. Forty-six (84%) store owners completed both surveys. Owners reported increased sales of healthier items, but identified barriers including consumer demand and lack of space and refrigeration. The percentage of customers surveyed who purchased items for which we promoted a healthier option (low-sodium canned goods, low-fat milk, whole-grain bread, healthier snacks and sandwiches) increased from 5% to 16%. Conclusions. Corner stores are important vehicles for access to healthy foods. The approach described here achieved improvements in participating corner stores and in some consumer purchases and may be a useful model for other locales. PMID:22897534

  6. Brooklyn, New York foodscape 2007–2011: a five-year analysis of stability in food retail environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food retail studies have focused on the availability of food stores, and on disparities in food access by neighborhood race and income level. Previous research does not address possible changes in local food environments over time, because little is known about the extent to which food environments fluctuate. Methods Records of stores licensed to sell food with the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets from 2007–2011 were compared to detect differences in the total number of food stores and supermarkets annually, as well as the total change for the five-year period. Food stores and supermarkets per 10,000 persons were also calculated. Food retail stability – how many individual food stores opened and closed – was also calculated for total stores and supermarkets. All results were stratified by income level and racial characteristics of 2000 Census Bureau census tracts. Results There was an overall increase in all food stores, as well as in supermarkets specifically. However, stability – the proportion of stores that remained open for five years – was greater in higher-wealth and predominantly white areas. Supermarkets remained open in greater proportion than total stores in all racial/ethnic and income areas, but areas with the highest wealth had the greatest supermarket stability. Those areas also had slightly more supermarkets per 10,000 persons, and had no permanent closures of supermarkets. The proportion of new store locations was similar between areas, but lowest-income areas had the greatest proportion of new supermarket locations. Conclusions These data suggest that food retail environments change over short periods of time. Stability of food retail environments varies between neighborhoods by race and income. Fluctuations may need to be studied further to understand their impact on food behaviors and health of residents. Finally, the dynamic nature of food retail environments suggests opportunities for policymakers and

  7. Emolabeling effectively reduces the influence of ambiguous labeling on food packages among grocery store shoppers.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Brown, Caitlin J; Gillespie, James J

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased regulations and policy enforcement for nutrition labeling, ambiguous labels on food items can still have deleterious effects on consumer perceptions of health. The present study used a counterbalanced within-subjects design to test if emolabeling - the use of emoticons to convey health information (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy) - will reduce the effects of ambiguous labels on consumer perceptions of the healthfulness of a food item. 85 grocery store shoppers were shown nutrition labels for a low calorie (LC) and a high calorie (HC) food with/without emolabels, and with an ambiguous label that either implied the food was healthy or unhealthy. Results showed that emolabels reduced the effectiveness of ambiguous labels: consumers rated the LC food as healthier and the HC food as less healthy when emolabels were added. The results suggest that, if implemented, this image-based emolabeling system could possibly be an effective buffer against the use of ambiguous labeling by food manufacturers. PMID:25946913

  8. Food deserts or food swamps?: A mixed-methods study of local food environments in a Mexican city.

    PubMed

    Bridle-Fitzpatrick, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in eating behaviors and health outcomes. While food deserts have been researched extensively in developed Anglophone countries, evidence from low- and middle-income countries is still scarce. In Mexico, prevalence of obesity is among the highest worldwide. As obesity has increased nationally and become a widespread public health issue, it is becoming concentrated in the low-income population. This mixed-methods study uses a multidimensional approach to analyze food environments in a low-, middle-, and high-income community in a Mexican city. The study advances understanding of the role that food environments may play in shaping eating patterns by analyzing the density and proximity of food outlet types as well as the variety, quantity, quality, pricing, and promotion of different foods. These measures are combined with in-depth qualitative research with families in the communities, including photo elicitation, to assess perceptions of food access. The central aims of the research were to evaluate physical and economic access and exposure to healthy and unhealthy foods in communities of differing socioeconomic status as well as participants' subjective perceptions of such access and exposure. The findings suggest a need to reach beyond a narrow focus on food store types and the distance from residence to grocery stores when analyzing food access. Results show that excessive access and exposure to unhealthy foods and drinks, or "food swamps," may be a greater concern than food deserts for obesity-prevention policy in Mexico. PMID:26318209

  9. A shopper's eye view of food safety at retail stores: lessons from photographs taken while grocery shopping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retail grocery stores are the source of over 50% of food sales in the U.S., representing the most important sector for consumer food choices. Food safety-related infrastructure, procedures, and practices at retail grocery stores play an important role in protecting public health. Beyond actual risk ...

  10. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  11. Studies of Atomic Free Radicals Stored in a Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David M.; Hubbard, Dorthy (Technical Monitor); Alexander, Glen (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Impurity-Helium Solids are porous gel-like solids consisting of impurity atoms and molecules surrounded by thin layers of solid helium. They provide an ideal medium for matrix isolation of free radicals to prevent recombination and store chemical energy. In this work electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasound techniques have all been employed to study the properties of these substances. Detailed studies via electron spin resonance of exchange tunneling chemical reactions involving hydrogen and deuterium molecular and atomic impurities in these solids have been performed and compared with theory. Concentrations of hydrogen approaching the quantum solid criterion have been produced. Structured studies involving X ray diffraction, ultrasound, and electron spin resonance have shown that the impurities in impurity helium solids are predominantly contained in impurity clusters, with each cluster being surrounded by thin layers of solid helium.

  12. The Heidelberg CSR: Stored Ion Beams in a Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Orlov, D. A.; Fadil, H.; Welsch, C. P.; Andrianarijaona, V.; Diehl, A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Weber, T.; Mallinger, V.; Schwalm, D.; Ullrich, J.; Rappaport, M.; Urbain, X.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Quack, H.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-03-20

    A cryogenic electrostatic ion storage ring CSR is under development at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Cooling of the ultrahigh vacuum chamber is envisaged to lead to extremely low pressures as demonstrated by cryogenic ion traps. The ring will apply electron cooling with electron beams of a few eV up to 200 eV. Through long storage times of 1000 s as well as through the low wall temperature, internal cooling of infrared-active molecular ions to their rotational ground state will be possible and their collisions with merged collinear beams of electrons and neutral atoms can be detected with high energy resolution. In addition storage of slow highly charged ions is foreseen. Using a fixed in-ring gas target and a reaction microscope, collisions of the stored ions at a speed of the order of the atomic unit can be kinematically reconstructed. The layout and the cryogenic concept are introduced.

  13. Predatory response of Xylocoris flavipes to bruchid pests of stored food legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control may provide an affordable and sustainable option for reducing losses to pest Bruchidae in stored food legumes, a crucial source of dietary protein. Previous investigations have focused primarily on the role of parasitism in bruchid biological control, while the potential of gener...

  14. Degradative Enzymes from the Pharmacy or Health Food Store: Interesting Examples for Introductory Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.

    2007-01-01

    Degradative enzymes in over-the-counter products from pharmacies and health food stores provide good examples of biological catalysis. These include [beta]-galactosidase in Lactaid[TM], [alpha]-galactosidase in Beano[R], [alpha]-amylase and proteases in digestive aids, and proteases in contact lens cleaners. These enzymes can be studied…

  15. Getting Down to Business: Specialty Food Store, Module 8. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassen, Rachel L.

    This module on owning and operating a specialty food store is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning activities are…

  16. Understanding interactions with the food environment: an exploration of supermarket food shopping routines in deprived neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Despite a sustained academic interest in the environmental determinants of diet, relatively little is known about the ways in which individuals interact with their neighbourhood food environment and the use of its most important element, the supermarket. This qualitative study explores how residents of deprived neighbourhoods shop for food and how the supermarket environment influences their choices. Go-along interviews were conducted with 26 residents of Sandwell, a uniformly deprived metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, UK. Routine approaches to food shopping are characterised in terms of planning and reliance on the supermarket environment. Four distinct routines are identified: chaotic and reactive; working around the store; item-by-item; and restricted and budgeted. This suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods do not have uniform responses to food environments. Responses to supermarket environments appear to be mediated by levels of individual autonomy. A better understanding of how residents of deprived neighbourhoods interact with their food environment may help optimise environmental interventions aimed at improving physical access to food in these places. PMID:23220374

  17. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  18. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes. PMID:17763963

  19. Temperature environment for 9975 packages stored in KAC

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-09-10

    Plutonium materials are stored in the K Area Complex (KAC) in shipping packages, typically the 9975 shipping package. In order to estimate realistic degradation rates for components within the shipping package (i.e. the fiberboard overpack and O-ring seals), it is necessary to understand actual facility temperatures, which can vary daily and seasonally. Relevant facility temperature data available from several periods throughout its operating history have been reviewed. The annual average temperature within the Crane Maintenance Area has ranged from approximately 70 to 74 °F, although there is significant seasonal variation and lesser variation among different locations within the facility. The long-term average degradation rate for 9975 package components is very close to that expected if the component were to remain continually at the annual average temperature. This result remains valid for a wide range of activation energies (which describes the variation in degradation rate as the temperature changes), if the activation energy remains constant over the seasonal range of component temperatures. It is recommended that component degradation analyses and service life estimates incorporate these results. Specifically, it is proposed that future analyses assume an average facility ambient air temperature of 94 °F. This value is bounding for all packages, and includes margin for several factors such as increased temperatures within the storage arrays, the addition of more packages in the future, and future operational changes.

  20. Mobile Food Vending and the After-School Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tester, June M.; Yen, Irene H.; Laraia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-income and minority children have higher rates of obesity and overweight. Greater understanding of their food access is important. Because of higher rates of walking to school in these populations, these children likely have greater exposure to the food environment immediately around their schools. Mobile food vendors are an understudied aspect of the food environment in U.S. urban areas. Purpose This study aims to observe the after-school food environment in an urban area where mobile vending is known to occur in order to study the range of vendors encountered near schools and the items sold in the after-school period. Methods In the spring of 2008, the presence of mobile food vendors after school within ¼ mile of nine public schools was assessed in a predominantly Latino district of Oakland CA. At six schools with regular presence of vendors, observations were made at mobile vendors documenting characteristics of transactions, consumers, and items. Results During 37 observation-hours across 23 days, there were 1355 items sold to 1195 individuals. Fifty-six percent of the transactions involved children with no adults present. There was a wide range in foods sold, and although there were vendors selling low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, there were also vendors selling whole and processed (precut and bagged) fresh fruits and vegetables. Roughly 40% of these whole fruits and processed fruits and vegetables were consumed by children. On average, children each consumed $1.54 of foods per transaction. Conclusions Mobile food vendors in urban areas contribute to after-school snacking among children, and should be considered as a component of the school food environment. PMID:20117559

  1. The Utilization of Local Food Environments By Urban Seniors

    PubMed Central

    Morland, Kimberly; Filomena, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe food shopping patterns for urban seniors and measure the influence of neighborhood and individual level factors on intake of fresh fruits and vegetables. Method Between September 2005 to August 2006, 314 Black, White and Latino participants from ten Brooklyn senior centers were interviewed about types of produce recently purchased, satisfaction with selection, cost and quality of produce, intake of produce, and location of food store used to purchase produce. Results Individual level factors (race/ethnicity and age) were significantly associated with produce intake. Although environmental and distance factors did not reach statistical significance in multivariate models, living or shopping in a Black or racially-mixed neighborhood was positively associated with the reported number of servings per day of fruits and vegetables. Also, a greater proportion of Blacks traveled more than a mile to do primary food shopping and most Seniors do not shop within their residential census tract. Blacks and Latinos consumed less produce than Whites. Conclusion This study illuminates a number of important factors about the delivery of foods to urban Seniors and how those Seniors navigate their local environment to obtain healthy diets, measured here as intake of fruits and vegetables. The albeit small increase in servings per day associated with distance traveled to primary food stores does suggest that fruits and vegetables are not locally available and therefore presents an opportunity for policy makers and city planners to develop areas where healthy food options are convenient for consumers. PMID:18440626

  2. Understanding differences in the local food environment across countries: A case study in Madrid (Spain) and Baltimore (USA).

    PubMed

    Díez, Julia; Bilal, Usama; Cebrecos, Alba; Buczynski, Amanda; Lawrence, Robert S; Glass, Thomas; Escobar, Francisco; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Places where we buy food influence dietary patterns, making local food environments a good example of a mass influence on population diets. Cross-cultural studies, using reliable methods, may help understanding the relationship between food environments and diet-related health outcomes. We aimed to understand cross-national differences in the local food environment between Madrid and Baltimore by comparing an average neighborhood in each city in terms of food store types, healthy food availability, and residents' pedestrian access. During 2012-2013, we assessed one neighborhood (~15,000 residents) in each city selecting median areas in terms of socio-demographic characteristics (segregation, education, aging, and population density). We collected on-field data on (a) number and types of all food stores, (b) overall healthy food availability and (c) specific availability of fruits & vegetables. Throughout a street network analysis (200m, 400m and 800m) of food stores with high healthy food availability, we estimated residents' pedestrian accessibility. We found 40 stores in Madrid and 14 in Baltimore. Small food stores carrying fresh foods in Madrid contrasted with the high presence of corner and chain convenience stores in Baltimore. In Madrid, 77% of the residents lived within less than 200m from a food store with high healthy food availability. In contrast, 95% of Baltimore's residents lived further than 400m from these stores. Our results may help promoting interventions from local city agencies to allocate resources to existing small-sized food stores, and to improve walkable urban environments. These actions may influence food choices, especially for those residents lacking access to private vehicles. PMID:27311334

  3. Quality Detection of Litchi Stored in Different Environments Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sai; Lü, Enli; Lu, Huazhong; Zhou, Zhiyan; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yajuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the utility of an electronic nose to detect the quality of litchi fruit stored in different environments. In this study, a PEN3 electronic nose was adopted to test the storage time and hardness of litchi that were stored in three different types of environment (room temperature, refrigerator and controlled-atmosphere). After acquiring data about the hardness of the sample and from the electronic nose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), BP neural network (BPNN) and BP neural network-partial least squares regression (BPNN-PLSR), were employed for data processing. The experimental results showed that the hardness of litchi fruits stored in all three environments decreased during storage. The litchi stored at room temperature had the fastest rate of decrease in hardness, followed by those stored in a refrigerator environment and under a controlled-atmosphere. LDA has a poor ability to classify the storage time of the three environments in which litchi was stored. BPNN can effectively recognize the storage time of litchi stored in a refrigerator and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN classification of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi was poor. CCA results show a significant correlation between electronic nose data and hardness data under the room temperature, and the correlation is more obvious for those under the refrigerator environment and controlled-atmosphere environment. The BPNN-PLSR can effectively predict the hardness of litchi under refrigerator storage conditions and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN-PLSR prediction of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi and global environment storage on litchi were poor. Thus, this experiment proved that an electronic nose can detect the quality of litchi under refrigeratored storage and a controlled-atmosphere environment. These results provide a useful reference for future

  4. Quality Detection of Litchi Stored in Different Environments Using an Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sai; Lü, Enli; Lu, Huazhong; Zhou, Zhiyan; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yajuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the utility of an electronic nose to detect the quality of litchi fruit stored in different environments. In this study, a PEN3 electronic nose was adopted to test the storage time and hardness of litchi that were stored in three different types of environment (room temperature, refrigerator and controlled-atmosphere). After acquiring data about the hardness of the sample and from the electronic nose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), BP neural network (BPNN) and BP neural network-partial least squares regression (BPNN-PLSR), were employed for data processing. The experimental results showed that the hardness of litchi fruits stored in all three environments decreased during storage. The litchi stored at room temperature had the fastest rate of decrease in hardness, followed by those stored in a refrigerator environment and under a controlled-atmosphere. LDA has a poor ability to classify the storage time of the three environments in which litchi was stored. BPNN can effectively recognize the storage time of litchi stored in a refrigerator and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN classification of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi was poor. CCA results show a significant correlation between electronic nose data and hardness data under the room temperature, and the correlation is more obvious for those under the refrigerator environment and controlled-atmosphere environment. The BPNN-PLSR can effectively predict the hardness of litchi under refrigerator storage conditions and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN-PLSR prediction of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi and global environment storage on litchi were poor. Thus, this experiment proved that an electronic nose can detect the quality of litchi under refrigeratored storage and a controlled-atmosphere environment. These results provide a useful reference for future

  5. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E.; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  6. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food. PMID:25420687

  7. An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with food sold at a salvage store in Texas.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Pavani; Crowe, Colleen; Reller, Megan; Gaul, Linda; Hayslett, James; Barth, Suzanne; Eliasberg, Stacey; Ferreira, J; Holt, Kristin; Bengston, Steve; Hendricks, Kate; Sobel, Jeremy

    2003-12-01

    Foodborne botulism is caused by potent neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum. We investigated a large outbreak of foodborne botulism among church supper attendees in Texas. We conducted a cohort study of attendees and investigated the salvage store that sold the implicated foods. We identified 15 cases of botulism (40%) among 38 church supper attendees. Nine patients (60%) had botulinum toxin type A detected in stool specimens. The diagnosis was delayed in 3 cases. Fifteen (63%) of 24 attendees who ate a chili dish developed botulism (relative risk, undefined; P<.001). The chili dish was prepared with "brand X" or "brand Y" frozen chili, "brand Z" canned chili, and hot dogs. An unopened container of brand X chili yielded type A toxin. Brand X chili was purchased at a salvage store where perishable foods were inadequately refrigerated. Our investigation highlights the need to improve clinicians' awareness of botulism. More rigorous and more unannounced inspections may be necessary to detect food mishandling at salvage stores. PMID:14614672

  8. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  9. Convenience store visits by US adolescents: Rationale for healthier retail environments.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Parikh, Nina M; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Henriksen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Given interest in the public health impact of convenience stores, it is surprising that so little is known about the popularity of these destinations for youth. We surveyed 2772 adolescents (age 13-16) from a nationally representative web panel of US households. Nearly half (47.5%) of adolescents reported visiting convenience stores at least weekly. Significant risk factors for frequent visits were age, being African-American, living in rural areas and in areas with higher levels of neighborhood deprivation. With approximately 4.1 million US adolescents visiting convenience stores at least weekly, new policies and other interventions are needed to promote a healthier retail environment for youth. PMID:25955537

  10. Choosing Whole-Grain Foods: 10 Tips for Purchasing and Storing Whole-Grain Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole-grain ingredients include whole oats, whole-wheat flour, whole-grain corn, whole-grain brown rice, and whole rye. Foods that say “multi-grain,” “ ... the shelf life varies too. Most whole-grain flours keep well in the ... for 6 to 8 months. Cooked brown rice can be refrigerated 3 to 5 days and ...

  11. Effect of a grocery store intervention on sales of nutritious foods to youth and their families.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ashley S; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davis, George C; Serrano, Elena L

    2012-06-01

    Grocery stores represent a unique opportunity to initiate nutrition interventions. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a 12-week, child-focused intervention at one grocery store. An observational uninterrupted time-series design was implemented from May to September 2009. The Healthy Kids campaign consisted of a point-of-purchase kiosk featuring fruits, vegetables, and healthy snacks as well as a sampling pod comprised of food items from the kiosk. Data collection included changes in sales for featured products; observations of customers at the kiosk/intervention; and brief questionnaires for customers who engaged with the kiosk. Descriptive statistics were computed for questionnaire responses and observational data. Correlational analyses were conducted to identify potential predictors of engagement. Sales data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Results showed an overall increase in the proportion of sales of the featured items to total store sales during the intervention period (P<0.05). Individual items that increased sales during the intervention period included whole-wheat bagels, bananas, radishes, honey, sunflower seeds, baked tortilla chips, and almond butter (P<0.05). Almost two thirds (61.7%) of the patrons interviewed noticed the Healthy Kids kiosk, with about one quarter (28.7%) indicating that they purchased at least one item. Fifty-eight percent reported that the kiosk encouraged them to buy healthier foods. PMID:22513119

  12. Energy, food, environment: Realities, myths, options

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first three chapters are devoted to detailed surveys of the major energy, food, and environmental controversies. The remaining chapters analyse the environmental consequences of obtaining sufficient energy and food by taking a close look at the three key biogeochemical cycles which are most affected by human actions, those of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. The book concludes by weighing the evidence presented by pessimists and optimists about future prospects and brings some common sense to the debate on how civilization can survive with abundant flows of energy, an adequate supply of food, and an environment fit to live in.

  13. The Food Environment of Youth Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Drury-Brown, Marcie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sports, such as youth baseball (YB), are popular outlets for increasing activity, yet there has been no investigation of food environments surrounding them. The aim of this study was to observe the types of foods available and consumed by players and spectators at YB events. Methods: This was an observational assessment, by environmental scan, of foods consumed by players and family members at a YB field in northwest North Carolina. Results: Participants included boys from six YB teams (n=51) between 8 and 11 years of age and families. A total of 12 YB games were observed. Most team snacks (72%) consisted of high-calorie food items, including French fries, candy, and cookies; most beverages (53%) consumed by players were sugar sweetened. We observed 313 spectators and players, who consumed a total of 249 foods and 276 beverages. Most food and beverage items (89%) were purchased from the concession stand, of which 73% were considered less-healthy options. Conclusions: High-calorie snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages dominate the YB environment. Despite the benefits of participating in sports, families of children participating in sports leagues may be increasing their risk for poor nutritional habits as a result of increased exposure to unhealthy foods and disruption of meal times. PMID:24745374

  14. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

  15. Low-fat milk and high-fiber bread availability in food stores in urban and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hosler, Akiko S; Varadarajulu, Deepa; Ronsani, Adrienne E; Fredrick, Bonnie L; Fisher, Brian D

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Albany Prevention Research Center's Core Project to understand environmental influences on a healthy lifestyle, all food stores in downtown Albany (N=79) and rural Columbia and Greene counties (N=177) in New York State were visited and surveyed for their availability of low-fat milk and high-fiber bread. Stores in the rural community were significantly (P < .01) more likely to stock low-fat milk (71%) and high-fiber bread (55%) than stores in Albany (40% and 33%, respectively). The rural community also had a significantly higher population ratio of "healthy milk & bread (M&B) stores" (carrying both items) than Albany (7.6 vs 3.9 per 10,000 residents). Urban healthy M&B stores were more likely to be a convenience store and accept food stamps, whereas rural healthy M&B stores were more likely to be a gas station store and offer off-street parking. Multiple logistic regression analysis found that healthy M&B stores were inversely associated with proportions of ethnic/racial minorities in the census block group (CBG). More than 80 percent of minorities in Albany resided in a CBG without a healthy M&B store. Urban residents in predominantly minority neighborhoods were most likely to encounter environmental barriers to obtain healthy staple food, and intervention should be tailored to aid this population. PMID:17041304

  16. Dietary Assessment in Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Butler, Eboneé N.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; McKinnon, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially due in part to heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012–2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Evidence acquisition Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 and assessed relationships between at least one food environment exposure and at least one dietary outcome. Fifty-one articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO; references listed in the papers reviewed and relevant review articles; and the National Cancer Institute's Measures of the Food Environment website. The frequency of the use of dietary intake measures and assessment of specific dietary outcomes was examined, as were patterns of results among studies using different dietary measures. Evidence synthesis The majority of studies used brief instruments, such as screeners or one or two questions, to assess intake. Food frequency questionnaires were used in about a third of studies, one in ten used 24-hour recalls, and fewer than one in twenty used diaries. Little consideration of dietary measurement error was evident. Associations between the food environment and diet were more consistently in the expected direction in studies using less error-prone measures. Conclusions There is a tendency toward the use of brief dietary assessment instruments with low cost and burden rather than more detailed instruments that capture intake with less bias. Use of error-prone dietary measures may lead to spurious findings and reduced power to detect associations. PMID:24355678

  17. Exploring the Role of the Food Environment on Food Shopping Patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: A Semiquantitative Comparison of Two Matched Neighborhood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment) were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters) radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual’s food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments. PMID:23343984

  18. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  19. Hierarchical multiple informants models: examining food environment contributions to the childhood obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V

    2014-02-20

    Methods for multiple informants help to estimate the marginal effect of each multiple source predictor and formally compare the strength of their association with an outcome. We extend multiple informant methods to the case of hierarchical data structures to account for within cluster correlation. We apply the proposed method to examine the relationship between features of the food environment near schools and children's body mass index z-scores (BMIz). Specifically, we compare the associations between two different features of the food environment (fast food restaurants and convenience stores) with BMIz and investigate how the association between the number of fast food restaurants or convenience stores and child's BMIz varies across distance from a school. The newly developed methodology enhances the types of research questions that can be asked by investigators studying effects of environment on childhood obesity and can be applied to other fields. PMID:24038440

  20. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the US-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For all classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107

  1. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107

  2. Location of Food Stores Near Schools Does Not Predict the Weight Status of Maine High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David E.; Blum, Janet Whatley; Bampton, Matthew; O'Brien, Liam M.; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Polacsek, Michele; O'Rourke, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between stores selling calorie-dense food near schools and student obesity risk, with the hypothesis that high availability predicts increased risk. Methods: Mail surveys determined height, weight, and calorie-dense food consumption for 552 students at 11 Maine high schools. Driving distance from all food…

  3. Neighborhood and home food environment and children's diet and obesity: Evidence from military personnel's installation assignment.

    PubMed

    Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-06-01

    Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI. Our results suggest that neither the actual nor the perceived availability of particular food outlets in the neighborhood is associated with children's diet or BMI. The availability of supermarkets and convenience stores in the neighborhood was not associated with where families shop for food or children's dietary behaviors. Further, the type of store that families shop at was not associated with the healthiness of food available at home. Similarly, availability of fast food and restaurants was unrelated to children's dietary behaviors or how often children eat fast food or restaurant meals. However, the healthiness of food available at home was associated with healthy dietary behaviors while eating at fast food outlets and restaurants were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children. Further, parental supervision, including limits on snack foods and meals eaten as a family, was associated with dietary behaviors. These findings suggest that focusing only on the neighborhood food environment may ignore important factors that influence children's outcomes. Future research should also consider how families make decisions about what foods to purchase, where to shop for foods and eating out, how closely to monitor their children's food intake, and, ultimately how these decisions collectively impact children's outcomes. PMID:27135542

  4. Assessing Reliability and Validity of the "GroPromo" Audit Tool for Evaluation of Grocery Store Marketing and Promotional Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F.; Bromby, Erica; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate reliability and validity of a new tool for assessing the placement and promotional environment in grocery stores. Methods: Trained observers used the "GroPromo" instrument in 40 stores to code the placement of 7 products in 9 locations within a store, along with other promotional characteristics. To test construct validity,…

  5. The Local Food Environment and Body Mass Index among the Urban Poor in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dake, Fidelia A A; Thompson, Amanda L; Ng, Shu Wen; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Codjoe, Samuel N A

    2016-06-01

    Obesity in the sub-Saharan Africa region has been portrayed as a problem of affluence, partly because obesity has been found to be more common in urban areas and among the rich. Recent findings, however, reveal rising prevalence among the poor particularly the urban poor. A growing body of literature mostly in Western countries shows that obesity among the poor is partly the result of an obesogenic-built environment. Such studies are lacking in the African context. This study examines the characteristics of the local food environment in an urban poor setting in Accra, Ghana and further investigates the associated risk of obesity for residents. Data on the local food environment was collected using geographic positioning system (GPS) technology. The body mass indices (BMI) of females (15-49 years) and males (15-59 years) were calculated from measured weight and height. Data on the socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors of respondents was also collected through a household survey. Spatial analysis tools were used to examine the characteristics of the local food environment while the influence of the food environment on BMI was examined using a two-level multilevel model. The measures of the food environment constituted the level 2 factors while individual socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors constituted the level 1 factors. The local food environment in the study communities is suggestive of an obesogenic food environment characterized by an abundance of out-of-home cooked foods, convenience stores, and limited fruits and vegetables options. The results of the multilevel analysis reveal a 0.2 kg/m(2) increase in BMI for every additional convenience store and a 0.1 kg/m(2) reduction in BMI for every out-of-home cooked food place available in the study area after controlling for individual socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, and community characteristics. The findings of this study indicate that the local

  6. Pulga (Flea Market) Contributions to the Retail Food Environment of Colonias in the South Texas Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; St. John, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food-sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruit and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants which served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruit and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food-source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment. PMID:21515116

  7. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. PMID:20851311

  8. Maintenance of a fully functional digestive system during hibernation in the European hamster, a food-storing hibernator.

    PubMed

    Weitten, Mathieu; Oudart, Hugues; Habold, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Some small mammals limit energy expenditure during winter conditions through torpor bouts, which are characterized by a decrease in body temperature and metabolic rate. Individuals arise periodically from torpor to restore critical functions requiring euthermia. Although most of the species involved do not feed during hibernation and rely on body reserves to fulfil energy requirements (fat-storing species), others hoard food in a burrow (food-storing species) and can feed during interbout euthermy. Whereas fat-storing species undergo a marked atrophy of the digestive tract, food-storing species have to maintain a functional digestive system during hibernation. Our study aimed to evaluate the absorption capacities of a food-storing species, the European hamster, throughout the annual cycle. In vivo intestinal perfusions were conducted in different groups of hamsters (n=5) during the different life periods, namely before hibernation, in torpor, during interbout euthermy, and during summer rest. The triglyceride, non-esterified free fatty acid, starch, glucose and protein composition of the perfusate was evaluated before and after the 1h perfusion of a closed intestinal loop. Triglyceride, starch and protein hydrolysis rates were similar in hibernating (torpid and euthermic) and non-hibernating hamsters. Intestinal absorption of free fatty acid was also similar in all groups. However, glucose uptake rate was higher during hibernation than during the summer. In contrast with fat-storing species, the intestinal absorption capacities of food-storing species are fully maintained during hibernation to optimize nutrient assimilation during short interbout euthermy. In particular, glucose uptake rate is increased during hibernation to restore glycaemia and ensure glucose-dependent pathways. PMID:26774183

  9. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    PubMed

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores. PMID:25647550

  10. Acaricidal and Insecticidal Activities of Essential Oils against a Stored-Food Mite and Stored-Grain Insects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ja-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Na-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Twenty plant-derived oils were evaluated for their acaricidal and insecticidal activities against Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults, by using the fumigant and filter paper diffusion methods. Responses varied with bioassay systems, insect or mite species, plant oils, and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay, Anethum graveolens oil (4.12 and 1.12 μg/cm(3), respectively) induced the highest mortality, followed by Achillea millefolium (21.92 and 14.91 μg/cm(3)) and Eucalyptus dives (28.02 and 24.02 μg/cm(3)) oils, respectively. The most toxic oil based on the 50% lethal concentration values against T. putrescentiae was E. dives (3.13 μg/cm(3)), followed by Melaleuca leucadendron (3.93 μg/cm(3)) and Leptospermum pertersonii (4.41 μg/cm(3)). Neroli birgard oil (1.70 μg/cm(3)) was the most toxic based on the LD50 values against S. cerealella, followed by Citrus aurantium (1.80 μg/cm(3)) and Artemisia vulgaris (1.81 μg/cm(3)). The insecticidal and acaricidal activities of the plant oils in the filter paper diffusion bioassay were similar to those in the fumigant bioassay. In comparison, A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils were more effective against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay than in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of the three plant oils against S. oryzae and S. zeamais may be due to their fumigant action. Acaricidal activities of the A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils against T. putrescentiae were 2.62, 1.11, and 122 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils have potential for development as agents to control stored-grain insects and mites. PMID:26735047

  11. Volatile emissions during storing of green food waste under different aeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Agapiou, A; Vamvakari, J P; Andrianopoulos, A; Pappa, A

    2016-05-01

    Controlled field experiments were carried out for monitoring the emissions of three plastic commercial household waste bins, which were adapted for studying the effect of aeration process in the evolved volatiles, during house storing of green food waste for 2 weeks, prior to collection. Three experimental scenarios were examined based on no aeration ("NA," closed commercial waste bin), diffusion-based aeration ("DA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes), and enforced aeration ("EA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes and enforced aeration). The monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from organic household kitchen waste was performed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis. Portable sensors were also used for monitoring selected gases and parameters of environmental, bioprocess, and health interest (e.g., CO2, O2, H2S, CH4, NH3, % RH, waste temperatures). VOC emissions are strongly dependent on the waste material. The most frequent VOCs identified over the storing waste, showing over 50 % appearance in all examined samples, were terpenes (e.g., di-limonene, beta-myrcene, delta-3-carene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinolene, linalool, etc.), sulfides (dimethyl disulfide), aromatics (benzene, 1-methyl-2-(2-propenyl)), alkanes (e.g., decane, dodecane), ketones (2-propanone), esters (e.g., acetic acid ethyl ester, acetic acid methyl ester), and alcohols (e.g., 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)). The prominent role of terpenes in the "pre-compost" odor and especially that of di-limonene was highlighted. In all examined scenarios, the emitted volatiles were increased at raised temperatures and later decreased in time. Aeration of waste bins slightly affected the volatilization process resulting in higher profiles of VOCs; uniformity in the composition of VOCs was also noted. Slight modifications of commercial waste bins may favor the initiation of home composting. PMID

  12. The local food environment and diet: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Sorensen, Glorian; Subramanian, S.V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing attention to the problem of obesogenic environments, there has not been a comprehensive review evaluating the food environment-diet relationship. This study aims to evaluate this relationship in the current literature, focusing specifically on the method of exposure assessment (GIS, survey, or store audit). This study also explores 5 dimensions of “food access” (availability, accessibility, affordability, accommodation, acceptability) using a conceptual definition proposed by Penchansky and Thomas (1981). Articles were retrieved through a systematic keyword search in Web of Science and supplemented by the reference lists of included studies. Thirty-eight studies were reviewed and categorized by the exposure assessment method and the conceptual dimensions of access it captured. GIS-based measures were the most common measures, but were less consistently associated with diet than other measures. Few studies examined dimensions of affordability, accommodation, and acceptability. Because GIS-based measures on their own may not capture important non-geographic dimensions of access, a set of recommendations for future researchers is outlined. PMID:22717379

  13. Beyond Access: Characteristics of the Food Environment and Risk of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Li, Xinjun; Cederin, Klas; Rice, Kristen; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-06-15

    Characteristics of the built environment, including access to unhealthy food outlets, are hypothesized to contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Swedish nationwide registry data on 4,718,583 adults aged 35-80 years living in 9,353 neighborhoods, each with at least 1 food outlet, were geocoded and linked to commercial registers (e.g., restaurants and grocery stores). Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the prospective relationship between characteristics of the food environment and T2D from 2005 to 2010. Relative access to health-harming food outlets was associated with greater likelihood of both prevalent and incident T2D in a curvilinear manner, with the highest risk being observed for environments in which one-third of outlets were health-harming. Relative to individuals whose food environment did not change, those who moved into areas with more health-harming food outlets had higher odds of developing T2D (odds ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval: 2.14, 6.30). Among those who did not move, living in an area that gained relative access to health-harming food outlets was also associated with higher odds of T2D (odds ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.33). These results suggest that local food environment, including changes that result in greater access to unhealthy food outlets, is associated with T2D. PMID:27240801

  14. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    PubMed Central

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P < .01) were found in tobacco availability and any tobacco advertising in pharmacies and in low (<3 feet) tobacco advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and

  15. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    PubMed

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. PMID:22709644

  16. Availability and price of food products with and without trans fatty acids in food stores around elementary schools in low- and medium-income neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Bruna Maria; Kliemann, Nathalie; Silva, Daniele Pagliarini; Colussi, Cláudia Flemming; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between the price and availability of food products with and without trans fatty acids in food stores near elementary schools located in low- and medium-income neighborhoods of a Brazilian city. The supply of products containing trans fatty acids was higher in both regions, and these products were also cheaper. It is noteworthy that this availability may influence food choices and, consequently, the health status of children and adolescents, since this population is more likely to buy less-healthy foods when these are more available, accessible, and financially attractive. PMID:23282191

  17. CUTICULAR LIPIDS OF THE STORED FOOD PEST, LIPOSCELIS BOSTRYCHOPHILA BADONNEL (PSOCOPTERA: LIPOSCELIDIDAE): HYDROCARBONS, ALDEHYDES, FATTY ACIDS AND FATTY ACID AMIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, has increasingly become a common pest of stored food products worldwide. We report here the cuticular hydrocarbon composition of this pest (the first report of the hydrocarbons of any member of the Order Psocoptera) and the first report of fatty acid amides...

  18. The Food Store. Grade 1. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmingham, Coleen; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of business and sales, this unit entitled "The Food Store" is one of four grade one units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC) element…

  19. Carbon budgets and potential blue carbon stores in Scotland's coastal and marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, John; austin, william

    2016-04-01

    The role of marine ecosystems in storing blue carbon has increasingly become a topic of interest to both scientists and politicians. This is the first multidisciplinary study to assess Scotland's marine blue carbon stores, using GIS to collate habitat information based on existing data. Relevant scientific information on primary habitats for carbon uptake and storage has been reviewed, and quantitative rates of production and storage were obtained. Habitats reviewed include kelp, phytoplankton, saltmarshes, biogenic reefs (including maerl), marine sediments (coastal and shelf), and postglacial geological sediments. Each habitat has been individually assessed for any specific threats to its carbon sequestration ability. Here we present an ecosystem-scale inventory of the key rates and ultimate sequestration capacity of each habitat. Coastal and offshore sediments are the main repositories for carbon in Scotland's marine environment. Habitat-forming species on the coast (seagrasses, saltmarsh, bivalve beds, coralline algae), are highly productive but their contribution to the overall carbon budget is very small because of the limited extent of each habitat. This study highlights the importance of marine carbon stores in global carbon cycles, and the implications of climate change on the ability of marine ecosystems to sequester carbon.

  20. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  1. Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24594359

  2. Neighborhood Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among Los Angeles County Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lightstone, Amy S.; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Morales, Douglas M.; Sturm, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between the number and type of food outlets in a neighborhood and dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) among adults in Los Angeles County. We also assessed whether this association depends on the geographic size of the food environment. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. We created buffers (from 0.25 to 3.0 miles in radius) centered in respondents’ residential addresses and counted the number of food outlets by type in each buffer. Dependent variables were weekly intake of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast food; BMI; and being overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2). Explanatory variables were the number of outlets classified as fast-food outlets, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets. Regressions were estimated for all sets of explanatory variables and buffer size combinations (150 total effects). Results Only 2 of 150 effects were significant after being adjusted for multiple comparisons. The number of fast-food restaurants in nonwalkable areas (in a 3.0-mile radius) was positively associated with fast-food consumption, and the number of convenience stores in a walkable distance (in a 0.25-mile radius) was negatively associated with obesity. Discussion Little evidence was found for associations between proximity of respondents’ homes to food outlets and dietary intake or BMI among adults in Los Angeles County. A possible explanation for the null finding is that shopping patterns are weakly related to neighborhoods in Los Angeles County because of motorized transportation. PMID:26334715

  3. Acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits against stored food mites.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2012-07-01

    The acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits were evaluated against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). On the basis of the 50 % lethal dose (LD(50)) values, the ethyl acetate fraction of the fractions obtained from an aqueous extract of P. ussuriensis fruits had the highest acaricidal activity (16.32 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae. The acaricidal constituent of P. ussuriensis fruits was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 1,4-benzoquinone. On the basis of the LD(50) values, 1,4-benzoquinone (1.98 μg/cm(2)) was 5.9 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (11.69 μg/cm(2)), followed by 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (3.29 μg/cm(2)), and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (5.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae in the fumigant bioassay. In a filter paper bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1,4-benzoquinone (0.07 μg/cm(2)) was 120.1 times more effective than that of benzyl benzoate (8.41 μg/cm(2)), followed by 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (0.11 μg/cm(2)) and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (0.30 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae. These results demonstrate that P. ussuriensis fruit-derived material and its derivatives have potential as new preventive agents for the control of stored food mites. PMID:22980009

  4. An analysis of Bronx-based online grocery store circulars for nutritional content of food and beverage products.

    PubMed

    Ethan, Danna; Samuel, Lalitha; Basch, Corey H

    2013-06-01

    With the rising rates of diabetes and obesity in New York City's poorest communities, efforts to assist low-income residents in spending money to promote nutritious food consumption have increased. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which Bronx-based grocery stores offered nutritious foods on sale through their weekly circulars. Over a 2-month period, we analyzed 2,311 food and beverage products placed on the first page of online circulars for fifteen Bronx-based grocery stores. For each circular, we recorded the number of starchy and non-starchy fruits and vegetables; for each product, total fiber and carbohydrate content per serving (in grams), whether the product was processed, and sale price were recorded. Total sugar content (in grams) was recorded for all sugar-sweetened beverages. Over 84 % of the products were processed, and almost 40 % had at least one carbohydrate choice (15 g) per food serving. Only 16.5 % of the products were fresh fruits and green leafy vegetables, and 1.4 % had fiber content of 5 or more grams per serving. Requiring the purchase of multiples of unhealthy products to receive the sale price was also noted. Almost three-quarters of the sugar-sweetened beverages were advertised with promotional sales compared to over half of the fresh fruits and only one-third of fresh vegetables. We identified no other studies that address nutritional content of foods found in grocery store circulars. More research is necessary to determine if purchasing nutritious products at grocery stores in low-income neighborhoods is influenced by sale prices. PMID:23203239

  5. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages

    PubMed Central

    Shimotsu, Scott T; French, Simone A; Gerlach, Anne F; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument) was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management-related items were observed and recorded on a structured form. Inter-rater reliability was computed at the item level using a simple percentage agreement. Results The WEM showed high inter-rater reliability for the number and presence of food-related items. All garages had vending machines, microwaves and refrigerators. Assessment of the physical activity environment yielded similar reliability for the number and presence/absence of fitness items. Each garage had a fitness room (average of 4.3 items of fitness equipment). All garages had at least one stationary bike and treadmill. Three garages had at least one weighing scale available. There were no designated walking areas inside or outside. There were on average < 1 food stores or restaurants within sight of each garage. Few vending machine food and beverage items met criteria for healthful choices (15% of the vending machine foods; 26% of the vending machine beverages). The garage environment was perceived to be not supportive of healthy food choices, physical activity and weight management; 52% reported that it was hard to get fruits and vegetables in the garages, and 62% agreed that it was hard to be physically active in the garages. Conclusion The WEM is a reliable measure of the worksite nutrition, physical activity, and weight management environment that can be used to assess changes in the work environment. PMID:17498308

  6. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders. PMID:21777439

  7. A food store-based environmental intervention is associated with reduced BMI and improved psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors on the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Elizabeth M; He, Siran; Pardilla, Marla

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher among American Indians (AIs) and is associated with increased rates of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. We implemented a 14-mo intervention trial (Navajo Healthy Stores) on the Navajo Nation that sought to increase availability of healthier foods in local food stores and to promote these foods at the point of purchase and through community media. We divided the Navajo Nation into 10 store regions, half of which were randomized to intervention and half to comparison. We evaluated the program by using a pre-post sample of systematically sampled adult Navajo consumers (baseline, n = 276; postintervention, n = 145). Intervention impact was examined by analyzing pre-post differences by intervention group and by intervention exposure level. When intervention and comparison groups were compared, only body mass index (BMI) showed a trend toward impact of the intervention (P = 0.06). However, greater exposure to the intervention was associated with significantly reduced BMI (P ≤ 0.05) and improved healthy food intentions (P ≤ 0.01), healthy cooking methods (P ≤ 0.05), and healthy food getting (P ≤ 0.01). With increasing exposure, the odds of improving overweight or obese status was 5.02 (95% CI: 1.48, 16.99; P ≤ 0.01) times the odds of maintaining or worsening overweight or obese status. In summary, a food store intervention was associated with reduced overweight/obesity and improved obesity-related psychosocial and behavioral factors among those persons most exposed to the intervention on an AI reservation. PMID:23864511

  8. CO2 and O2 solubility and diffusivity data in food products stored in data warehouse structured by ontology

    PubMed Central

    Guillard, Valérie; Buche, Patrice; Dibie, Juliette; Dervaux, Stéphane; Acerbi, Filippo; Chaix, Estelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Guillaume, Carole

    2016-01-01

    This data article contains values of oxygen and carbon dioxide solubility and diffusivity measured in various model and real food products. These data are stored in a public repository structured by ontology. These data can be retrieved through the @Web tool, a user-friendly interface to capitalise and query data. The @Web tool is accessible online at http://pfl.grignon.inra.fr/atWeb/. PMID:27222852

  9. CO2 and O2 solubility and diffusivity data in food products stored in data warehouse structured by ontology.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Valérie; Buche, Patrice; Dibie, Juliette; Dervaux, Stéphane; Acerbi, Filippo; Chaix, Estelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Guillaume, Carole

    2016-06-01

    This data article contains values of oxygen and carbon dioxide solubility and diffusivity measured in various model and real food products. These data are stored in a public repository structured by ontology. These data can be retrieved through the @Web tool, a user-friendly interface to capitalise and query data. The @Web tool is accessible online at http://pfl.grignon.inra.fr/atWeb/. PMID:27222852

  10. A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hee-Jung; Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Miyong; Suratkar, Sonali; Sharma, Sangita; Anliker, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Objective While corner store-based nutrition interventions have emerged as a potential strategy to increase healthy food availability in low-income communities, few evaluation studies exist. We present the results of a trial in Baltimore City to increase the availability and sales of healthier food options in local stores. Design Quasi-experimental study. Setting Corner stores owned by Korean-Americans and supermarkets located in East and West Baltimore. Subjects Seven corner stores and two supermarkets in East Baltimore received a 10-month intervention and six corner stores and two supermarkets in West Baltimore served as comparison. Results During and post-intervention, stocking of healthy foods and weekly reported sales of some promoted foods increased significantly in intervention stores compared with comparison stores. Also, intervention storeowners showed significantly higher self-efficacy for stocking some healthy foods in comparison to West Baltimore storeowners. Conclusions Findings of the study demonstrated that increases in the stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales. Working in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods and their sales in a low-income urban community. PMID:19402943

  11. [Obesogenic food environment explains most of the obesity epidemic].

    PubMed

    Mustajoki, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    The food environment has undergone a considerable chance over the past 30 to 40 years. Availability, variation and low costs increase the consumption of foods. Other changes in the food environment include: increase of the high-energy density foods, increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, large portion sizes, large packages, increased variety, increased visibility of foods, and marketing food to children, all known to augment eating and energy intake. Societies should especially protect children from the obesogenic environment by legislation and other regulations. The main targets should be decreasing the consumption of high-energy density foods and sugar-sweetened beverages and returning the sizes of portions and packages to normal. PMID:26427233

  12. New neighborhood grocery store increased awareness of food access but did not alter dietary habits or obesity.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Steven; Flint, Ellen; Matthews, Stephen A

    2014-02-01

    National and local policies to improve diet in low-income US populations include increasing physical access to grocery stores and supermarkets in underserved neighborhoods. In a pilot study that evaluated the impacts of opening a new supermarket in a Philadelphia community considered a "food desert"-part of the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative-we found that the intervention moderately improved residents' perceptions of food accessibility. However, it did not lead to changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake or body mass index. The effectiveness of interventions to improve physical access to food and reduce obesity by encouraging supermarkets to locate in underserved areas therefore remains unclear. Nevertheless, the present findings suggest that simply improving a community's retail food infrastructure may not produce desired changes in food purchasing and consumption patterns. Complementary policy changes and interventions may be needed to help consumers bridge the gap between perception and action. The replication of our findings in other settings and research into the factors that influence community residents' receptivity to improved food access are urgently required. PMID:24493772

  13. The Neighborhood Food Resource Environment and the Health of Residents with Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roberto B.; Ang, Alfonso; Pebley, Anne R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Residence in disadvantaged neighborhoods is associated with poorer access to healthy foods. Objective To understand associations between the neighborhood food resource environment and residents’ health status and body mass index (BMI) for adults with and without chronic conditions. Design Cross-sectional multilevel analysis. Participants 2,536 adults from the 2000–2001 Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. Measurements The food resource environment was defined as the number of chain supermarkets, independent supermarkets, small markets, or convenience stores per roadway miles in the census tract. The main dependent variables were self-rated health, dichotomized as excellent or fair/poor, and body mass index (BMI). Multilevel regression models examined the association between the food resource environment and both BMI and the odds of reporting excellent health after adjustment for neighborhood SES and individual characteristics. Results More chain supermarkets per roadway mile in a census tract was associated with higher adjusted rates of reporting excellent health (33%, 38%, and 43% for those in the lowest, middle, and highest tertiles of chain supermarkets) and lower adjusted mean BMI (27, 26, and 25 kg/m2) for residents without a chronic condition, but not those with a chronic condition. In contrast, having more convenience stores per roadway mile was associated with lower health ratings only among adults with a chronic condition (39%, 32%, and 27% for the lowest to highest tertile of convenience stores). Conclusion Health status and BMI are associated with the local food environment, but the associations differ by type of market and presence of a chronic condition. PMID:18483833

  14. The food environment is a complex social network.

    PubMed

    Brown, David R; Brewster, Luther G

    2015-05-01

    The lack of demonstrated impact of the South LA fast food ban suggests that the policy was too narrowly crafted. Healthy food deserts like South LA are simultaneously unhealthy food swamps; and face myriad interrelated social, economic, and environmental challenges. The food environment is a complex social network impacted by social, economic and political factors at the neighborhood, regional, national, and international levels. Banning one subtype of unhealthy food venue is not likely to limit the availability of unhealthy processed and packaged foods nor result in increased access to affordable healthy foods. Food deserts and food insecurity are symptoms of the interacting pathologies of poverty, distressed communities, and unhealthy global macroeconomic and industrial policies. Policies that seek to impact urban health disparities need to tackle root causes including poverty and the global production and distribution of cheap, addictive, unhealthy products that promote unhealthy lifestyles. PMID:25863975

  15. Comparing sugary drinks in the food retail environment in six NYC neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Sacks, Rachel; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a national public health concern linked to numerous chronic health conditions among Americans of all age groups. Evidence suggests that discretionary calories from sugary drink consumption have been a significant contributor to excess caloric intake among both children and adults. Research has established strong links between retail food environments and purchasing habits of consumers, but little information exists on the sugary drink retail environment in urban neighborhoods. The objective of this assessment was to compare various aspects of the sugary drink retail environment across New York City (NYC) neighborhoods with disparate self-reported sugary drink consumption patterns. In-store retail audits were conducted at 883 corner stores, chain pharmacies, and grocery stores in 12 zip codes throughout NYC. Results showed that among all beverage types assessed, sugary drinks had the most prominent presence in the retail environment overall, which was even more pronounced in higher-consumption neighborhoods. In higher- versus lower-consumption neighborhoods, the mean number of sugary drink varieties available at stores was higher (11.4 vs. 10.4 varieties), stores were more likely to feature sugary drink advertising (97 vs. 89 %) and advertising at multiple places throughout the store (78 vs. 57 %), and several sugary drinks, including 20-oz Coke® or Pepsi®, were less expensive ($1.38 vs. $1.60). These results, all statistically significant, indicate that neighborhoods characterized by higher levels of sugary drink consumption expose shoppers to sugary drinks to a greater extent than lower-consumption neighborhoods. This builds upon evidence documenting the association between the environment and individual behavior. PMID:24043480

  16. Constrained, Convenient, and Symbolic Consumption: Neighborhood Food Environments and Economic Coping Strategies among the Urban Poor.

    PubMed

    Tach, Laura; Amorim, Mariana

    2015-10-01

    Residents of poor and minority neighborhoods have less access to healthy, affordable food than their counterparts in more advantaged neighborhoods, and these disparities translate into population-level health disparities by race and socioeconomic status. Current research debates the extent of these disparities and how they translate into unequal health outcomes, but it has paid less attention to the micro-level decision-making processes and strategies residents employ to access food in the context of constrained personal and neighborhood resources. We examined this gap in the literature using data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 66 poor residents of three urban neighborhoods with varying nutritional environments. We found that economic and geographic constraints strongly influenced where and how residents shopped, but within those constraints, residents developed a number of adaptive strategies to maximize the quality and variety of their groceries. We also found that higher-quality stores and purchases were important to residents not only for their material benefits-such as health and cost-but also for their symbolic value. The presence of many stores, close stores, and high-quality stores offered opportunities for symbolic consumption and boosted neighborhood reputations but also created settings for social exclusion. These results illuminate how inequalities in nutritional environments shape residents' lived experiences and highlight residents' agency and resourcefulness in responding to such constraints. PMID:26382655

  17. FOOD-PURCHASING PATTERNS FOR HOME: A GROCERY STORE-INTERCEPT SURVEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To identify the most common frequency of food-purchasing patterns and relate this pattern to characteristics of individuals and families. Design: A customer-intercept survey was conducted in the greater Houston area, Texas, USA, in 2002. The frequency of food shopping at supermarkets, co...

  18. Food for Thought: Analysing the Internal and External School Food Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Kelly, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Availability and access to food is a determinant of obesity. The purpose of this paper is to examine food availability within and outside of post-primary schools in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data on the internal school food environment were collected from 63 post-primary schools using questionnaires. The external school food…

  19. An Adaptive Multilevel Security Framework for the Data Stored in Cloud Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dorairaj, Sudha Devi; Kaliannan, Thilagavathy

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is renowned for delivering information technology services based on internet. Nowadays, organizations are interested in moving their massive data and computations into cloud to reap their significant benefits of on demand service, resource pooling, and rapid elasticity that helps to satisfy the dynamically changing infrastructure demand without the burden of owning, managing, and maintaining it. Since the data needs to be secured throughout its life cycle, security of the data in cloud is a major challenge to be concentrated on because the data is in third party's premises. Any uniform simple or high level security method for all the data either compromises the sensitive data or proves to be too costly with increased overhead. Any common multiple method for all data becomes vulnerable when the common security pattern is identified at the event of successful attack on any information and also encourages more attacks on all other data. This paper suggests an adaptive multilevel security framework based on cryptography techniques that provide adequate security for the classified data stored in cloud. The proposed security system acclimates well for cloud environment and is also customizable and more reliant to meet the required level of security of data with different sensitivity that changes with business needs and commercial conditions. PMID:26258165

  20. An Adaptive Multilevel Security Framework for the Data Stored in Cloud Environment.

    PubMed

    Dorairaj, Sudha Devi; Kaliannan, Thilagavathy

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is renowned for delivering information technology services based on internet. Nowadays, organizations are interested in moving their massive data and computations into cloud to reap their significant benefits of on demand service, resource pooling, and rapid elasticity that helps to satisfy the dynamically changing infrastructure demand without the burden of owning, managing, and maintaining it. Since the data needs to be secured throughout its life cycle, security of the data in cloud is a major challenge to be concentrated on because the data is in third party's premises. Any uniform simple or high level security method for all the data either compromises the sensitive data or proves to be too costly with increased overhead. Any common multiple method for all data becomes vulnerable when the common security pattern is identified at the event of successful attack on any information and also encourages more attacks on all other data. This paper suggests an adaptive multilevel security framework based on cryptography techniques that provide adequate security for the classified data stored in cloud. The proposed security system acclimates well for cloud environment and is also customizable and more reliant to meet the required level of security of data with different sensitivity that changes with business needs and commercial conditions. PMID:26258165

  1. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M.; Antiporta, Daniel A.; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Methods Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). Results After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Conclusions Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food. PMID:27560132

  2. Is the food environment surrounding schools associated with the diet quality of adolescents in Otago, New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Clark, Emma M; Quigg, Robin; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Richards, Rose; Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality. PMID:25218636

  3. The School Food Environment and Student BMI and Food Consumption: 2004 to 2007 National Data

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Delva, Jorge; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study identifies trends in the availability of various food choices in United States’ middle and high schools from 2004–2007, and examines the potential associations between such food availability and students’ self-reported eating habits and BMI-related outcomes. Methods Data are based on nationally representative samples of 78,442 students in 684 secondary schools surveyed from 2004 to 2007 as part of the Youth, Education, and Society (YES) study and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. In the YES study, school administrators and food service managers completed self-administered questionnaires on their school’s food environment. In the MTF study, students in the same schools completed self-administered questionnaires, providing data used to construct BMI and food consumption measures. Results Overall, there was a decrease in the availability of regular sugar/fat food items in both middle and high schools, and some indication of an increase high school availability of reduced fat food items through school lunch or a la carte. Some minimal evidence was found for relationships between the school food environment and student BMI-related outcomes and food consumption measures. Conclusions United States secondary schools are making progress in the types of foods offered to students, with food items of lower nutritional value becoming less prevalent in recent years. Continued monitoring of food environment trends may help clarify if and how such factors relate to youth health outcomes. PMID:19699436

  4. Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.

    PubMed

    García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179

  5. School Food Environment of Charter Schools in St. Louis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsenmeyer, Whitney; Kelly, Patrick; Jenkins, Steve; Mattfeldt-Berman, Mildred

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the school food environment of charter schools in Saint Louis, Missouri. The objectives were to: (1) describe the participation of charter schools in the National School Lunch Program and (2) describe the prevalence of competitive foods in charter schools. Methods: School administrators…

  6. COMBASE: A COMMON DATABASE ON MICROBIAL RESPONSE TO FOOD ENVIRONMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food microbiology research has resulted in large quantities of microbiological data that describe bacterial responses to various environments. Such data form the basis of predictive microbiology software packages such as the Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP) and the Food MicroModel. These software pa...

  7. COMBASE; A COMBINED DATABASE ON MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO FOOD ENVIRONMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food microbiology research has generated a large amount of microbiological data on bacterial responses to the environment. Such datasets form the basis of predictive software packages such as the Pathogen Modeling Program in the US and the Food MicroModel in the UK. These programs, however, do not...

  8. A comparison of the response of a captive carried store to both reverberant wave acoustic excitation and the field environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, J.S.; Togami, T.C.; Hollingshead, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Stores that are carried on high performance military aircraft are exposed to severe vibroacoustic environments from several different sources. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a test program to determine the viability of reproducing these field 10 environments with a combined vibroacoustic test. This paper will present the results of that test series emphasizing the methods used to derive the laboratory inputs that produce the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} possible match for the field response.

  9. Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Jung, Yumi; Thompson, Tracy; Alaimo, Katherine; Risley, John; Mayfield, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a community-based and social marketing healthy corner store program (FIT store) to improve the affordability and availability of healthy foods in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores data were analyzed for the FIT (N = 4) stores. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among the FIT store customers before (N = 401) and after (N = 318) the intervention. Three FIT stores improved their total Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores availability score from before to after the intervention. A significantly higher level of FIT awareness and monthly bean and nut consumption was reported in the postintervention. PMID:24297010

  10. Socioeconomic differences in the association between competitive food laws and the school food environment

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. METHODS Fifth- and 8th-grade school administrators reported foods and beverages sold in school; index measures of the food/beverage environments were constructed from these data. Schools were classified into SES tertiles based on median household income of students’ ZIP code. Regression models were used to estimate SES differences in: (1) Healthy School Food Environment Index (HSFEI) score, Healthy School Beverage Environment Index (HSBEI) score, and specific food/beverage sales, and (2) associations between state competitive food/beverage laws and HSFEI score, HSBEI score, and specific food/beverage sales. RESULTS Strong competitive food laws were positively associated with HSFEI in 8th grade, regardless of SES. Strong competitive beverage laws were positively associated with HSBEI particularly in low-SES schools in 8th grade. These associations were attributable to schools selling fewer unhealthy items, not providing healthy alternatives. High-SES schools sold more healthy items than low-SES schools regardless of state laws. CONCLUSIONS Strong competitive food laws may reduce access to unhealthy foods/beverages in middle schools, but additional initiatives are needed to provide students with healthy options, particularly in low-SES areas. PMID:26201754

  11. Overwinter survival of juvenile lake herring in relation to body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Kevin L.; Sutton, Trent M.; Kinnunen, Ronald E.; Hoff, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Populations of lake herring Coregonus artedi in Lake Superior have exhibited high recruitment variability over the past three decades. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms which influence year-class strength, we conducted a 225-d laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration on the winter survival of age-0 lake herring. Small (total length (TL) range = 60–85 mm) and large (TL range = 86–110 mm) fish were maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size-class were maintained at two feeding treatments: brine shrimp Artemiaspp. ad libitum and no food. The mortality of large lake herring (fed, 3.8%; starved, 20.1%) was significantly less than that of small fish (fed, 11.7%; starved, 32.0%). Body condition and crude lipid content declined for all fish over the experiment; however, these variables were significantly greater for large fed (0.68% and 9.8%) and small fed (0.65% and 7.3%) fish than large starved (0.49% and 5.7%) and small starved (0.45% and 4.8%) individuals. Final crude protein and gross energy contents were also significantly greater in large fed lake herring (17.6% and 1,966 cal/g), followed by small fed (17.1% and 1,497 cal/g), large starved (15.4% and 1,125 cal/g), and small starved (13.2% and 799 cal/g) fish. Lake herring that died during the experiment had significantly lower body condition and energy stores relative to those of the surviving fish. These results suggest that the depletion of energy stores contributes to greater winter mortality of small lake herring with limited energy uptake and may partially explain the variability in recruitment observed in Lake Superior.

  12. Thermal preparation of foods in space-vehicle environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, R. B.; Cox, J. E.; Chen, C. K.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Convection is the primary heat transfer mechanism for most foods heated in an earth-based environment. In contrast, in the low-gravity environment of space flight, the primary heat transfer mechanism is conduction (or radiation in the absence of a conducting medium). Conduction heating is significantly slower and less efficient than convection heating. This fact poses a problem for food heating during space flight. A numerical model has been developed to evaluate this problem. This model simulates the food-heating process for Skylab. The model includes the effect of a thermally controlled on/off heat flux. Parametric studies using this model establish how the required heating time is affected by: the thermal diffusivity of the nutrient materials, the power level of the heater, the initial food temperatures, and the food container dimensions.

  13. Sampling the food processing environment: taking up the cudgel for preventive quality management in food processing environments.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    The Listeria monitoring program for Austrian cheese factories was established in 1988. The basic idea is to control the introduction of L. monocytogenes into the food processing environment, preventing the pathogen from contaminating the food under processing. The Austrian Listeria monitoring program comprises four levels of investigation, dealing with routine monitoring of samples and consequences of finding a positive sample. Preventive quality control concepts attempt to detect a foodborne hazard along the food processing chain, prior to food delivery, retailing, and consumption. The implementation of a preventive food safety concept provokes a deepened insight by the manufacturers into problems concerning food safety. The development of preventive quality assurance strategies contributes to the national food safety status and protects public health. PMID:24792566

  14. Bacteriophages for detection and control of bacterial pathogens in food and food-processing environment.

    PubMed

    Brovko, Lubov Y; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents recent advances in bacteriophage research and their application in the area of food safety. Section 1 describes general facts on phage biology that are relevant to their application for control and detection of bacterial pathogens in food and environmental samples. Section 2 summarizes the recently acquired data on application of bacteriophages to control growth of bacterial pathogens and spoilage organisms in food and food-processing environment. Section 3 deals with application of bacteriophages for detection and identification of bacterial pathogens. Advantages of bacteriophage-based methods are presented and their shortcomings are discussed. The chapter is intended for food scientist and food product developers, and people in food inspection and health agencies with the ultimate goal to attract their attention to the new developing technology that has a tremendous potential in providing means for producing wholesome and safe food. PMID:23034118

  15. Description, measurement and evaluation of tertiary-education food environments.

    PubMed

    Roy, R; Hebden, L; Kelly, B; De Gois, T; Ferrone, E M; Samrout, M; Vermont, S; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-05-01

    Obesity in young adults is an increasing health problem in Australia and many other countries. Evidence-based information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the obesity-promoting elements in tertiary-education environments. In a food environmental audit survey, 252 outlets were audited across seven institutions: three universities and four technical and further education institutions campuses. A scoring instrument called the food environment-quality index was developed and used to assess all food outlets on these campuses. Information was collated on the availability, accessibility and promotion of foods and beverages and a composite score (maximum score=148; higher score indicates healthier outlets) was calculated. Each outlet and the overall campus were ranked into tertiles based on their 'healthiness'. Differences in median scores for each outcome measure were compared between institutions and outlet types using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe's testing, χ 2 tests, Kruskal-Wallis H test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Binomial logistic regressions were used to compare the proportion of healthy v. unhealthy food categories across different types of outlets. Overall, the most frequently available items were sugar-sweetened beverages (20 % of all food/drink items) followed by chocolates (12 %), high-energy (>600 kJ/serve) foods (10 %), chips (10 %) and confectionery (10 %). Healthy food and beverages were observed to be less available, accessible and promoted than unhealthy options. The median score across all outlets was 72 (interquartile range=7). Tertiary-education food environments are dominated by high-energy, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. Interventions to decrease availability, accessibility and promotion of unhealthy foods are needed. PMID:27245102

  16. A comparison of the nutritional quality of food products advertised in grocery store circulars of high- versus low-income New York City zip codes.

    PubMed

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Rajan, Sonali; Samuel, Lalitha; Hammond, Rodney N

    2014-01-01

    Grocery stores can be an important resource for health and nutrition with the variety and economic value of foods offered. Weekly circulars are a means of promoting foods at a sale price. To date, little is known about the extent that nutritious foods are advertised and prominently placed in circulars. This study's aim was to compare the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). Circulars from grocery stores in the five highest and five lowest median household income NYC zip codes were analyzed. Nutrition information for food products was collected over a two-month period with a total of 805 products coded. The study found no significant difference between the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). In both groups, almost two-thirds of the products advertised were processed, one-quarter were high in carbohydrates, and few to no products were low-sodium, high-fiber, or reduced-, low- or zero fat. Through innovative partnerships with health professionals, grocery stores are increasingly implementing in-store and online health promotion strategies. Weekly circulars can be used as a means to regularly advertise and prominently place more healthful and seasonal foods at an affordable price, particularly for populations at higher risk for nutrition-related chronic disease. PMID:24384775

  17. Microbial Ecology of the Hive and Pollination Landscape: Bacterial Associates from Floral Nectar, the Alimentary Tract and Stored Food of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Brendon M.; Maes, Patrick; Snyder, Lucy; Schwan, Melissa R.; Walton, Alexander; Jones, Beryl M.; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or “beebread”). We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop), midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota, and the

  18. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirk E; Sheehan, Timothy H; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Snyder, Lucy; Schwan, Melissa R; Walton, Alexander; Jones, Beryl M; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or "beebread"). We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop), midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota, and the

  19. Associations between Food Environment around Schools and Professionally Measured Weight Status for Middle and High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuyang; Abbott, Joshua K.; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Tulloch, David L.; Lloyd, Kristen; Yedidia, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obesity rates among school-age children remain high. Access to energy-dense foods at home, in schools, in stores, and restaurants around homes and schools is of concern. Research on the relationship between food environment around schools and students' weight status is inconclusive. This study examines the association between weight status of middle and high school students and proximity to a comprehensive set of food outlets around schools. Methods: Deidentified nurse-measured heights and weights data were obtained for 12,954 middle and high school students attending 33 public schools in four low-income communities in New Jersey. Geocoded locations of supermarkets, convenience stores, small grocery stores, and limited-service restaurants were obtained from commercial sources. Random-effect regression models with robust standard errors were developed to adjust for unequal variances across schools and clustering of students within schools. Results: Proximity to small grocery stores that offered some healthy options (e.g., five fruits, five vegetables, and low-fat/skim milk) and supermarkets was associated with healthier student weight status. Having a small grocery store within 0.25 mile of school and an additional such store within that radius was associated with a lower BMI z-score (p<0.05). An additional supermarket within 0.25 mile of schools was associated with a lower probability of being overweight/obese (p<0.05). Conclusions: Improving access to healthy food outlets, such as small stores, that offer healthy food options and supermarkets around middle and high schools is a potential strategy for improving weight outcomes among students. PMID:25343730

  20. Measuring the 'obesogenic' food environment in New Zealand primary schools.

    PubMed

    Carter, Mary-Ann; Swinburn, Boyd

    2004-03-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem in New Zealand and many other countries. Information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the 'obesogenic' (obesity-promoting) elements of school environments. The aim of this study was to identify and measure the obesogenic elements of the school environment and the canteen sales of energy-dense foods and drinks. A self-completion questionnaire was developed for assessing each school's nutrition environment and mailed to a stratified random sample of New Zealand schools. The responses from primary schools (n = 200, response rate 61%) were analysed. Only 15.5% of schools had purpose-built canteen facilities and over half ran a food service for profit (31% profit to the school, 24.5% profit for the contractors). Only 16.5% of schools had a food policy, although 91% of those rated the policy as effective or very effective. The most commonly available foods for sale were pies (79%), juice (57%) and sausage rolls (54.5%). Filled rolls were the most expensive item (mean dollars 1.79) and fruit the least expensive (mean dollars 0.47). The ratio of 'less healthy' to 'more healthy' main choices was 5.6:1, for snacks it was 9.3:1 and for drinks it was 1.4:1. In contrast, approximately 60% of respondents said that nutrition was a priority for the school. Only 50% felt there was management support for healthy food choices and only 39% agreed that mainly nutritious food was offered by the food service. 'Less healthy' choices dominated food sales by more than 2:1, with pies being the top selling item (>55000 per week). We found that the food environment was not conducive to healthy food choices for the children at New Zealand schools and that this was reflected in the high sales of relatively unhealthy foods from the school food services. Programmes that improve school food through policies, availability, prices and school ethos are urgently needed. PMID:14976168

  1. Measuring the Food Environment State of the Science

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    The past decades have seen an increased interest in understanding how the environment affects population health. In particular, public health practitioners and researchers alike are eager to know how the food environments of neighborhoods, schools, and worksites affect food choices and, ultimately, population risk for obesity and other diet-related chronic disease. However, the measurement tools for assessing the environment and the employed study designs have limited our ability to gain important ground. The field has not yet fully considered the psychometric properties of the environmental measurement tools, or how to deal with the copious amounts of data generated from many environmental measures. The field is dominated by research using unsophisticated study designs and has frequently failed to see the role of social and individual factors and how they interrelate with the physical environment. This paper examines some of the measurement issues to be considered as public health practitioners and researchers attempt to understand the impact of the food environment on the health of communities and takes a broad look at where the science currently is with regard to how the food environment is measured, thoughts on what issues may benefit from more deliberate inspection, and directions for future work. PMID:19285204

  2. Proximity of foods in a competitive food environment influences consumption of a low calorie and a high calorie food.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Zuraikat, Faris M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to test if proximity of a food or preference for a food influences food intake in a competitive food environment in which one low calorie/low fat (apple slices) and one higher calorie/higher fat (buttered popcorn) food was available in the same environment. The proximity of popcorn and apple slices was manipulated and 56 participants were randomly assigned to groups. In Group Apples Near, apple slices were placed near (within arms reach) a participant and popcorn was placed far (2m away). In Group Popcorn Near, buttered popcorn was placed near and apple slices were placed far. As a control for the absence of a proximity manipulation, Group Both Near had both test foods placed near. Although participants rated the popcorn as more liked than apples, the food that was placed closer to the participant was consumed most in the two experimental groups, regardless of preference (R(2)=0.38). Total energy intake was reduced most when popcorn was placed far from a participant compared to when it was placed near (R(2)=0.24). The effects reported here were not moderated by BMI and did not vary by sex. In all, the results support the hypothesis that making a low calorie food more proximate will reduce total energy intake and increase intake of a low calorie food, even when a higher calorie and more preferred food is also available, but less proximate. PMID:24560689

  3. Fungal contamination of stored automobile-fuels in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto; Cordero, Ivannia; Segura, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of reports, the base levels of microbial contamination on stored fuels are unknown in tropical regions and it is unclear whether these levels have some influence on fuel quality parameters. Therefore, fungal quality in automobile fuels stored across Costa Rican territory was evaluated during two years according to the standard ASTM D6974-04. For a total of 96 samples, counts and identification of molds and yeasts were performed on regular gas, premium gas and diesel taken from the bottom and superior part of the container tanks. The highest contamination was found on the bottom of the tanks, where an aqueous phase was usually identified, showing populations over the ones present in the hydrocarbon itself (up to 10(8) CFU/L). Diesel was the most contaminated fuel (up to 10(7) CFU/L); however, an alteration on the physicochemical parameters was not observed in any kind of fuel. Seventy-five mold strains were isolated, Penicillium sp. being the most common genus (45.8% of the samples), and ten yeast strains, from the genera Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp. Four of the yeasts were able to grow on diesel as the sole carbon source, at concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 25%. Increasing the frequency of tank cleaning, adding antimicrobial agents and monitoring microbial populations are recommended strategies to improve microbial quality of stored fuels. PMID:21235191

  4. Food Environments and Childhood Weight Status: Effects of Neighborhood Median Income

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mona; Sequist, Thomas; Block, Jason; Duncan, Dustin T.; Melly, Steven J.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: A key aspect of any intervention to improve obesity is to better understand the environment in which decisions are being made related to health behaviors, including the food environment. Methods: Our aim was to examine the extent to which proximity to six types of food establishments is associated with BMI z-score and explore potential effect modification of this relationship. We used geographical information software to determine proximity from 49,770 pediatric patients' residences to six types of food establishments. BMI z-score obtained from the electronic health record was the primary outcome. Results: In multivariable analyses, living in closest proximity to large (β, −0.09 units; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.13, −0.05) and small supermarkets (−0.08 units; 95% CI, −0.11, −0.04) was associated with lower BMI z-score; living in closest proximity to fast food (0.09 units; 95% CI, 0.03, 0.15) and full-service restaurants (0.07 units; 95% CI, 0.01, 0.14) was associated with a higher BMI z-score versus those living farthest away. Neighborhood median income was an effect modifier of the relationships of convenience stores and full-service restaurants with BMI z-score. In both cases, closest proximity to these establishments had more of an adverse effect on BMI z-score in lower-income neighborhoods. Conclusions: Living closer to supermarkets and farther from fast food and full-service restaurants was associated with lower BMI z-score. Neighborhood median income was an effect modifier; convenience stores and full-service restaurants had a stronger adverse effect on BMI z-score in lower-income neighborhoods. PMID:25923838

  5. Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™): A Reliability Study in the School Food and Beverage Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E.; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the United States Department of Agriculture reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS™), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and non-research professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007, on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and non-research professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Researcher versus researcher and researcher versus non-researcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with ICCs ranging from .972 to .987. The results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and non-research professionals. PMID:20630167

  6. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet, and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among U.S. urban food desert residents and their association with diet and body mass. Design Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height, and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n=1372) was collected. Audits of all neighborhood food stores (n=24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighborhood (n=16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and body mass index (BMI) were conducted. Setting Two low-income predominantly African-American neighborhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subjects Household food shoppers. Results Only one neighborhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighborhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2.6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6.0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately two hours roundtrip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often, and spent less money per person. Those who traveled further when they shopped had higher BMIs, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full service groceries was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Conclusions Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective. PMID:25475559

  7. Food, Environment and Health: A Guide for Primary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trefor; And Others

    This book for primary school teachers provides a practical collection of facts, advice, projects, games, stories, and sample questions for use in teaching children the importance of healthy habits. Food, personal hygiene, and the home environment are areas of particular concern. Details range from advice on ways to start a school garden or design…

  8. Exploring the Food Environment on the Spirit Lake Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattanaik, Swaha; Gold, Abby; McKay, Lacey; Azure, Lane; Larson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand the food environment of the Fort Totten community on the Spirit Lake reservation in east-central North Dakota, as perceived by tribal members and employees at Cankdeska Cikana Community College (CCCC). According to a 2010 report from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the food…

  9. Exploring Parent Perceptions of the Food Environment in Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Megan; Nelson, Toben F.; Harwood, Eileen; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine parent perceptions of the food environment in youth sport. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were held with parents (n = 60) of youth aged 6-13 years participating in basketball programs in Minnesota. Key themes and concepts were identified via transcript-based analysis. Results: Parents reported that youth commonly…

  10. Assessing the Food Environment of a Rural Community: Baseline Findings From the Heart of New Ulm Project, Minnesota, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sidebottom, Abbey C.; Boucher, Jackie L.; Lindberg, Rebecca; Werner, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Changes in the food environment in the United States during the past few decades have contributed to increased rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Improving the food environment may be an effective primary prevention strategy to address these rising disease rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the consumer food environment of a rural community with high rates of obesity and low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Findings were used to identify food environment intervention strategies to be implemented as part of a larger community-based heart disease prevention program. Methods We used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R) and Stores (NEMS-S) to assess 34 restaurants, 3 grocery stores, and 5 convenience stores in New Ulm, Minnesota. Results At least half of the restaurants offered nonfried vegetables and 100% fruit juice. Only 32% had at least 1 entrée or 1 main dish salad that met standards for “healthy.” Fewer than half (41%) had fruit available and under one-third offered reduced-size portions (29%) or whole-grain bread (26%). Grocery stores had more healthful items available, but findings were mixed on whether these items were made available at a lower price than less healthful items. Convenience stores were less likely to have fruits and vegetables and less likely to carry more healthful products (except milk) than grocery stores. Conclusion Baseline findings indicated opportunities to improve availability, quality, and price of foods to support more healthful eating. A community-wide food environment assessment can be used to strategically plan targeted interventions. PMID:24602590

  11. Changing the Food Environment: The French Experience12

    PubMed Central

    Chauliac, Michel; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The French National Nutrition and Health Program was launched in 2001. To achieve its objectives, 2 main preventive strategies were identified: 1) provide information and education to help individuals make healthy food and physical activity choices; and 2) improve the food and physical environment so that making healthy choices is easier. School regulations have been established to improve the nutritional quality of meals served to children and adolescents, and vending machines have been banned. Since 2007, companies in France’s food industry have had the option of signing the national government’s “Charte d'engagement volontaire de progrès nutritionnel” (charter of commitments to nutritional improvements) which aims to benefit all consumers. A standard reference document, developed by public authorities as the basis for decisions made by a committee of experts in the food industry, aims to validate the voluntary commitments made by companies to improve the nutrient content of the foods they produce. There is strict follow-up. A Food Quality Observatory was created in 2009 to monitor the nutrient quality of the food supply in France. Various results show the positive impact of these actions. PMID:22798000

  12. Food is directed to the area”: African Americans’ perceptions of the neighborhood nutrition environment in Pittsburgh

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Sandra C.; Kriska, Andrea M.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown racial disparities in neighborhood access to healthy food in the United States. We used a mixed methods approach employing geographic information systems, focus groups, and a survey to examine African Americans’ perceptions of the neighborhood nutrition environment in Pittsburgh. We found that African Americans perceive that supermarkets serving their community offer produce and meats of poorer quality than branches of the same supermarket serving White neighborhoods (p<0.001). Unofficial taxis or jitneys, on which many African Americans are reliant, provide access from only certain stores; people are therefore forced to patronize these stores even though they are perceived to be of poorer quality. Community-generated ideas to tackle the situation include ongoing monitoring of supermarkets serving the Black community. We conclude that stores should make every effort to be responsive to the perceptions and needs of their clients and provide an environment that enables healthy eating. PMID:21169050

  13. Disparities in neighborhood food environments: implications of measurement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michael D M; Purciel, Marnie; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Neckerman, Kathryn M

    2010-01-01

    Public health researchers have begun to map the neighborhood “food environment” and examine its association with the risk of overweight and obesity. Some argue that “food deserts”—areas with little or no provision of fresh produce and other healthy food—may contribute to disparities in obesity, diabetes, and related health problems. While research on neighborhood food environments has taken advantage of more technically sophisticated ways to assess distance and density, in general, it has not considered how individual or neighborhood conditions might modify physical distance and thereby affect patterns of spatial accessibility. This study carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to illustrate the effects on the measurement of disparities in food environments of adjusting for cross-neighborhood variation in vehicle ownership rates, public transit access, and impediments to pedestrian travel, such as crime and poor traffic safety. The analysis used geographic information systems data for New York City supermarkets, fruit and vegetable markets, and farmers' markets and employed both kernel density and distance measures. We found that adjusting for vehicle ownership and crime tended to increase measured disparities in access to supermarkets by neighborhood race/ethnicity and income, while adjusting for public transit and traffic safety tended to narrow these disparities. Further, considering fruit and vegetable markets and farmers' markets, as well as supermarkets, increased the density of healthy food outlets, especially in neighborhoods with high concentrations of Hispanics, Asians, and foreign-born residents and in high-poverty neighborhoods. PMID:21117330

  14. Understanding the Relationship Between the Retail Food Environment Index and Early Childhood Obesity Among WIC Participants in Los Angeles County Using GeoDa.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E; Afifi, Abdelmonem A; Estrada, Leobardo; Harrison, Gail G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between the local food environment and obesity proportions among 3- to 4-year-old children who were participants in the WIC program in Los Angeles County using spatial analyses techniques. ArcGIS, spatial analysis software, was used to compute the retail food environment index (RFEI) per ZIP code. GeoDa, spatial statistics software was employed to check for spatial autocorrelation and to control for permeability of the boundaries. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to examine the impact of the food environment on childhood obesity. Fast-food restaurants represented 30% and convenience stores represented 40% of the sum of food outlets in areas where WIC participants reside. Although there was no statistically significant association between RFEI and 3- to 4-year-old obesity proportions among WIC children, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests demonstrated statistically significant positive associations between obesity and the number of convenience stores and the number of supermarkets. Our findings suggest that RFEI, as currently constructed, may not be the optimal way to capture the food environment. This study suggests that convenience stores and supermarkets are a likely source of excess calories for children in low-income households. Given the ubiquity of convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, interventions to improve availability of healthy food in these stores should be part of the many approaches to addressing childhood obesity. This study adds to the literature by examining the validity of the RFEI and by demonstrating the need and illustrating the use of spatial analyses, using GeoDA, in the environment/obesity studies. PMID:23569623

  15. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    PubMed

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( < 0.01), regardless of management strategy or sex. Also, there was no sex or management strategy × week of frozen storage interaction for any traits evaluated ( ≥ 0.25). For Objective 1, lipid content of bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( < 0.05), regardless of age at slaughter. Additionally, there were no differences in sensory attributes of bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( < 0.05) in IC barrows compared with PC barrows but was not different than gilts ( > 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows

  16. Phenolics: occurrence and immunochemical detection in environment and food.

    PubMed

    Meulenberg, Eline P

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds may be of natural or anthropogenic origin and be present in the environment as well as in food. They comprise a large and diverse group of compounds that may be either beneficial or harmful for consumers. In this review first a non-exhausting overview of interesting phenolics is given, in particular with regards to their presence in environment and food. For some of these compounds, beneficial, toxicological and/or optionally endocrine disrupting activities will be presented. Further, immunochemical detection and/or isolation methods developed will be discussed, including advantages and disadvantages thereof in comparison with conventional analytical methods such as HPLC, GC, MS. A short overview of new sensor-like methods will also be included for present and future application. PMID:19158655

  17. The Food Retail Environment in School Neighborhoods and its Relation to Lunchtime Eating Behaviors in Youth from Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths’ lunchtime eating behavior, and youths’ obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13–15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fast food restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1–2, 3–4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84–2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56–4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity. PMID:23041489

  18. The Neighborhood Energy Balance Equation: Does Neighborhood Food Retail Environment + Physical Activity Environment = Obesity? The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Goff, David C.; Loria, Catherine M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Popkin, Barry M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA) environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI) throughout early adulthood. Methods and Findings We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993) followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011); 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population) and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score). We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25th to 75th percentile) predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m2 [estimate (95% CI): -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02)]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m2 in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI) range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01) to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08)]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m2 in men [estimate (95% CI) range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06) to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15)] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions in BMI

  19. Business list vs. ground observation for measuring a food environment: saving time or waste of time (or worse)?

    PubMed Central

    Lucan, Sean C.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Bumol, Joel; Torrens, Luis; Varona, Monica; Berke, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    In food-environment research, an alternative to resource-intensive direct observation on the ground has been the use of commercial business lists. We sought to determine how well a frequently-used commercial business list measures a dense urban food environment like the Bronx. On 155 Bronx street segments, investigators compared two different levels for “matches” between the business list and direct ground observation: lenient (by business type) and strict (by business name). For each level of matching, researchers calculated sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPVs) for the business list overall and by broad business categories: General grocers (e.g., supermarkets), Specialty-food stores (e.g., produce markets), Restaurants, and Businesses not primarily selling food (e.g., newsstands). Even after cleaning the business list (e.g., for cases of multiple listings at a single location), and allowing for inexactness in listed street addresses and spellings of business names, the overall performance of the business list was poor. For strict “matches”, the business list had an overall sensitivity of 39.3% and PPV of 45.5%. Sensitivities and PPVs by broad business categories were not meaningfully different from overall values, although sensitivity for General grocers and PPV for Specialty-food stores were particularly low: 26.2% and 32.0% respectively. For lenient “matches”, sensitivities and PPVs were somewhat higher but still poor: 52.4–60.0% and 60.0–75.0% respectively. The business list is inadequate to measures the actual food environment in the Bronx. If results represent performance in other settings, findings from prior studies linking food environments to diet and diet-related health outcomes using such business lists are in question, and future studies of this type should avoid relying solely on such business lists. PMID:23871107

  20. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    PubMed

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P < 0.0001). There were significant correlations between Der p 1 in house dust and food from the paper (P < 0.0001) and plastic bags (P = 0.003), and mite numbers in house dust and food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust. PMID:21106038

  1. Association of the Neighborhood Retail Food Environment with Sodium and Potassium Intake Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schieb, Linda; Schwartz, Greg; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High sodium intake and low potassium intake, which can contribute to hypertension and risk of cardiovascular disease, may be related to the availability of healthful food in neighborhood stores. Despite evidence linking food environment with diet quality, this relationship has not been evaluated in the United States. The modified retail food environment index (mRFEI) provides a composite measure of the retail food environment and represents the percentage of healthful-food vendors within a 0.5 mile buffer of a census tract. Methods We analyzed data from 8,779 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2008. By using linear regression, we assessed the relationship between mRFEI and sodium intake, potassium intake, and the sodium–potassium ratio. Models were stratified by region (South and non-South) and included participant and neighborhood characteristics. Results In the non-South region, higher mRFEI scores (indicating a more healthful food environment) were not associated with sodium intake, were positively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = .005), and were negatively associated with the sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .02); these associations diminished when neighborhood characteristics were included, but remained close to statistical significance for potassium intake (P [trend] = .05) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .07). In the South, mRFEI scores were not associated with sodium intake, were negatively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = < .001), and were positively associated with sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .01). These associations also diminished after controlling for neighborhood characteristics for both potassium intake (P [trend] = .03) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .40). Conclusion We found no association between mRFEI and sodium intake. The association between mRFEI and potassium intake and the sodium–potassium ratio varied by region. National

  2. Pilot test of the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) to increase government actions for creating healthy food environments

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Effective government policies are essential to increase the healthiness of food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has developed a monitoring tool (the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI)) and process to rate government policies to create healthy food environments against international best practice. The aims of this study were to pilot test the Food-EPI, and revise the tool and process for international implementation. Setting New Zealand. Participants Thirty-nine informed, independent public health experts and non-governmental organisation (NGO) representatives. Primary and secondary outcome measures Evidence on the extent of government implementation of different policies on food environments and infrastructure support was collected in New Zealand and validated with government officials. Two whole-day workshops were convened of public health experts and NGO representatives who rated performance of their government for seven policy and seven infrastructure support domains against international best practice. In addition, the raters evaluated the level of difficulty of rating, and appropriateness and completeness of the evidence presented for each indicator. Results Inter-rater reliability was 0.85 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.88; Gwet’s AC2) using quadratic weights, and increased to 0.89 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.92) after deletion of the problematic indicators. Based on raters’ assessments and comments, major changes to the Food-EPI tool include strengthening the leadership domain, removing the workforce development domain, a stronger focus on equity, and adding community-based programmes and government funding for research on obesity and diet-related NCD prevention, as good practice indicators. Conclusions The resulting tool and process will be promoted and offered to countries of varying size and income globally. International benchmarking of

  3. Phenotypic characterization of Salmonella isolated from food production environments associated with low-water activity foods.

    PubMed

    Finn, Sarah; Hinton, Jay C D; McClure, Peter; Amézquita, Aléjandro; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can survive for extended periods of time in low-moisture environments posing a challenge for modern food production. This dangerous pathogen must be controlled throughout the production chain with a minimal risk of dissemination. Limited information is currently available describing the behavior and characteristics of this important zoonotic foodborne bacterium in low-moisture food production environments and in food. In our study, the phenotypes related to low-moisture survival of 46 Salmonella isolates were examined. Most of the isolates in the collection could form biofilms under defined laboratory conditions, with 57% being positive for curli fimbriae production and 75% of the collection positive for cellulose production, which are both linked with stronger biofilm formation. Biocides in the factory environment to manage hygiene were found to be most effective against planktonic cells but less so when the same bacteria were surface dried or present as a biofilm. Cellulose-producing isolates were better survivors when exposed to a biocide compared with cellulose-negative isolates. Examination of Salmonella growth of these 18 serotypes in NaCl, KCl, and glycerol found that glycerol was the least inhibitory of these three humectants. We identified a significant correlation between the ability to survive in glycerol and the ability to survive in KCl and biofilm formation, which may be important for food safety and the protection of public health. PMID:23992493

  4. Validation of 3 Food Outlet Databases: Completeness and Geospatial Accuracy in Rural and Urban Food Environments

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Hibbert, James D.; Porter, Dwayne E.; Nichols, Michele D.; Lawson, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite interest in the built food environment, little is known about the validity of commonly used secondary data. The authors conducted a comprehensive field census identifying the locations of all food outlets using a handheld global positioning system in 8 counties in South Carolina (2008–2009). Secondary data were obtained from 2 commercial companies, Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. (D&B) (Short Hills, New Jersey) and InfoUSA, Inc. (Omaha, Nebraska), and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC). Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and geospatial accuracy were compared. The field census identified 2,208 food outlets, significantly more than the DHEC (n = 1,694), InfoUSA (n = 1,657), or D&B (n = 1,573). Sensitivities were moderate for DHEC (68%) and InfoUSA (65%) and fair for D&B (55%). Combining InfoUSA and D&B data would have increased sensitivity to 78%. Positive predictive values were very good for DHEC (89%) and InfoUSA (86%) and good for D&B (78%). Geospatial accuracy varied, depending on the scale: More than 80% of outlets were geocoded to the correct US Census tract, but only 29%–39% were correctly allocated within 100 m. This study suggests that the validity of common data sources used to characterize the food environment is limited. The marked undercount of food outlets and the geospatial inaccuracies observed have the potential to introduce bias into studies evaluating the impact of the built food environment. PMID:20961970

  5. Issues for storing plant-based alternative fuels in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Little, Brenda J; Duncan, Kathleen E; Aktas, Deniz F; Oldham, Athenia L; Davidova, Irene A; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Two coastal seawaters (Key West, FL, USA and the Persian Gulf, Bahrain, representing oligotrophic and eutrophic environments, respectively) were used to evaluate potential biodegradation and corrosion problems during exposure to alternative and conventional fuels. Uncoated carbon steel was exposed at the fuel/seawater interface and polarization resistance was monitored. Under typical marine storage conditions, dioxygen in natural seawater exposed to fuel and carbon steel was reduced to <0.1parts-per-million within 2d due to consumption by corrosion reactions and aerobic microbial respiration. Sulfides, produced by anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria, and chlorides were co-located in corrosion products. Transient dioxygen influenced both metabolic degradation pathways and resulting metabolites. Catechols, indicative of aerobic biodegradation, persisted after 90d exposures. Detection of catechols suggested that initial exposure to dioxygen resulted in the formation of aerobic metabolites that exacerbated subsequent corrosion processes. PMID:24411308

  6. Experience with V-STORE: considerations on presence in virtual environments for effective neuropsychological rehabilitation of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Lo Priore, Corrado; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Liccione, Diego; Liccione, Davide

    2003-06-01

    The paper discusses the use of immersive virtual reality systems for the cognitive rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndrome, usually caused by prefrontal brain injuries. With respect to classical P&P and flat-screen computer rehabilitative tools, IVR systems might prove capable of evoking a more intense and compelling sense of presence, thanks to the highly naturalistic subject-environment interaction allowed. Within a constructivist framework applied to holistic rehabilitation, we suggest that this difference might enhance the ecological validity of cognitive training, partly overcoming the implicit limits of a lab setting, which seem to affect non-immersive procedures especially when applied to dysexecutive symptoms. We tested presence in a pilot study applied to a new VR-based rehabilitation tool for executive functions, V-Store; it allows patients to explore a virtual environment where they solve six series of tasks, ordered for complexity and designed to stimulate executive functions, programming, categorical abstraction, short-term memory and attention. We compared sense of presence experienced by unskilled normal subjects, randomly assigned to immersive or non-immersive (flat screen) sessions of V-Store, through four different indexes: self-report questionnaire, psychophysiological (GSR, skin conductance), neuropsychological (incidental recall memory test related to auditory information coming from the "real" environment) and count of breaks in presence (BIPs). Preliminary results show in the immersive group a significantly higher GSR response during tasks; neuropsychological data (fewer recalled elements from "reality") and less BIPs only show a congruent but yet non-significant advantage for the immersive condition; no differences were evident from the self-report questionnaire. A larger experimental group is currently under examination to evaluate significance of these data, which also might prove interesting with respect to the question of objective

  7. A computational study of the effect of the metal organic framework environment on the release of chemically stored nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Tanping; Taylor-Edinbyrd, Kiara; Kumar, Revati

    2015-09-28

    The use of copper based metal organic frameworks as a vehicle for the storage and delivery of chemically stored nitric oxide has been proposed based on recent experiments [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 3330-3333]. In these experiments copper based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) suspended in ethanol catalytically convert chemically stored nitric oxide (in the S-nitrosothiol or RSNO form) to free nitric oxide at a slow and sustained rate, as compared to a quick release in a solution of ethanol containing free copper ions. In order to gain insight on the effect of the MOF environment on the catalytic activity, a combination of electronic structure calculations on representative clusters and classical simulations using a force-field (partly parameterized on the above calculations) is used to study a simple RSNO species, S-nitrosomethane (CH3SNO) as well as the biologically compatible S-nitrosocysteine, both in the MOF and free copper solution. The free energy profiles of bringing the RSNO species to the catalytic centers have been compared and related to the different solvation environments of the copper catalyst in the complex solvated MOF and in free copper solution. Surprisingly, in the case of the simple CH3SNO moiety as well as the S-nitrosocysteine case, the free energy profile of bringing the first RSNO from the center of one of the pores to the catalytic site in the pore is very similar to the free solution case. On the other hand, bringing a second RSNO molecule to the same catalytic site or to the adjacent catalytic copper site show relatively higher barriers. These studies help shed light on the sustained nitric oxide release in the MOF environment. PMID:26292051

  8. Physical Activity and Food Environments: Solutions to the Obesity Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F; Glanz, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Context: Environmental, policy, and societal changes are important contributors to the rapid rise in obesity over the past few decades, and there has been substantial progress toward identifying environmental and policy factors related to eating and physical activity that can point toward solutions. This article is a status report on research on physical activity and food environments, and it suggests how these findings can be used to improve diet and physical activity and to control or reduce obesity. Methods: This article summarizes and synthesizes recent reviews and provides examples of representative studies. It also describes ongoing innovative interventions and policy change efforts that were identified through conference presentations, media coverage, and websites. Findings: Numerous cross-sectional studies have consistently demonstrated that some attributes of built and food environments are associated with physical activity, healthful eating, and obesity. Residents of walkable neighborhoods who have good access to recreation facilities are more likely to be physically active and less likely to be overweight or obese. Residents of communities with ready access to healthy foods also tend to have more healthful diets. Disparities in environments and policies that disadvantage low-income communities and racial minorities have been documented as well. Evidence from multilevel studies, prospective research, and quasi-experimental evaluations of environmental changes are just beginning to emerge. Conclusions: Environment, policy, and multilevel strategies for improving diet, physical activity, and obesity control are recommended based on a rapidly growing body of research and the collective wisdom of leading expert organizations. A public health imperative to identify and implement solutions to the obesity epidemic warrants the use of the most promising strategies while continuing to build the evidence base. PMID:19298418

  9. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment

    PubMed Central

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods. PMID:22800810

  10. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods. PMID:22800810

  11. Ecology of antimicrobial resistance: humans, animals, food and environment.

    PubMed

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Escudero, José A

    2012-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major health problem. After decades of research, numerous difficulties in tackling resistance have emerged, from the paucity of new antimicrobials to the inefficient contingency plans to reduce the use of antimicrobials; consequently, resistance to these drugs is out of control. Today we know that bacteria from the environment are often at the very origin of the acquired resistance determinants found in hospitals worldwide. Here we define the genetic components that flow from the environment to pathogenic bacteria and thereby confer a quantum increase in resistance levels, as resistance units (RU). Environmental bacteria as well as microbiomes from humans, animals, and food represent an infinite reservoir of RU, which are based on genes that have had, or not, a resistance function in their original bacterial hosts. This brief review presents our current knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and its consequences, with special focus on the importance of an ecologic perspective of antimicrobial resistance. This discipline encompasses the study of the relationships of entities and events in the framework of curing and preventing disease, a definition that takes into account both microbial ecology and antimicrobial resistance. Understanding the flux of RU throughout the diverse ecosystems is crucial to assess, prevent and eventually predict emerging scaffolds before they colonize health institutions. Collaborative horizontal research scenarios should be envisaged and involve all actors working with humans, animals, food and the environment. PMID:23847814

  12. The adaptive response of bacterial food-borne pathogens in the environment, host and food: Implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Broussolle, Véronique; Colin, Pierre; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Prieto, Miguel

    2015-11-20

    Bacteria are constantly faced to stress situations in their ecological niches, the food and the host gastrointestinal tract. The capacity to detect and respond to surrounding changes is crucial for bacterial pathogens to survive or grow in changing environments. To this purpose, cells have evolved various sophisticated networks designed to protect against stressors or repair damage caused by them. Challenges can occur during production of foods when subjected to processing, and after food ingestion when confronted with host defensive barriers. Some pathogenic bacteria have shown the capacity to develop stable resistance against extreme conditions within a defined genomic context and a limited number of generations. On the other hand, bacteria can also respond to adverse conditions in a transient manner, through the so-called stress tolerance responses. Bacterial stress tolerance responses include both structural and physiological modifications in the cell and are mediated by complex genetic regulatory machinery. Major aspects in the adaptive response are the sensing mechanisms, the characterization of cell defensive systems, such as the operation of regulatory proteins (e.g. RpoS), the induction of homeostatic and repair systems, the synthesis of shock response proteins, and the modifications of cell membranes, particularly in their fatty acid composition and physical properties. This article reviews certain strategies used by food-borne bacteria to respond to particular stresses (acid, cold stress, extreme pressure) in a permanent or transient manner and discusses the implications that such adaptive responses pose for food safety. PMID:26116419

  13. Microbial quality of soft drinks served by the dispensing machines in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in Griffin, Georgia, and surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial quality of the soft drinks served by fast food restaurants and gas station convenience stores in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas. The soft drinks were collected from the dispensing machines in 8 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2005 (n = 25) and in 10 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2006 (n = 43) and 2007 (n = 43). One hundred milliliters of each soft drink was filtered through a hydrophobic grid membrane filter. The remaining portion of the soft drink was kept at room temperature for 4 h before sampling in order to mimic the possible holding time between purchase and consumption. The membrane filters were sampled for total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. The microbial counts in the 2006 samples were numerically higher than the counts in the 2007 samples except for the average lactic acid bacteria counts, and were either significantly or numerically higher than the counts in the 2005 samples. Soft drinks sampled after the 4-h holding period had relatively higher counts than those sampled initially, with a few exceptions. Some soft drinks had over 4 log CFU/100 ml of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold cells. The study revealed the microbial quality of soft drinks served by dispensing machines in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas, emphasizing the importance of effective sanitizing practice in retail settings. PMID:20003747

  14. Waste from grocery stores

    SciTech Connect

    Lieb, K.

    1993-11-01

    The Community Recycling Center, Inc., (CRC, Champaign, Ill.), last year conducted a two-week audit of waste generated at two area grocery stores. The stores surveyed are part of a 10-store chain. For two of the Kirby Foods Stores, old corrugated containers (OCC) accounted for 39-45% of all waste. The summary drew correlations between the amount of OCC and the sum of food and garbage waste. The study suggested that one can reasonably estimate volumes of waste based on the amount of OCC because most things come in a box. Auditors set up a series of containers to make the collection process straightforward. Every day the containers were taken to local recycling centers and weighed. Approximate waste breakdowns for the two stores were as follows: 45% OCC; 35% food waste; 20% nonrecyclable or noncompostable items; and 10% other.

  15. Food-and-beverage environment and procurement policies for healthier work environments.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-06-01

    The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country. PMID:24801009

  16. Geographic scale matters in detecting the relationship between neighbourhood food environments and obesity risk: an analysis of driver license records in Salt Lake County, Utah

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X; Hanson, Heidi A; Zick, Cathleen D; Brown, Barbara B; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Empirical studies of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk have found mixed results. One possible cause of these mixed findings is the variation in neighbourhood geographic scale used. The purpose of this paper was to examine how various neighbourhood geographic scales affected the estimated relationship between food environments and obesity risk. Design Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. Setting Salt Lake County, Utah, USA. Participants 403 305 Salt Lake County adults 25–64 in the Utah driver license database between 1995 and 2008. Analysis Utah driver license data were geo-linked to 2000 US Census data and Dun & Bradstreet business data. Food outlets were classified into the categories of large grocery stores, convenience stores, limited-service restaurants and full-service restaurants, and measured at four neighbourhood geographic scales: Census block group, Census tract, ZIP code and a 1 km buffer around the resident's house. These measures were regressed on individual obesity status using multilevel random intercept regressions. Outcome Obesity. Results Food environment was important for obesity but the scale of the relevant neighbourhood differs for different type of outlets: large grocery stores were not significant at all four geographic scales, limited-service restaurants at the medium-to-large scale (Census tract or larger) and convenience stores and full-service restaurants at the smallest scale (Census tract or smaller). Conclusions The choice of neighbourhood geographic scale can affect the estimated significance of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk. However, variations in geographic scale alone do not explain the mixed findings in the literature. If researchers are constrained to use one geographic scale with multiple categories of food outlets, using Census tract or 1 km buffer as the neighbourhood geographic unit is likely to

  17. Engineering food crops to grow in harsh environments.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Bello-Bello, Elohim; Alejo-Jacuinde, Gerardo; Herrera, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Achieving sustainable agriculture and producing enough food for the increasing global population will require effective strategies to cope with harsh environments such as water and nutrient stress, high temperatures and compacted soils with high impedance that drastically reduce crop yield. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular and epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate plant responses to abiotic stress will serve as the platform to engineer improved crop plants with better designed root system architecture and optimized metabolism to enhance water and nutrients uptake and use efficiency and/or soil penetration. In this review we discuss such advances and how the generated knowledge could be used to integrate effective strategies to engineer crops by gene transfer or genome editing technologies. PMID:26380074

  18. Engineering food crops to grow in harsh environments

    PubMed Central

    López-Arredondo, Damar; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Bello-Bello, Elohim; Alejo-Jacuinde, Gerardo; Herrera, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Achieving sustainable agriculture and producing enough food for the increasing global population will require effective strategies to cope with harsh environments such as water and nutrient stress, high temperatures and compacted soils with high impedance that drastically reduce crop yield. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular and epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate plant responses to abiotic stress will serve as the platform to engineer improved crop plants with better designed root system architecture and optimized metabolism to enhance water and nutrients uptake and use efficiency and/or soil penetration. In this review we discuss such advances and how the generated knowledge could be used to integrate effective strategies to engineer crops by gene transfer or genome editing technologies. PMID:26380074

  19. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  20. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. PMID:25680370

  1. Corrosion process and structural performance of a 17 year old reinforced concrete beam stored in chloride environment

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, T. Castel, A. Francois, R.

    2007-11-15

    The long-term corrosion process of reinforced concrete beams is studied in this paper. The reinforced concrete elements were stored in a chloride environment for 17years under service loading in order to be representative of real structural conditions. At different stages, cracking maps were drawn, total chloride contents were measured and mechanical tests were performed. Results show that the bending cracks and their width do not influence significantly the service life of the structure. The chloride threshold at the reinforcement depth, used by standards as a single parameter to predict the end of the initiation period, is a necessary but not a sufficient parameter to define service life. The steel-concrete interface condition is also a determinant parameter. The bleeding of concrete is an important cause of interface de-bonding which leads to an early corrosion propagation of the reinforcements. The structural performance under service load (i.e.: stiffness in flexure) is mostly affected by the corrosion of the tension reinforcement (steel cross-section and the steel-concrete bond reduction). Limit-state service life design based on structural performance reduction in terms of serviceability shows that the propagation period of the corrosion process is an important part of the reinforced concrete service life.

  2. It’s the season! Seasonal changes of MyPyramid food groups in weekly Sunday grocery store sale advertisements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Faced with tens of thousands of food choices, consumers frequently turn to promotional advertising, such as Sunday sales circulars, to make purchasing decisions. To date, little research has examined the content of sales circulars over multiple seasons. Methods: Food items from 12 months...

  3. 21 CFR 1250.30 - Construction, maintenance and use of places where food is prepared, served, or stored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of cold storage rooms shall not be required. All such places where food is prepared, served, or... vermin. (b) Such places shall not be used for sleeping or living quarters. (c) Water of satisfactory... designed, installed, and maintained as to prevent contamination of the water supply, food, and...

  4. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  5. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-01-01

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature. PMID:27281525

  6. Characterising food environment exposure at home, at work, and along commuting journeys using data on adults in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socio-ecological models of behaviour suggest that dietary behaviours are potentially shaped by exposure to the food environment (‘foodscape’). Research on associations between the foodscape and diet and health has largely focussed on foodscapes around the home, despite recognition that non-home environments are likely to be important in a more complete assessment of foodscape exposure. This paper characterises and describes foodscape exposure of different types, at home, at work, and along commuting routes for a sample of working adults in Cambridgeshire, UK. Methods Home and work locations, and transport habits for 2,696 adults aged 29–60 were drawn from the Fenland Study, UK. Food outlet locations were obtained from local councils and classified by type - we focus on convenience stores, restaurants, supermarkets and takeaway food outlets. Density of and proximity to food outlets was characterised at home and work. Commuting routes were modelled based on the shortest street network distance between home and work, with exposure (counts of food outlets) that accounted for travel mode and frequency. We describe these three domains of food environment exposure using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results For all types of food outlet, we found very different foodscapes around homes and workplaces (with overall outlet exposure at work 125% higher), as well as a potentially substantial exposure contribution from commuting routes. On average, work and commuting environments each contributed to foodscape exposure at least equally to residential neighbourhoods, which only accounted for roughly 30% of total exposure. Furthermore, for participants with highest overall exposure to takeaway food outlets, workplaces accounted for most of the exposure. Levels of relative exposure between home, work and commuting environments were poorly correlated. Conclusions Relying solely on residential neighbourhood characterisation greatly underestimated total

  7. Comparing the accuracy of two secondary food environment data sources in the UK across socio-economic and urban/rural divides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in the role of food environments in shaping food consumption behaviours has grown in recent years. However, commonly used secondary food environment data sources have not yet been fully evaluated for completeness and systematic biases. This paper assessed the accuracy of UK Points of Interest (POI) data, compared to local council food outlet data for the county of Cambridgeshire. Methods Percentage agreement, positive predictive values (PPVs) and sensitivities were calculated for all food outlets across the study area, by outlet type, and across urban/rural/SES divisions. Results Percentage agreement by outlet type (29.7-63.5%) differed significantly to overall percentage agreement (49%), differed significantly in rural areas (43%) compared to urban (52.8%), and by SES quintiles. POI data had an overall PPV of 74.9%, differing significantly for Convenience Stores (57.9%), Specialist Stores (68.3%), and Restaurants (82.6%). POI showed an overall ‘moderate’ sensitivity, although this varied significantly by outlet type. Whilst sensitivies by urban/rural/SES divides varied significantly from urban and least deprived reference categories, values remained ‘moderate’. Conclusions Results suggest POI is a viable alternative to council data, particularly in terms of PPVs, which remain robust across urban/rural and SES divides. Most variation in completeness was by outlet type; lowest levels were for Convenience Stores, which are commonly cited as ‘obesogenic’. PMID:23327189

  8. Creating Healthful Home Food Environments: Results of a Study with Participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Smalling, Agueda Lara; Thompson, Debbe; Watson, Kathleen B.; Reed, Debra; Konzelmann, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. Design: Two-group randomized control trial; intervention versus usual EFNEP curriculum. Setting: Texas EFNEP classes. Participants:…

  9. Creating healthful home food environments: Results of a study with participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. We used a two-group randomized control trial: intervention versus usual EF...

  10. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757) approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed a decrease of the mean healthy (−1.12, se 0.12) and unhealthy (−0.48, se 0.16) diet scores. There were significant positive relationships between the distances travelled to grocers and healthy diet scores though effects were very small (0.003, 95%CI 0.001 – 0.006). Significant negative relationships between proximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates. Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools

  11. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment.

    PubMed

    West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; Engstrom, Peder M; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Brauman, Kate A; Carlson, Kimberly M; Cassidy, Emily S; Johnston, Matt; MacDonald, Graham K; Ray, Deepak K; Siebert, Stefan

    2014-07-18

    Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity's contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key "global leverage points" that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and businesses prioritize actions. PMID:25035492

  12. Changing the Food Environment for Obesity Prevention: Key Gaps and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Martins, Paula Andrea; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-12-01

    The food environment has a great impact on the nutritional health of the population. Food environment interventions have become a popular strategy to address the obesity epidemic. However, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the most effective strategies to modify the food environment to improve health. In this review, we examine key gaps in the food environment intervention literature, including the need for: developing appropriate formative research plans when addressing the food environment; methods for selecting intervention domains and components; incorporating food producers and distributors in intervention strategies; strengthening evaluation of environmental interventions; building the evidence base for food environment interventions in diverse settings; engaging policy makers in the process of modifying the food environment; and creating systems science models to examine the costs and benefits of a potential program or policy on the food environment prior to implementation. In addition, we outline the need for strategies for addressing these issues including conducting additional pilot interventions, developing additional methodologies, and embracing the use of simulation models. PMID:25574452

  13. Changing the Food Environment for Obesity Prevention: Key Gaps and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Paula Andrea; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The food environment has a great impact on the nutritional health of the population. Food environment interventions have become a popular strategy to address the obesity epidemic. However, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the most effective strategies to modify the food environment to improve health. In this review, we examine key gaps in the food environment intervention literature, including the need for: developing appropriate formative research plans when addressing the food environment; methods for selecting intervention domains and components; incorporating food producers and distributors in intervention strategies; strengthening evaluation of environmental interventions; building the evidence base for food environment interventions in diverse settings; engaging policy makers in the process of modifying the food environment; and creating systems science models to examine the costs and benefits of a potential program or policy on the food environment prior to implementation. In addition, we outline the need for strategies for addressing these issues including conducting additional pilot interventions, developing additional methodologies, and embracing the use of simulation models. PMID:25574452

  14. Hispanic immigrant women’s perspective on healthy foods and the New York City retail food environment: a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoosun; Quinn, James; Florez, Karen; Jacobson, Judith; Neckerman, Kathryn; Rundle, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written about the role of dietary acculturation in the epidemic of obesity among Hispanic immigrants in the United States. Yet little is known about the role of beliefs and preferences in immigrants’ dietary practices and their relationship to the retail food environment in which the practices occur. We conducted a mixed-methods convergence study of these issues. Twenty eight foreign-born Hispanic adult women, recruited from families enrolled in a childhood asthma study and mainly living in New York City took part in 60–90 minute, semi-structured interviews regarding their dietary beliefs, preferences, and practices. The findings were then used to formulate hypotheses for analyses of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data collected from the 345 New York Hispanic women enrolled in the asthma study. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine whether characteristics of the retail food environment within 0.5 Km of the home predicted diet, adjusting for individual and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics. In the interviews, healthy food was rarely discussed in terms of nutritional content. Instead, considerations of freshness, as indicated by time since harvest or slaughter and thus local sourcing; purity, as indicated by the absence of preservatives and processing; and naturalness, as indicated by chemical free farming practices, were the primary axes around which healthy food was defined. Quantitative results were consistent with the qualitative findings: 1) the presence of a farmers’ market within the home neighborhood was associated with consumption of more total servings per day of fruit, vegetables, and juice, and 2) the presence of a farmers’ market and/or a livestock market was associated with consumption of more servings per day of meat. Proximity to supermarkets or medium-sized grocery stores was not associated with consumption. The results suggest that the availability of fresh produce and meat from local farms

  15. Socioeconomic Differences in the Association between Competitive Food Laws and the School Food Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. Methods: School administrators for fifth- and eighth grade reported foods and beverages sold in school. Index measures of the food/beverage environments…

  16. Do Latino and non-Latino grocery stores differ in the availability and affordability of healthy food items in a low-income, metropolitan region?

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Jennifer A; Madanat, Hala N; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare non-ethnically based supermarkets and Latino grocery stores (tiendas) in a lower-income region with regard to the availability, quality and cost of several healthy v. unhealthy food items. Design A cross-sectional study conducted by three independent observers to audit twenty-five grocery stores identified as the main source of groceries for 80% of Latino families enrolled in a childhood obesity study. Stores were classified as supermarkets and tiendas on the basis of key characteristics. Setting South San Diego County. Subjects Ten tiendas and fifteen supermarkets. Results Tiendas were smaller than supermarkets (five v. twelve aisles, P=0·003). Availability of fresh produce did not differ by store type; quality differed for one fruit item. Price per unit (pound or piece) was lower in tiendas for most fresh produce. The cost of meeting the US Department of Agriculture’s recommended weekly servings of produce based on an 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)/d diet was $US 3·00 lower in tiendas compared with supermarkets (P<0·001). The cost of 1 gallon of skimmed milk was significantly higher in tiendas ($US 3·29 v. $US 2·69; P=0·005) and lean (7% fat) ground beef was available in only one tienda (10 %) compared with ten (67 %) supermarkets (P=0·01). Conclusions Barriers remain in the ability to purchase healthier dairy and meat options in tiendas; the same is not true for produce. These results highlight the potential that tiendas have in improving access to quality, fresh produce within lower-income communities. However, efforts are needed to increase the access and affordability of healthy dairy and meat products. PMID:21733278

  17. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Seenama, Chrakrapong; Saiyarin, Jatuporn; Tiengrim, Surapee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, in samples from healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas of Thailand. Methods: Samples were collected from stool specimens from adult food factory and food animal farm workers, fresh and cooked foods sold at markets, rectal swabs of healthy pigs and chickens, fresh pork meat from slaughterhouses, water samples from canals as well as fish and shrimp farm ponds, and stagnant water sources on pig farms. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion or agar dilution methods. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was assayed using a double disk diffusion method. Results: Among 544 healthy adult food factory workers, 75.5% were positive for ESBL producing E. coli, while 77.3% of E. coli isolated from 30 healthy animal farm workers were positive. Amongst healthy food animals, ESBL producing status among E. coli isolates were more commonly detected in pigs (76.7%) than broilers (40%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli seemed to be more prevalent in fresh meat samples than in fresh vegetables, in fresh foods than in cooked foods, and in water samples collected from the animal farms than those from canals and fish and shrimp ponds. Conclusions: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli isolates are prevalent amongst healthy individuals, foods along the food production chain from farms to consumers, and in the environment in selected areas in Thailand. PMID:25146935

  18. Gaseous decontamination treatments of food and food environments and emerging technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of gaseous sanitation treatments for decontamination of foods and food processing facilities show promise. Gases can penetrate into crevices and niches in foods and in facilities where entrapped microbes could be missed by conventional techniques of cleaning and sanitization. Many of these...

  19. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries. PMID:21703381

  20. A review of the incidence and transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat products in retail and food service environments.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Sofos, John N

    2007-09-01

    Contamination of ready-to-eat products with Listeria monocytogenes may occur at several stages before consumption. Accessibility to the public and relatively limited control interventions at retail and food service establishments (compared with the processing sector of the food industry) and the lack of a specific regulatory framework increase the likelihood of introduction of this pathogen into some foods in these establishments. This review is a compilation of available information on the incidence and transmission of L. monocytogenes through ready-to-eat products at the retail and food service level. The potential transmission of L. monocytogenes within retail and food service operations has been indicated in epidemiological investigations and by survey data. Potential sources of the organism in these operations include the environment, food handlers, and incoming raw ingredients or processed products that have become contaminated after the lethality treatment at the manufacturing facility. L. monocytogenes may be present at retail and food service establishments in various ready-to-eat products, both prepackaged and those packaged in the store, and occasionally at high concentrations. This issue dictates the need for development and application of effective control measures, and potential control approaches are discussed here. Good manufacturing practices, appropriate cleaning, sanitation and hygiene programs, and temperature control required for prevention or inhibition of growth of the pathogen to high levels are critical for control of L. monocytogenes in the retail and food service sector. A comprehensive food safety system designed to be functional in retail and food service operations and based on the philosophy of hazard analysis and critical control point systems and a series of sound prerequisite programs can provide effective control of L. monocytogenes in these environments. However, competent delivery of food safety education and training to retail

  1. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p < 0.05). The child persuasion group was more varied with regard to age, income, and household structure but cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p < 0.05). Discrete choice experiments using maximum difference scaling can be employed to design and tailor interventions to change health behaviors. Segmenting a diverse target population by needs and preferences enables the tailoring and optimization of future interventions to improve parental home food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food

  2. Heating of foods in space-vehicle environments. [by conductive heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannerot, R. B.; Cox, J. E.; Chen, C. K.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    In extended space missions, foods will be heated to enhance the psychological as well as the physiological well-being of the crew. In the low-gravity space environment natural convection is essentially absent so that the heat transfer within the food is by conduction alone. To prevent boiling in reduced pressure environments the maximum temperature of the heating system is severely limited. The Skylab food-heating system utilizes a tray with receptables for the food containers. The walls of the receptacles are lined with thermally controlled, electrical-resistance, blanket-type heating elements. A finite difference model is employed to perform parametric studies on the food-heating system. The effects on heating time of the (1) thermophysical properties of the food, (2) heater power level, (3) initial food temperatures, (4) container geometry, and (5) heater control temperature are presented graphically. The optimal heater power level and container geometry are determined.

  3. Fast-Food Environments and Family Fast-Food Intake in Nonmetropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent–parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fast food at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eat fast food compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07,1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. Conclusions In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake. PMID:22608373

  4. PERCEPTIONS OF THE COMMUNITY FOOD ENVIRONMENT AND RELATED INFLUENCES ON FOOD CHOICE AMONG MIDLIFE WOMEN RESIDING IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS1

    PubMed Central

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Laraia, Barbara A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Qualitative research on food choice has rarely focused on individuals’ perceptions of the community food environment. Women remain gatekeepers of the family diet and food purchasing. Therefore we assessed midlife, Southern women's perceptions of the food environment. Related influences on food choices at work and at home were also examined. Methods We recruited 28 low- and moderate-income, midlife (37−67 years) women from rural and urban areas of southeastern North Carolina, using typical case and snowball sampling. They responded to questions about multilevel influences on food choice in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Results Women perceived differences between urban and rural food environments, with rural areas having fewer supermarkets and fast food restaurants compared to urban areas, which had fewer produce stands. Workplace food choices were affected by the social environment (co-workers), personal health concerns, and the surrounding food environment. Food chosen at home was primarily influenced by family members, health concerns, and convenient food sources. Discussion While future studies should explore findings in more representative populations, potential intervention strategies can be inferred, including emphasizing healthful aspects of the food environment. Intervention and advocacy efforts are needed to improve aspects of the food environment that make healthy choices difficult. PMID:19533508

  5. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  6. The healthy food environment policy index: findings of an expert panel in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Clare; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess government actions to improve the healthiness of food environments in New Zealand, based on the healthy food environment policy index. Methods A panel of 52 public health experts rated the extent of government implementation against international best practice for 42 indicators of food environment policy and infrastructure support. Their ratings were informed by documented evidence, validated by government officials and international benchmarks. Findings There was a high level of implementation for some indicators: providing ingredient lists and nutrient declarations and regulating health claims on packaged foods; transparency in policy development; monitoring prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and monitoring risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. There was very little, if any implementation of the following indicators: restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children; fiscal and food retail policies and protection of national food environments within trade agreements. Interrater reliability was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.76–0.79). Based on the implementation gaps, the experts recommended 34 actions, and prioritized seven of these. Conclusion The healthy food environment policy index provides a useful set of indicators that can focus attention on where government action is needed. It is anticipated that this policy index will increase accountability of governments, stimulate government action and support civil society advocacy efforts. PMID:26229200

  7. Government regulation to promote healthy food environments--a view from inside state governments.

    PubMed

    Shill, J; Mavoa, H; Allender, S; Lawrence, M; Sacks, G; Peeters, A; Crammond, B; Swinburn, B

    2012-02-01

    Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organizations (n =45) to examine participants' (i) suggestions for regulatory interventions for healthier food environments and (ii) support for pre-selected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Data were analysed using thematic and constant comparative analyses. Interventions commonly suggested by participants were regulating unhealthy food marketing; limiting the density of fast food outlets; pricing reforms to decrease fruit/vegetable prices and increase unhealthy food prices; and improved food labelling. The most commonly supported pre-selected interventions were related to food marketing and service. Primary production and retail sector interventions were least supported. The dominant themes were the need for whole-of-government and collaborative approaches; the influence of the food industry; conflicting policies/agenda; regulatory challenges; the need for evidence of effectiveness; and economic disincentives. While interventions such as public sector healthy food service policies were supported by participants, marketing restrictions and fiscal interventions face substantial barriers including a push for deregulation and private sector opposition. PMID:21955783

  8. Food, Energy, and The Environment: Alternatives for Creating New Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrells, Nancy R.; Pimentel, David

    1981-01-01

    Provides background information on the interdependency of agriculture and ecological and social systems. Discusses in detail: (1) fossil energy and food production; (2) energy-intensive agriculture and environmental pollution; and (3) methods for developing alternatives. Includes recommendations to conserve fossil energy used in current food…

  9. Occurrence, Persistence, and Virulence Potential of Listeria ivanovii in Foods and Food Processing Environments in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Leong, Dara; Morgan, Ciara A.; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of L. ivanovii in foods and food processing environments in Ireland, to track persistence, and to characterize the disease causing potential of the isolated strains. A total of 2,006 samples (432 food samples and 1,574 environmental swabs) were collected between March 2013 and March 2014 from 48 food business operators (FBOs) belonging to different production sectors (dairy, fish, meat, and fresh-cut vegetable). Six of the forty-eight FBOs had samples positive for L. ivanovii on at least one sampling occasion. L. ivanovii was present in fifteen samples (fourteen environmental samples and one food sample). All but one of those positive samples derived from the dairy sector, where L. ivanovii prevalence was 1.7%. Six distinguishable pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE analysis, with one pulsotype being persistent in the environment of a dairy food business. Sequence analysis of the sigB gene showed that fourteen isolates belonged to L. ivanovii subsp. londoniensis, while only one isolate was L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii. Cell invasion assays demonstrated that the majority of L. ivanovii strains were comparable to L. monocytogenes EGDe in their ability to invade CACO-2 epithelial cells whilst four isolates had significantly higher invasion efficiencies. PMID:26543856

  10. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2-18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), grain desserts, and high-fat milk from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and SSBs, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. In conclusion, these findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to their implementation, schools resembled fast food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. PMID:24200654

  11. The School Food Environment and Obesity Prevention: Progress Over the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Welker, Emily; Lott, Megan; Story, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The school food environment-including when and where children obtain food and the types of options available during the school day-plays an important role in children's consumption patterns. Thus, childhood obesity prevention efforts often focus on altering the school food environment as a mechanism for improving student dietary intake. This review examines the role school food programs and policies play in improving children's diet, weight, and health. Overall, research suggests that significant improvements have been made in school nutrition policies and programs. Due to the recent program changes made as a result of the 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, an emphasis was placed on research conducted over the past decade and especially on the evaluation of foods and beverages served and sold since implementation of this national law. This review also examines remaining gaps in the literature and opportunities for further improvements in school food programs and policies. PMID:27066793

  12. Street Food Environment in Maputo (STOOD Map): a Cross-Sectional Study in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Gelormini, Marcello; Damasceno, Albertino; Lopes, Simão António; Maló, Sérgio; Chongole, Célia; Muholove, Paulino; Casal, Susana; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro; Padrão, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Background Street food represents a cultural, social, and economic phenomenon that is typical of urbanized areas, directly linked with a more sedentary lifestyle and providing a very accessible and inexpensive source of nutrition. Food advertising may contribute to shaping consumers’ preferences and has the potential to drive the supply of specific foods. Objective The purpose of this study is to characterize the street food offerings available to the urban population of Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique, and the billboard food advertising in the same setting. Methods People selling ready-to-eat foods, beverages, or snacks from venues such as carts, trucks, stands, and a variety of improvised informal setups (eg, shopping carts, trunks of cars, sides of vans, blankets on the sidewalk, etc) will be identified in the district of KaMpfumu. We will gather information about the actual food being sold through direct observation and interviews to vendors, and from the billboard advertising in the same areas. A second phase of the research entails collecting food samples to be analyzed in a specialized laboratory. The street food environment will be characterized, overall and according to socioeconomic and physical characteristics of the neighborhood, using descriptive statistics and spatial analysis. The study protocol was approved by the National Committee for Bioethics for Health in Mozambique. Results Data collection, including the identification of street food vending sites and billboard advertising, started on October 20, 2014, and lasted for 1 month. The collection of food samples took place in December 2014, and the bromatological analyses are expected to be concluded in August 2015. Conclusions The district of KaMpfumu is the wealthiest and most urbanized in Maputo, and it is the area with the highest concentration and variety of street food vendors. The expected results may yield important information to assess the nutritional environment and the

  13. Environment and Hybrid Influences on Food-Grade Sorghum Grain Yield and Hardness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined grain quality of food-grade sorghum hybrids. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environment and hybrid on grain quality of commercially available food-grade sorghums. A randomized complete block experiment with three replications was planted in 12 e...

  14. Influence of School Environment on Student Lunch Participation and Competitive Food Sales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Ruth E.; Wenz, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The school nutrition environment includes food policy and practices, advertising, and presence of competitive foods (CF). CF provide schools with revenue; however, CF decrease National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation and reimbursement as well as the nutrient density of children's diets. Local wellness policies (LWPs)…

  15. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  16. Calorie Offsets: Environmental Policy for the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity continues to challenge the public’s health, effective policy solutions are wanting. Borrowing from environmental protection efforts, we explored the potential for a “calorie offset” regulatory mechanism, which is similar to the carbon emission offsets used to curb greenhouse gas emissions, to mitigate the harmful health externalities of unhealthy food production. This approach might have a number of advantages over traditional policy tools, and warrants attention from health policymakers and industry alike. PMID:26066923

  17. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  18. Biotoxin sensing in food and environment via microchip.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Yu, Li; Xu, Lin; Hu, Xiaofeng; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Feng, Xiaojun

    2014-06-01

    Biotoxin contamination in food and environmental samples has threatened health or life of human and animals. Thus, a rapid lab-independent sensing method for biotoxin determination is urgently required. Microchip sensing system allows a promising rapid and low-cost detection strategy. Herein, the recent development of various microchips, including microfluidic chip and microarray, has been discussed to sense various biotoxins in food and environmental samples (i.e. phytotoxin, animal toxin, marine toxin, and mycotoxin). Microchip can be served as both analyte transportation and sensing platform, via either labeling or labeling-free sensing strategy. Because of its fast sensing time, low sample consumption, ready portability, and high compatibility, it has been extensively employed in biotoxin determination in both academic and industrial circle. With the advances of fabrication strategies and sensing modes, the microchip performance has been dramatically improved, including sensitivity, efficiency, reliability, stability, cost saving, portability. The potential applications can be found wide spread in biotoxin sensing in the near future, while their practical application in real sample need to be addressed. PMID:24723235

  19. Neighborhood Food Environment and Obesity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Individual and Neighborhood Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Gupta, Adarsh K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested hypotheses about the relationship between neighborhood-level food sources and obesity, controlling for individual-level characteristics. Methods. Data (collected November 2006–April 2008) derived from a random-digit-dial sample of 5688 community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 74 years residing in 1644 census tracts in New Jersey. Using multilevel structural equation models, we created latent constructs representing density of fast-food establishments and storefronts (convenience stores, bars and pubs, grocery stores) and an observed indicator for supermarkets at the neighborhood level, simultaneously modeling obesity and demographic characteristics (age, gender, race, education, household income) at the individual level. Results. When we controlled for individual-level age, gender, race, education, and household income, densities of fast-food establishments and storefronts were positively associated with obesity. Supermarkets were not associated with obesity. Conclusions. Because people living in neighborhoods with a higher density of fast food and storefronts are more likely to be obese, these neighborhoods may be optimal sites for interventions. PMID:24625148

  20. Dietary inequalities: what is the evidence for the effect of the neighbourhood food environment?

    PubMed Central

    Black, Christina; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This review summarises the evidence for inequalities in community and consumer nutrition environments from ten previous review articles, and also assesses the evidence for the effect of the community and consumer nutrition environments on dietary intake. There is evidence for inequalities in food access in the US but trends are less apparent in other developed countries. There is a trend for greater access and availability to healthy and less healthy foods relating to better and poorer dietary outcomes respectively. Trends for price show that higher prices of healthy foods are associated with better dietary outcomes. More nuanced measures of the food environment, including multi-dimensional and individualised approaches, would enhance the state of the evidence and help inform future interventions. PMID:24200470

  1. Literacy: What Level for Food, Land, Natural Resources, and Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardwell, Vernon B.

    2005-01-01

    Many forms of literacy exist. Each literacy is an integration of ways of thinking, acting, interacting, and valuing. To understand the impact of agriculture (i.e., farming, ranching, forestry, and fisheries) and the contributions and interactions to the environment (e.g., losses of biological diversity, soil degradation, air and water pollution,…

  2. New methods for cooling and storing oocytes and embryos in a clean environment of -196°C.

    PubMed

    Arav, Amir; Natan, Yehudit; Levi-Setti, Paolo Emanuele; Menduni, Francesca; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2016-07-01

    It is well documented that oocyte vitrification using open systems provides better results than closed systems. However, its use is limited owing to risks of contamination posed by direct exposure to liquid nitrogen and cross-contamination when stored in liquid nitrogen tanks. A device that produces clean liquid air (CLAir) having similar a temperature as liquid nitrogen and a sterile storage canister device (Esther) that keeps samples sealed in their own compartment while in regular liquid nitrogen tanks were developed. The following experiments were performed: temperature measurements, bioburden tests, vitrification and storage experiments with mice embryos and human oocytes. Results showed similar cooling rates for liquid nitrogen and liquid air. Bioburden tests of CLAir and Esther showed no contamination, while massive contamination was found in "commercial" liquid nitrogen and storage canisters. Mice blastocysts had a survival rate of over 90%, with 80% hatching rate after vitirification in CLAir and 1 week storage in Esther, similar to the fresh (control) results. Human oocytes vitrified in CLAir and in liquid nitrogen for three consecutive vitrification/warming cycles showed 100% survival, seen as re-expansion in both groups. These new systems represent a breakthrough for safe vitrification using open systems and a safe storage process generally. PMID:27131833

  3. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours. PMID:27254150

  4. Youth dietary intake and weight status: healthful neighborhood food environments enhance the protective role of supportive family home environments.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14.4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, and parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone. PMID:24378461

  5. Environment and hybrid influences on rapid visco analysis starch properties of food-grade grain sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain processors would benefit from information regarding production environment and sorghum hybrid influences on food-grade starch properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environment and hybrid on Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) starch properties of commercially available...

  6. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  7. Making Biochar to Improve Food Security and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, T.

    2015-12-01

    Biochars can improve soil quality in many ways. When biochars are incorporated in the soil they act as carbon sinks and improve plant health by supporting microbial communities, improving soil tilth, and improving water holding capacity. Biochars can improve water quality; reduce nutrient runoff; and enhance remediation. Biochar application can lead to improved germination and survival of food crops, and to vegetative solutions for stormwater and remediation. Biochar quality can be varied with feedstocks and processing conditions. Biochar processes and formulations are emerging that can replace or enhance more expensive materials like peat and activated carbon. Recent research, development, and commercial demonstrations will be described that have led to the discovery of feedstock and biochar blends that stimulate plant growth and enhance nutrient capture.

  8. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    MedlinePlus

    ... bottle. DO NOT use everyday plastic bags or formula bottle bags. They leak. Store your breast milk. ... means not giving any other food, drinks, or formula. If you use formula, still breastfeed and give ...

  9. Guatemalan school food environment: impact on schoolchildren's risk of both undernutrition and overweight/obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pehlke, Elisa L.; Letona, Paola; Hurley, Kristen; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala suffers the double burden of malnutrition with high rates of stunting alongside increasing childhood overweight/obesity. This study examines the school food environment (SFE) at low-income Guatemalan elementary schools and discusses its potential impact on undernutrition and overweight/obesity. From July through October 2013, direct observations, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and food kiosk vendors (n = 4, 2 interviews each) and also focus groups (FGs) with children (n = 48, 8 FGs) were conducted. The SFE comprises food from school food kiosks (casetas); food from home or purchased in the street; and food provided by the school (refacción). School casetas, street vendors and children's parents largely provide sandwiches, calorie-rich snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Refacción typically serves energy dense atol, a traditional beverage. The current school food program (refacción), the overall SFE and the roles/opinions of vendors and principals reveal persistent anxiety concerning undernutrition and insufficient concern for overweight/obesity. Predominant concern for elementary schoolchildren remains focused on undernutrition. However, by the time children reach elementary school (ages 6–12+), food environments should encourage dietary behaviors to prevent childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:25823911

  10. Assessing mobile food vendors (a.k.a. street food vendors)—methods, challenges, and lessons learned for future food-environment research

    PubMed Central

    Lucan, Sean C.; Varona, Monica; Maroko, Andrew R.; Bumol, Joel; Torrens, Luis; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Mobile food vendors (also known as street food vendors) may be important sources of food, particularly in minority and low-income communities. Unfortunately, there are no good data sources on where, when, or what vendors sell. The lack of a published assessment method may contribute to the relative exclusion of mobile food vendors from existing food-environment research. A goal of this study was to develop, pilot, and troubleshoot a method to assess mobile food vendors. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional assessment of mobile food vendors through direct observations and brief interviews. METHODS Using printed maps, investigators canvassed all streets in Bronx County, NY (excluding highways but including entrance and exit ramps) in 2010, looking for mobile food vendors. For each vendor identified, researchers recorded a unique identifier, the vendor’s location, and direct observations. Investigators also recorded vendors answers to where, when, and what they sold. RESULTS Of 372 identified vendors, 38% did not answer brief-interview questions (19% were “in transit”, 15% refused; others were absent from their carts/trucks/stands or with customers). About 7% of vendors who ultimately answered questions were reluctant to engage with researchers. Some vendors expressed concerns about regulatory authority; only 34% of vendors had visible permits or licenses and many vendors had improvised illegitimate-appearing set-ups. The majority of vendors (75% of those responding) felt most comfortable speaking Spanish; 5% preferred other non-English languages. Nearly a third of vendors changed selling locations (streets, neighborhoods, boroughs) day-to-day or even within a given day. There was considerable variability in times (hours, days, months) in which vendors reported doing business; for 86% of vendors, weather was a deciding factor. CONCLUSIONS Mobile food vendors have a variable and fluid presence in an urban environment. Variability in hours and locations, having

  11. The community and consumer food environment and children’s diet: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is a growing body of research on food environments for children, there has not been a published comprehensive review to date evaluating food environments outside the home and school and their relationship with diet in children. The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on the influence of the community and consumer nutrition environments on the diet of children under the age of 18 years. Methods Our search strategy included a combination of both subject heading searching as well as natural language, free-text searching. We searched nine databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, ProQuest Public Health, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and GEOBASE) for papers published between 1995 and July 2013. Study designs were included if they were empirically-based, published scholarly research articles, were focused on children as the population of interest, fit within the previously mentioned date range, included at least one diet outcome, and exposures within the community nutrition environment (e.g., location and accessibility of food outlets), and consumer nutrition environment (e.g., price, promotion, and placement of food choices). Results After applying exclusion and inclusion criteria, a total of 26 articles were included in our review. The vast majority of the studies were cross-sectional in design, except for two articles reporting on longitudinal studies. The food environment exposure(s) included aspects of the community nutrition environments, except for three that focused on the consumer nutrition environment. The community nutrition environment characterization most often used Geographic Information Systems to geolocate participants’ homes (and/or schools) and then one or more types of food outlets in relation to these. The children included were all of school age. Twenty-two out of 26 studies showed at least one positive association between the food environment exposure and diet outcome. Four studies reported

  12. Parental employment and work-family stress: associations with family food environments.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-08-01

    Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many

  13. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones) into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens). The most deprived quintile (of areas) had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived) had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p < 0.01). The closest mean distance to the nearest food retailer was within quintile 3 while the furthest distance was within quintile 1, and this was also statistically significant (Chi-square p < 0.01). There was variation in the distribution of the seven different types of food retailers, and access to amenities depended upon the type of food retailer studied and whether proximity or density was measured. Overall the findings suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within the City of Glasgow did not necessarily have fewer food retail outlets. PMID:19660114

  14. Do obesity-promoting food environments cluster around socially disadvantaged schools in Glasgow, Scotland?

    PubMed Central

    Ellaway, Anne; Macdonald, Laura; Lamb, Karen; Thornton, Lukar; Day, Peter; Pearce, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Increase in the consumption of food and drinks outside the home by adolescents and young people and associations with rising levels of obesity is a significant concern worldwide and it has been suggested that the food environment around schools may be a contributory factor. As few studies have explored this issue in a UK setting, we examined whether different types of food outlets are clustered around public secondary schools in Glasgow, and whether this pattern differed by social disadvantage. We found evidence of clustering of food outlets around schools but a more complex picture in relation to deprivation was observed. Across all schools there were numerous opportunities for pupils to purchase energy dense foods locally and the implications for policy are discussed. PMID:22819370

  15. Towards understanding the new food environment for refugees from the Horn of Africa in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A; Renzaho, A M N; McCabe, M; Swinburn, B

    2010-09-01

    The study explored how African migrant communities living in North-West Melbourne, Australia, conceptualise and interpret the Australian food system from an intergenerational perspective and how this impacts on their attitudes and beliefs about food in Australia. Using a qualitative approach that involved 15 adolescents and 25 parents, the study found significant intergenerational differences in four themes that characterised their new food environment: (1) an abundance of cheap and readily available processed and packaged foods, (2) nutrition messages that are complex to gauge due to poor literacy levels, (3) promotion of a slim body size, which contradicts pre-existing cultural values surrounding body shapes and (4) Australian food perceived as being full of harmful chemicals. In order to develop effective culturally competent obesity prevention interventions in this sub-population, a multigenerational approach is needed. PMID:20609612

  16. Improving the food environment in UK schools: policy opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Devi, Anu; Surender, Rebecca; Rayner, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Childhood obesity and nutrition are high on the UK policy agenda because of their association with chronic illnesses and related costs. In 2007, to improve children's nutrition, the Government introduced new standards for all school food sources, including products sold from vending machines. Our research explores the factors influencing schools' decisions and children's food choices in relation to vending machines. We conducted in-depth interviews with staff and pupils in one English Local Education Authority. We found that pupils made food decisions based on cost considerations, and convenience, and they strongly valued individual choice. Schools' decisions to provide vending were influenced predominantly by fiscal and structural constraints. Although unhappy with the current quality of school food, staff and pupils criticised initiatives to restrict unhealthy foods. It appears that achieving a healthier school environment is a long-term project involving multiple strategies of education and incentives, as well as regulation. These must involve parents as well as pupils and schools. PMID:20535103

  17. Food environment of fruits and vegetables in the territory of the Health Academy Program.

    PubMed

    Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-11-01

    This study provides a spatial analysis of distribution and access to commercial fruit and vegetable establishments within the territory of a representative sample of public fitness facilities known as the Health Academy Program (HAP) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study evaluated commercial food establishments within a buffer area based on a radius of 1,600 meters around each of 18 randomly selected fitness facilities. Quality of access to fruits and vegetables was assessed by the Healthy Food Store Index (HFSI), consisting of the variables availability, variety, and advertising of fruits, vegetables and ultra-processed foods. The analysis was based on calculation of the Kernel intensity estimator, nearest neighbor method, and Ripley K-function. Of the 336 food establishments, 61.3% were green grocers and open-air markets, with a median HFSI of 11 (5 to 16). In only 17% of the territories, the majority of the "hot area" establishments displayed better access to healthy foods, and only three areas showed a clustering pattern. The study showed limited access to commercial establishments supplying healthy fruits and vegetables within the territory of the public fitness program. PMID:26648371

  18. Food Webs in Relation to Variation in the Environment and Species Assemblage: A Multivariate Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schriever, Tiffany A.

    2015-01-01

    The abiotic environment has strong influences on the growth, survival, behavior, and ecology of aquatic organisms. Biotic interactions and species life histories interact with abiotic factors to structure the food web. One measure of food-web structure is food-chain length. Several hypotheses predict a linear relationship between one environmental variable (e.g., disturbance or ecosystem size) and food-chain length. However, many abiotic and biotic variables interact in diverse ways to structure a community, and may affect other measures of food web structure besides food-chain length. This study took a multivariate approach to test the influence of several important environmental variables on four food-web characteristics measured in nine ponds along a hydroperiod gradient over two years. This approach allowed for testing the ecosystem size and dynamic constraints hypotheses while in context of other possibly interacting environmental variables. The relationship between amphibian and invertebrate communities and pond habitat variables was assessed to understand the underlying food-web structure. Hydroperiod and pond area had a strong influence on amphibian and invertebrate communities, trophic diversity and δ15N range. The range in δ13C values responded strongly to dissolved oxygen. Food-chain length responded to multiple environmental variables. Invertebrate and amphibian communities were structured by pond hydroperiod which in turn influenced the trophic diversity of the food web. The results of this study suggest food-chain length is influenced by environmental variation and species assemblage and that a multivariate approach may allow us to better understand the dynamics within and across aquatic food webs. PMID:25880079

  19. Food webs in relation to variation in the environment and species assemblage: a multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Schriever, Tiffany A

    2015-01-01

    The abiotic environment has strong influences on the growth, survival, behavior, and ecology of aquatic organisms. Biotic interactions and species life histories interact with abiotic factors to structure the food web. One measure of food-web structure is food-chain length. Several hypotheses predict a linear relationship between one environmental variable (e.g., disturbance or ecosystem size) and food-chain length. However, many abiotic and biotic variables interact in diverse ways to structure a community, and may affect other measures of food web structure besides food-chain length. This study took a multivariate approach to test the influence of several important environmental variables on four food-web characteristics measured in nine ponds along a hydroperiod gradient over two years. This approach allowed for testing the ecosystem size and dynamic constraints hypotheses while in context of other possibly interacting environmental variables. The relationship between amphibian and invertebrate communities and pond habitat variables was assessed to understand the underlying food-web structure. Hydroperiod and pond area had a strong influence on amphibian and invertebrate communities, trophic diversity and δ15N range. The range in δ13C values responded strongly to dissolved oxygen. Food-chain length responded to multiple environmental variables. Invertebrate and amphibian communities were structured by pond hydroperiod which in turn influenced the trophic diversity of the food web. The results of this study suggest food-chain length is influenced by environmental variation and species assemblage and that a multivariate approach may allow us to better understand the dynamics within and across aquatic food webs. PMID:25880079

  20. Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation-substitution or concentration?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Laura; Cummins, Steven; Macintyre, Sally

    2007-07-01

    It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent to more deprived areas for each individual fast-food chain and all chains combined. These results provide support for a 'concentration' effect whereby plausible health-damaging environmental risk factors for obesity appear to be 'concentrated' in more deprived areas of England and Scotland. PMID:17189662

  1. The formation of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin in food environments and advances in risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wallin-Carlquist, Nina; Thorup Cohn, Marianne; Lindqvist, Roland; Barker, Gary C; Rådström, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The recent finding that the formation of staphylococcal enterotoxins in food is very different from that in cultures of pure Staphylococcus aureus sheds new light on, and brings into question, traditional microbial risk assessment methods based on planktonic liquid cultures. In fact, most bacteria in food appear to be associated with surfaces or tissues in various ways, and interaction with other bacteria through molecular signaling is prevalent. Nowadays it is well established that there are significant differences in the behavior of bacteria in the planktonic state and immobilized bacteria found in multicellular communities. Thus, in order to improve the production of high-quality, microbiologically safe food for human consumption, in situ data on enterotoxin formation in food environments are required to complement existing knowledge on the growth and survivability of S. aureus. This review focuses on enterotoxigenic S. aureus and describes recent findings related to enterotoxin formation in food environments, and ways in which risk assessment can take into account virulence behavior. An improved understanding of how environmental factors affect the expression of enterotoxins in foods will enable us to formulate new strategies for improved food safety. PMID:22030860

  2. Neonicotinoids impact bumblebee colony fitness in the field; a reanalysis of the UK's Food & Environment Research Agency 2012 experiment.

    PubMed

    Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The causes of bee declines remain hotly debated, particularly the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides. In 2013 the UK's Food & Environment Research Agency made public a study of the impacts of exposure of bumblebee colonies to neonicotinoids. The study concluded that there was no clear relationship between colony performance and pesticide exposure, and the study was subsequently cited by the UK government in a policy paper in support of their vote against a proposed moratorium on some uses of neonicotinoids. Here I present a simple re-analysis of this data set. It demonstrates that these data in fact do show a negative relationship between both colony growth and queen production and the levels of neonicotinoids in the food stores collected by the bees. Indeed, this is the first study describing substantial negative impacts of neonicotinoids on colony performance of any bee species with free-flying bees in a field realistic situation where pesticide exposure is provided only as part of normal farming practices. It strongly suggests that wild bumblebee colonies in farmland can be expected to be adversely affected by exposure to neonicotinoids. PMID:25825679

  3. Change in Obesity Prevalence across the United States Is Influenced by Recreational and Healthcare Contexts, Food Environments, and Hispanic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Candice A.; Slack, Tim; Martin, Corby K.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine change in county-level adult obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2009 and identify associated community characteristics. Methods Change in county-level adult (≥20 years) obesity prevalence was calculated for a 5-year period (2004–2009). Community measures of economic, healthcare, recreational, food environment, population structure, and education contexts were also calculated. Regression analysis was used to assess community characteristics associated (p<0.01) with change in adult obesity prevalence. Results Mean±SD change in obesity prevalence was 5.1±2.4%. Obesity prevalence decreased in 1.4% (n = 44) and increased in 98% (n = 3,060) of counties from 2004–2009. Results showed that both baseline levels and increases in physically inactive adults were associated with greater increases in obesity prevalence, while baseline levels of and increases in physician density and grocery store/supercenter density were related to smaller increases in obesity rates. Baseline levels of the Hispanic population share were negatively linked to changing obesity levels, while places with greater Hispanic population growth saw greater increases in obesity. Conclusions Most counties in the U.S. experienced increases in adult obesity prevalence from 2004 to 2009. Findings suggest that community-based interventions targeting adult obesity need to incorporate a range of community factors, such as levels of physical inactivity, access to physicians, availability of food outlets, and ethnic/racial population composition. PMID:26849803

  4. Healthy store programs and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), but not the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), are associated with corner store healthfulness.

    PubMed

    DeWeese, Robin S; Todd, Michael; Karpyn, Allison; Yedidia, Michael J; Kennedy, Michelle; Bruening, Meg; Wharton, Christopher M; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-12-01

    In response to lack of access to healthy foods, many low-income communities are instituting local healthy corner store programs. Some stores also participate in the United States Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). This study used two assessment tools to compare the healthfulness of offerings at stores participating in local healthy store programs (upgraded stores), WIC, and/or SNAP to that of similar non-participating stores. Based on store audits conducted in 315 New Jersey corner stores in 2014, we calculated healthy food availability scores using subsections of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS-Availability) and a short-form corner store audit tool (SCAT). We used multivariable regression to examine associations between program participation and scores on both instruments. Adjusting for store and block group characteristics, stores participating in a local healthy store program had significantly higher SCAT scores than did non-participating stores (upgraded: M = 3.18, 95% CI 2.65-3.71; non-upgraded: M = 2.52, 95% CI 2.32-2.73); scores on the NEMS-CS-Availability did not differ (upgraded: M = 12.8, 95% CI 11.6-14.1; non-upgraded: M = 12.5, 95% CI 12.0-13.0). WIC-participating stores had significantly higher scores compared to non-participating stores on both tools. Stores participating in SNAP only (and not in WIC) scored significantly lower on both instruments compared to non-SNAP stores. WIC-participating and non-SNAP corner stores had higher healthfulness scores on both assessment tools. Upgraded stores had higher healthfulness scores compared to non-upgraded stores on the SCAT. PMID:27419041

  5. Storing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

    2010-05-31

    Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  6. Policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions.

    PubMed

    Mah, Catherine L; Cook, Brian; Rideout, Karen; Minaker, Leia M

    2016-01-01

    Public policy is central to health promotion: it determines the distribution of resources in a society and establishes the structural context for the actions of both corporations and consumers. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to begin a discussion on promising policy options for a health-promoting retail food environment. Drawing on specific municipal examples, we examine four groups of policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions: planning for health; transforming consumer environments; economic and fiscal instruments; and a culture of transparency and participation. We introduce examples of policy options that are receiving increasing attention in the public health and urban planning literature and that function at the municipal level. We also highlight how public health professionals have an important role to play in policy that shapes retail food environments, especially in making explicit the linkages between health and other policy goals. In doing so, this commentary aims to motivate public health practitioners in a variety of community contexts to consider the policy supports they need to advance their exploration, development, testing and evaluation of interventions for healthier retail food environments. PMID:27281519

  7. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  8. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  9. An associative account of how the obesogenic environment biases adolescents' food choices.

    PubMed

    Watson, P; Wiers, R W; Hommel, B; Ridderinkhof, K R; de Wit, S

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and children are the targets of much food advertising, the majority of which is for unhealthy snacks. Although the effects of advertising on food preferences and consummatory behavior are well documented, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited. The present study investigates an associative (ideomotor) mechanism by which exposure to rewarding (snack) outcomes may activate behavior that previously resulted in these rewards. Specifically, we used a computerized task to investigate whether exposing adolescents to food pictures directly, or to Pavlovian cues predictive of those food pictures, would bias their subsequent responses towards the presented/signaled food. Furthermore, we assessed whether this effect was particularly pronounced with palatable, high-calorie snacks (crisps and chocolate) relative to low-calorie snacks (tomatoes and cucumber). In two experiments, adolescents learnt that certain key presses would yield particular food pictures - some high calorie and others low calorie - before learning Pavlovian associations between cues (cartoon monsters) and these same food pictures. Subsequently, in a response-priming test, we examined the extent to which the food pictures and Pavlovian cues spontaneously primed the previously associated response. The results show that we replicated, in adolescents, previous demonstrations of ideomotor response priming in adults: food pictures biased responding towards the response that previously yielded them, and this effect transferred to the Pavlovian cues. Furthermore, the priming effect was significantly stronger for high-calorie rewards than for low-calorie. These findings indicate that the ideomotor mechanism plays an important role in the detrimental effect of our obesogenic environment, with its plethora of unhealthy food reminders, on adolescents' food-related choices. PMID:26482282

  10. A methodology for combining multiple commercial data sources to improve measurement of the food and alcohol environment: applications of geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Dara D; Duell, Jessica; Reiser, Sarah; Martin, Deborah; Gradeck, Robert; Fabio, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    Commercial data sources have been increasingly used to measure and locate community resources. We describe a methodology for combining and comparing the differences in commercial data of the food and alcohol environment. We used commercial data from two commercial databases (InfoUSA and Dun&Bradstreet) for 2003 and 2009 to obtain information on food and alcohol establishments and developed a matching process using computer algorithms and manual review by applying ArcGIS to geocode addresses, standard industrial classification and North American industry classification taxonomy for type of establishment and establishment name. We constructed population and area-based density measures (e.g. grocery stores) and assessed differences across data sources and used ArcGIS to map the densities. The matching process resulted in 8,705 and 7,078 unique establishments for 2003 and 2009, respectively. There were more establishments captured in the combined dataset than relying on one data source alone, and the additional establishments captured ranged from 1,255 to 2,752 in 2009. The correlations for the density measures between the two data sources was highest for alcohol outlets (r = 0.75 and 0.79 for per capita and area, respectively) and lowest for grocery stores/supermarkets (r = 0.32 for both). This process for applying geographical information systems to combine multiple commercial data sources and develop measures of the food and alcohol environment captured more establishments than relying on one data source alone. This replicable methodology was found to be useful for understanding the food and alcohol environment when local or public data are limited. PMID:25545927

  11. The effect of food environments on fruit and vegetable intake as modified by time spent at home: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Antony; Farrell, Eddie; Vaivada, Tyler; Labetski, Anna; Selvaratnam, Inthuja; Larsen, Kristian; Pinter, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a growing body of research that investigates how the residential neighbourhood context relates to individual diet. However, previous studies ignore participants’ time spent in the residential environment and this may be a problem because time-use studies show that adults’ time-use pattern can significantly vary. To better understand the role of exposure duration, we designed a study to examine ‘time spent at home’ as a moderator to the residential food environment-diet association. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Settings City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants 2411 adults aged 25–65. Primary outcome measure Frequency of vegetable and fruit intake (VFI) per day. Results To examine how time spent at home may moderate the relationship between residential food environment and VFI, the full sample was split into three equal subgroups—short, medium and long duration spent at home. We detected significant associations between density of food stores in the residential food environment and VFI for subgroups that spend medium and long durations at home (ie, spending a mean of 8.0 and 12.3 h at home, respectively—not including sleep time), but no associations exist for people who spend the lowest amount of time at home (mean=4.7 h). Also, no associations were detected in analyses using the full sample. Conclusions Our study is the first to demonstrate that time spent at home may be an important variable to identify hidden population patterns regarding VFI. Time spent at home can impact the association between the residential food environment and individual VFI. PMID:26044756

  12. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify

  13. Challenges And Lessons Learned From Communities Using Evidence To Adopt Strategies To Improve Healthy Food Environments.

    PubMed

    Willems Van Dijk, Julie A; Catlin, Bridget; Cofsky, Abbey; Carroll, Carrie

    2015-11-01

    Communities across the United States are increasingly tackling the complex task of changing their local environments and cultures to improve access to and consumption of healthy food. Communities that have received the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Culture of Health Prize have deployed numerous evidence-informed strategies to enhance their local food environments. Their experiences can provide lessons for other communities working to improve health. In this article we examine how the prize-winning communities worked in a multidisciplinary collective manner to implement evidence-based strategies, deployed suites of strategies to expand the reach of food-related work, balanced evidence against innovation, and measured their own progress. Most of the communities also faced challenges in using evidence effectively to implement strategies to promote healthy food environments. Policy makers can accelerate the adoption of evidence-informed approaches related to food and health by embedding them in program standards and funding requirements. Establishing opportunities for ongoing training to enhance community practitioners' evaluation skills and collaborative leadership would also improve the effectiveness of community implementation of these strategies. PMID:26526258

  14. Associations between Parental Concern for Adolescent Weight and the Home Food Environment and Dietary Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Abbie; Crawford, David; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine associations between parental concern about adolescent weight and adolescent perceptions of their dietary intake, home food availability, family mealtime environment, and parents' feeding practices. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Adolescents, aged 12-15 years from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, and their…

  15. Profit versus public health: the need to improve the food environment in recreational facilities.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Raine, Kim D

    2013-01-01

    Despite their wellness mandate, many publicly funded recreational facilities offer primarily unhealthy foods. Governments have developed programs and resources to assist facilities to improve their food offerings, however the challenge to incent preferential sale of healthier foods remains substantial. In the Canadian province of Alberta, uptake of government-issued voluntary nutrition guidelines for recreational facilities has been limited, and offers of free assistance to implement them as part of a research study were not embraced. Financial constraints appear to be the most important barrier to offering healthier items in Alberta's recreational facilities, as facility and food service managers perceive that selling healthier foods is unprofitable and might jeopardize sponsorship agreements. Mandatory government regulation may therefore be required to overcome the barriers to offering healthier foods in this setting. The advantages of a regulatory approach appear to outweigh any disadvantages, with benefits for population health, more effective use of public funds, and greater equity for the public and industry. Adverse effects on corporate profitability and freedom of choice are expected to be limited. Regulation may offer an efficient, effective and equitable means of ensuring that recreational facilities support child health and do not undermine it by exposing children to unhealthy food environments. PMID:23618211

  16. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  17. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment.

    PubMed

    Lyseen, Anders K; Hansen, Henning S; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Anders S; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2015-07-01

    Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals' exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people's complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person's perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure. PMID:26197331

  18. Guiding Principles And A Decision-Making Framework For Stakeholders Pursuing Healthy Food Environments.

    PubMed

    Kraak, Vivica I; Story, Mary

    2015-11-01

    To address obesity and diet-related chronic diseases in the United States, organizations such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Institute of Medicine have encouraged the use of voluntary engagement strategies among stakeholders. By using public-private partnerships as well as networks, alliances, and coalitions, voluntary engagement can translate evidence-informed dietary recommendations into effective policies and actions and into innovative products and services. We offer six guiding principles and a decision-making framework that stakeholders can use to ensure that partnerships are accountable and effective in their pursuit of health-related goals. We apply the principles and framework to four national partnerships of US food, beverage, and food retail industry stakeholders working to prevent child obesity and to promote healthy food environments through product reformulation and healthy food retail incentives. We conclude that partnerships should be evaluated for their synergy, accountability, and effectiveness at achieving the partners' objectives. Independent evaluations will help build credibility and public trust in the capacity of voluntary engagement strategies to promote healthy food environments and positively influence public health. PMID:26526257

  19. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lyseen, Anders K.; Hansen, Henning S.; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Anders S.; Mikkelsen, Bent E.

    2015-01-01

    Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals’ exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people’s complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person’s perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure. PMID:26197331

  20. The Healthy School Canteen programme: a promising intervention to make the school food environment healthier.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals). Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015. PMID:22690228

  1. PROP taster status interacts with the built environment to influence children's food acceptance and body weight status

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Carlye; Senerat, Araliya; Chambers, Earle; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2012-01-01

    Eating behaviors and obesity are complex phenotypes influenced by genes and access to foods in the environment, but few studies have investigated the interaction of these two variables. The purpose of this study was to use a gene-environment interaction model to test for differences in children's food acceptance and body weights. Inherited ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) was assessed as a marker of oral taste responsiveness. Food environment was classified as “healthy” or “unhealthy” based on proximity to outlets that sell fruits/vegetables and fast foods using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The cohort consisted of 120 children, ages 4–6 years, recruited from New York City over 2005–2010. Home address and other demographic variables were reported by parents and PROP status, food acceptance, and anthropometrics were assessed in the laboratory. Based on a screening test, children were classified as PROP tasters or non-tasters. Hierarchical linear models analysis of variance was performed to examine differences in food acceptance and body mass index (BMI) z-scores as a function of PROP status, the food environment (“healthy” vs. “unhealthy”), and their interaction. Results showed an interaction between taster status and the food environment on BMI z-score and food acceptance. Non-taster children living in healthy food environments had greater acceptance of vegetables than taster children living in healthy food environments (p≤0.005). Moreover, non-tasters from unhealthy food environments had higher BMI z-scores than all other groups (p≤0.005). Incorporating genetic markers of taste into studies that assess the built environment may improve the ability of these measures to predict risk for obesity and eating behaviors. PMID:23401219

  2. Measurement of the Local Food Environment: A Comparison of Existing Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Michael D. M.; Ailshire, Jennifer A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; House, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Studying the relation between the residential environment and health requires valid, reliable, and cost-effective methods to collect data on residential environments. This 2002 study compared the level of agreement between measures of the presence of neighborhood businesses drawn from 2 common sources of data used for research on the built environment and health: listings of businesses from commercial databases and direct observations of city blocks by raters. Kappa statistics were calculated for 6 types of businesses—drugstores, liquor stores, bars, convenience stores, restaurants, and grocers—located on 1,663 city blocks in Chicago, Illinois. Logistic regressions estimated whether disagreement between measurement methods was systematically correlated with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Levels of agreement between the 2 sources were relatively high, with significant (P < 0.001) kappa statistics for each business type ranging from 0.32 to 0.70. Most business types were more likely to be reported by direct observations than in the commercial database listings. Disagreement between the 2 sources was not significantly correlated with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Results suggest that researchers should have reasonable confidence using whichever method (or combination of methods) is most cost-effective and theoretically appropriate for their research design. PMID:20123688

  3. Exporting obesity: US farm and trade policy and the transformation of the Mexican consumer food environment.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah E; Hawkes, Corinna; Murphy, Sophia M E; Hansen-Kuhn, Karen A; Wallinga, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, in the United States as well as among its trade partners such as Mexico. It has been established that an "obesogenic" (obesity-causing) food environment is one influence on obesity prevalence. To isolate the particular role of NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement, in changing Mexico's food environment, we plotted the flow of several key products between the United States and Mexico over the 14-year NAFTA period (1994-2008) and situated them in a broader historical context. Key sources of USDA data include the Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System, its official repository for current and historical data on imports, exports and re-exports, and its Production, Supply, and Distribution online database. US export data were queried for agricultural products linked to shifting diet patterns including: corn, soybeans, sugar and sweeteners, consumer-oriented products, and livestock products. The Bureau of Economic Analysis' Balance of Payments and Direct Investment Position Data in their web-based International Economic Accounts system also helped determine changes in US direct investment abroad from 1982 to 2009. Directly and indirectly, the United States has exported increasing amounts of corn, soybeans, sugar, snack foods, and meat products into Mexico over the last two decades. Facilitated by NAFTA, these exports are one important way in which US agriculture and trade policy influences Mexico's food system. Because of significant US agribusiness investment in Mexico across the full spectrum of the latter's food supply chain, from production and processing to distribution and retail, the Mexican food system increasingly looks like the industrialized food system of the United States. PMID:22550697

  4. Purchasing patterns of adults, adolescents and children in urban corner stores: Quantity, spending and nutritional characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lent, Michelle R.; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Mallya, Giridhar; McCoy, Tara A.; Sanders, Timothy A.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Corner stores, also known as bodegas, are prevalent in low-income urban areas and primarily stock high-energy foods and beverages. Little is known about individual-level purchases in these locations. The purpose of the present study was to assess corner store purchases (items, nutritional characteristics and amount spent) made by children, adolescents and adults in a low-income urban environment. Design Evaluation staff used 9238 intercept surveys to directly examine food and beverage purchases. Setting Intercepts were collected at 192 corner stores in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Subjects Participants were adult, adolescent and child corner store shoppers. Results Among the 9238 intercept surveys, there were 20 244 items. On average, at each corner store visit, consumers purchased 2·2 (SD 2·1) items (1·3 (SD 2·0) foods and 0·9 (SD 0·9) beverages) that cost $US 2·74 (SD $US 3·52) and contained 2786·5 (SD 4454·2) kJ (666·0 (SD 1064·6) kcal). Whether the data were examined as a percentage of total items purchased or as a percentage of intercepts, the most common corner store purchases were beverages, chips, prepared food items, pastries and candy. Beverage purchases occurred during 65·9 % of intercepts and accounted for 39·2 % of all items. Regular soda was the most popular beverage purchase. Corner store purchases averaged 66·2 g of sugar, 921·1mg of sodium and 2·5 g of fibre per intercept. Compared with children and adolescents, adults spent the most money and purchased the most energy. Conclusions Urban corner store shoppers spent almost $US 3·00 for over 2700 kJ (650 kcal) per store visit. Obesity prevention efforts may benefit from including interventions aimed at changing corner store food environments in low-income, urban areas. PMID:25115817

  5. Knowledge and practices of a control authority: impact on the environment and food safety.

    PubMed

    Toh, Poh See

    2002-12-01

    This study investigates the practices and knowledge of a Control Authority dealing with the environment and the safety and control of hawker foods. Experience and background education are used as likely determinants of food safety practices and knowledge of the control authority. A total of 60 questionnaires were distributed to the Health Inspectors (HIs) in the Hawkers' and Health Departments, City Hall, Kuala Lumpur. The return rate was 93%. The structured questionnaire contained 14 main food safety practices and knowledge constructs. Significance was found pertaining to knowledge of HIs with different experience backgrounds but experience was not demonstrated to impact on practices of HIs. However, education was noted to have significantly but inconsistently influenced certain Practices and Knowledge scores of HIs. A Pearson bivariate coefficient characterised an association between food safety practices and knowledge of the control authority. The findings: (1) highlight the actual shortcomings in the staff resources relating to environmental health, food safety, foodborne illnesses and their control, and (2) provide information on the control aspect within the hawker micro-industry with the view of protecting the public from health hazards arising from the hawkers' practices and consumption of hawker foods. PMID:12596745

  6. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    PubMed

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful: -2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01), and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high-calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children's BMI z score was positively associated with parent's use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement/modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057

  7. Home food environment in relation to children’s diet quality and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Sarah C.; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships between the home food environment (HFE), child / parent characteristics, diet quality and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style / feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parent’s perception of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3 day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/ savory snacks, high calorie beverages, and DASH score. Individual linear regression models were run where child BMI z-score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β = 0.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful:-2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01) and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children’s BMI z-score was positively associated with parent’s use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement / modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057

  8. Differences in home food and activity environments between obese and healthy weight families of preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting Family homes. Participants Thirty-five obese children with at least one obese caregiver were compared to forty-seven healthy weight children with no obese caregivers. Main Outcome Measures Home observation assessments were conducted to evaluate the availability of devices supporting activity behaviors and foods based on availability, accessibility, and readiness to be eaten. Analysis Agreement statistics were conducted to analyze psychometrics and MANOVAs were conducted to assess group differences, significance, P < .05. Results Home observations showed acceptable agreement statistics between independent coders across food and activity items. Families of obese preschoolers were significantly less likely to have fresh vegetables available or accessible in the home, were more likely to have a TV in the obese child’s bedroom and had fewer physical activity devices compared to healthy weight preschoolers. Conclusions and Implications Families of young children live in home environments that were discriminatively characterized based on home observations. Future tool refinement will further clarify the impact of the home environment on early growth. PMID:23380192

  9. Socioeconomic Context and the Food Landscape in Texas: Results from Hotspot Analysis and Border/Non-Border Comparison of Unhealthy Food Environments

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Abdelbary, Bassent; Klaas, Kelly; Tapia, Beatriz; Sexton, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the food landscape of Texas using the CDC’s Modified Retail Food Environment (mRFEI) and to make comparisons by border/non-border. Methods: The Modified Retail Food Environment index (mRFEI (2008)) is an index developed by the CDC that measures what percent of the total food vendors in a census track sell healthy food. The range of values is 0 (unhealthy areas with limited access to fruits and vegetables) to (100—Healthy). These data were linked to 2010 US Census socioeconomic and ethnic concentration data. Spatial analysis and GIS techniques were applied to assess the differences between border and non-border regions. Variables of interest were mRFEI score, median income, total population, percent total population less than five years, median age, % receiving food stamps, % Hispanic, and % with a bachelor degree. Results: Findings from this study reveal that food environment in Texas tends to be characteristic of a “food desert”. Analysis also demonstrates differences by border/non-border location and percent of the population that is foreign born and by percent of families who receive food stamps. Conclusions: Identifying the relationship between socioeconomic disparity, ethnic concentration and mRFEI score could be a fundamental step in improving health in disadvantage communities, particularly those on the Texas-Mexico border. PMID:24865399

  10. Combined measure of neighborhood food and physical activity environments and weight-related outcomes: the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors likely reflects access to a diverse and synergistic set of food and physical activity resources, yet most research examines discrete characteristics. We characterized neighborhoods with respect to their composition of features, and quantified associations with diet, physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and insulin resistance (IR) in a longitudinal biracial cohort (n=4,143; aged 25–37; 1992–2006). We used latent class analysis to derive population-density-specific (< vs. ≥1,750 people per sq km) clusters of neighborhood indicators: road connectivity, parks and PA facilities, and food stores/restaurants. In lower population density areas, a latent class with higher food and PA resource diversity (relative to other clusters) was significantly associated with higher diet quality. In higher population density areas, a cluster with relatively more natural food/specialty stores; fewer convenience stores; and more PA resources was associated with higher diet quality. Neighborhood clusters were inconsistently associated with BMI and IR, and not associated with fast food consumption, walking, biking, or running. PMID:25723792

  11. Combined measure of neighborhood food and physical activity environments and weight-related outcomes: The CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katie A; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Duffey, Kiyah J; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-05-01

    Engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors likely reflects access to a diverse and synergistic set of food and physical activity resources, yet most research examines discrete characteristics. We characterized neighborhoods with respect to their composition of features, and quantified associations with diet, physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and insulin resistance (IR) in a longitudinal biracial cohort (n=4143; aged 25-37; 1992-2006). We used latent class analysis to derive population-density-specific (food stores/restaurants. In lower population density areas, a latent class with higher food and PA resource diversity (relative to other clusters) was significantly associated with higher diet quality. In higher population density areas, a cluster with relatively more natural food/specialty stores; fewer convenience stores; and more PA resources was associated with higher diet quality. Neighborhood clusters were inconsistently associated with BMI and IR, and not associated with fast food consumption, walking, biking, or running. PMID:25723792

  12. Do perceptions of the neighbourhood food environment predict fruit and vegetable intake in low-income neighbourhoods?

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Ellen; Cummins, Steven; Matthews, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which perceptions of the quality, variety and affordability of the local food retail provision predict fruit and vegetable intake. Secondary analysis of baseline data from the Philadelphia Neighbourhood Food Environment Study was undertaken. This study investigating the role of the neighbourhood food environment on diet and obesity comprised a random sample of households from two low-income Philadelphia neighbourhoods, matched on socio-demographic characteristics and food environment. The analytic sample comprised adult men and women aged 18–92 (n=1263). Perception of food environment was measured using five related dimensions pertaining to quality, choice and expense of local food outlets and locally available fruits and vegetables. The outcome, portions of fruits and vegetables consumed per day, was measured using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Results from multivariate regression analyses suggested that measured dimensions of perceived neighbourhood food environment did not predict fruit and vegetable consumption. Further investigation of what constitutes an individual’s ‘true’ food retail environment is required. PMID:23999578

  13. The role of gene-environment interactions in the development of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Neeland, Melanie R; Martino, David J; Allen, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The rates of IgE-mediated food allergy have increased globally, particularly in developed countries. The rising incidence is occurring more rapidly than changes to the genome sequence would allow, suggesting that environmental exposures that alter the immune response play an important role. Genetic factors may also be used to predict an increased predisposition to these environmental risk factors, giving rise to the concept of gene-environment interactions, whereby differential risk of environmental exposures is mediated through the genome. Increasing evidence also suggests a role for epigenetic mechanisms, which are sensitive to environmental exposures, in the development of food allergy. This paper discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the environmental and genetic risk factors for food allergy and how environmental exposures may interact with immune genes to modify disease risk or outcome. PMID:26357960

  14. Biofilm formation and persistence on abiotic surfaces in the context of food and medical environments.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Marwan; Benoliel, Corinne; Drider, Djamel; Dhulster, Pascal; Chihib, Nour-Eddine

    2014-07-01

    The biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in food and medical sectors constitutes a great public health concerns. In fact, biofilms present a persistent source for pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which lead to severe infections such as foodborne and nosocomial infections. Such biofilms are also a source of material deterioration and failure. The environmental conditions, commonly met in food and medical area, seem also to enhance the biofilm formation and their resistance to disinfectant agents. In this regard, this review highlights the effect of environmental conditions on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in the context of food and medical environment. It also describes the current and emergent strategies used to study the biofilm formation and its eradication. The mechanisms of biofilm resistance to commercialized disinfectants are also discussed, since this phenomenon remains unclear to date. PMID:24744186

  15. Modern sedentary activities promote overconsumption of food in our current obesogenic environment.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J-P; Klingenberg, L; Astrup, A; Sjödin, A M

    2011-05-01

    Achieving body-weight stability is certainly challenging in today's obesogenic environment. Every day we are surrounded and affected by stimuli that act on our behaviour. A common feature of these stimuli is that they increase our comfort and well-being, but unfortunately they promote a positive caloric balance. Intriguingly, the preponderance of sedentary lifestyles is not only a matter of the amount of calories expended. A careful examination of modern sedentary activities reveals that they also promote overconsumption of food. This is particularly the case with television viewing, video game playing, cognitive working, music listening and short sleeping. Moreover, the increased food intake in the absence of hunger observed with the practice of these modern-life activities emphasizes that the hedonic value of food intake plays an important role. These observations suggest that our quest for reward and pleasure is not fine tuned to our biology, and the development of coping strategies is needed. PMID:20576006

  16. Policy Instruments Used by States Seeking to Improve School Food Environments

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Monal R.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Howlett, Michael

    2012-01-01

    US legislatures and program administrators have sought to control the sale of foods offered outside of federally funded meal programs in schools, but little is known about which policies, if any, will prevent obesity in children. We used a theoretical policy science typology to understand the types of policy instruments used by US state governments from 2001 to 2006. We coded 126 enacted bills and observed several types of instruments prescribed by state legislatures to influence the foods sold in schools and improve the school food environment. Our study helps to better understand the various instruments used by policymakers and sets the stage to examine the effectiveness of the policy instruments used to prevent obesity. PMID:22390436

  17. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  18. Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, Boyd; Kraak, Vivica; Rutter, Harry; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lobstein, Tim; Sacks, Gary; Gomes, Fabio; Marsh, Tim; Magnusson, Roger

    2015-06-20

    To achieve WHO's target to halt the rise in obesity and diabetes, dramatic actions are needed to improve the healthiness of food environments. Substantial debate surrounds who is responsible for delivering effective actions and what, specifically, these actions should entail. Arguments are often reduced to a debate between individual and collective responsibilities, and between hard regulatory or fiscal interventions and soft voluntary, education-based approaches. Genuine progress lies beyond the impasse of these entrenched dichotomies. We argue for a strengthening of accountability systems across all actors to substantially improve performance on obesity reduction. In view of the industry opposition and government reluctance to regulate for healthier food environments, quasiregulatory approaches might achieve progress. A four step accountability framework (take the account, share the account, hold to account, and respond to the account) is proposed. The framework identifies multiple levers for change, including quasiregulatory and other approaches that involve government-specified and government-monitored progress of private sector performance, government procurement mechanisms, improved transparency, monitoring of actions, and management of conflicts of interest. Strengthened accountability systems would support government leadership and stewardship, constrain the influence of private sector actors with major conflicts of interest on public policy development, and reinforce the engagement of civil society in creating demand for healthy food environments and in monitoring progress towards obesity action objectives. PMID:25703108

  19. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. PMID:26210606

  20. Using Geographic Information Systems and Local Food Store Data in California's Low-Income Neighborhoods to Inform Community Initiatives and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Valerie; Foerster, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined conditions in California low-income neighborhoods that affect obesity to inform program planning, nutrition education, community participation, investment of resources, and involvement of stakeholders. Methods. Staff members in 18 local health departments were trained to use an online geographic information system (GIS) and conduct field surveys. GIS data were aggregated from 68 low-income neighborhoods of 1 or more census tracts. Data were collected in 2007 to 2009 from 473 grocery stores in 62 neighborhoods. Results. Thirty-one percent of neighborhoods mapped had no supermarket within any of their census tract boundaries, but health department staff members estimated that 74.2% of residents had access to a large grocery store within 1 mile. Eighty-one percent of small markets sold produce, and 67.6% offered 4 or more types of fresh vegetables. Conclusions. Small markets and corner stores in California's low-income neighborhoods often have fresh produce available for sale. Stores providing healthy options in typically underserved areas can be part of community efforts to promote healthy eating behaviors. PMID:20864701

  1. Urban Farmers' Markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores

    PubMed Central

    Maroko, Andrew; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B.

    2015-01-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended towards less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores)—even for more-commonplace and “conventional” produce—especially when discounts or sales prices were considered

  2. Urban farmers' markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B

    2015-07-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended toward less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores) - even for more-commonplace and "conventional" produce - especially when discounts or sales prices were considered. Fully, 32

  3. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  4. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income African-American and Hispanic families of pre...

  5. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of pre...

  6. Mobile and home-based vendors' contributions to the retail food environment in rural South Texas Mexican-origin settlements.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-10-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the US has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or "food desserts," where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limited or even absent. This exploratory study investigates two types of small-scale food vending that take place in rural colonias, or Mexican-origin settlements along the South Texas border with Mexico: mobile and home-based. Using a convenience sample of 23 vendors who live and work in Texas colonias, this study identifies the characteristics associated with mobile and home-based food vendors and their businesses and its contributions to the rural food environment. Findings reveal that mobile and home-based vending provides a variety of food and beverage options to colonia residents, and suggests that home-based vendors contribute a greater assortment of food options, including some healthier food items, than mobile food vendors, which offer and sell a limited range of products. Findings may contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions and interventions aimed at increasing healthy food options or reducing health disparities in immigrant communities. PMID:22531289

  7. Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and sport facility eating environments.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Vermeer, Julianne; McCargar, Linda J; Prowse, Rachel J L; Raine, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n = 2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n = 322) and intervention (n = 313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p < 0.05) and a reduction in sales of red (30.4% to 27.2%; p < 0.05) light items from baseline to the TLL period. The effectiveness of TLL did not differ according to any of the demographic or other factors examined in the survey. Average daily revenues did not differ between the baseline and TLL periods. TLL of menus increased purchase of healthy, and reduced purchase of unhealthy foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items. PMID:25913684

  8. Food environments are relevant to recruitment and adherence in dietary modification trials.

    PubMed

    Feathers, Alexandra; Aycinena, Ana C; Lovasi, Gina S; Rundle, Andrew; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Richardson, John; Hershman, Dawn; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Greenlee, Heather

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have examined the built environment's role in recruitment to and adherence in dietary intervention trials. Using data from a randomized dietary modification trial of urban Latina breast cancer survivors, we tested the hypotheses that neighborhood produce access could act as a potential barrier and/or facilitator to recruitment, and that a participant's produce availability would be associated with increased fruit/vegetable intake, one of the intervention's targets. Eligible women who lived within a higher produce environment had a non-significant trend towards being more likely to enroll in the trial. Among enrollees, women who had better neighborhood access to produce had a non-significant trend toward increasing fruit/vegetable consumption. As these were not a priori hypotheses to test, we consider these analyses to be hypothesis generating and not confirmatory. Results suggest that participants' food environment should be considered when recruiting to and assessing the adherence of dietary intervention studies. PMID:25981966

  9. Food environments are relevant to recruitment and adherence in dietary modification trials

    PubMed Central

    Feathers, Alexandra; Aycinena, Ana C.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Rundle, Andrew; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Richardson, John; Hershman, Dawn; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Greenlee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the built environment's role in recruitment to and adherence in dietary intervention trials. Using data from a randomized dietary modification trial of urban Latina breast cancer survivors, we tested the hypotheses that neighborhood produce access could act as a potential barrier and/or facilitator to recruitment, and that a participant's produce availability would be associated with increased fruit/vegetable intake, one of the intervention's targets. Eligible women who lived within a higher produce environment had a non-significant trend towards being more likely to enroll in the trial. Among enrollees, women who had better neighborhood access to produce had a non-significant trend toward increasing fruit/vegetable consumption. As these were not a priori hypotheses to test, we consider these analyses to be hypothesis generating and not confirmatory. Results suggest that participants’ food environment should be considered when recruiting to and assessing the adherence of dietary intervention studies. PMID:25981966

  10. A systematic review of the influence of the retail food environment around schools on obesity-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Scarborough, P; Matthews, A; Cowburn, G; Foster, C; Roberts, N; Rayner, M

    2014-05-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity has led to questions about the influence of 'obesogenic' environments on children's health. Public health interventions targeting the retail food environment around schools have been proposed, but it is unclear if they are evidence based. This systematic review investigates associations between food outlets near schools and children's food purchases, consumption and body weight. We conducted a keyword search in 10 databases. Inclusion criteria required papers to be peer reviewed, to measure retailing around schools and to measure obesity-related outcomes among schoolchildren. Thirty papers were included. This review found very little evidence for an effect of the retail food environment surrounding schools on food purchases and consumption, but some evidence of an effect on body weight. Given the general lack of evidence for association with the mediating variables of food purchases and consumption, and the observational nature of the included studies, it is possible that the effect on body weight is a result of residual confounding. Most of the included studies did not consider individual children's journeys through the food environment, suggesting that predominant exposure measures may not account for what individual children actually experience. These findings suggest that future interventions targeting the food environment around schools need careful evaluation. PMID:24417984

  11. Carnobacterium: positive and negative effects in the environment and in foods

    PubMed Central

    Leisner, Jørgen J; Laursen, Birgit Groth; Prévost, Hervé; Drider, Djamel; Dalgaard, Paw

    2007-01-01

    The genus Carnobacterium contains nine species, but only C. divergens and C. maltaromaticum are frequently isolated from natural environments and foods. They are tolerant to freezing/thawing and high pressure and able to grow at low temperatures, anaerobically and with increased CO2 concentrations. They metabolize arginine and various carbohydrates, including chitin, and this may improve their survival in the environment. Carnobacterium divergens and C. maltaromaticum have been extensively studied as protective cultures in order to inhibit growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fish and meat products. Several carnobacterial bacteriocins are known, and parameters that affect their production have been described. Currently, however, no isolates are commercially applied as protective cultures. Carnobacteria can spoil chilled foods, but spoilage activity shows intraspecies and interspecies variation. The responsible spoilage metabolites are not well characterized, but branched alcohols and aldehydes play a partial role. Their production of tyramine in foods is critical for susceptible individuals, but carnobacteria are not otherwise human pathogens. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum can be a fish pathogen, although carnobacteria are also suggested as probiotic cultures for use in aquaculture. Representative genome sequences are not yet available, but would be valuable to answer questions associated with fundamental and applied aspects of this important genus. PMID:17696886

  12. Insects Represent a Link between Food Animal Farms and the Urban Environment for Antibiotic Resistance Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections result in higher patient mortality rates, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health care costs. Extensive use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the animal industry represents great pressure for evolution and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on farms. Despite growing evidence showing that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance in food animals correlate with resistance in human pathogens, the proof for direct transmission of antibiotic resistance is difficult to provide. In this review, we make a case that insects commonly associated with food animals likely represent a direct and important link between animal farms and urban communities for antibiotic resistance traits. Houseflies and cockroaches have been shown to carry multidrug-resistant clonal lineages of bacteria identical to those found in animal manure. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated proliferation of bacteria and horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the insect digestive tract as well as transmission of resistant bacteria by insects to new substrates. We propose that insect management should be an integral part of pre- and postharvest food safety strategies to minimize spread of zoonotic pathogens and antibiotic resistance traits from animal farms. Furthermore, the insect link between the agricultural and urban environment presents an additional argument for adopting prudent use of antibiotics in the food animal industry. PMID:24705326

  13. Population and prehistory I: Food-dependent population growth in constant environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte T; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2008-06-01

    We present a demographic model that describes the feedbacks between food supply, human mortality and fertility rates, and labor availability in expanding populations, where arable land area is not limiting. This model provides a quantitative framework to describe how environment, technology, and culture interact to influence the fates of preindustrial agricultural populations. We present equilibrium conditions and derive approximations for the equilibrium population growth rate, food availability, and other food-dependent measures of population well-being. We examine how the approximations respond to environmental changes and to human choices, and find that the impact of environmental quality depends upon whether it manifests through agricultural yield or maximum (food-independent) survival rates. Human choices can complement or offset environmental effects: greater labor investments increase both population growth and well-being, and therefore can counteract lower agricultural yield, while fertility control decreases the growth rate but can increase or decrease well-being. Finally we establish equilibrium stability criteria, and argue that the potential for loss of local stability at low population growth rates could have important consequences for populations that suffer significant environmental or demographic shocks. PMID:18439637

  14. Country-of-origin labeling prior to and at the point of purchase: an exploration of the information environment in Baltimore City grocery stores.

    PubMed

    Lagasse, Lisa P; Love, David C; Smith, Katherine Clegg

    2014-01-01

    The country-of-origin labeling (COOL) law requires United States grocers to indicate the origin and procurement method (farm-raised or wild-caught) for seafood. This study explored the presentation of COOL on fresh, frozen, packaged, and unpackaged seafood in Baltimore City grocery stores. Eight stores were visited bi-monthly to photograph seafood labels, and circulars were collected weekly from fourteen stores over three months. Ninety-six percent of products were labeled correctly. Forty-eight percent of advertisements included COOL. While in-store labels did not highlight COOL, advertising featured references to domestic and wild-caught seafood, signaling to customers that these are high-value product qualities. PMID:24437544

  15. The Organic Food Method and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Reference Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    From popular movies to New York Times bestsellers, organic food is widely acknowledged to be of growing importance. Many community college students are asking: How is organic food different from everything else in the grocery store? What impact does farming have on the environment? How safe is our food? A survey of reference works introduces…

  16. Western-style diet impairs stimulus control by food deprivation state cues: Implications for obesogenic environments.

    PubMed

    Sample, Camille H; Martin, Ashley A; Jones, Sabrina; Hargrave, Sara L; Davidson, Terry L

    2015-10-01

    In western and westernized societies, large portions of the population live in what are considered to be "obesogenic" environments. Among other things, obesogenic environments are characterized by a high prevalence of external cues that are associated with highly palatable, energy-dense foods. One prominent hypothesis suggests that these external cues become such powerful conditioned elicitors of appetitive and eating behavior that they overwhelm the internal, physiological mechanisms that serve to maintain energy balance. The present research investigated a learning mechanism that may underlie this loss of internal relative to external control. In Experiment 1, rats were provided with both auditory cues (external stimuli) and varying levels of food deprivation (internal stimuli) that they could use to solve a simple discrimination task. Despite having access to clearly discriminable external cues, we found that the deprivation cues gained substantial discriminative control over conditioned responding. Experiment 2 found that, compared to standard chow, maintenance on a "western-style" diet high in saturated fat and sugar weakened discriminative control by food deprivation cues, but did not impair learning when external cues were also trained as relevant discriminative signals for sucrose. Thus, eating a western-style diet contributed to a loss of internal control over appetitive behavior relative to external cues. We discuss how this relative loss of control by food deprivation signals may result from interference with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes, forming the basis of a vicious-cycle of excessive intake, body weight gain, and progressive cognitive decline that may begin very early in life. PMID:26002280

  17. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating or drinking: ...

  18. Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J

    2013-08-01

    Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach-as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members-were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10-14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

  19. Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J.

    2013-01-01

    Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach—as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members—were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10–14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

  20. Electrically actuated multiple store launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Frank P.; Travor, Bruce W.

    1991-12-01

    This invention comprises a multi-store, electrical pulse initiated launcher that fits into, and is electrically connected with a transporting vehicle and that contains sequentially stacked assemblies. An electrical pulse from the transporting vehicle causes a resistor with the least value to transfer the electric sufficient gas pressure to force the store out of the launcher. The present invention discloses an electrically-actuated, multi-store dispenser wherein an initial electrical charge ignites gas cartridges causing sequential launching of stores from their tandem position inside a launch container. In some environments, it is desirable to dispense multiple stores from a launch vehicle, for instance sonobuoys, in dense patterns. Due to physical limitations of space in the dispensing vehicle, an effort was made to miniaturize the active components inside the store and therefore reduce the overall outer dimensions thereof. Once the size of the store was reduced, in order to meet the demands of the denser patterns, the inside of the individual launch containers were modified to allow each to hold and dispense more than one store. This new type of launch container, in addition to maintaining the size requirement dictated by the transporting vehicle, is operated by the vehicle's electrical system.

  1. Natural Analog CCS Site Characterization Soda Springs, Idaho Implications for the Long-term Fate of Carbon Dioxide Stored in Geologic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLing, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Podgorney, R. K.; Taylor, J.

    2009-12-01

    Implementation of commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) requires an understanding of the long-term fate of CO2 sequestered in the subsurface. Critical to the success of large-scale CCS is an understanding of CO2 transport and geochemical process that occur in storage reservoirs, and potentially in the near surface should a leak occur. One way to gain this necessary understanding is to study natural CO2 reservoirs and their interaction with near surface and deep geologic materials. Many of these types of systems are self-contained, storing CO2 in geologic formations for millions of years. However, some of these systems are naturally leaky and may provide an ideal field laboratory to assess the long-term interaction of upward migrating CO2 and the subsurface environment. In addition, these natural analogs sites may provide important insight at time-scales not be available from other sources (such as CCS demonstration projects), critical to the characterization of proposed geologic sequestration reservoirs. The potential applicability of natural CO2 leaks as long-term natural analogs to geologic sequestration has been previously explored (Heath and Mcpherson 2004). An excellent leaky CCS natural analog is located in southeastern Idaho near the community of Soda Springs. At this site CO2 and CO2 charged waters generated at depth migrate upward interacting with the overlying geologic formations and the near surface local ground and surface waters. We hypothesized that the majority of the vertically migrating CO2 and CO2 charged water is prevented from reaching the surface by geochemical interactions with a thoelitic basalt flow that acts as a reactive cap on the reservoir. However, there are some small natural CO2 surface expressions of this system including several carbonated springs and a large CO2 “geyser” that resulted from a well drilled into the pressurized CO2 reservoir. Preliminary results of geochemical modeling based on initial water sampling

  2. Food mirages: geographic and economic barriers to healthful food access in Portland, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Betsy; Voss-Andreae, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigated the role of grocery store prices in structuring food access for low-income households in Portland, Oregon. We conducted a detailed healthful foods market basket survey and developed an index of store cost based on the USDA Thrifty Food Plan. Using this index, we estimated the difference in street-network distance between the nearest low-cost grocery store and the nearest grocery store irrespective of cost. Spatial regression of this metric in relation to income, poverty, and gentrification at the census tract scale lead to a new theory regarding food access in the urban landscape. Food deserts are sparse in Portland, but food mirages are abundant, particularly in gentrifying areas where poverty remains high. In a food mirage, grocery stores are plentiful but prices are beyond the means of low-income households, making them functionally equivalent to food deserts in that a long journey to obtain affordable, nutritious food is required in either case. Results suggested that evaluation of food environments should, at a minimum, consider both proximity and price in assessing healthy food access for low-income households. PMID:24100236

  3. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: Bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen that are either vertically inherited or acquired from the environment. While the core bacteria of the honey bee gut is becoming evident, the influence of the pollination environment on honey bee-associated microbial p...

  4. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (p<0.0001) more in very remote areas than the major city with fruit (32%, p<0.0001), vegetables (26.1%, p<0.0005) and dairy (40%, p<0.0001) higher. Higher price did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies. PMID:25516329

  5. Virtual food in virtual environments for the treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lozano, José A; Alcañiz, Mariano; Gil, José A; Moserrat, Carlos; Juán, Mari C; Grau, Vicente; Varvaró, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Eating disorders (Eds) are one of the problems with higher social repercussion in the last years. Sometimes, these clinical syndromes, which are characterized by an altered eating behavior, can have dramatic consequences. In eating disorders, one of the more critical situations, in addition to other of equal or more importance, is the patient's confrontation with food: the visual confrontation, the eating process and the repercussion on his weight. Virtual Reality (VR) technology has been used in psychology, as a therapeutic help tool for the treatment of different psychological problems, for several years now. Their helpfulness is increasingly being recognized. Some developed virtual environments (VE) and their corresponding published studies endorse the efficiency of this tool. Nevertheless, in order to increase the possibilities of success, it is very important to obtain a complete patient immersion in the VE: visual, auditory and interactive. Sometimes there are processes or actions of reality, which are difficult to simulate virtually, and simulating them coarsely would result in the patient lack of immersion in the VE, thus seriously decreasing the possibilities of success. The eating process is an example, since it consists of several steps, some of which (biting, chewing, etc.) don't have an evident virtual solution. This article shows how food and eating process have been simulated virtually in the development of a virtual environment for the treatment of eating disorders. PMID:15458100

  6. Second-Hand Eating? Maternal perception of the food environment affects reproductive investment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Tonia S.; Gainer, Renee; Dohm, Erik D.; Johnson, Maria S.; Wyss, J. Michael; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little information exists on how perception of the food (or ‘energetic’) environment affects body composition and reproductive investment. We test the hypothesis that female mice, who are themselves consuming standard chow diets, but who are exposed to conspecifics eating a rich “cafeteria diet”, will exhibit altered weight gain and reproductive investment. Design and Methods Female C57BL/6 mice were raised on a cafeteria diet. At maturity, subjects were switched to a standard chow diet and their cage-mate was assigned to consume either a cafeteria diet (treatment, n=20), or standard chow (control, n=20). Subjects were mated, and pups raised to weaning. Subjects and pups were analyzed for body composition. Results Treatment had no discernable effect on dam body weight or composition, but caused pups to have lower body weight (p=0.036), and less fat mass (p=0.041). We found a nearly significant treatment effect on ‘time to successful reproduction’ (avg. 55 vs. 44 days) likely due to increased failed first pregnancies (14/19 versus 8/19, p=0.099). Conclusions These data indicate that perceived food environment (independent of the diet actually consumed) can produce small pups with less body fat, and possibly induce difficulties in pregnancy for dams. Replication and mechanistic studies should follow. PMID:25864567

  7. The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Assibey, George; Dick, Smita; Macdiarmid, Jennie; Semple, Sean; Reilly, John J; Ellaway, Anne; Cowie, Hilary; McNeill, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has led to interest in its prevention, particularly through school-based and family-based interventions in the early years. Most evidence reviews, to date, have focused on individual behaviour change rather than the ‘obesogenic environment’. Objective This paper reviews the evidence on the influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in children up to 8 years. Data sources Electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), DARE, CINAHL and Psycho-Info) and reference lists of original studies and reviews were searched for all papers published up to 31 August 2011. Study selection Study designs included were either population-based intervention studies or a longitudinal study. Studies were included if the majority of the children studied were under 9 years, if they related to diet and if they focused on prevention rather than treatment in clinical settings. Data extraction Data included in the tables were characteristics of participants, aim, and key outcome results. Quality assessment of the selected studies was carried out to identify potential bias and an evidence ranking exercise carried out to prioritise areas for future public health interventions. Data synthesis Thirty-five studies (twenty-five intervention studies and ten longitudinal studies) were selected for the review. There was moderately strong evidence to support interventions on food promotion, large portion sizes and sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusions Reducing food promotion to young children, increasing the availability of smaller portions and providing alternatives to sugar-sweetened soft drinks should be considered in obesity prevention programmes aimed at younger children. These environment-level interventions would support individual and family-level behaviour change. PMID:23253872

  8. Accessibility Over Availability: Associations Between the School Food Environment and Student Fruit and Green Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: No national studies have examined associations between (1) school food availability and accessibility and (2) secondary student fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. This article uses 5 years of nationally representative data from secondary school students to examine associations between the school food environment and student fruit and green vegetable consumption. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, cross-sectional, nationally representative data from US middle and high school students were collected annually on self-reported fruit and green vegetable consumption. Each year, data from administrators at each relevant school were collected on food item availability (any venue) and accessibility (total number of school sources). Data were obtained from 10,254 eighth-grade students in 317 schools and 18,898 tenth- and 12th-grade students in 518 schools. Associations were estimated by multi-level models controlling for student- and school-level characteristics. Results: Availability showed minimal association with student consumption. Candy/regular-fat snack accessibility was associated negatively with middle school fruit consumption. Salad bar availability and accessibility were positively associated with middle school green vegetable consumption; FV accessibility was associated positively with high school fruit and green vegetable consumption. Significant associations were consistent across student racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Conclusions: Forthcoming USDA nutrition standards for school foods and beverages sold outside of reimbursable meal programs should result in the removal of school candy/regular-fat snacks. In deciding which items to make available under the new standards, schools should consider increasing the number of FV sources—including salad bars—thereby potentially increasing student FV consumption. PMID:24872011

  9. Fast-food fights: news coverage of local efforts to improve food environments through land-use regulations, 2001-2013. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Nixon, Laura; Mejia, Pamela; Dorfman, Lori; Cheyne, Andrew; Young, Sandra; Friedman, Lissy C; Gottlieb, Mark A; Wooten, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Zoning and other land-use policies are a promising but controversial strategy to improve community food environments. To understand how these policies are debated, we searched existing databases and the Internet and analyzed news coverage and legal documentation of efforts to restrict fast-food restaurants in 77 US communities in 2001 to 2013. Policies intended to improve community health were most often proposed in urban, racially diverse communities; policies proposed in small towns or majority-White communities aimed to protect community aesthetics or local businesses. Health-focused policies were subject to more criticism than other policies and were generally less successful. Our findings could inform the work of advocates interested in employing land-use policies to improve the food environment in their own communities. PMID:25602875

  10. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  11. Local food environments are associated with girls’ energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Design Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Setting Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004–2006. Subjects Girls aged 6–8 years (n 1010). Results Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P < 0·001). Girls’ daily energy, SSB and snack foods/ sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets >1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets >3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Conclusions Girls’ frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets. PMID:24821228

  12. The relationship of the local food environment with obesity: A systematic review of methods, study quality and results

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Franco, Manuel; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Nur, Alana; Anderson, Cheryl AM

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between local food environments and obesity and assess the quality of studies reviewed. Methods Systematic keyword searches identified studies from US and Canada that assessed the relationship of obesity to local food environments. We applied a quality metric based on design, exposure and outcome measurement, and analysis. Results We identified 71 studies representing 65 cohorts. Overall, study quality was low; 60 studies were cross-sectional. Associations between food outlet availability and obesity were predominantly null. Among non-null associations, we saw a trend toward inverse associations between supermarket availability and obesity (22 negative, 4 positive, 67 null) and direct associations between fast food and obesity (29 positive, 6 negative, 71 null) in adults. We saw direct associations between fast food availability and obesity in lower income children (12 positive, 7 null). Indices including multiple food outlets were most consistently associated with obesity in adults (18 expected, 1 not expected, 17 null). Limiting to higher quality studies did not affect results. Conclusions Despite the large number of studies, we found limited evidence for associations between local food environments and obesity. The predominantly null associations should be interpreted cautiously due to the low quality of available studies. PMID:26096983

  13. Food and physical activity environments: an energy balance approach for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Economos, Christina D; Hatfield, Daniel P; King, Abby C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ann Pentz, Mary

    2015-05-01

    Increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity are a function of chronic, population-level energy imbalance, whereby energy intakes exceed energy expenditures. Although sometimes viewed in isolation, energy intakes and expenditures in fact exist in a dynamic interplay: energy intakes may influence energy expenditures and vice versa. Obesogenic environments that promote positive energy balance play a central role in the obesity epidemic, and reducing obesity prevalence will require re-engineering environments to promote both healthy eating and physical activity. There may be untapped synergies in addressing both sides of the energy balance equation in environmentally focused obesity interventions, yet food/beverage and physical activity environments are often addressed separately. The field needs design, evaluation, and analytic methods that support this approach. This paper provides a rationale for an energy balance approach and reviews and describes research and practitioner work that has taken this approach to obesity prevention at the environmental and policy levels. Future directions in research, practice, and policy include moving obesity prevention toward a systems approach that brings both nutrition and physical activity into interdisciplinary training, funding mechanisms, and clinical and policy recommendations/guidelines. PMID:25891062

  14. The Role of Food Parenting Skills and the Home Food Environment in Children's Weight Gain and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Gerards, S M P L; Kremers, S P J

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an overview to provide readers with an update on the literature about the relation between parental influences (general parenting and food parenting practices) and children's weight-related outcomes. It first summarizes the evidence regarding the role of food parenting practices in shaping and maintaining children's nutritional and weight status. It then describes empirical evidence on the relation between general parenting and children's weight status. This evidence is less convincing, possibly because general parenting has a different, more distal role in influencing child behavior than parenting practices. General parenting may moderate the impact of food parenting practices on children's nutrition behaviors. Finally, we discuss studies on interventions targeting childhood overweight and obesity. There is no consensus on the optimal intervention targets (i.e., general parenting and/or food parenting practices). Based on the overview, we offer suggestions for future research. PMID:25741454

  15. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment

    PubMed Central

    Caracheo, Barak F.; Emberly, Eldon; Hadizadeh, Shirin; Hyman, James M.; Seamans, Jeremy K.

    2013-01-01

    Foraging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment. PMID:23745102

  16. Conceptualizing and Comparing Neighborhood and Activity Space Measures for Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Thomas W.; Pitts, Stephanie B. Jilcott; McGuirt, Jared T.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers’ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants’ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies. PMID:25306420

  17. agINFRA: a research data hub for agriculture, food and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Drakos, Andreas; Protonotarios, Vassilis; Manouselis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The agINFRA project (www.aginfra.eu) was a European Commission funded project under the 7th Framework Programme that aimed to introduce agricultural scientific communities to the vision of open and participatory data-intensive science. agINFRA has now evolved into the European hub for data-powered research on agriculture, food and the environment, serving the research community through multiple roles. Working on enhancing the interoperability between heterogeneous data sources, the agINFRA project has left a set of grid- and cloud- based services that can be reused by future initiatives and adopted by existing ones, in order to facilitate the dissemination of agricultural research, educational and other types of data. On top of that, agINFRA provided a set of domain-specific recommendations for the publication of agri-food research outcomes. This paper discusses the concept of the agINFRA project and presents its major outcomes, as adopted by existing initiatives activated in the context of agricultural research and education. PMID:26339472

  18. The challenge of making the school environment safe for children with food allergies.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, J M

    2000-04-01

    An ever-increasing number of children are entering schools with life-threatening food allergies. Despite efforts of well-educated school nurses, Sampson, Mendelson, and Rosen (1992) found more children succumbed to a fatal anaphylactic shock at school than at home or another setting. The strain on the school nurse who works on the front lines in an attempt to keep these children safe is evident. Because so many schools do not have a full-time nurse, it is essential for faculty to recognize when children are having a reaction and know what emergency steps to take. The school nurse has the responsibility for devising an emergency plan for the school in the event of her absence. Disseminating general information about anaphylactic reactions and specific information about how to read a label in order to avoid an allergen is essential. Legal ramifications regarding the children's right to privacy and the right to be educated along with their peers as well as laws that protect the non-nursing professional who gives nursing care, including use of an Epi-pen, need to be explained to staff. Because parents of children with food allergies are often frightened of the dangers their children may encounter when in the school environment, they require support and affirmation. PMID:11151543

  19. TMC-1 attenuates C. elegans development and sexual behaviour in a chemically defined food environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liusuo; Gualberto, Daisy G; Guo, Xiaoyan; Correa, Paola; Jee, Changhoon; Garcia, L Rene

    2015-01-01

    Although diet affects growth and behaviour, the adaptive mechanisms that coordinate these processes in non-optimal food sources are unclear. Here we show that the C. elegans tmc-1 channel, which is homologous to the mammalian tmc deafness genes, attenuates development and inhibits sexual behaviour in non-optimal food, the synthetic CeMM medium. In CeMM medium, signalling from the pharyngeal MC neurons and body wall muscles slows larval development. However, in the non-standard diet, mutation in tmc-1 accelerates development, by impairing the excitability of these cells. The tmc-1 larva can immediately generate ATP when fed CeMM, and their fast development requires insulin signalling. Our findings suggest that the tmc-1 channel indirectly affects metabolism in wild-type animals. In addition to regulating the development, we show that mutating tmc-1 can relax diet-induced inhibition of male sexual behaviour, thus indicating that a single regulator can be genetically modified to promote growth rate and reproductive success in new environments. PMID:25695879

  20. Environment contamination by mycotoxins and their occurrence in food and feed: Physiological aspects and economical approach.

    PubMed

    Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented. PMID:26786025

  1. Unhealthy Fat in Street and Snack Foods in Low-Socioeconomic Settings in India: A Case Study of the Food Environments of Rural Villages and an Urban Slum

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vidhu; Downs, Shauna M.; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Lock, Karen; Singh, Archna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the food environment in rural villages and an urban slum setting in India with reference to commercially available unbranded packaged snacks and street foods sold by vendors, and to analyze the type and quantity of fat in these foods. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two low-income villages in Haryana and an urban slum in Delhi. Participants Street vendors (n = 44) were surveyed and the nutritional content of snacks (n = 49) sold by vendors was analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Vendors' awareness and perception of fats and oils, as well as the type of snacks sold, along with the content and quality of fat present in the snacks. Analysis Descriptive statistics of vendor survey and gas chromatography to measure fatty acid content in snacks. Results A variety of snacks were sold, including those in unlabeled transparent packages and open glass jars. Mean fat content in snacks was 28.8 g per 100-g serving in rural settings and 29.6 g per 100-g serving in urban settings. Sampled oils contained high levels of saturated fats (25% to 69% total fatty acids) and trans fats (0.1% to 30% of total fatty acids). Conclusions and Implications Interventions need to target the manufacturers of oils and fats used in freshly prepared products to improve the quality of foods available in the food environment of low-socioeconomic groups in India. PMID:26872553

  2. Foraging behavior of the mangrove sesarmid crab Neosarmatium trispinosum enhances food intake and nutrient retention in a low-quality food environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yota; Lee, S. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The large sesarmid crab Neosarmatium trispinosum has been reported to actively collect freshly fallen mangrove leaves and store them in its burrow where they are assumed to age prior to consumption. This leaf-catching behavior was hypothesized to improve the palatability and nutritional quality of leaves through leaching of feeding deterrent and microbial enrichment during storage. Earlier studies also hypothesized that N. trispinosum feeds on sediment or animal material to meet their N needs. A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the foraging behavior of N. trispinosum against these hypotheses. Study of foraging behavior using remotely operated cameras indicated that this crab spends the far majority of time (97.5 ± 2.5%, SD) underground and only a small percentage of time outside its burrow foraging (2.2 ± 2.3%). Collection of fresh mangrove litter was swift but no record of predation was evident over 31 h of video records. A field leaf tethering experiment showed that this crab started to consume the leaves immediately after collection rather than storing whole leaves, refuting the leaf-aging hypothesis. N. trispinosum also showed a preference for senescent yellow leaves over decaying brown leaves. This behavior may only aim to stock leaves (i.e. to ensure food availability) rather than conditioning them through decay (i.e. to improve food quality). Analysis of gut contents showed that vascular plant material was the dominant food item (83.3 ± 4.6%), followed by sediment (9.2 ± 4.6%) but no animal materials were recorded. N. trispinosum therefore relies minimally on animal food but are capable of removing 50% of the daily leaf litter production. Elemental C, N analysis shows that sediment inside the burrow is a sufficient potential food source (C/N = 13 to 15). While having a lower C/N ratio than fresh green or yellow leaves, the N content of sediment (∼0.1%) was significantly lower than those of mangrove leaves (0

  3. Foraging behavior of the mangrove sesarmid crab Neosarmatium trispinosum enhances food intake and nutrient retention in a low-quality food environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yota; Lee, S. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The large sesarmid crab Neosarmatium trispinosum has been reported to actively collect freshly fallen mangrove leaves and store them in its burrow where they are assumed to age prior to consumption. This leaf-catching behavior was hypothesized to improve the palatability and nutritional quality of leaves through leaching of feeding deterrent and microbial enrichment during storage. Earlier studies also hypothesized that N. trispinosum feeds on sediment or animal material to meet their N needs. A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the foraging behavior of N. trispinosum against these hypotheses. Study of foraging behavior using remotely operated cameras indicated that this crab spends the far majority of time (97.5 ± 2.5%, SD) underground and only a small percentage of time outside its burrow foraging (2.2 ± 2.3%). Collection of fresh mangrove litter was swift but no record of predation was evident over 31 h of video records. A field leaf tethering experiment showed that this crab started to consume the leaves immediately after collection rather than storing whole leaves, refuting the leaf-aging hypothesis. N. trispinosum also showed a preference for senescent yellow leaves over decaying brown leaves. This behavior may only aim to stock leaves (i.e. to ensure food availability) rather than conditioning them through decay (i.e. to improve food quality). Analysis of gut contents showed that vascular plant material was the dominant food item (83.3 ± 4.6%), followed by sediment (9.2 ± 4.6%) but no animal materials were recorded. N. trispinosum therefore relies minimally on animal food but are capable of removing 50% of the daily leaf litter production. Elemental C, N analysis shows that sediment inside the burrow is a sufficient potential food source (C/N = 13 to 15). While having a lower C/N ratio than fresh green or yellow leaves, the N content of sediment (∼0.1%) was significantly lower than those of mangrove leaves (0.3-0.9%), and may thus

  4. Biofilm Formation and the Presence of the Intercellular Adhesion Locus ica among Staphylococci from Food and Food Processing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Møretrø, Trond; Hermansen, Lene; Holck, Askild L.; Sidhu, Maan S.; Rudi, Knut; Langsrud, Solveig

    2003-01-01

    In clinical staphylococci, the presence of the ica genes and biofilm formation are considered important for virulence. Biofilm formation may also be of importance for survival and virulence in food-related staphylococci. In the present work, staphylococci from the food industry were found to differ greatly in their abilities to form biofilms on polystyrene. A total of 7 and 21 of 144 food-related strains were found to be strong and weak biofilm formers, respectively. Glucose and sodium chloride stimulated biofilm formation. The biofilm-forming strains belonged to nine different coagulase-negative species of Staphylococcus. The icaA gene of the intercellular adhesion locus was detected by Southern blotting and hybridization in 38 of 67 food-related strains tested. The presence of icaA was positively correlated with strong biofilm formation. The icaA gene was partly sequenced for 22 food-related strains from nine different species of Staphylococcus, and their icaA genes were found to have DNA similarities to previously sequenced icaA genes of 69 to 100%. Northern blot analysis indicated that the expression of the ica genes was higher in strong biofilm formers than that seen with strains not forming biofilms. Biofilm formation on polystyrene was positively correlated with biofilm formation on stainless steel and with resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, a group of disinfectants. PMID:12957956

  5. The Environment Makes a Difference: The Impact of Explicit and Implicit Attitudes as Precursors in Different Food Choice Tasks

    PubMed Central

    König, Laura M.; Giese, Helge; Schupp, Harald T.; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that implicit and explicit attitudes influence food choice. However, precursors of food choice often are investigated using tasks offering a very limited number of options despite the comparably complex environment surrounding real life food choice. In the present study, we investigated how the assortment impacts the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes and food choice (confectionery and fruit), assuming that a more complex choice architecture is more taxing on cognitive resources. Specifically, a binary and a multiple option choice task based on the same stimulus set (fake food items) were presented to ninety-seven participants. Path modeling revealed that both explicit and implicit attitudes were associated with relative food choice (confectionery vs. fruit) in both tasks. In the binary option choice task, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significant precursors of food choice, with explicit attitudes having a greater impact. Conversely, in the multiple option choice task, the additive impact of explicit and implicit attitudes was qualified by an interaction indicating that, even if explicit and implicit attitudes toward confectionery were inconsistent, more confectionery was chosen than fruit if either was positive. This compensatory ‘one is sufficient’-effect indicates that the structure of the choice environment modulates the relationship between attitudes and choice. The study highlights that environmental constraints, such as the number of choice options, are an important boundary condition that need to be included when investigating the relationship between psychological precursors and behavior. PMID:27621719

  6. The Environment Makes a Difference: The Impact of Explicit and Implicit Attitudes as Precursors in Different Food Choice Tasks.

    PubMed

    König, Laura M; Giese, Helge; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that implicit and explicit attitudes influence food choice. However, precursors of food choice often are investigated using tasks offering a very limited number of options despite the comparably complex environment surrounding real life food choice. In the present study, we investigated how the assortment impacts the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes and food choice (confectionery and fruit), assuming that a more complex choice architecture is more taxing on cognitive resources. Specifically, a binary and a multiple option choice task based on the same stimulus set (fake food items) were presented to ninety-seven participants. Path modeling revealed that both explicit and implicit attitudes were associated with relative food choice (confectionery vs. fruit) in both tasks. In the binary option choice task, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significant precursors of food choice, with explicit attitudes having a greater impact. Conversely, in the multiple option choice task, the additive impact of explicit and implicit attitudes was qualified by an interaction indicating that, even if explicit and implicit attitudes toward confectionery were inconsistent, more confectionery was chosen than fruit if either was positive. This compensatory 'one is sufficient'-effect indicates that the structure of the choice environment modulates the relationship between attitudes and choice. The study highlights that environmental constraints, such as the number of choice options, are an important boundary condition that need to be included when investigating the relationship between psychological precursors and behavior. PMID:27621719

  7. Neonicotinoids impact bumblebee colony fitness in the field; a reanalysis of the UK’s Food & Environment Research Agency 2012 experiment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The causes of bee declines remain hotly debated, particularly the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides. In 2013 the UK’s Food & Environment Research Agency made public a study of the impacts of exposure of bumblebee colonies to neonicotinoids. The study concluded that there was no clear relationship between colony performance and pesticide exposure, and the study was subsequently cited by the UK government in a policy paper in support of their vote against a proposed moratorium on some uses of neonicotinoids. Here I present a simple re-analysis of this data set. It demonstrates that these data in fact do show a negative relationship between both colony growth and queen production and the levels of neonicotinoids in the food stores collected by the bees. Indeed, this is the first study describing substantial negative impacts of neonicotinoids on colony performance of any bee species with free-flying bees in a field realistic situation where pesticide exposure is provided only as part of normal farming practices. It strongly suggests that wild bumblebee colonies in farmland can be expected to be adversely affected by exposure to neonicotinoids. PMID:25825679

  8. Dietary practices in isolated First Nations communities of northern Canada: combined isotopic and lipid markers provide a good qualitative assessment of store-bought vs locally harvested foods consumption

    PubMed Central

    Seabert, T; Pal, S; Krümmel, E M; Blais, J M; Imbeault, P; Robidoux, M A; Haman, F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In First Nations communities of northwestern Ontario, where rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus are some of the highest in the world, ascertaining wild food dietary practices is extremely challenging owing to seasonal availability, environmental factors, life circumstances and language/cultural barriers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of isotopic and fatty acid (FA) profiles could provide more comprehensive information to discriminate between three categories of wild food consumption (that is, plants and animals) in two isolated First Nations communities of northwestern Ontario. In addition, this analysis also highlights whether wild food consumption as practiced in these two communities can increase circulating levels of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), which provide a number of important metabolic benefits that could impact the prevention/treatment of T2DM. RESULTS: 13C enrichment (in expired CO2, plasma and hair), 15N enrichment (in hair) and FA profiles in plasma phospholipids (phospholipid fatty acid (PL-FA)) were quantified in men and in women consuming various amounts of wild food. 13C/12C ratios were lower and 15N/14N ratios were higher in participants consuming wild food at least once a week. In addition, FA results indicated that the relative contributions of 20:4 Ω-6 and 22:6 Ω-3 to total PL-FAs were higher and 18:2 Ω-6 lower in wild food consumers. CONCLUSION: Together, these findings confirm that isotopic and lipid markers discriminate between the different wild food categories in these two First Nations communities. Knowing the close relationship between dietary intake and the potential role of PUFA in the prevention/treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases, it is critical to accurately measure the composition of diet for individuals in their specific environments. PMID:24145576

  9. Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking latina mothers influence the home food environment: Implications for future interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to obtain in-depth information from low income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent’s knowledge about healthful eating, the home food enviro...

  10. [An approach to food consumption in an urban environment. The case of west Africa].

    PubMed

    Ag Bendech, M; Gerbouin-Rerolle, P; Chauliac, M; Malvy, D

    1996-01-01

    West Africa has undergone rapid economic and political changes during the last 20 years. After the failure of economic policies implemented since independence, programs for structural adjustment have strongly influenced the economy. Food problems affect each country differently. The Sahel has experienced food shortages and starvation whereas in forested countries the food supply has remained stable. Nevertheless, food policies have not succeeded in contributing to urban and rural development. The rate of urbanization in west Africa is generally low but the rate of urban population growth is particularly high, much more than the growth rates of industry and infrastructure. Although metropolitan areas are affected by poverty, they offer more hope and opportunities than rural areas. Urban markets have expanded and diversified as social differences have also increased and contributed to changes in consumption structure. Urban growth has contributed to the increase of imported food: this is indicated by both the strong dependency and the change of food habits towards western food patterns. Recently however, west African urban dwellers are still preferring local items if they are affordable. When imported products are used, they are integrated within a stable meal plan consisting of a single dish with a base and a sauce, which is typical of African food preparation. Surveys of consumption-budgets are still only available on a national scale. These can provide accurate information about food consumption patterns of families, particularly for significant trends. However, they do not provide information about the dynamics of food consumption, neither for urban areas or the individual. Now a significant proportion of individual food consumption occurs outside of the home, mainly with food provided by street vendors. This new consumption habit is a response to the urban food crisis. Consumption of street-vendor-food comprises one component but this cannot be dissociated from

  11. Rationale and Consequences of Reclassifying Obesity as an Addictive Disorder: Neurobiology, Food Environment and Social Policy Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Patricia; Batra, Payal; Geiger, Brenda M.; Wommack, Tara; Gilhooly, Cheryl; Pothos, Emmanuel N.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity is a priority for investigators from across numerous disciplines, including biology, nutritional science, and public health and policy. In this paper, we systematically examine the premise that common dietary obesity is an addictive disorder, based on the criteria for addiction described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, version IV, and consider the consequences of such a reclassification of obesity for public policy. Specifically, we discuss evidence from both human and animal studies investigating the effects of various types and amounts of food and the food environment in obese individuals. Neurobiological studies have shown that the hedonic brain pathways activated by palatable food overlap considerably with those activated by drugs of abuse and suffer significant deficits after chronic exposure to high-energy diets. Furthermore, food as a stimulus can induce the sensitization, compulsion and relapse patterns observed in individuals who are addicted to illicit drugs. The current food environment encourages these addictive-like behaviors where increased exposure through advertisements, proximity and increased portion sizes are routine. Taking lessons from the tobacco experience, it is clear that reclassifying common dietary obesity as an addictive disorder would necessitate policy changes (e.g., regulatory efforts, economic strategies, and educational approaches). These policies could be instrumental in addressing the obesity epidemic, by encouraging the food industry and the political leadership to collaborate with the scientific and medical community in establishing new and more effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:22583861

  12. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  13. A qualitative study exploring how school and community environments shape the food choices of adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Barr, Susan I; Hanning, Rhona M; Mâsse, Louise C

    2015-12-01

    This study explored perceived barriers and facilitators to healthful eating in schools and communities among overweight teens who completed an E-health intervention. Twenty-two teens were recruited to a photovoice study and asked to take pictures of things that made it easier or harder to make healthful food choices at school and in their community. Digital photographs were reviewed using semi-structured interviews. Transcribed audio-recordings were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Similar themes emerged from the school and community environments with food/beverage availability emerging most frequently, followed by peer influence, accessibility/convenience, price, classroom practices, marketing and online influences. Teens described an obesity-promoting environment and perceived very limited healthful options. Policy-driven environmental changes as well as strategies that help teens navigate food choices in their schools and communities are needed to support healthful eating. PMID:26212268

  14. Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…

  15. Rural and Urban Differences in the Associations between Characteristics of the Community Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between measures of the household and retail food environments and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in both urban and rural environmental contexts. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Data for FV intake and other characteristics were collected via survey instrument and geocoded to the objective food…

  16. Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53-94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either "sometimes" or "often or always". Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.30), and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84-0.91). Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]). Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p = 0.06), with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02-1.11), with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17), and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99-1.05). This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food. PMID:23936098

  17. Teaching Freshmen About Water, Energy, Food, the Environment, and Public Policy in an Interactive Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. C.; Abarca, S.; Bollinger, T.; Cox, S.; Engel, D.; Miranda, E.; Pelkey, S.; Shaffer, M.; Taylor, J.; VanSomeren, C.; Yoerg, A.; Jeffries, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Opportunities and tradeoffs related to water, energy, food, and the environment will be of critical concern for the next generatiion of people on Earth. Better future decisions are likely if those who are now students explore these issues from scientific and multicultural approaches using cross-cutting concepts. In the Fall of 2015 at the University of Kansas, this topic is the focus of one of the Freshman Honors courses. These courses bring 10 freshmen from different backgrounds together to develop skills in discussion, understanding different viewpoints, researching a focused topic, and expression through read and writing. The course coordinator is a specialist in the very nerdy field of numerical simulation of environmental systems. Invited speakers will come from, for example, the KU Law School and the English Department. A Policy Conference with adversarial and collaborative role playing will be conducted toward the end of the class. The roles played will include politicians, scientists, and native Americans. A poster will be developed for presentation at a KU Symposium and AGU, which will hopefully (at the discretion of the students) provide an interactive experience for the audience. Please come see how the class turned out and provide discussion and suggestions.

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Typing of Salmonella Stanley Isolated from Humans, Foods, and Environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Meng, Jianghong; Pan, Haijian; Shen, Junqing; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Weimin; Chen, Qi; Shi, Xianming; Xu, Xuebin; Zhang, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley is an important serovar that has been increasingly identified in human salmonellosis. The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing of 88 Salmonella Stanley strains isolated from humans (diarrhea patients, n = 64; and healthy carrier, n = 1), foods (aquatic products, n = 16; vegetable, n = 1; and pork, n = 1), and environment (waste water, n = 2; and river water, n = 3) in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2012. Nearly half of the strains were resistant to sulfafurazole (43/88, 48.9%), and many were resistant to streptomycin (35/88, 39.8%), tetracycline (22/88, 25%), and nalidixic acid (19/88, 21.6%). Approximately a quarter of the strains (24/88, 27.3%) were resistant to more than three antimicrobials, and five had ACSSuT resistance type. Six clusters (A-F) were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with 80% similarity. Interestingly, strains in the same cluster identified by PFGE possessed similar antibiotic resistance patterns. PFGE typing also indicated that aquatic products might serve as a transmission reservoir for Salmonella Stanley infections in humans. PMID:26488910

  19. Improving data accuracy of commercial food outlet databases.

    PubMed

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Martinez, Diane; Yedidia, Michael J; Petlick, Nirvana

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Assessing food environments often requires using commercially available data. Disparate methods used for classifying food outlets in these databases call for creating a classification approach using common definitions. A systematic strategy for reclassifying food stores and restaurants, as they appear in commercial databases, into categories that differentiate the availability of healthy options is described here. DESIGN AND SETTING. Commercially available data on food outlets including names, addresses, North American Industry Classification System codes, and associated characteristics was obtained for five New Jersey communities. ANALYSIS. A reclassification methodology was developed using criteria and definitions from the literature to categorize food outlets based on availability of healthy options. Information in the database was supplemented by systematic Internet and key word searches, and from phone calls to food outlets. RESULTS. The methodology resulted in 622 supermarket/grocery stores, 183 convenience stores, and 148 specialty stores in the original data to be reclassified into 58 supermarkets, 30 grocery stores, 692 convenience stores, and 115 specialty stores. Outlets from the original list of 1485 full-service restaurants and 506 limited-service restaurants were reclassified as 563 full-service restaurants and 1247 limited-service restaurants. Reclassification resulted in less than one-seventh the number of supermarkets and grocery stores, more than three times the number of convenience stores, and twice as many limited-service restaurants-a much less healthy profile than the one generated by using exclusively the commercial databases. CONCLUSION. An explicit and replicable strategy is proposed for reclassifying food outlets in commercial databases into categories that differentiate on the basis of healthy food availability. The intent is to contribute towards building a consensus among researchers on definitions used in public health

  20. Mitigating or exacerbating effects of maternal-fetal programming of female mice through the food choice environment.

    PubMed

    Brenseke, Bonnie; Bahamonde, Javiera; Talanian, Michael; Kornfeind, Ellie; Daly, Jacquiline; Cobb, Grayson; Zhang, Jinhua; Prater, M Renee; Davis, George C; Good, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Humans live, eat, and become overweight/obese in complex surroundings where there are many available food choices. Prenatal exposure to poor food choices predisposes offspring to increased negative health risks, including obesity. Many animal experiments have analyzed intergenerational body weight parameters in an environment without food choices, which may not be directly translatable to the human food environment. In this study, offspring from mothers with a defined high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) were arbitrarily assigned to either an exclusively LFD or HFD or to a diet where they have a choice between LFD and HFD (choice diet). Offspring displayed negative outcomes of increased body weight, body fat, serum leptin, and blood glucose levels when given the choice diet compared with offspring on the LFD. Conversely, improved energy expenditure was found for offspring given the choice diet compared with offspring from HFD dams given LFD. In addition, maternal diet-specific influences on offspring metabolic parameters were identified, especially in offspring from HFD dams, including positive outcomes of reduced leptin in LFD offspring, reduced corticosterone and cholesterol levels in HFD offspring, and increased exercise levels in choice offspring, as well as the negative outcome of increased calorie intake in LFD offspring from HFD dams. This defined model can now be used as the basis for future studies to characterize the cycle of inter- and intragenerational obesity and whether more realistic diet environments, especially those including choice, can mitigate phenotype. PMID:25386832

  1. Identification of the Appropriate Boundary Size to Use When Measuring the Food Retail Environment Surrounding Schools

    PubMed Central

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study included 6,971 students in grades 9 and 10 (ages 13 to 16 years) from 158schools who participated in the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study. Students provided information on where they typically ate lunch. The number of food retailers was obtained for six road network buffer sizes (500, 750, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, and 5,000 meters) surrounding schools. Associations between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours were examined using multilevel logistic regression. Comparisons of model fit statistics indicated that the 1,000 m buffer provided the best fit. At this distance, students with ≥3 food retailers near their schools had a 3.42 times greater relative odds (95% CI: 2.12–5.52) of eating their lunchtime meal at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. Students who had ≥2 food retailers within 750 m of their schools had a 2.74 times greater relative odds (95% CI: 1.75–4.29), while those who had ≥1 food retailer within 500 m of their schools had 2.27 times greater relative odds of eating at food retailer (95% CI: 1.46–3.52) compared to those with no nearby food retailers. For distances greater than 1,000 m, no consistent relationships were found. PMID:23066392

  2. Store and Restaurant Advertising and Health of Public Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Katie M.; Li, Dongmei; Regan, Gail R.; Howard, Hugh H.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between food and beverage signs and health. Methods: In 12 public housing neighborhoods, food and alcohol signs were counted for stores and restaurants. Health and demographic data were from 373 adults. Results: Multilevel modeling showed higher BMI was related to more store and restaurant alcohol signs,…

  3. Land application of sewage sludge (biosolids) in Australia: risks to the environment and food crops.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D L; Penney, N; McLaughlin, M J; Rigby, H; Schwarz, K

    2010-01-01

    Australia is a large exporter of agricultural products, with producers responsible for a range of quality assurance programs to ensure that food crops are free from various contaminants of detriment to human health. Large volumes of treated sewage sludge (biosolids), although low by world standards, are increasingly being recycled to land, primarily to replace plant nutrients and to improve soil properties; they are used in agriculture, forestry, and composted. The Australian National Biosolids Research Program (NBRP) has linked researchers to a collective goal to investigate nutrients and benchmark safe concentrations of metals nationally using a common methodology, with various other research programs conducted in a number of states specific to regional problems and priorities. The use of biosolids in Australia is strictly regulated by state guidelines, some of which are under review following recent research outcomes. Communication and research between the water industry, regulators and researchers specific to the regulation of biosolids is further enhanced by the Australian and New Zealand Biosolids Partnership (ANZBP). This paper summarises the major issues and constraints related to biosolids use in Australia using specific case examples from Western Australia, a member of the Australian NBRP, and highlights several research projects conducted over the last decade to ensure that biosolids are used beneficially and safely in the environment. Attention is given to research relating to plant nutrient uptake, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus (including that of reduced phosphorus uptake in alum sludge-amended soil); the risk of heavy metal uptake by plants, specifically cadmium, copper and zinc; the risk of pathogen contamination in soil and grain products; change to soil pH (particularly following lime-amended biosolids); and the monitoring of faecal contamination by biosolids in waterbodies using DNA techniques. Examples of products that are currently

  4. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to

  5. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  6. Mineral content in grains of seven food-grade sorghum hybrids grown in Mediterranean environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a major crop used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral content in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The ...

  7. Association between home and school food environments and dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Vepsäläinen, H; Mikkilä, V; Erkkola, M; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the roles of home and school environments on dietary patterns among children from 12 countries differing widely in geographic region and levels of human and economic development. Methods: The sample included a total of 6685 (54% girls) 9–11-year-old children. Parents/guardians reported the availability of certain foods in the home, and trained researchers performed school audits recording the availability of foods for sale at schools. Foods were then divided into wholesome (nutrient-dense) and empty-calorie (nutrient-poor) foods and scored according to their availability. Children reported if their school provided school lunch and how many times during the last week they had eaten meals prepared away from home and school. Via principal components analysis, data-driven dietary pattern scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Multilevel models were used to study the associations between home and school food environments (wholesome and empty-calorie foods) and dietary patterns (healthy and unhealthy diet pattern scores). Results: For low unhealthy diet pattern scores, low availability of empty-calorie foods at home was found to be more important than high availability of wholesome foods. More meals eaten outside home and school were associated with the higher unhealthy diet pattern scores. The availability of wholesome foods at home was positively associated with the healthy diet pattern scores. Food availability at school was not associated with the dietary patterns. Conclusions: In this sample, the home food environment was more significant than the school food environment in predicting the dietary patterns. The availability of empty-calorie foods was associated with the unhealthy dietary pattern even when the availability of wholesome foods at home was high. Meals prepared away from home contributed to the unhealthy dietary pattern. Therefore, parents should be encouraged to limit the availability of empty

  8. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Pangsap, Suttinan; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective An investigation into evolving food retail systems in Thailand Design Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods such as interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits Setting Seven freshmarkets located in the four main regions of Thailand Subjects Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven freshmarkets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Results Freshmarkets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Conclusions Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As freshmarkets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women’s jobs and social capital with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand. PMID:23021291

  9. Grocery Store Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity, adaptable to various grade levels, to reinforce the mathematical concept of rounding by utilizing grocery store advertisements to demonstrate the concept in a real life setting. Describes the activity on a step-by-step basis and includes suggestions for additional grocery store games. (SD)

  10. Creating ‘obesogenic realities’; do our methodological choices make a difference when measuring the food environment?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to objectively measure ‘obesogenic’ food environment (foodscape) exposure has become common-place. This increase in usage has coincided with the development of a methodologically heterogeneous evidence-base, with subsequent perceived difficulties for inter-study comparability. However, when used together in previous work, different types of food environment metric have often demonstrated some degree of covariance. Differences and similarities between density and proximity metrics, and within methodologically different conceptions of density and proximity metrics need to be better understood. Methods Frequently used measures of food access were calculated for North East England, UK. Using food outlet data from local councils, densities of food outlets per 1000 population and per km2 were calculated for small administrative areas. Densities (counts) were also calculated based on population-weighted centroids of administrative areas buffered at 400/800/1000m street network and Euclidean distances. Proximity (street network and Euclidean distances) from these centroids to the nearest food outlet were also calculated. Metrics were compared using Spearman’s rank correlations. Results Measures of foodscape density and proximity were highly correlated. Densities per km2 and per 1000 population were highly correlated (rs = 0.831). Euclidean and street network based measures of proximity (rs = 0.865) and density (rs = 0.667-0.764, depending on neighbourhood size) were also highly correlated. Density metrics based on administrative areas and buffered centroids of administrative areas were less strongly correlated (rs = 0.299-0.658). Conclusions Density and proximity metrics were largely comparable, with some exceptions. Whilst results suggested a substantial degree of comparability across existing studies, future comparability could be ensured by moving towards a more standardised set of

  11. Potential Impact of the Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants on the Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Food Processing Environments.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V; Ortiz, Sagrario; López-Alonso, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of certain strains of Listeria monocytogenes, even after the food processing environment has been cleaned and disinfected, suggests that this may be related to phenomena that reduce the concentration of the disinfectants to subinhibitory levels. This includes (i) the existence of environmental niches or reservoirs that are difficult for disinfectants to reach, (ii) microorganisms that form biofilms and create microenvironments in which adequate concentrations of disinfectants cannot be attained, and (iii) the acquisition of resistance mechanisms in L. monocytogenes, including those that lead to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of the disinfectants. The only available data with regard to the resistance of L. monocytogenes to disinfectants applied in food production environments refer to genotypic resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Although there are several well-characterized efflux pumps that confer resistance to QACs, it is a low-level resistance that does not generate resistance to QACs at the concentrations applied in the food industry. However, dilution in the environment and biodegradation result in QAC concentration gradients. As a result, the microorganisms are frequently exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of QACs. Therefore, the low-level resistance to QACs in L. monocytogenes may contribute to its environmental adaptation and persistence. In fact, in certain cases, the relationship between low-level resistance and the environmental persistence of L. monocytogenes in different food production chains has been previously established. The resistant strains would have survival advantages in these environments over sensitive strains, such as the ability to form biofilms in the presence of increased biocide concentrations. PMID:27199964

  12. Potential Impact of the Resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants on the Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Food Processing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V.; Ortiz, Sagrario; López-Alonso, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of certain strains of Listeria monocytogenes, even after the food processing environment has been cleaned and disinfected, suggests that this may be related to phenomena that reduce the concentration of the disinfectants to subinhibitory levels. This includes (i) the existence of environmental niches or reservoirs that are difficult for disinfectants to reach, (ii) microorganisms that form biofilms and create microenvironments in which adequate concentrations of disinfectants cannot be attained, and (iii) the acquisition of resistance mechanisms in L. monocytogenes, including those that lead to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of the disinfectants. The only available data with regard to the resistance of L. monocytogenes to disinfectants applied in food production environments refer to genotypic resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Although there are several well-characterized efflux pumps that confer resistance to QACs, it is a low-level resistance that does not generate resistance to QACs at the concentrations applied in the food industry. However, dilution in the environment and biodegradation result in QAC concentration gradients. As a result, the microorganisms are frequently exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of QACs. Therefore, the low-level resistance to QACs in L. monocytogenes may contribute to its environmental adaptation and persistence. In fact, in certain cases, the relationship between low-level resistance and the environmental persistence of L. monocytogenes in different food production chains has been previously established. The resistant strains would have survival advantages in these environments over sensitive strains, such as the ability to form biofilms in the presence of increased biocide concentrations. PMID:27199964

  13. Food access and cost in American Indian communities in Washington State.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Meghan; Buchwald, Dedra S; Duncan, Glen E

    2011-09-01

    Limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost may influence eating behaviors and, ultimately, obesity. This study examined the number and type of food stores (convenience, grocery, supermarket) on federal reservations in Washington State, and the availability and cost of foods in the US Department of Agriculture Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit market basket, to describe the food environment of American Indians. Stores were identified by telephone survey of tribal headquarters, a commercial database, and on-site visitation. Foods were assessed using a standardized instrument containing 68 items in seven major food groups during April and May 2009. Store type and availability and cost of foods were recorded on a checklist. Fifty stores were identified on 22 American Indian reservations, including 25 convenience, 16 grocery, and 9 supermarkets. Across all stores, about 38% of checklist items were available, with supermarkets having the most and convenience stores the fewest. Foods from the dairy and sugars/sweets groups were the most prevalent, while fresh fruits/vegetables were the least. Cost of the most commonly available items was lowest in supermarkets. Seventeen reservations did not have a supermarket on their reservation, and the nearest off-reservation supermarket was about 10 miles from the tribe's headquarters, which was used as the standard for distance calculations. These results demonstrate that American Indians living on federal reservations in Washington State may have limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost. PMID:21872701

  14. Understanding the relationship between food environments, deprivation and childhood overweight and obesity: Evidence from a cross sectional England-wide study

    PubMed Central

    Cetateanu, Andreea; Jones, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Using a large cross sectional English sample, we quantified the association between weight status in children aged 4–5 and 10–11 year, characteristics of the food environment, and area deprivation. We observed a positive association between the density of unhealthy food outlets in a neighbourhood and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. An association in the opposite direction was observed for other types of food outlets, although after adjustment this was only statistically significant for older children. The prevalence of fast food and other unhealthy food outlets explained only a small proportion of the observed associations between weight status and socioeconomic deprivation. Children׳s weight status may be influenced by their local environment, particularly older children, but associations between obesity and deprivation do not appear strongly due to local food environment characteristics. PMID:24561918

  15. Understanding the relationship between food environments, deprivation and childhood overweight and obesity: evidence from a cross sectional England-wide study.

    PubMed

    Cetateanu, Andreea; Jones, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Using a large cross sectional English sample, we quantified the association between weight status in children aged 4-5 and 10-11 year, characteristics of the food environment, and area deprivation. We observed a positive association between the density of unhealthy food outlets in a neighbourhood and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. An association in the opposite direction was observed for other types of food outlets, although after adjustment this was only statistically significant for older children. The prevalence of fast food and other unhealthy food outlets explained only a small proportion of the observed associations between weight status and socioeconomic deprivation. Children׳s weight status may be influenced by their local environment, particularly older children, but associations between obesity and deprivation do not appear strongly due to local food environment characteristics. PMID:24561918

  16. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, S. L.; Hall, W. J.; Steckler, A.; Schneider, M.; Thompson, D.; Mobley, C.; Pham, T.; El ghormli, L.

    2013-01-01

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the process evaluation findings concerning the extent to which the HEALTHY nutrition intervention was implemented during the HEALTHY trial. Overall, the observed fidelity of implementing nutrition strategies improved from baseline to the end of the study. By the last semester, all but two nutrition process evaluation goals were met. The most challenging goal to implement was serving high fiber foods, including grain-based foods and legumes. The easiest goals to implement were lowering the fat content of foods offered and offering healthier beverages. The most challenging barriers experienced by research dietitians and food service staff were costs, availability of foods and student acceptance. Forming strong relationships between the research dietitians and food service staff was identified as a key strategy to meet HEALTHY nutrition goals. PMID:24107856

  17. Postpartum Teens' Perception of the Food Environments at Home and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Clarke, Megan A.; Schwarz, Cynthia D.; Haire-Joshu, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: An environment that supports healthy eating is one factor to prevent obesity. However, little is known about postpartum teen's perceptions of their home and school environments and how this relates to dietary behaviors. Purpose: This study explores the relationship between home and school environments and dietary behaviors for…

  18. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies

  19. Storing your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000534.htm Storing your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... child latch or lock. Do not use Damaged Medicine Damaged medicine may make you sick. DO NOT ...

  20. Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In England, obesity is more common in some ethnic minority groups than in Whites. This study examines the relationship between ethnic concentration and access to fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities. Methods Data on ethnic concentration, fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities were obtained at the lower super output area (LSOA) (population average of 1500). Poisson multilevel modelling was used to examine the association between own ethnic concentration and facilities, adjusted for area deprivation, urbanicity, population size and clustering of LSOAs within local authority areas. Results There was a higher proportion of ethnic minorities residing in areas classified as most deprived. Fast food outlets and supermarkets were more common and outdoor physical activity facilities were less common in most than least deprived areas. A gradient was not observed for the relationship between indoor physical activity facilities and area deprivation quintiles. In contrast to White British, increasing ethnic minority concentration was associated with increasing rates of fast food outlets. Rate ratios comparing rates of fast food outlets in high with those in low level of ethnic concentration ranged between 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.55 (Bangladeshi) and 2.62, 1.46-4.70 (Chinese). Similar to White British, however, increasing ethnic minority concentration was associated with increasing rate of supermarkets and indoor physical activity facilities. Outdoor physical activity facilities were less likely to be in high than low ethnic concentration areas for some minority groups. Conclusions Overall, ethnic minority concentration was associated with a mixture of both advantages and disadvantages in the provision of food outlets and physical activity facilities. These issues might contribute to ethnic differences in food choices and engagement in physical activity. PMID:22709527

  1. Impact of nitrogen deposition on forest and lake food webs in nitrogen-limited environments.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Cédric L; Gundale, Michael J; Sánchez, Irene S; Liess, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Increased reactive nitrogen (Nr ) deposition has raised the amount of N available to organisms and has greatly altered the transfer of energy through food webs, with major consequences for trophic dynamics. The aim of this review was to: (i) clarify the direct and indirect effects of Nr deposition on forest and lake food webs in N-limited biomes, (ii) compare and contrast how aquatic and terrestrial systems respond to increased Nr deposition, and (iii) identify how the nutrient pathways within and between ecosystems change in response to Nr deposition. We present that Nr deposition releases primary producers from N limitation in both forest and lake ecosystems and raises plants' N content which in turn benefits herbivores with high N requirements. Such trophic effects are coupled with a general decrease in biodiversity caused by different N-use efficiencies; slow-growing species with low rates of N turnover are replaced by fast-growing species with high rates of N turnover. In contrast, Nr deposition diminishes below-ground production in forests, due to a range of mechanisms that reduce microbial biomass, and decreases lake benthic productivity by switching herbivore growth from N to phosphorus (P) limitation, and by intensifying P limitation of benthic fish. The flow of nutrients between ecosystems is expected to change with increasing Nr deposition. Due to higher litter production and more intense precipitation, more terrestrial matter will enter lakes. This will benefit bacteria and will in turn boost the microbial food web. Additionally, Nr deposition promotes emergent insects, which subsidize the terrestrial food web as prey for insectivores or by dying and decomposing on land. So far, most studies have examined Nr -deposition effects on the food web base, whereas our review highlights that changes at the base of food webs substantially impact higher trophic levels and therefore food web structure and functioning. PMID:25953197

  2. Provenance Store Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  3. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  4. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  5. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  6. Interspecific Associations Among Stored-Grain Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many laboratory studies have described interspecific relationships of stored grain insects, but little is known about such relationships under field conditions. Compared to most other habitats, natural or man-made, a loaded grain silo constitutes a uniquely uniform habitat in which food availability...

  7. Models of Individual Dietary Behavior Based on Smartphone Data: The Influence of Routine, Physical Activity, Emotion, and Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Edmund; Hua, Jenna; Wu, Lemuel; Shia, Victor; Eom, Sue; Wang, May; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smartphone applications (apps) facilitate the collection of data on multiple aspects of behavior that are useful for characterizing baseline patterns and for monitoring progress in interventions aimed at promoting healthier lifestyles. Individual-based models can be used to examine whether behavior, such as diet, corresponds to certain typological patterns. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate individual-based modeling methods relevant to a person’s eating behavior, and the value of such approach compared to typical regression models. Method Using a mobile app, 2 weeks of physical activity and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data, and 6 days of diet data were collected from 12 university students recruited from a university in Kunming, a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Phone GPS data were collected for the entire 2-week period, from which exposure to various food environments along each subject’s activity space was determined. Physical activity was measured using phone accelerometry. Mobile phone EMA was used to assess self-reported emotion/feelings. The portion size of meals and food groups was determined from voice-annotated videos of meals. Individual-based regression models were used to characterize subjects as following one of 4 diet typologies: those with a routine portion sizes determined by time of day, those with portion sizes that balance physical activity (energy balance), those with portion sizes influenced by emotion, and those with portion sizes associated with food environments. Results Ample compliance with the phone-based behavioral assessment was observed for all participants. Across all individuals, 868 consumed food items were recorded, with fruits, grains and dairy foods dominating the portion sizes. On average, 218 hours of accelerometry and 35 EMA responses were recorded for each participant. For some subjects, the routine model was able to explain up to 47% of the variation in portion sizes, and

  8. Store-operate-coherence-on-value

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-11-18

    A system, method and computer program product for performing various store-operate instructions in a parallel computing environment that includes a plurality of processors and at least one cache memory device. A queue in the system receives, from a processor, a store-operate instruction that specifies under which condition a cache coherence operation is to be invoked. A hardware unit in the system runs the received store-operate instruction. The hardware unit evaluates whether a result of the running the received store-operate instruction satisfies the condition. The hardware unit invokes a cache coherence operation on a cache memory address associated with the received store-operate instruction if the result satisfies the condition. Otherwise, the hardware unit does not invoke the cache coherence operation on the cache memory device.

  9. Targeted Food Marketing to Youth: Engaging Professionals in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katras, Mary Jo; Kunkel, Kelly; Croymans, Sara R.; Routh, Brianna; Schroeder, Mary; Olson, Carrie Ann

    2014-01-01

    The use of technology provides unique ways to create an engaged online community of learning for professionals that can be integrated into existing and future Extension programming. The Targeted Food Marketing to Youth online professional development course uses strategies and tools to create and support an engaged online community.

  10. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  11. On-farm interventions to reduce epizootic bacteria in food-producing animals and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food producing animals can be reservoirs of human pathogenic bacteria such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (O157- and non-O157 Shigatoxin-producing E. coli), Salmonella, and Campylobacter, often harboring these pathogens within their gastrointestinal tracts. Carrier animals colonized by these...

  12. Improving the School Food Environment: Results from a Pilot Study in Middle Schools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective for this study was to examine the feasibility of instituting environmental changes during a 6-week pilot in school food service programs, with long-term goals of improving dietary quality and preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth. Participants included students and staff from...

  13. School Store Operation and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Bill J.

    Written to assist the teacher-sponsor responsible for operating a school store, this book offers a system developed specifically for the operation and control of such a store. It also shows ways in which a school store can be used for training students. Chapter 1 discusses a successful school store operated by students and a store record system…

  14. Virtual Golden Foods Corporation: Generic Skills in a Virtual Crisis Environment (A Pilot Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godat, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    Workplace learning in a crisis-rich environment is often difficult if not impossible to integrate into programs so that students are able to experience and apply crisis management practices and principles. This study presents the results of a pilot project that examined the effective use of a virtual reality (VR) environment as a tool to teach…

  15. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  16. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. PMID:25504570

  17. Whole-Genome Sequencing Allows for Improved Identification of Persistent Listeria monocytogenes in Food-Associated Environments

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Haley F.; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C.

    2015-01-01

    While the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food associated environments, there are no whole-genome sequence (WGS) based methods to differentiate persistent from sporadic strains. Whole-genome sequencing of 188 isolates from a longitudinal study of L. monocytogenes in retail delis was used to (i) apply single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based phylogenetics for subtyping of L. monocytogenes, (ii) use SNP counts to differentiate persistent from repeatedly reintroduced strains, and (iii) identify genetic determinants of L. monocytogenes persistence. WGS analysis revealed three prophage regions that explained differences between three pairs of phylogenetically similar populations with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types that differed by ≤3 bands. WGS-SNP-based phylogenetics found that putatively persistent L. monocytogenes represent SNP patterns (i) unique to a single retail deli, supporting persistence within the deli (11 clades), (ii) unique to a single state, supporting clonal spread within a state (7 clades), or (iii) spanning multiple states (5 clades). Isolates that formed one of 11 deli-specific clades differed by a median of 10 SNPs or fewer. Isolates from 12 putative persistence events had significantly fewer SNPs (median, 2 to 22 SNPs) than between isolates of the same subtype from other delis (median up to 77 SNPs), supporting persistence of the strain. In 13 events, nearly indistinguishable isolates (0 to 1 SNP) were found across multiple delis. No individual genes were enriched among persistent isolates compared to sporadic isolates. Our data show that WGS analysis improves food-borne pathogen subtyping and identification of persistent bacterial pathogens in food associated environments. PMID:26116683

  18. Whole-Genome Sequencing Allows for Improved Identification of Persistent Listeria monocytogenes in Food-Associated Environments.

    PubMed

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Oliver, Haley F; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-09-01

    While the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food associated environments, there are no whole-genome sequence (WGS) based methods to differentiate persistent from sporadic strains. Whole-genome sequencing of 188 isolates from a longitudinal study of L. monocytogenes in retail delis was used to (i) apply single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based phylogenetics for subtyping of L. monocytogenes, (ii) use SNP counts to differentiate persistent from repeatedly reintroduced strains, and (iii) identify genetic determinants of L. monocytogenes persistence. WGS analysis revealed three prophage regions that explained differences between three pairs of phylogenetically similar populations with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types that differed by ≤3 bands. WGS-SNP-based phylogenetics found that putatively persistent L. monocytogenes represent SNP patterns (i) unique to a single retail deli, supporting persistence within the deli (11 clades), (ii) unique to a single state, supporting clonal spread within a state (7 clades), or (iii) spanning multiple states (5 clades). Isolates that formed one of 11 deli-specific clades differed by a median of 10 SNPs or fewer. Isolates from 12 putative persistence events had significantly fewer SNPs (median, 2 to 22 SNPs) than between isolates of the same subtype from other delis (median up to 77 SNPs), supporting persistence of the strain. In 13 events, nearly indistinguishable isolates (0 to 1 SNP) were found across multiple delis. No individual genes were enriched among persistent isolates compared to sporadic isolates. Our data show that WGS analysis improves food-borne pathogen subtyping and identification of persistent bacterial pathogens in food associated environments. PMID:26116683

  19. Calculation of Accumulated Radiation Doses to Man from Radionuclides Found in Food Products and from Radionuclides in the Environment.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1981-02-17

    PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. It can be used to calculate accumulated doses to 23 possible body organs or tissues for any one or a combination of radionuclides. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in themore » environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. A chain decay scheme is used; it includes branching to account for transitions to and from isomeric states. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years.« less

  20. In-Store Experimental Approach to Pricing and Consumer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Foxall, Gordon; Saevarsson, Hugi

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed how, and to what extent, it is possible to use behavioral experimentation and relative sales analysis to study the effects of price on consumers' brand choices in the store environment. An in-store experiment was performed in four stores to investigate the effects of different prices of a target brand on consumers' relative…

  1. Application of low-background gamma-ray spectrometry to monitor radioactivity in the environment and food.

    PubMed

    Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Beach, S E; Haines, D K; Bradt, C J; Bari, A; Syed, U-F; Torres, M; Marrantino, J; Kitto, M E; Menia, T; Fielman, E

    2014-08-01

    The results are described of an upgrade of the low-background gamma-ray spectrometry laboratory at New York State Department of Health by acquiring sensitivity to low-energy gamma rays. Tuning of the spectrometer and its low-energy response characteristics are described. The spectrometer has been applied to monitor the environment by measuring aerosols and water in New York State contaminated by the 2011 Fukushima accident plume. In addition, the spectrometer has been used to monitor radioactivity in food by performing a study of cesium in Florida milk. PMID:24836905

  2. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and Drug Administration records that are stored, processed, and serviced by the National Archives and...

  3. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and Drug Administration records that are stored, processed, and serviced by the National Archives and...

  4. The Store Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical and robotic technologies are merging to present a wonderful opportunity to develop artificial limbs and prosthetic devices for humans injured on the job, in the military, or due to disease. In this challenge, students will have the opportunity to design a store or online service that specifically dedicates itself to amputees. Described…

  5. Storing and transporting energy

    DOEpatents

    McClaine, Andrew W.; Brown, Kenneth

    2010-09-07

    Among other things, hydrogen is released from water at a first location using energy from a first energy source; the released hydrogen is stored in a metal hydride slurry; and the metal hydride slurry is transported to a second location remote from the first location.

  6. Reproductive seasonality in female goats adapted to a subtropical environment persists independently of food availability.

    PubMed

    Duarte, G; Flores, J A; Malpaux, B; Delgadillo, J A

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the seasonal change in food availability provides a predictive cue that synchronizes the breeding season in goats adapted to the subtropical conditions of Northern Mexico. Groups of multiparous intact (n=7) and ovariectomized does bearing a subcutaneous implant constantly releasing estradiol-l7 beta (OVX+E; n=12) were allocated in two pens and received a constant amount of feed. Another group of OVX+E does (n=10) was incorporated into a flock raised under natural grazing conditions with seasonal fluctuations in food availability. Blood samples were taken twice weekly. Ovulation of intact goats was inferred from plasma progesterone levels. In OVX+E does plasma levels of LH were measured. Intact does displayed seasonal variations in ovulation and the breeding season lasted from September to February. OVX+E goats displayed large seasonal variations in LH secretion regardless of whether they were fed constantly indoors or kept under natural grazing conditions (P<0.0001). The mean date of increase in LH secretion varied between years (P<0.0001) but did not differ between groups (naturally grazed: August 13+/-10 days; constantly fed: August 26+/-10 days). In contrast, the seasonal decline in LH secretion differed between groups: it was consistently delayed in constantly fed animals compared to those feeding naturally (naturally grazed: January 28+/-4 days; constantly fed: February 24+/-6 days, group effect, P<0.01). These results show that local female goats from subtropical Mexico display large reproductive seasonality independently of food availability. PMID:18790595

  7. An integrated probe design for measuring food quality in a microwave environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Farrell, M.; Sheridan, C.; Lewis, E.; Zhao, W. Z.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    2007-07-01

    The work presented describes the development of a novel integrated optical sensor system for the simultaneous and online measurement of the colour and temperature of food as it cooks in a large-scale microwave and hybrid oven systems. The integrated probe contains two different sensor concepts, one to monitor temperature and based on Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) technology and a second for meat quality, based on reflection spectroscopy in the visible wavelength range. The combination of the two sensors into a single probe requires a careful configuration of the sensor approaches in the creation of an integrated probe design.

  8. Self-tuning behavioral analysis in AAL "FOOD" project pilot environments.

    PubMed

    Mora, Niccolò; Losardo, Agostino; De Munari, Ilaria; Ciampolini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral analysis, based on unobtrusive monitoring through environmental sensors, is expected to increase health awareness of AAL systems. In this paper, techniques for assessing behavioral quantitative features are discussed, suitable for detecting behavioral anomalies in an unsupervised fashion, i.e., with no need of defining target reference behaviors and of tuning user-specific threshold parameters. Such technique is being exploited for analyzing data coming from a set of European pilot sites, in the framework of the EU/AAL-JP project "FOOD", specifically focused at kitchen activity. Simple results are illustrated, suitable for proof-of-concept validation. PMID:26294487

  9. Bacterial Colonies in Solid Media and Foods: A Review on Their Growth and Interactions with the Micro-Environment

    PubMed Central

    Jeanson, Sophie; Floury, Juliane; Gagnaire, Valérie; Lortal, Sylvie; Thierry, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria, either indigenous or added, are immobilized in solid foods where they grow as colonies. Since the 80's, relatively few research groups have explored the implications of bacteria growing as colonies and mostly focused on pathogens in large colonies on agar/gelatine media. It is only recently that high resolution imaging techniques and biophysical characterization techniques increased the understanding of the growth of bacterial colonies, for different sizes of colonies, at the microscopic level and even down to the molecular level. This review covers the studies on bacterial colony growth in agar or gelatine media mimicking the food environment and in model cheese. The following conclusions have been brought to light. Firstly, under unfavorable conditions, mimicking food conditions, the immobilization of bacteria always constrains their growth in comparison with planktonic growth and increases the sensibility of bacteria to environmental stresses. Secondly, the spatial distribution describes both the distance between colonies and the size of the colonies as a function of the initial level of population. By studying the literature, we concluded that there systematically exists a threshold that distinguishes micro-colonies (radius < 100–200 μm) from macro-colonies (radius >200 μm). Micro-colonies growth resembles planktonic growth and no pH microgradients could be observed. Macro-colonies growth is slower than planktonic growth and pH microgradients could be observed in and around them due to diffusion limitations which occur around, but also inside the macro-colonies. Diffusion limitations of milk proteins have been demonstrated in a model cheese around and in the bacterial colonies. In conclusion, the impact of immobilization is predominant for macro-colonies in comparison with micro-colonies. However, the interaction between the colonies and the food matrix itself remains to be further investigated at the microscopic scale. PMID:26648910

  10. Youth Can! Results of a Pilot Trial to Improve the School Food Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sonya; Spence, Marsha; Hardin, Sonia; Clemente, Nicolle; Schoch, Ashlee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the potential of youth partnerships to improve the school environment and child nutrition. Methods: A quasi-experimental trial was conducted with 2 intervention and 3 control schools. Intervention schools selected student leaders to participate in youth-led interventions in their schools. Students (n = 104) were…

  11. Evaluating the Impact of Electronic Training on Organizational Performance in an SME Food Manufacturing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Many small to medium sized manufacturing organizations do not have adequate resources to conduct formalized workplace training or properly evaluate its results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of electronic training on workplace behavior and small business organizational performance in the manufacturing environment using…

  12. Hand hygiene regimens for the reduction of risk in food service environments.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. PMID

  13. Stored luminescence computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ge

    2014-09-01

    Phosphor nanoparticles made of doped semiconductors and pre-excited by x-ray radiation were recently reported for their luminescence emission in the range of 650-770 nm upon near-infrared (NIR) light stimulation. These nanophosphors can be functionalized as optical probes for molecular imaging. In this paper, we present stored luminescence computed tomography to reconstruct a nanophosphor distribution in an object. The propagation of x rays in a biological object allows significantly better localization and deeper penetration. Moreover, the nanophosphors, which are pre-excited with collimated x-ray beams or focused x-ray waves, can be successively stimulated for stored luminescence emissions by variable NIR stimulation patterns. The sequentially detected luminescence signals provide more information of a nanophosphor spatial distribution for more accurate image reconstruction and higher image resolution. A realistic numerical study is performed to demonstrate the feasibility and merits of the proposed approach. PMID:25321362

  14. Storing Blood Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  15. Process for storing calories

    SciTech Connect

    Perrut, M.; Ronc, M.; Valentin, P.

    1980-09-09

    A process is described for storing heat in the form of fusion/solidification latent heat which comprises passing a thermo-conductive fluid into a thermally insulated storage element containing a substance having a melting point that corresponds to the supply and heat consumption temperatures, characterized in that said fusible substance is absorbed on a microporous carrier which forms a granular bed in which the thermo-conductive fluid circulates.

  16. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions.

    PubMed

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  17. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    PubMed Central

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  18. Link flexibility: evidence for environment-dependent adaptive foraging in a food web time-series.

    PubMed

    Henri, D C; Van Veen, F J F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal variability in the distribution of feeding links in a food web can be an important stabilizing factor for these complex systems. Adaptive foraging and prey choice have been hypothesized to cause this link flexibility as organisms adjust their behavior to variation in the prey community. Here, we analyze a 10-yr time series of monthly aphid-parasitoid-secondary-parasitoid networks and show that interaction strengths for polyphagous secondary parasitoids are generally biased toward the larger host species within their fundamental niche; however, in months of higher competition for hosts, size-based biases are reduced. The results corroborate a previous hypothesis stating that host selectivity of parasitoids should be correlated to the relative likelihood of egg limitation vs. time limitation. Our results evince adaptation of foraging behavior to varying conditions affects the distribution of host-parasitoid link strengths, where link-rewiring may be integral to stability in complex communities. PMID:27459769

  19. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  20. Formative Evaluation for a Healthy Corner Store Initiative in Pitt County, North Carolina: Engaging Stakeholders for a Healthy Corner Store Initiative, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Bringolf, Karamie R.; Lloyd, Cameron L.; McGuirt, Jared T.; Lawton, Katherine K.; Morgan, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We examined the feasibility of increasing access to healthful food in corner stores to inform a Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) initiative by engaging stakeholders (corner store owners and customers) in a formative evaluation. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with corner store owners and managers (n = 11). Customer intercept surveys (n = 179) were also conducted with customers of 9 stores. Corner stores were located in rural food deserts (municipalities without a chain supermarket) and in low-income, urban municipalities in eastern North Carolina. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and double-coded. Qualitative themes related to feasibility of increasing access to healthful foods were extracted. Shopping patterns of rural and urban customers were compared by using t tests. Results Corner store owners were willing to stock more healthful foods, but they perceived that customer demand for these foods was low. Rural customers reported more frequently shopping at corner stores than urban customers and more frequently stated that the reason they do not eat more fruits and vegetables is that the stores in which they shop do not sell them. Most customers reported they would be very or somewhat likely to purchase fresh produce at a corner store. Conclusion Corner stores may be an important source of food for rural and low-income residents and thus a good place in which to intervene. The results of this formative evaluation were used to plan and evaluate a CPPW healthy corner store initiative. PMID:23866164

  1. A food retail-based intervention on food security and consumption.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A; Arku, Godwin

    2013-08-01

    The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition. PMID:23921626

  2. A Food Retail-Based Intervention on Food Security and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Richard C.; Gilliland, Jason A.; Arku, Godwin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition. PMID:23921626

  3. Lactobacillus brevis Strains from Fermented Aloe vera Survive Gastroduodenal Environment and Suppress Common Food Borne Enteropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  4. Lactobacillus brevis strains from fermented aloe vera survive gastroduodenal environment and suppress common food borne enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  5. Proteomic Differences between Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Food and Clinical Environments

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ge; Mason, Susan L.; Hudson, J. Andrew; Clerens, Stefan; Plowman, Jeffrey E.; Hussain, Malik A.

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an organism associated with a wide range of foods. It causes listeriosis, a severe illness that mainly affects people with weakened immune systems. Proteomic profiles of three different L. monocytogenes isolates were studied using 1D SDS PAGE, 2DE and mass spectrometry. The protein banding patterns generated by 1D SDS PAGE of three strains of L. monocytogenes were found to be similar. Visual observations from 2DE gel maps revealed that certain spots appeared to have intensity differences. Key differences in proteins synthesis of three strains of L. monocytogenes were found using the PDQest TM 2DE Analysis software. Comparison showed that the clinical isolate (strain SB92/844) had 53.4% and 53.9% protein profile similarity with dairy isolate (strain V7) and seafood isolate (SB92/870), respectively. The identity of selected protein spots was achieved using MALDI-TOF and ion trap mass spectrometry. It was found that certain identified proteins (i.e., a major cold shock protein and superoxide dismutase) were expressed differently between two local strains of L. monocytogenes (SB92/844, SB92/870) and one strain from overseas (V7). PMID:25513735

  6. Foraging in chemically diverse environments: energy, protein, and alternative foods influence ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by lambs.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Juan J; Provenza, Frederick D

    2005-01-01

    Interactions among nutrients and plant secondary metabolites (PSM) may influence how herbivores mix their diets and use food resources. We determined intake of a food containing a mix of terpenoids identified in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) when present in isoenergetic diets of increasing concentrations of protein (6, 9, 15, or 21% CP) or in isonitrogenous diets of increasing concentrations of energy (2.17, 2.55, 3.30, or 3.53 Mcal/kg). Lambs were offered choices between those diets with or without terpenes or between diets with terpenes and alfalfa hay. Intake of the diets with terpenes was lowest with the lowest concentrations of protein (6%) and energy (2.17 Mcal/kg) in the diets, and highest with diets of 15% CP and 3.53 Mcal/kg. In contrast, when terpenes were absent from the diets, lambs consumed similar amounts of all four diets with different concentrations of protein, and more of the diets with intermediate amounts of energy. When given a choice between the diet with or without terpenes, lambs preferred the diet without terpenes. When lambs were offered choices between terpene-containing diets and alfalfa, energy and protein concentrations influenced the amount of terpenes animals ingested. Energy densities higher than alfalfa, and protein concentrations higher than 6%, increased intake of the terpene-containing diet. Thus, the nutritional environment interacted with terpenes to influence preference such that lambs offered diets of higher energy or protein concentration ate more terpenes when forced, but not when offered alternative food without terpenes. The nutrients supplied by a plant and its neighbors likely influence how much PSM an animal can ingest, which in turn may affect the dynamics of plant communities, and the distribution of herbivores in a landscape. We discuss implications of these findings for traditional views of grazing refuges and varied diets in herbivores. PMID:15839485

  7. The explicit token store

    SciTech Connect

    Culler, D.E. ); Papadopoulos, G.M. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper presents an unusually simple approach to dynamic dataflow execution, called the Explicit Token Store (ETS) architecture, and its current realization in Monsoon. The essence of dynamic dataflow execution is captured by a simple transition on state bits associated with storage local to a processor. Low-level storage management is performed by the compiler in assigning nodes to slots in an activation frame, rather than dynamically in hardware. The processor is simple, highly pipelined, and quite general. There is exactly one instruction executed for each action on the dataflow graph. Thus, the machine-oriented ETS model provides new insight into the real cost of direct execution of dataflow graphs.

  8. Improving the school food environment: results from a pilot study in middle schools.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen W; Hartstein, Jill; Reynolds, Kim D; Vu, Maihan; Resnicow, Ken; Greene, Natasha; White, Mamie A

    2007-03-01

    Our objective for this study was to examine the feasibility of instituting environmental changes during a 6-week pilot in school foodservice programs, with long-term goals of improving dietary quality and preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth. Participants included students and staff from six middle schools in three states. Formative assessment with students and school staff was conducted in the spring of 2003 to inform the development of school foodservice policy changes. Thirteen potential policy goals were delineated. These formed the basis for the environmental change pilot intervention implemented during the winter/spring of 2004. Questionnaires were used to assess the extent to which the 13 foodservice goals were achieved. Success was defined as achieving 75% of goals not met at baseline. Daily data were collected on goal achievement using the schools' daily food production and sales records. Qualitative data were also collected after the pilot study to obtain feedback from students and staff. Formative research with staff and students identified potential environmental changes. Most schools made substantial changes in the National School Lunch Program meal and snack bar/a la carte offerings. Vending goals were least likely to be achieved. Only one school did not meet the 75% goal achievement objective. Based on the objective data as well as qualitative feedback from student focus groups and interviews with students and school staff, healthful school foodservice changes in the cafeteria and snack bar can be implemented and were acceptable to the staff and students. Implementing longer-term and more ambitious changes and assessing cost issues and the potential enduring impact of these changes on student dietary change and disease risk reduction merits investigation. PMID:17324667

  9. The UK geochemical environment and cardiovascular diseases: magnesium in food and water.

    PubMed

    Davies, B E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) contribute approximately one-third to noncommunicable diseases in the UK. The central role of magnesium in CVDs (enzyme activity, cardiac signalling, etc.) is well established. Mortality and morbidity rates for CVDs may be inversely related to water hardness, suggesting a role for environmental magnesium. Published official and quasi-official data sources were evaluated to establish a model magnesium intake for a representative adult: standardised reference individual (SRI), standardised reference male (SRM) or standardised reference female (SRF). For typical dietary constituents, only tap water is probably locally derived and bottled water may not be. Fruits and vegetables are imported from many countries, while meat, dairy and cereal products represent a composite of UK source areas. Alcoholic beverages provide magnesium, there is doubt about its absorptive efficiency, and they are not locally derived. A simple model was devised to examine the effect of varying dietary contributions to total daily intake of magnesium. Omitting tap or bottled water, the combined intake, solid food plus alcoholic beverages, is 10.57 mmol Mg (84.5 % RNI) for the SRM and for the SRF, 8.10 mmol Mg (71.7 % RNI). Consumers drinking water derived from reservoirs or rivers, or supplementing it with the purest bottled water, improve their magnesium intake only slightly compared with water containing no magnesium. Choosing bottled water with high magnesium content when the public supply derives from rivers or reservoirs partially satisfies magnesium needs. Real improvement in SRI magnesium nutrition is seen only where water is hard. However, this conclusion cannot be validated until new measurement technologies for body magnesium become available. PMID:25528218

  10. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices. PMID:21599955

  11. Land Desertification-An Emerging Threat to Environment and Food Security of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshad, M.; Inoue, M.; Ashraf, M.; Faridullah; Delower, Hossain K. M.; Tsunekawa, A.

    The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation. There is a serious problem of desertification in many parts of Pakistan. Population pressure along with the demand for more food, fodder and fuelwood has generated a chain of interrelated economic, social and environmental issues associated with the land degradation inside Pakistan. A variety of natural and human factors are contributing to desertification and severely impairs the biological productivity of lands across the country, including dwindling vegetation cover, overgrazing, flooding, over exploitation of water and land resources, over cultivation of marginal lands, deforestation, soil erosion, salinization, sodication and the use of inappropriate technologies. Unsustainable agricultural activities including inadequate soil conservation, cultivation of steep slopes, cultivation without adequate fallow periods, unbalanced fertilizer use and improper irrigation management coupled with the misuse of prime agricultural land for urbanization/industrialization had a devastating impact on land resources. The increased pressure on land with low productivity and environmental pollution through industrial wastes has further exacerbated the prevailing condition. In spite of the concerted national efforts to mitigate the effects of drought, combating desertification is still one of the major challenges to the people of the country. The action necessary to help avert desertification is to educate people as to the value of precious land and water resources. The present deserted situation is directly related to the failures of the unrealistic resource management policies. Various approaches are being applied to arrest the menace of desertification. The institutional set-up for formulation and implementation of programs and policies is being strengthened in the country. Numbers of land reclamation projects have been launched. The

  12. Food environment, walkability, and public open spaces are associated with incident development of cardio-metabolic risk factors in a biomedical cohort.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Haren, Matthew T; Howard, Natasha J; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether residential environment characteristics related to food (unhealthful/healthful food sources ratio), walkability and public open spaces (POS; number, median size, greenness and type) were associated with incidence of four cardio-metabolic risk factors (pre-diabetes/diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, abdominal obesity) in a biomedical cohort (n=3205). Results revealed that the risk of developing pre-diabetes/diabetes was lower for participants in areas with larger POS and greater walkability. Incident abdominal obesity was positively associated with the unhealthful food environment index. No associations were found with hypertension or dyslipidaemia. Results provide new evidence for specific, prospective associations between the built environment and cardio-metabolic risk factors. PMID:24880234

  13. Availability of Vending Machines and School Stores in California Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisse-Egbuonye, Nafissatou; Liles, Sandy; Schmitz, Katharine E.; Kassem, Nada; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the availability of foods sold in vending machines and school stores in United States public and private schools, and associations of availability with students' food purchases and consumption. Methods: Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests, and Spearman product-moment correlations were conducted on data collected…

  14. Control of stored product pests by ionizing radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food irradiation for prevention of food-borne illness and disinfestation of commodities of pests is increasing in a number of countries. The goal of this review is to analyze the literature and current use of irradiation to control stored-product pests and suggest research to optimize its potential....

  15. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    PubMed

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-co