Science.gov

Sample records for food supply chain

  1. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  2. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. PMID:26446198

  3. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  4. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the

  5. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  6. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  7. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    PubMed

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  8. Food waste within food supply chains: quantification and potential for change to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Parfitt, Julian; Barthel, Mark; Macnaughton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Food waste in the global food supply chain is reviewed in relation to the prospects for feeding a population of nine billion by 2050. Different definitions of food waste with respect to the complexities of food supply chains (FSCs)are discussed. An international literature review found a dearth of data on food waste and estimates varied widely; those for post-harvest losses of grain in developing countries might be overestimated. As much of the post-harvest loss data for developing countries was collected over 30 years ago, current global losses cannot be quantified. A significant gap exists in the understanding of the food waste implications of the rapid development of ‘BRIC’ economies. The limited data suggest that losses are much higher at the immediate post-harvest stages in developing countries and higher for perishable foods across industrialized and developing economies alike. For affluent economies, post-consumer food waste accounts for the greatest overall losses. To supplement the fragmentary picture and to gain a forward view, interviews were conducted with international FSC experts. The analyses highlighted the scale of the problem, the scope for improved system efficiencies and the challenges of affecting behavioural change to reduce post-consumer waste in affluent populations. PMID:20713403

  9. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  10. Supply chain management for small business--how to avoid being part of the food chain.

    PubMed

    Knechtges, J P; Watts, C A

    2000-08-01

    A supply chain is a series of customer and supplier relationships that extend throughout and beyond the company. It is an interwoven set of links that together form a chain supplying our customers in a seamless and integrated fashion delivering a high level of customer satisfaction. Supply chain management (SCM) integrates all activities so they are focused on customer satisfaction (both internally and externally). One of the things this article will attempt to accomplish is to provide a clear understanding of SCM's positive impact on customer service as well as on improving profitability, cash flow, product cycle times, and communication. Whether we go forward in the supply chain to the final end-user or backward in the supply chain to our supplier's suppliers, SCM will significantly improve our ability to serve our customers. PMID:11183383

  11. Making traceability work across the entire food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tejas; Buckley, Greg; McEntire, Jennifer C; Lothian, Paul; Sterling, Brian; Hickey, Caitlin

    2013-12-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists held Traceability Research Summits on July 14, August 22, and November 1, 2011, to address how to meet the growing requirement for agriculture and food traceability. Each meeting had a group of about 50 individuals who came from food companies, trade associations, local, state, and federal governments, 3rd-party traceability solution providers, not-for-profit corporations, consultants, and consumer groups. They discussed and deliberated the objectives of traceability and the means to develop product tracing in the food system. A total of 70 people participated in the 3 summits. These individuals were invited to participate in a small workgroup responsible for considering the details related to product tracing and presenting draft concepts to the larger group on November 1, 2011, in Chicago. During this meeting, the larger assembly further refined the concepts and came to an agreement on the basic principles and overall design of the desired approach to traceability. PMID:24138197

  12. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    PubMed

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J

    2012-11-01

    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. PMID:23032564

  13. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  14. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. PMID:26996261

  15. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  16. 78 FR 36711 - Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII-Drug Supply Chain; Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII--Drug Supply Chain; Standards for Admission of Imported Drugs, Registration of...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification of public meeting; request for...

  17. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  18. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Localizing Food Systems: The Case of Dairy Supply Chains in the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Charles F; He, Xi; Gómez, Miguel I; Gao, H O; Hill, Elaine

    2015-10-20

    We developed and evaluated an empirical model of the U.S. dairy supply chain with a high degree of spatial and product disaggregation to assess the impacts of increasing localization of the northeast region's fluid milk supply on food miles, supply chain costs, greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, economic activity, and employment. Evaluation included comparison to regional production values and sensitivity analysis of demand and unit cost assumptions. Our analysis compares a baseline to two localization scenarios based on state boundaries and multiple-state subregions. Localization scenarios increased total distances fluid milk traveled by 7-15%, overall supply chain costs by 1-2%, and emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 equivalent) criteria pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm associated with fluid milk transportation by 7-15% per month. The impacts of localization on employment and economic activity are positive, but changes are small on a percentage basis. Our analyses indicate that the definition used for localization has an impact on outcomes and that efforts to localize food systems may benefit from a more systems-oriented approach. PMID:26401757

  19. Understanding transferable supply chain lessons and practices to a "high-tech" industry using guidelines from a primary sector industry: a case study in the food industry supply chain.

    PubMed

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E; Coronado, Etienne S

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a "high-tech" industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a "high-tech" industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in "low-tech" industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived "low-tech" industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a "high-tech" industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a "low-tech" industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  20. Understanding Transferable Supply Chain Lessons and Practices to a “High-Tech” Industry Using Guidelines from a Primary Sector Industry: A Case Study in the Food Industry Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E.; Coronado, Etienne S.

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a “high-tech” industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a “high-tech” industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in “low-tech” industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived “low-tech” industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a “high-tech” industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a “low-tech” industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  1. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  2. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  3. Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Supply Chain and Its Implications for FDA Policy Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Zawack, Kelson; Li, Min; Booth, James G; Love, Will; Lanzas, Cristina; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-09-01

    In response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. Given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. We have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). We examined the trends in both AMR proportion and MIC between 2004 and 2012 at slaughter and retail stages. We investigated the makeup of variation in these data and estimated the sample and effect size requirements necessary to distinguish an effect of the policy change. Finally, we applied our approach to take a detailed look at the 2005 withdrawal of approval for the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin in poultry water. Slaughter and retail showed similar trends. Both AMR proportion and MIC were valuable in assessing AMR, capturing different information. Most variation was within years, not between years, and accounting for geographic location explained little additional variation. At current rates of data collection, a 1-fold change in MIC should be detectable in 5 years and a 6% decrease in percent resistance could be detected in 6 years following establishment of a new resistance rate. Analysis of the enrofloxacin policy change showed the complexities of the AMR policy with no statistically significant change in resistance of both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to ciprofloxacin, another second-generation fluoroquinolone. PMID:27324772

  4. A half-century of production-phase greenhouse gas emissions from food loss & waste in the global food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen D; Reay, David S; Higgins, Peter; Bomberg, Elizabeth

    2016-11-15

    Research on loss & waste of food meant for human consumption (FLW) and its environmental impact typically focuses on a single or small number of commodities in a specific location and point in time. However, it is unclear how trends in global FLW and potential for climate impact have evolved. Here, by utilising the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheet data, we expand upon existing literature. Firstly, we provide a differentiated (by commodity, country and supply chain stage) bottom-up approach; secondly, we conduct a 50-year longitudinal analysis of global FLW and its production-phase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and thirdly, we trace food wastage and its associated emissions through the entire food supply chain. Between 1961 and 2011 the annual amount of FLW by mass grew a factor of three - from 540Mt to 1.6Gt; associated production-phase (GHG) emissions more than tripled (from 680Mt to 2.2Gt CO2e). A 44% increase in global average per capita FLW emissions was also identified - from 225kg CO2e in 1961 to 323kg CO2e in 2011. The regional weighting within this global average changing markedly over time; in 1961 developed countries accounted for 48% of FLW and less than a quarter (24%) in 2011. The largest increases in FLW-associated GHG emissions were from developing economies, specifically China and Latin America - primarily from increasing losses in fruit and vegetables. Over the period examined, cumulatively such emissions added almost 68Gt CO2e to the atmospheric GHG stock; an amount the rough equivalent of two years of emissions from all anthropogenic sources at present rates. Building up from the most granular data available, this study highlights the growth in the climate burden of FLW emissions, and thus the need to improve efficiency in food supply chains to mitigate future emissions. PMID:27432722

  5. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management. PMID:12866156

  6. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    PubMed

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  7. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  8. Forecasting Food Supply Chain Developments in Lagging Rural Regions: Evidence from the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilbery, Brian; Maye, Damian; Kneafsey, Moya; Jenkins, Tim; Walkley, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Endemic problems in EU "lagging rural regions" (LRRs) are well documented and various support mechanisms have long been in place to help overcome structural difficulties. Nevertheless, new rural development architectures are now being sought and some scholars have posited that LRRs may benefit from the "quality (re)turn" in food and a relative…

  9. Supply Chain Coordination in Hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, Nazaré; de Sousa, Jorge Pinho

    This paper presents an innovative approach to support the definition of strategies for the design of alternative configurations of hospital supply chains. This approach was developed around a hybrid Tabu Search / Variable Neighbourhood Search metaheuristic, that uses several neighbourhood structures. The flexibility of the procedure allows its application to supply chains with different topologies and atypical cost characteristics. A preliminary computational experience shows the approach potential in solving large scale supply chain configuration problems. The future incorporation of this approach in a broader Decision Support System (DSS) will provide a tool that can significantly contribute to an increase of healthcare supply chains efficiency and encourage the establishment of collaborative partnerships between their members.

  10. 75 FR 16157 - Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``2010 PDA/FDA Pharmaceutical Supply Chain...

  11. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  12. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice. PMID:19885962

  13. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  14. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  15. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    PubMed

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come. PMID:15559580

  16. Zapping the food supply

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The idea of exposing food to gamma radiation is over 30 years old, and in 1963 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to permit the irradiation of wheat. Over the years, a few more foodstuffs such as spices and tea were added, but in 1984 the FDA started to approve irradiation of a much broader list of products which now includes meat, poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Simultaneously the FDA has increased the levels of radiation that may be used. The FDA's recent willingness to allow most of the food supply to be irradiated - and at high doses - has triggered an acrimonious debate. The amount of radiation involved is substantial, with intensities millions of times greater than that of an ordinary chest X-ray. The announced goal of promoters of food irradiation is to obtain general approval for the use of up to one million rad. Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor has alleged radioactivity been at issue in the debate. But there is concern that foods processed by irradiation may contain radiolytic products that could have toxic effects. 12 refs.

  17. Supply chain challenges. building relationships.

    PubMed

    Beth, Scott; Burt, David N; Copacino, William; Gopal, Chris; Lee, Hau L; Lynch, Robert Porter; Morris, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Supply chain management is all about software and systems, right? Put in the best technology, sit back, and watch as your processes run smoothly and the savings roll in? Apparently not. When HBR convened a panel of leading thinkers in the field of supply chain management, technology was not top of mind. People and relationships were the dominant issues of the day. The opportunities and problems created by globalization, for example, are requiring companies to establish relationships with new types of suppliers. The ever-present pressure for speed and cost containment is making it even more important to break down stubbornly high internal barriers and establish more effective cross-functional relationships. The costs of failure have never been higher. The leading supply chain performers are applying new technology, new innovations, and process thinking to far greater advantage than the laggards, reaping tremendous gains in all the variables that affect shareholder value: cost, customer service, asset productivity, and revenue generation. And the gap between the leaders and the losers is growing in almost every industry. This roundtable gathered many of the leading thinkers and doers in the field of supply chain management, including practitioners Scott Beth of Intuit, Sandra Morris of Intel, and Chris Gopal of Unisys. David Burt of the University of San Diego and Stanford's Hau Lee bring the latest research from academia. Accenture's William Copacino and the Warren Company's Robert Porter Lynch offer the consultant's perspectives. Together, they take a wide-ranging view of such topics as developing talent, the role of the chief executive, and the latest technologies, exploring both the tactical and the strategic in the current state of supply chain management. PMID:12858712

  18. Quality tracing in meat supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production. PMID:24797136

  19. The Official Control beyond the Official Control. How To Plan And Schedule Controls Starting From Risk Assessment Along The Agro-Food Supply Chain.

    PubMed

    Panunzio, M F; Caporizzi, R; Lagravinese, D; Conversano, M

    2015-01-01

    Every year the Italian Ministry of Health, on the basis of regional data, draws up the "Report on Official Controls" to be submitted to the Parliament. The report contains abundant data, diagrams and charts and illustrates the number and type of official controls (OC) performed by the pertinent Bodies (Ministry of Health, Regional and Local Health Authorities) over the previous year on Food Business Operators (FBO), in accordance with the EC Regulation 882/2004. The trend - which has consolidated over the years - relates to the multiplicity of OC and shows a decrease of such controls compared to an increase in "non-conformities". OC frequency is established by the Regional Authorities on the basis of the categorisation of both a "generic risk" for companies calculated taking into account the probability of occurrence of a "non-conformity", and a "specific" risk, assessed on the basis of the results of the OC actually performed on a given "Operatore del Settore Alimentare" (Food Sector Operator, in Italian: OSA). Thus, categorisation (i.e. the probability of occurrence of non-conformities) is the main driver of the OC scheduling and planning process. We have been asking ourselves whether the current OC planning/scheduling method is still suitable for ensuring food safety in the face of internalisation of the food supply chain. As a matter of fact, food safety is now becoming increasingly variable due to the globalization of consumption where "farm to fork", rather than "border to fork", food safety must be ensured. On the basis of these considerations, a different OC planning /scheduling method is being proposed based on the assessment of risks and the estimation of the occurrence of the same along the agro-food chain. PMID:26051149

  20. Opinions on Fresh Produce Food Safety and Quality Standards by Fresh Produce Supply Chain Experts from the Global South and North.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Nanyunja, Jessica; Jordaan, Danie; Luning, Pieternel; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the results of an on-line survey of fresh produce supply chain experts who work with producers from the Global North (n = 41, 20 countries) and the Global South (n = 63, 29 countries). They expressed their opinion using 1 to 5 Likert scales on several items related to four types of food safety and quality standards and legislation: Codex Alimentarius standards, European Union legislation, national legislation, and private standards. The results reflect the different circumstances under which the Southern and Northern producers operate in relation to the local organization, regulation, and support of the sector; but they also indicate similar challenges, in particular, the challenge of private standards, which were perceived to demand a higher implementation effort than the other three types of standards. Private standards were also strongly perceived to exclude Southern and Northern small- and medium-scale producers from high-value markets, whereas European Union legislation was perceived to strongly exclude, in particular, small- and medium-scale Southern producers. The results further highlight concerns about costly control measures and third-party certification that are required by downstream buyers but that are mostly paid for by upstream suppliers. Food standards are seen in their dual role as a catalyst for implementation of structured food safety management systems on the one hand and as a nontariff barrier to trade on the other hand. The results of the survey also pointed up the advantages of enforcing food safety and food quality standards in terms of knowledge spillover to noncertified activities, increased revenues, and improved food safety of delivered produce. Survey results highlight the importance of technical assistance and support of producers by governments and producer cooperatives or trade associations in the implementation and certification of food standards, along with increased awareness of and training of individuals in

  1. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: the influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Ruud; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Ciska, Ewa; Holst, Birgit; Rowland, Ian; De Schrijver, Remi; Hansen, Magnor; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Mithen, Richard; Dekker, Matthijs

    2009-09-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these vegetables and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Animal studies have shown changes in enzyme activities and DNA damage resulting from consumption of Brassica vegetables or isothiocyanates, the breakdown products (BDP) of GLSs in the body. Mechanistic studies have begun to identify the ways in which the compounds may exert their protective action but the relevance of these studies to protective effects in the human alimentary tract is as yet unproven. In vitro studies with a number of specific isothiocyanates have suggested mechanisms that might be the basis of their chemoprotective effects. The concentration and composition of the GLSs in different plants, but also within a plant (e.g. in the seeds, roots or leaves), can vary greatly and also changes during plant development. Furthermore, the effects of various factors in the supply chain of Brassica vegetables including breeding, cultivation, storage and processing on intake and bioavailability of GLSs are extensively discussed in this paper. PMID:19035553

  2. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  3. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  4. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    PubMed

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  5. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  6. Learning to Integrate: Supply Chains Reconceptualised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sense, Andrew J.; Clements, Michael D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains a conception of supply chains from a situated learning perspective. This non-conventional supply chain perspective invites the reader to consider supply chain scenarios as "situated learning opportunities involving multiple communities of practice" interacting and participating together. It is argued that by…

  7. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    PubMed

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. PMID:23611335

  8. Role of Waterborne Pathogens in the Food Supply Chain: Implications to Risk Management with Local and Global Perspectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial risk assessment (MRA) in the food industry is used to support HACCP – which largely focuses on bacterial pathogen control in processing foodstuffs Potential role of microbially-contaminated water used in food production is not as well understood Emergence...

  9. Food Chain Security and Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric

    In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

  10. 78 FR 51192 - Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program AGENCY: Food and Drug... importing. FDA announced this pilot program in the Federal Register of January 15, 2009 (74 FR 2605... on the collection of information was issued June 20, 2012 (77 FR 37055). The 2009 and 2012...

  11. Teaching Lean Six Sigma within a Supply Chain Context: The Airplane Supply Chain Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Scott C.; Goldsby, Thomas J.; Bailey, Ana M.; Oh, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Lean six sigma is a management methodology that firms can employ to achieve substantial improvement in supply chain performance. However, few pedagogical exercises facilitate students' use of a comprehensive set of lean six sigma principles within a supply chain context. We describe the Airplane Supply Chain Simulation that helps students…

  12. Essential tools of supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Buddress, L; Raedels, A

    2000-08-01

    At a recent conference, the keynote speaker provoked an incredulous response when he said, "Today, competition among individual firms is dead." He then went on to explain that today, competition is supply chain against supply chain. Whichever firm has the superior supply chain will win out in the marketplace. Given the global marketplace in which we all operate, most of us would agree that his statements are true. How does a firm establish a world-class supply base? What kinds of contracts and agreements are necessary to support the diverse requirements of today's firms? How should a firm select from among the available contract types? These are foundation questions for supply chain management. PMID:11183384

  13. Supply chain optimization for pediatric perioperative departments.

    PubMed

    Davis, Janice L; Doyle, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Economic challenges compel pediatric perioperative departments to reduce nonlabor supply costs while maintaining the quality of patient care. Optimization of the supply chain introduces a framework for decision making that drives fiscally responsible decisions. The cost-effective supply chain is driven by implementing a value analysis process for product selection, being mindful of product sourcing decisions to reduce supply expense, creating logistical efficiency that will eliminate redundant processes, and managing inventory to ensure product availability. The value analysis approach is an analytical methodology for product selection that involves product evaluation and recommendation based on consideration of clinical benefit, overall financial impact, and revenue implications. PMID:21884843

  14. Study on Green Supply Chain Management Based on Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jiang; Li-jun, Zhou

    The article starts with circular economy and the connotation of green supply chain, then analyzes the difference between green supply chain and traditional supply chain and elaborates the content of green supply chain management. On that basis, the approach to implement green supply chain management in china shall be put forward.

  15. Antiretroviral procurement and supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Ripin, David J; Jamieson, David; Meyers, Amy; Warty, Umesh; Dain, Mary; Khamsi, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Procurement, the country-level process of ordering antiretrovirals (ARVs), and supply chain management, the mechanism by which they are delivered to health-care facilities, are critical processes required to move ARVs from manufacturers to patients. To provide a glimpse into the ARV procurement and supply chain, the following pages provide an overview of the primary stakeholders, principal operating models, and policies and regulations involved in ARV procurement. Also presented are key challenges that need to be addressed to ensure that the supply chain is not a barrier to the goal of universal coverage. This article will cover the steps necessary to order and distribute ARVs, including different models of delivery, key stakeholders involved, strategic considerations that vary depending on context and policies affecting them. The single drug examples given illustrate the complications inherent in fragmented supply and demand-driven models of procurement and supply chain management, and suggest tools for navigating these hurdles that will ultimately result in more secure and reliable ARV provision. Understanding the dynamics of ARV supply chain is important for the global health community, both to ensure full and efficient treatment of persons living with HIV as well as to inform the supply chain decisions for other public health products. PMID:25310145

  16. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  17. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  18. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  19. 77 FR 58811 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Meeting AGENCY... notice announces a public meeting of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (Committee... comments may be mailed to Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness, Office of Service...

  20. 78 FR 59706 - Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is correcting a document that appeared in the Federal Register of August 20, 2013 (78 FR 51192). The document announced the start of the Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program (SSCPP). The document was published with an incorrect email address for the SSCPP mailbox. This document corrects that error. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Katharine Neckers, Center......

  1. Replenishable food supply on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The design team's present objective is to design a facility which will provide an environment to grow plants on the surface of Mars for a continuous supply of food for a ten-man crew. The main focus of the project is the design of a greenhouse. Concentration of the current design effort is on the outer structure, internal layout, and construction methods. The project was conducted by undergraduate students at Prairie View A&M University during Fall 1989 and Spring 1990.

  2. Alignment of Information Systems with Supply Chains: Impacts on Supply Chain Performance and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qrunfleh, Sufian M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an important focus of researchers has been on supply chain management (SCM), as many organizations believe that effective SCM is the key to building and sustaining competitive advantage for their products/services. To manage the supply chain, companies need to adopt an SCM strategy (SCMS) and implement appropriate SCM…

  3. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  4. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    PubMed

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  5. Integration of vaccine supply chains with other health commodity supply chains: a framework for decision making.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Prashant; Lydon, Patrick; Oswald, Julianna; Dicko, Modibo; Zaffran, Michel

    2014-11-28

    One of the primary objectives of National Immunization Programs is to strengthen and optimize immunization supply chains so that vaccines are delivered to the end recipients effectively, efficiently and sustainably. As a result of larger investments in global health and a wider portfolio of vaccines, global agencies are recognizing the need for vaccine supply chains to operate at their most optimal levels. Integration with other supply chains is often presented as a strategy to improve efficiency. However, it remains unclear if the proposed benefits from integration of vaccine supply chains with other supply chains will outweigh the costs. This paper provides a framework for deciding where such integration offers the most significant benefits. It also cautions about the pitfalls of integration as a one size fits all strategy. It also highlights the need for systematic collection of cost and efficiency data in order to understand the value of integration and other such initiatives. PMID:25446826

  6. Towards biotracing in food chains.

    PubMed

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran; Bouquin, Solveig Lind; Skiby, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly, the integration of these disciplines will lead to better capability in full-chain tracing and tracking biological contaminations (biotracing). The advantages of improved biotraceability are faster intervention, limited recalls and more targeted remedial action. The project is not dealing with risk assessments but developing tools that can be used in "second-generation" risk assessments involving quantitative microbiology. This concept is the core activity of BIOTRACER, which is an Integrated Project (2007-2011) funded by the EU 6th Framework Programme. The research in biotracing is organised into five Research Areas, and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several SMEs, and relevant International Cooperation (INCO) countries. The Consortium includes experts in predictive microbiology, database developers, software companies, risk assessors, risk managers, system biologists, food and molecular microbiologists, legislative officers, standardization and validation members and food retailers. The outcomes will ensure a more reliable and rapid response to a microbial contamination event. PMID:20627434

  7. The science of sustainable supply chains.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Dara

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in the science and technology of global supply chain management offer near-real-time demand-response systems for decision-makers across production networks. Technology is helping propel "fast fashion" and "lean manufacturing," so that companies are better able to deliver products consumers want most. Yet companies know much less about the environmental and social impacts of their production networks. The failure to measure and manage these impacts can be explained in part by limitations in the science of sustainability measurement, as well as by weaknesses in systems to translate data into information that can be used by decision-makers inside corporations and government agencies. There also remain continued disincentives for firms to measure and pay the full costs of their supply chain impacts. I discuss the current state of monitoring, measuring, and analyzing information related to supply chain sustainability, as well as progress that has been made in translating this information into systems to advance more sustainable practices by corporations and consumers. Better data, decision-support tools, and incentives will be needed to move from simply managing supply chains for costs, compliance, and risk reduction to predicting and preventing unsustainable practices. PMID:24904157

  8. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Driven by the Energy and Independence Act of 2007 mandate to increase production of alternative fuels and to ensure that this increase causes minimal environmental impact, a project to design sustainable biofuel supply chains has been developed. This effort uses life cycle asses...

  9. Design of supply chain in fuzzy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kandukuri Narayana; Subbaiah, Kambagowni Venkata; Singh, Ganja Veera Pratap

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, customer expectations are increasing and organizations are prone to operate in an uncertain environment. Under this uncertain environment, the ultimate success of the firm depends on its ability to integrate business processes among supply chain partners. Supply chain management emphasizes cross-functional links to improve the competitive strategy of organizations. Now, companies are moving from decoupled decision processes towards more integrated design and control of their components to achieve the strategic fit. In this paper, a new approach is developed to design a multi-echelon, multi-facility, and multi-product supply chain in fuzzy environment. In fuzzy environment, mixed integer programming problem is formulated through fuzzy goal programming in strategic level with supply chain cost and volume flexibility as fuzzy goals. These fuzzy goals are aggregated using minimum operator. In tactical level, continuous review policy for controlling raw material inventories in supplier echelon and controlling finished product inventories in plant as well as distribution center echelon is considered as fuzzy goals. A non-linear programming model is formulated through fuzzy goal programming using minimum operator in the tactical level. The proposed approach is illustrated with a numerical example.

  10. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently put forth a new vision for environmental protection that states that sustainability is our “True North”. In support of this new vision, an effort to design supply chains to ...

  11. Analysing biomass torrefaction supply chain costs.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Flodén, Jonas; Nordin, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a techno-economic system model to evaluate how logistics and production parameters affect the torrefaction supply chain costs under Swedish conditions. The model consists of four sub-models: (1) supply system, (2) a complete energy and mass balance of drying, torrefaction and densification, (3) investment and operating costs of a green field, stand-alone torrefaction pellet plant, and (4) distribution system to the gate of an end user. The results show that the torrefaction supply chain reaps significant economies of scale up to a plant size of about 150-200 kiloton dry substance per year (ktonDS/year), for which the total supply chain costs accounts to 31.8 euro per megawatt hour based on lower heating value (€/MWhLHV). Important parameters affecting total cost are amount of available biomass, biomass premium, logistics equipment, biomass moisture content, drying technology, torrefaction mass yield and torrefaction plant capital expenditures (CAPEX). PMID:23747439

  12. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Caldeira, Ken

    2011-01-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally attributed to the country where the emissions are produced (i.e., where the fuels are burned). However, these production-based accounts represent a single point in the value chain of fossil fuels, which may have been extracted elsewhere and may be used to provide goods or services to consumers elsewhere. We present a consistent set of carbon inventories that spans the full supply chain of global CO2 emissions, finding that 10.2 billion tons CO2 or 37% of global emissions are from fossil fuels traded internationally and an additional 6.4 billion tons CO2 or 23% of global emissions are embodied in traded goods. Our results reveal vulnerabilities and benefits related to current patterns of energy use that are relevant to climate and energy policy. In particular, if a consistent and unavoidable price were imposed on CO2 emissions somewhere along the supply chain, then all of the parties along the supply chain would seek to impose that price to generate revenue from taxes collected or permits sold. The geographical concentration of carbon-based fuels and relatively small number of parties involved in extracting and refining those fuels suggest that regulation at the wellhead, mine mouth, or refinery might minimize transaction costs as well as opportunities for leakage. PMID:22006314

  13. 48 CFR 252.239-7018 - Supply chain risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supply chain risk. 252.239... Clauses 252.239-7018 Supply chain risk. As prescribed in 239.7306(b), use the following clause: Supply... contractor incidental to a contract. Supply chain risk means the risk that an adversary may...

  14. Understanding your supply chain to reduce the risk of supply chain disruption.

    PubMed

    Wildgoose, Nick; Brennan, Patrick; Thompson, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Supply chains are at the heart of the way in which organisations operate and compete today; they also play a critical role in overall organisation performance. In the context of increasingly complex and global supply chains, the actions taken to drive down costs are likely to drive risk into the supply chain. The frequency of supply chain disruptions is high and this paper offers practical advice to help reduce the frequency and cost associated with these. There is advice to help with the understanding of how to identify critical suppliers. The reader is guided through comprehensive risk assessment and mitigation approaches and a selection of practical risk solutions and tools that you can use is described. There is a section on the 'dos and don'ts' relating to supplier due diligence. For those organisations facing the challenge of drawing up a business case relating to investment in improving supply chain resiliency, there is also a section outlining some of the business benefits of improving supply chain resiliency. PMID:22948106

  15. Performance measurement for supply chain management and evaluation criteria determination for reverse supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongar, N. Elif

    2004-12-01

    Today, since customers are able to obtain similar-quality products for similar prices, the lead time has become the only preference criterion for most of the consumers. Therefore, it is crucial that the lead time, i.e., the time spent from the raw material phase till the manufactured good reaches the customer, is minimized. This issue can be investigated under the title of Supply Chain Management (SCM). An efficiently managed supply chain can lead to reduced response time for customers. To achieve this, continuous observation of supply chain efficiency, i.e., a constant performance evaluation of the current SCM is required. Widely used conventional performance measurement methods lack the ability to evaluate a SCM since the supply chain is a dynamic system that requires a more thorough and flexible performance measurement technique. Balanced Scorecard (BS) is an efficient tool for measuring the performance of dynamic systems and has a proven capability of providing the decision makers with the appropriate feedback data. In addition to SCM, a relatively new management field, namely reverse supply chain management (RSCM), also necessitates an appropriate evaluation approach. RSCM differs from SCM in many aspects, i.e., the criteria used for evaluation, the high level of uncertainty involved etc., not allowing the usage of identical evaluation techniques used for SCM. This study proposes a generic Balanced Scorecard to measure the performance of supply chain management while defining the appropriate performance measures for SCM. A scorecard prototype, ESCAPE, is presented to demonstrate the evaluation process.

  16. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  17. Food Acquisition: Food Ingredients, Raw Materials and Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The kind of food supply system that will serve the space station in coming years is considered. The direction and rate of evolution of space food service systems is also considered and what is needed to supply appropriate food to space station crews. Innovations in food sourcing, recipe development, pre-preparation, packaging, preservation, presentation, consumption and waste disposal are discussed. The development and validation of preparation systems and ingredients which minimize demands on crew time and provide maximum eating enjoyment is outlined.

  18. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2013-02-22

    This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current suppliers of the nation’s landbased wind market.

  19. Using Game Theory to Predict Supply Chain Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Heather; Vang, David O.; Raffield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The motivation for this research was to understand under what conditions supply chain cooperation might be feasible and under what circumstances it is not. Whereas previous research focuses on dyads in a supply chain, our research seeks to examine a possible factor that can explain why truly cooperative supply chains involving more than two firms…

  20. Needed: a strategic approach to supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Jamie C

    2009-06-01

    When devising a supply chain strategic plan, consider these points: Frame the supply chain broadly to include all possible components and expenses. Recognize how each part of the supply chain affects other parts. Engage all parties and customers in strategic discussions. Educate all involved. Objectively assess the current state. Visualize an unencumbered future state. Quantify quality, productivity, and financial goals. PMID:19526824

  1. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Jennifer H; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  2. Planning the bioterrorism response supply chain: learn and live.

    PubMed

    Brandeau, Margaret L; Hutton, David W; Owens, Douglas K; Bravata, Dena M

    2007-01-01

    Responses to bioterrorism require rapid procurement and distribution of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, trained personnel, and information. Thus, they present significant logistical challenges. On the basis of a review of the manufacturing and service supply chain literature, the authors identified five supply chain strategies that can potentially increase the speed of response to a bioterrorism attack, reduce inventories, and save money: effective supply chain network design; effective inventory management; postponement of product customization and modularization of component parts; coordination of supply chain stakeholders and appropriate use of incentives; and effective information management. The authors describe how concepts learned from published evaluations of manufacturing and service supply chains, as well as lessons learned from responses to natural disasters, naturally occurring outbreaks, and the 2001 US anthrax attacks, can be applied to design, evaluate, and improve the bioterrorism response supply chain. Such lessons could also be applied to the response supply chains for disease outbreaks and natural and manmade disasters. PMID:18491839

  3. Cooperative Supply Chain Re-scheduling: The Case of an Engine Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, Jaime; Garcia-Sabater, Jose P.; Marin-Garcia, Juan A.

    One of the main issues on task planning of the enterprises with several production sites is how they can reassign tasks when a part of the supply chain is stopped. In this case, a good re-schedule, involving parts from supply chains from other sites, could imply to reduce overall costs. In this paper, we propose a cooperative system to re-schedule a network chain. The algorithm proposed is described and analyzed analytically in detail. The re-schedule decision is taken based on the time and the cost reduction. In order to test its performance and the success of our proposal, we have simulated a stylized system based on an engine network chain using the Anylogic TM simulator. Our proposal allows cooperative multisite re-scheduling by selecting the type of transport for sending components from one site to another based on the costs and the deadline to assemble the final product.

  4. Investigation of Influence of Modeling Fidelities on Supply Chain Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Son, Young Jun; Venkatestwaran, Jayendran

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, a three-echelon supply chain model is analyzed to determine strategies to reduce the total supply chain system dynamics. Many researchers have attempted to improve the system performance by simulation of an abstract model representing the actual supply chain. Uniqueness of the research in this paper stems from the usage of multiple models with varying degrees of detail representing the same supply chain. The significance of a detailed supply chain model on the quality of experimental result obtained is made clear. Combinations of the factors employed to build an abstract to a detailed supply chain model include: (i) Transportation and production delay, (ii) Demand at the retailer, and (iii) Production and transportation capacity. It is shown that the system dynamics itself varies with increasing detail in the supply chain model. In addition, it is examined to see if a strategy found effective in improving the system dynamics with an abstract supply chain model is also effective with a detailed supply chain model. For this purpose, the following strategies are identified: Inventory level determination, Lead time reduction, Access to Point of Sale (PoS) data I, Access to PoS data II and Vendor Managed Inventory. It is established that the strategy found to be the most effective on an abstract model of the supply chain is not always the best strategy for the real supply chain.

  5. Impacts to the ethylene supply chain from a hurricane disruption.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Downes, Paula Sue; Heinen, Russell; Welk, Margaret Ellen

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of chemical supply chains is an inherently complex task, given the dependence of these supply chains on multiple infrastructure systems (e.g., the petroleum sector, transportation, etc.). This effort requires data and information at various levels of resolution, ranging from network-level distribution systems to individual chemical reactions. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has integrated its existing simulation and infrastructure analysis capabilities with chemical data models to analyze the chemical supply chains of several nationally critical chemical commodities. This paper describes how Sandia models the ethylene supply chain; that is, the supply chain for the most widely used raw material for plastics production including a description of the types of data and modeling capabilities that are required to represent the ethylene supply chain. The paper concludes with a description of Sandia's use the model to project how the supply chain would be affected by and adapt to a disruptive scenario hurricane.

  6. Food Supply and Food Safety Issues in China

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  7. Food supply and food safety issues in China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China's connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  8. Contributions of foods to sodium in the Australian food supply.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, H; Smith, A M; Maples, J; Wills, R B

    1984-06-01

    The sodium contributions of various foods in the Australian supply have been calculated by applying recent local food composition data to food availability data and to typical notional Australian diets. Sodium available for consumption from the food supply was 3.00 g per capita per day. Of foods which are salted during processing, the three heaviest contributors of sodium were bread (23 per cent of total available sodium), processed meat and fish (14 per cent), and margarine (8 per cent). Other important contributors were breakfast cereals, biscuits, cheese, butter, potato crisps, dried soups and cakes (including pastries, pies and puddings). Foods identified by health authorities as 'highly salted' and thus prime targets for reduced consumption, provided 33 per cent of total available sodium, less than the 50 per cent contributed by other foods salted during processing. Take-away foods per se did not contribute more sodium than processed foods generally. PMID:6480405

  9. World Climates and Food Supply Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James E.; Pickett, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    This article contains an outline of the major variations in the world's climates and suggestions for taking these variations into account in any plans made to improve world food production and supply. (PEB)

  10. Practical Use Of It In Traceability In Food Value Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliff, Jon; Boddington, Michael

    Traceability is today considered an essential requirement for the food value chain due to the need to provide consumers with accurate information in the event of food safety recalls, to provide assurance with regard the source and production systems for food products and in certain countries to comply with government legislation. Within an individual business traceability can be quite simple to implement, however, in a global trading market, traceability of the entire supply chain, including logistics is extremely complex. For this reason IT solutions such as TraceTracker have been developed which not only provide electronic solutions for complete traceability but also allow products to be tracked at any point in the supply chain.

  11. Collaborative Manufacturing Management in Networked Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouly, Michel; Naciri, Souleiman; Berthold, Sébastien

    ERP systems provide information management and analysis to industrial companies and support their planning activities. They are currently mostly based on theoretical values (averages) of parameters and not on the actual, real shop floor data, leading to disturbance of the planning algorithms. On the other hand, sharing data between manufacturers, suppliers and customers becomes very important to ensure reactivity towards markets variability. This paper proposes software solutions to address these requirements and methods to automatically capture the necessary corresponding shop floor information. In order to share data produced by different legacy systems along the collaborative networked supply chain, we propose to use the Generic Product Model developed by Hitachi to extract, translate and store heterogeneous ERP data.

  12. Stakeholders Integration in Higher Education: Supply Chain Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Turki, U. M.; Duffuaa, S.; Ayar, T.; Demirel, O.

    2008-01-01

    Supply chain management principles have emerged in the last decade as a strategic option to meet new challenges in global business environment. Viewing business environment as part of a chain, starting from raw material suppliers to end customers passing by producers, is at the heart of supply-chain management. Many management principles have…

  13. Fuzzy Entropy Method for Quantifying Supply Chain Networks Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihui; Xu, Junqin

    Supply chain is a special kind of complex network. Its complexity and uncertainty makes it very difficult to control and manage. Supply chains are faced with a rising complexity of products, structures, and processes. Because of the strong link between a supply chain’s complexity and its efficiency the supply chain complexity management becomes a major challenge of today’s business management. The aim of this paper is to quantify the complexity and organization level of an industrial network working towards the development of a ‘Supply Chain Network Analysis’ (SCNA). By measuring flows of goods and interaction costs between different sectors of activity within the supply chain borders, a network of flows is built and successively investigated by network analysis. The result of this study shows that our approach can provide an interesting conceptual perspective in which the modern supply network can be framed, and that network analysis can handle these issues in practice.

  14. System Dynamics Modeling for Supply Chain Information Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yang

    In this paper, we try to use the method of system dynamics to model supply chain information sharing. Firstly, we determine the model boundaries, establish system dynamics model of supply chain before information sharing, analyze the model's simulation results under different changed parameters and suggest improvement proposal. Then, we establish system dynamics model of supply chain information sharing and make comparison and analysis on the two model's simulation results, to show the importance of information sharing in supply chain management. We wish that all these simulations would provide scientific supports for enterprise decision-making.

  15. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  16. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains.

    PubMed

    Lautala, Pasi T; Hilliard, Michael R; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J; Roni, Mohammad S; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study. PMID:26122631

  17. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-06-30

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. Our paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Lastly, gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  18. 78 FR 25416 - Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain... for domestic and export food donation programs. FSA and CCC issue invitations to purchase or sell commodities for food donation programs on monthly, multiple monthly, quarterly, and yearly bases....

  19. Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, S.; Schmitt, K.; Blanke, M.; Bauersfeld, M. L.; Wöllenstein, J.; Lang, W.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20–10 ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

  20. Supply Chain Management (SCM) mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Anja; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Gerth, Wolf-Michael; Graßy, Mario; Herron, Colin; Schmidt, Peter; Seidl, Florian; Wittmann, Claus-Eduard

    Nach Schätzungen von Mercer Management Consulting und dem Fraunhofer Institut wird der Wertschöpfungsanteil in der Automobilindustrie von durchschnittlich 35 % im Jahr 2002 auf 23 % im Jahr 2015 sinken [Merc 04]. Der Trend, die Produktionstiefe oder allgemeiner, die Wertschöpfungstiefe, zu reduzieren, hat zur Folge, dass die Kaufteile den größeren Teil der Wertschöpfung einnehmen. Die Optimierungspotentiale und der Einfluss auf die Kosten wandern immer mehr zu den Lieferanten, vor allem bei größeren Unternehmen oder Konzernen. Lieferanten-Philosophien, die auf oberflächlichen Verbindungen zu Lieferanten aufbauen, um immer optimal und schnell den günstigsten Teilepreis zu erhalten, haben sich in vielen Sparten oder Produktbereichen, z. B. im Maschinenbau, im besten Fall als kurzfristig erfolgreich erwiesen. Kooperative und nachhaltige Strategien sind der erfolgversprechendere Weg, zumindest mittelbis langfristig. In der Realität wird sehr wenig in Supply Chain-Konzepte investiert und die Umsetzungen sind daher vielmals oberflächlich.

  1. Ethylene detection in fruit supply chains.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; Schmitt, K; Blanke, M; Bauersfeld, M L; Wöllenstein, J; Lang, W

    2014-06-13

    Ethylene is a gaseous ripening phytohormone of fruits and plants. Presently, ethylene is primarily measured with stationary equipment in laboratories. Applying in situ measurement at the point of natural ethylene generation has been hampered by the lack of portable units designed to detect ethylene at necessary resolutions of a few parts per billion. Moreover, high humidity inside controlled atmosphere stores or containers complicates the realization of gas sensing systems that are sufficiently sensitive, reliable, robust and cost efficient. In particular, three measurement principles have shown promising potential for fruit supply chains and were used to develop independent mobile devices: non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy, miniaturized gas chromatography and electrochemical measurement. In this paper, the measurement systems for ethylene are compared with regard to the needs in fruit logistics; i.e. sensitivity, selectivity, long-term stability, facilitation of automated measurement and suitability for mobile application. Resolutions of 20-10 ppb can be achieved in mobile applications with state-of-the-art equipment, operating with the three methods described in the following. The prices of these systems are in a range below €10 000. PMID:24797138

  2. Validation of a terrestrial food chain model

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Blaylock, B.P. )

    1992-04-01

    An increasingly important topic in risk assessment is the estimation of human exposure to environmental pollutants through pathways other than inhalation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently developed a computerized methodology (EPA, 1990) to estimate indirect exposure to toxic pollutants from Municipal Waste Combuster emissions. This methodology estimates health risks from exposure to toxic pollutants from the terrestrial food chain (TFC), soil ingestion, drinking water ingestion, fish ingestion, and dermal absorption via soil and water. Of these, one of the most difficult to estimate is exposure through the food chain. This paper estimates the accuracy of the EPA methodology for estimating food chain contamination. To our knowledge, no data exist on measured concentrations of pollutants in food grown around Municipal Waste Incinerators, and few field-scale studies have been performed on the uptake of pollutants in the food chain. Therefore, to evaluate the EPA methodology, we compare actual measurements of background contaminant levels in food with estimates made using EPA's computerized methodology. Background levels of contaminants in air, water, and soil were used as input to the EPA food chain model to predict background levels of contaminants in food. These predicted values were then compared with the measured background contaminant levels. Comparisons were performed for dioxin, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and lead.

  3. Dioxin in the agricultural food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Gerbec, E.N.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin's (PCDD) behavior in the agricultural food chain was modeled in this study. The source of PCDD was a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator. Of the farm livestock investigated only the beef cow and the milk cow were shown to contribute significant amounts of PCDD to humans. Milk was the single highest dietary source of PCDD. Comparison of the calculated human dose of PCDD from the agricultural food chain with an estimate human PCDD dose from inhalation of contaminated air revealed that the agricultural food chain could be responsible for a vast majority of the dose to an individual impacted by these facilities. Thus, these data suggest that operating MSW facilities in agricultural areas may result in enhanced PCDD exposure to individuals via the agricultural food chain. The data also suggest that milk and beef may be good sentinels to evaluate environmental impacts of these facilities.

  4. Harden Security of High-Risk and Critical Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the security risk in the container supply chain. It provides an overview of the technical and policy initiatives that are being implemented by international organizations, governments, and the private sector to enhance security in the container supply chain.

  5. Supply Chain Collaboration Alternatives: Understanding the Expected Costs and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Tim; Head, Milena; Yuan, Yufei

    2002-01-01

    Discusses collaboration as a recent trend in supply chain management (SCM) that focuses on joint planning, coordination, and process integration between suppliers, customers, and other partners in a supply chain. Analyzes alternative information systems approaches for supporting collaborative SCM, including phone, fax, or email systems; Web-based…

  6. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has introduced a program to study the environmental impacts and sustainability of biofuel supply chains. Analyses will provide indicators and metrics for valuating sustainability. In this context, indicators are supply chain rat...

  7. Sustainable Supply Chain Management Programs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neureuther, Brian D.; O'Neill, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges for an undergraduate supply chain management program at smaller universities is to create an environment of sustainability. Supply chain management is not at the tip of tongue for many graduating high school students and few undergraduate curriculums require a course in the content area. This research addresses…

  8. Don't break the chain: importance of supply chain management in the operating room setting.

    PubMed

    Bilyk, Candis

    2008-09-01

    Management of supplies within the operating room (OR) has considerable implications for decreasing healthcare costs while maintaining high-quality patient care. This area of healthcare therefore requires more monitoring by end-users including OR management, physicians, and nursing staff. This article is based on understanding supply chain management in the OR setting. Information provided throughout the article can be applied to small or large health care centers. It defines supply chain management and contains a brief overview of supply chain processes. It reviews the benefits of following these processes. The article also includes recommendations for improving the supply chain in the OR. PMID:18980068

  9. Consequence and Resilience Modeling for Chemical Supply Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamber, Kevin L.; Vugrin, Eric D.; Ehlen, Mark A.; Sun, Amy C.; Warren, Drake E.; Welk, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. chemical sector produces more than 70,000 chemicals that are essential material inputs to critical infrastructure systems, such as the energy, public health, and food and agriculture sectors. Disruptions to the chemical sector can potentially cascade to other dependent sectors, resulting in serious national consequences. To address this concern, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) tasked Sandia National Laboratories to develop a predictive consequence modeling and simulation capability for global chemical supply chains. This paper describes that capability , which includes a dynamic supply chain simulation platform called N_ABLE(tm). The paper also presents results from a case study that simulates the consequences of a Gulf Coast hurricane on selected segments of the U.S. chemical sector. The case study identified consequences that include impacted chemical facilities, cascading impacts to other parts of the chemical sector. and estimates of the lengths of chemical shortages and recovery . Overall. these simulation results can DHS prepare for and respond to actual disruptions.

  10. Food Chain Security in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatchi, Liviu-Daniel; Mihalache, Diana-Lacramioara

    During the last years, Romania, as a member country of the European Union, has achieved much progress in the transposition of the Community in the field of foodstuffs. According to the commitments assumed through the position documents during the negotiation process and in order to approach in a unitary way in the field of food safety, the legislative approaches were initiated to promote and adopt a legislative document which may lead to the establishment and organization of a structure corresponding to the European model. In this case, a questionnaire was considered suitable to get a brief and objective data about the food safety, in Romania and other European countries. The questionnaire has been translated and adapted to facilitate the work of the participants, assuring that none of the questions is altered. Most of the results were obtained from the processing sector. The questionnaire was a suitable and useful method for achieving knowledge concerning food safety. It showed that the last years brought an important evolution regarding food industry and its safety around Europe, but still there are many actions that need to be taken.

  11. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  12. Proactive supply chain performance management with predictive analytics.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment. PMID:25386605

  13. Proactive Supply Chain Performance Management with Predictive Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment. PMID:25386605

  14. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  15. Understanding and reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters can wreck havoc on business operations. When civil unrest swept the UK in August 2011, the effect on business was stark, losing the retail sector £300m in unexpected costs and lost revenues. On the other side of the world, the natural disaster that hit Japan in early 2011 is estimated to have run up costs in the region of £189bn in repairs. Beyond this, the earthquake and its aftermath shattered supply chains, with technology companies expecting delays of up to six months before business could resume fully. It is impossible to predict incidents like these, but businesses can help mitigate disruption in the supply chain by undertaking business continuity management (BCM). A flexible supply chain is essential when it comes to BCM - whether it means being able to cope with altering transport routes at short notice, or finding or replacing a supplier at the last minute. Understanding the supply chain is critical when responding to major impacts that affect supply chains in multiple points - like IT system failures and country-wide fuel strikes. Businesses should carry out detailed business impact assessments and risk assessments right across the end-to-end supply chain and not just at key single points of failure. It is an intensive process that needs dedicated resources and ownership at the highest level. Recognising this, DHL has designed a 10-step process, which it has implemented across its global supply chain business. This paper provides an overview of what a supply chain really looks like, what can cause disruptions and how far up/down the supply chain companies need to go with their BCM planning. PMID:22948101

  16. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  17. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  18. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  19. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  20. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in... Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific food-chain crops which may be...

  1. The Complex Economic System of Supply Chain Financing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Yan, Guangle

    Supply Chain Financing (SCF) refers to a series of innovative and complicated financial services based on supply chain. The SCF set-up is a complex system, where the supply chain management and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) financing services interpenetrate systematically. This paper establishes the organization structure of SCF System, and presents two financing models respectively, with or without the participation of the third-party logistic provider (3PL). Using Information Economics and Game Theory, the interrelationship among diverse economic sectors is analyzed, and the economic mechanism of development and existent for SCF system is demonstrated. New thoughts and approaches to solve SMEs financing problem are given.

  2. A New Model for Food Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung-Chu; Liu, Xia-Shi

    2002-01-01

    An experiment for a new model of food chain was studied. In this special circulating system we succeeded in integrating animal, fish and plant production into a new model of food chain. The advantages of the new model are as follows: A. The new model of food chain was under special water circulating system. Hence water consumption was minimized and it would be possible to be use the model in the area where water shortage. B. Output of this model was ten times more than that of output in the conventional production system, for example the products obtained from new model in an area of 66m3 exceeded same amount of products obtained from conventional production system in an area of 660m3. It may be possible to raise the output up to 20-fold if better management is made. In that case, such high output and high water use efficiency may be a hopeful base for the study to set up a new biosphere on Moon and Mars. C. Growth of the plant in this model will mainly depend on its own circulation without add fertilizer and pesticide except for supplementary certain food to feed the animal and fish product, Hence, the products from this model will be no pollution food. In our primary experiment shows that rice, celery, water convolvulus, water spinach and tomato growing well in this model. D. By use of water circulating system there will be no pollution to ecosystem. E. Based on this new model of food chain, it is possible to start the experiment on setting up the artificial biosphere No.. Key words: Food chain, Water circulating system, Artificial biosphere

  3. Scenario aggregation for supply chain quantity-flexibility contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gitae; Wu, Chih-Hang

    2013-11-01

    In this research, we apply a scenario aggregation approach to solving the supply chain contract model formulated by two-stage stochastic programming problem. The supply chain contract can achieve the coordination between the buyer and the supplier. We formulate the stochastic programming model for a quantity-flexibility contract. The scenario aggregation method called the progressive hedging method is used to solve this problem. Experimental results show the convergence behaviour of the algorithm and the sensitivity of parameters.

  4. Making Supply Chains Resilient to Floods Using a Bayesian Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazards distress the global economy by disrupting the interconnected supply chain networks. Manufacturing companies have created cost-efficient supply chains by reducing inventories, streamlining logistics and limiting the number of suppliers. As a result, today's supply chains are profoundly susceptible to systemic risks. In Thailand, for example, the GDP growth rate declined by 76 % in 2011 due to prolonged flooding. Thailand incurred economic damage including the loss of USD 46.5 billion, approximately 70% of which was caused by major supply chain disruptions in the manufacturing sector. Similar problems occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, the Mississippi River floods and droughts during 2011 - 2013, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This study proposes a methodology for modeling supply chain disruptions using a Bayesian network analysis (BNA) to estimate expected values of countermeasures of floods, such as inventory management, supplier management and hard infrastructure management. We first performed a spatio-temporal correlation analysis between floods and extreme precipitation data for the last 100 years at a global scale. Then we used a BNA to create synthetic networks that include variables associated with the magnitude and duration of floods, major components of supply chains and market demands. We also included decision variables of countermeasures that would mitigate potential losses caused by supply chain disruptions. Finally, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis by estimating the expected values of these potential countermeasures while conducting a sensitivity analysis. The methodology was applied to supply chain disruptions caused by the 2011 Thailand floods. Our study demonstrates desirable typical data requirements for the analysis, such as anonymized supplier network data (i.e. critical dependencies, vulnerability information of suppliers) and sourcing data(i.e. locations of suppliers, and production rates and

  5. Closed loop supply chain network design with fuzzy tactical decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mahtab; Bashiri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    One of the most strategic and the most significant decisions in supply chain management is reconfiguration of the structure and design of the supply chain network. In this paper, a closed loop supply chain network design model is presented to select the best tactical and strategic decision levels simultaneously considering the appropriate transportation mode in activated links. The strategic decisions are made for a long term; thus, it is more satisfactory and more appropriate when the decision variables are considered uncertain and fuzzy, because it is more flexible and near to the real world. This paper is the first research which considers fuzzy decision variables in the supply chain network design model. Moreover, in this study a new fuzzy optimization approach is proposed to solve a supply chain network design problem with fuzzy tactical decision variables. Finally, the proposed approach and model are verified using several numerical examples. The comparison of the results with other existing approaches confirms efficiency of the proposed approach. Moreover the results confirms that by considering the vagueness of tactical decisions some properties of the supply chain network will be improved.

  6. The Supply Chain's Role in Improving Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society's demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis. PMID:26479533

  7. Supply-chain management: exceeding the customer's expectations.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, B

    2000-10-01

    Driven by increasing competition, manufacturers are desperate to cut costs and are looking for increased efficiency and customer service from their supply chains. E-commerce offers a new model of supply and demand, but many companies do not have the processes in place to support this new model. By implementing the techniques discussed here they can achieve substantial improvements in performance. PMID:11185186

  8. SCRL-Model for Human Space Flight Operations Enterprise Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Standard approach to evaluate and configure adaptable and sustainable program and mission supply chains at an enterprise level. End-to-end view. Total Lifecycle. Evaluate the readiness of the supply chain during the supply chain development phase.

  9. Defining a Closed-Loop U.S. Aluminum Can Supply Chain Through Technical Design and Supply Chain Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, Jack; Peterson, Ray

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a supply chain material flow analysis (MFA) for the U.S. aluminum can market, consistent with studies conducted for the overall worldwide aluminum industry. A technical definition of the use of alloys 5182 and 3104 is conducted by metallurgists for use in the "aluminum can" MFA. Four propositions are created: technical, economic, and supply chain factors are as important to secondary aluminum recycling in an aluminum can as higher recycling rates (P1); the development of a unialloy aluminum can will increase reuse rates, but recycling rates must increase for this to happen (P2); a closed-loop aluminum can supply chain is not able to be fully realized in today's environment but is very useful for understanding improvement through both supply and demand (P3); and UBC supply can improve through a "voluntary deposit-refund system" approach (P4).

  10. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; et al

    2015-06-30

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmostmore » importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. Our paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Lastly, gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.« less

  11. Innovations in low input and organic dairy supply chains--what is acceptable in Europe?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, P K; Mandolesi, S; Naspetti, S; Zanoli, R

    2014-02-01

    The growth in organic and low-input farming practices is driven by both market demand for high quality, safe food, and European Union policy support, and these types of farming practices are considered in European Union policies for sustainable production, food quality, healthy life, and rural development. However, many constraints to the development of low-input and organic dairy farming supply chains have been identified, including economic, political, and technical constraints. In order for these types of supply chains to develop and provide further benefits to society, innovations are required to improve their sustainability. However, an innovation will only be taken up and result in desirable change if the whole supply chain accepts the innovation. In this paper, Q methodology is used to identify the acceptability of dairy supply chain innovations to low-input and organic supply chain members and consumers in Belgium, Finland, Italy, and the United Kingdom. A strong consensus existed across all respondents on innovations that were deemed as unacceptable. The use of genetically modified and transgenic organisms in the farming system and innovations perceived as conflicting with the naturalness of the production system and products were strongly rejected. Innovations that were strongly liked across all participants in the study were those related to improving animal welfare and improving forage quality to be able to reduce the need for purchased concentrate feeds. Only minor differences existed between countries as to where the priorities lay in terms of innovation acceptability. PMID:24359835

  12. Review of the 2015 Drug Supply Chain Security Act.

    PubMed

    Brechtelsbauer, Erich D; Pennell, Benjamin; Durham, Mary; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    The integrity of the pharmaceutical supply chain is threatened by medication counterfeiting, importation of unapproved and substandard drugs, and grey markets - all of which have the potential to distribute drug products with the potential for serious harm. On November 27, 2013, President Obama signed into law Title II of the Drug Quality and Security Act, now known as the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA). Over the next 10 years, the DSCSA will require the pharmaceutical supply chain to implement medication tracking and tracing; serialization, verification, and detection of suspicious products; and strict guidelines for wholesaler licensing and reporting. This article reviews the important aspects of the DSCSA and outlines the role of health-system pharmacy leaders in ensuring compliance to the DSCSA. By verifying that medication supplies are free from adulteration and tampering, the DSCSA serves as a foundational law to ensure quality in providing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27354753

  13. Intelligent process quality control system into supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie; Jiang, Xingyu; Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    To cope with the challenges of monitoring dynamic and variable quality variation into supply chain, diagnosing the abnormal variation at the right moment, is a difficult problem that a enterprise in supply chain faces in process quality control. An intelligent process quality control mode into supply chain, which integrated quality prevention, analysis, diagnosis and adjustment, and corresponding functional modules and framework were all put forward. This mode dealt mainly with constructing and running intelligent quality control system, such as the theory of similarity manufacturing, Statistical Process Control (SPC), neural network. Furthermore, some key enabling technologies were studied in detail, including process quality analysis on-line based on similarity process and process quality diagnosis based on Elman and expert system of process quality adjustment. It is basis of realizing network, intelligent and automatic process quality control into supply.

  14. Intelligent process quality control system into supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie; Jiang, Xingyu; Wang, Yingchun

    2009-12-01

    To cope with the challenges of monitoring dynamic and variable quality variation into supply chain, diagnosing the abnormal variation at the right moment, is a difficult problem that a enterprise in supply chain faces in process quality control. An intelligent process quality control mode into supply chain, which integrated quality prevention, analysis, diagnosis and adjustment, and corresponding functional modules and framework were all put forward. This mode dealt mainly with constructing and running intelligent quality control system, such as the theory of similarity manufacturing, Statistical Process Control (SPC), neural network. Furthermore, some key enabling technologies were studied in detail, including process quality analysis on-line based on similarity process and process quality diagnosis based on Elman and expert system of process quality adjustment. It is basis of realizing network, intelligent and automatic process quality control into supply.

  15. Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Prince, J; Andrus, David M; Gwinner, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism. PMID:17220489

  16. Developing a model for agile supply: an empirical study from Iranian pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API. PMID:24250689

  17. Developing a Model for Agile Supply: an Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API. PMID:24250689

  18. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) model for supply chain collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    CHAPMAN,LEON D.; PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.

    2000-03-13

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise architecture and collaborative model for supply chains. This model will enable improved collaborative business across any supply chain. The DAMA Model for Supply Chain Collaboration is a high-level model for collaboration to achieve Demand Activated Manufacturing. The five major elements of the architecture to support collaboration are (1) activity or process, (2) information, (3) application, (4) data, and (5) infrastructure. These five elements are tied to the application of the DAMA architecture to three phases of collaboration - prepare, pilot, and scale. There are six collaborative activities that may be employed in this model: (1) Develop Business Planning Agreements, (2) Define Products, (3) Forecast and Plan Capacity Commitments, (4) Schedule Product and Product Delivery, (5) Expedite Production and Delivery Exceptions, and (6) Populate Supply Chain Utility. The Supply Chain Utility is a set of applications implemented to support collaborative product definition, forecast visibility, planning, scheduling, and execution. The DAMA architecture and model will be presented along with the process for implementing this DAMA model.

  19. The investigation of supply chain's reliability measure: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh, Houshang; Hafezi, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, using supply chain operational reference, the reliability evaluation of available relationships in supply chain is investigated. For this purpose, in the first step, the chain under investigation is divided into several stages including first and second suppliers, initial and final customers, and the producing company. Based on the formed relationships between these stages, the supply chain system is then broken down into different subsystem parts. The formed relationships between the stages are based on the transportation of the orders between stages. Paying attention to the system elements' location, which can be in one of the five forms of series namely parallel, series/parallel, parallel/series, or their combinations, we determine the structure of relationships in the divided subsystems. According to reliability evaluation scales on the three levels of supply chain, the reliability of each chain is then calculated. Finally, using the formulas of calculating the reliability in combined systems, the reliability of each system and ultimately the whole system is investigated.

  20. Food-chain competition influences gene's size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembska, Marta; Dudek, Mirosław R.; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2006-11-01

    We have analyzed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nucleotide fraction from its equilibrium value was playing the role of the fitness parameter, B, in Bak-Sneppen model. Our finding is, that the higher is the value of the threshold fitness, during the evolution course, the more frequent are large fluctuations in number of species with strongly differentiated nucleotide content; and it is more often the case that the oldest species, which survive the food-chain competition, might have specific nucleotide fraction making possible generating long genes.

  1. Metaheuristic simulation optimisation for the stochastic multi-retailer supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Marina; Mustaffa, Noorfa Haszlinna H.; Othman, Siti Norsyahida

    2013-04-01

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) is an important activity in all producing facilities and in many organizations to enable vendors, manufacturers and suppliers to interact gainfully and plan optimally their flow of goods and services. A simulation optimization approach has been widely used in research nowadays on finding the best solution for decision-making process in Supply Chain Management (SCM) that generally faced a complexity with large sources of uncertainty and various decision factors. Metahueristic method is the most popular simulation optimization approach. However, very few researches have applied this approach in optimizing the simulation model for supply chains. Thus, this paper interested in evaluating the performance of metahueristic method for stochastic supply chains in determining the best flexible inventory replenishment parameters that minimize the total operating cost. The simulation optimization model is proposed based on the Bees algorithm (BA) which has been widely applied in engineering application such as training neural networks for pattern recognition. BA is a new member of meta-heuristics. BA tries to model natural behavior of honey bees in food foraging. Honey bees use several mechanisms like waggle dance to optimally locate food sources and to search new ones. This makes them a good candidate for developing new algorithms for solving optimization problems. This model considers an outbound centralised distribution system consisting of one supplier and 3 identical retailers and is assumed to be independent and identically distributed with unlimited supply capacity at supplier.

  2. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  3. Biomass supply chain optimisation for Organosolv-based biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Sara; Patel, Mayank; Shah, Nilay

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at providing a Mixed Integer Linear Programming modelling framework to help define planning strategies for the development of sustainable biorefineries. The up-scaling of an Organosolv biorefinery was addressed via optimisation of the whole system economics. Three real world case studies were addressed to show the high-level flexibility and wide applicability of the tool to model different biomass typologies (i.e. forest fellings, cereal residues and energy crops) and supply strategies. Model outcomes have revealed how supply chain optimisation techniques could help shed light on the development of sustainable biorefineries. Feedstock quality, quantity, temporal and geographical availability are crucial to determine biorefinery location and the cost-efficient way to supply the feedstock to the plant. Storage costs are relevant for biorefineries based on cereal stubble, while wood supply chains present dominant pretreatment operations costs. PMID:24675398

  4. Continuity in health care: lessons from supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Meijboom, Bert R; Bakx, Saskia J W G C; Westert, Gert P

    2010-01-01

    In health care, multidisciplinary collaboration is both indispensable and complicated. We discuss organizational problems that occur in situations where multiple health care providers are required to cooperate for patients with complex needs. Four problem categories, labelled as communication, patient safety, waiting times and integration are distinguished. Then we develop a supply chain perspective on these problems in the sense of discussing remedies according to supply chain management (SCM) literature. This perspective implies a business focus on inter-organizational conditions and requirements necessary for delivering health care and cure across organizational borders. We conclude by presenting some strategic and policy recommendations. PMID:21069770

  5. 40 CFR 265.276 - Food chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food chain crops. 265.276 Section 265... FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.276 Food chain crops. (a) An owner or operator of a hazardous waste land treatment facility on which food chain crops are being grown, or have been grown and will be grown in...

  6. 40 CFR 265.276 - Food chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food chain crops. 265.276 Section 265... FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.276 Food chain crops. (a) An owner or operator of a hazardous waste land treatment facility on which food chain crops are being grown, or have been grown and will be grown in...

  7. 40 CFR 265.276 - Food chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food chain crops. 265.276 Section 265... FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.276 Food chain crops. (a) An owner or operator of a hazardous waste land treatment facility on which food chain crops are being grown, or have been grown and will be grown in...

  8. 40 CFR 265.276 - Food chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food chain crops. 265.276 Section 265... FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.276 Food chain crops. (a) An owner or operator of a hazardous waste land treatment facility on which food chain crops are being grown, or have been grown and will be grown in...

  9. 40 CFR 265.276 - Food chain crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food chain crops. 265.276 Section 265... FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.276 Food chain crops. (a) An owner or operator of a hazardous waste land treatment facility on which food chain crops are being grown, or have been grown and will be grown in...

  10. Custom 3D Printers Revolutionize Space Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, start-up company Made In Space, located on the center's campus, developed a high-precision 3D printer capable of manufacturing items in microgravity. The company will soon have a printer installed on the International Space Station, altering the space supply chain. It will print supplies and tools for NASA, as well as nanosatellite shells and other items for public and private entities.

  11. 48 CFR 252.239-7017 - Notice of supply chain risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of supply chain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7017 Notice of supply chain risk. As prescribed in 239.7306(a), use the following provision: Notice of Supply Chain Risk (NOV 2013) (a) Definition. Supply chain risk,...

  12. Teaching Supply Chain Management Complexities: A SCOR Model Based Classroom Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. Scott; Thomas, Stephanie P.; Liao-Troth, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The SCOR (Supply Chain Operations Reference) Model Supply Chain Classroom Simulation is an in-class experiential learning activity that helps students develop a holistic understanding of the processes and challenges of supply chain management. The simulation has broader learning objectives than other supply chain related activities such as the…

  13. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations. PMID:24578021

  14. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston, Texas... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life...

  15. Supply Chain Development: Insights from Strategic Niche Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caniels, Marjolein C. J.; Romijn, Henny A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of supply chain design from the perspective of complex dynamic systems. Unlike extant studies that use formal simulation modelling and associated methodologies rooted in the physical sciences, it adopts a framework rooted in the social sciences, strategic niche management, which…

  16. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics(Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuel supply chains in the United States are expected to expand considerably, in part due to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. This law mandates through the EPA’s Renewable Fuel Standard an expansion to 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels per year by 2...

  17. Examining the Geographies of Supply Chains in Introductory Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Conner, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Supply chains and other trade networks are of interest to geographers, due to their ability to connect economic processes at various scales. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that core concepts and topics in economic geography are not being fully and effectively engaged in the classroom environment. With such findings as a motivation,…

  18. Proposal for Supply Chain Concentration in the Traditional MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop and implement a concentration in Supply Chain Management in the existing traditional MBA program effective fall 2012. Houston is the hub for many multinational oil and energy companies, large healthcare systems, wholesale/retail businesses, engineering and construction companies, and is a major city along…

  19. Benchmarking Operations to Promote Learning: An Internal Supply Chain Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Helen; Binder, Mario; Egel-Hess, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Despite the widespread discussion of organisational learning, there is little scholarly contribution on promoting learning through the practical application of management tools. This is especially true in a complex internal supply chain context of an organisation. This paper seeks to address this gap by exploring and analysing the capability of…

  20. Mapping of Supply Chain Learning: A Framework for SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Jitesh; Kanda, Arun; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a mapping framework for evaluating supply chain learning potential for the context of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The extracts of recently completed case based research for ten manufacturing SME units and facts reported in the previous research are utilized…

  1. Sustainable Supply Chain Design by the P-Graph Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work proposes a computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains in terms of sustainability metrics by resorting to the P-graph framework. The methodology is an outcome of the collaboration between the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the ...

  2. Supply Chain Management: Are You Maximizing Your Procurement Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbin, James; Jenkins, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Today's purchasing professionals recognize the need to reduce non-value-added procedures (clerical functions) while emphasizing strategic planning. Results-oriented supply-chain managers need superb communication, negotiation, and leadership skills to achieve long-term value and resist the lowest, first- cost bids. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

  3. Removing the Regional Level from the Niger Vaccine Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Brown, Shawn T.; Kone, Souleymane; Norman, Bryan A.; Djibo, Ali; Connor, Diana L.; Wateska, Angela R.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Slayton, Rachel B.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Since many of the world’s vaccine supply chains contain multiple levels, the question remains of whether removing a level could bring efficiencies. Methods We utilized HERMES to generate a detailed discrete-event simulation model of Niger’s vaccine supply chain and compare the current four-tier (central, regional, district and integrated health center levels) with a modified three-tier structure (removing the regional level). Different scenarios explored various accompanying shipping policies and frequencies. Findings Removing the regional level and implementing a collection-based shipping policy from the district stores increases vaccine availability from a mean of 70% to 100% when districts could collect vaccines at least weekly. Alternatively, implementing a delivery-based shipping policy from the central store monthly in three-route and eight-route scenarios only increases vaccine availability to 87%. Restricting central-to district vaccine shipments to a quarterly schedule for three-route and eight-route scenarios reduces vaccine availability to 49%. The collection-based shipping policy from district stores reduces supply chain logistics cost per dose administered from US$0.14 at baseline to US$0.13 after removing the regional level. Conclusion Removing the regional level from Niger’s vaccine supply chain can substantially improve vaccine availability as long as certain concomitant adjustments to shipping policies and frequencies are implemented. PMID:23602666

  4. An approach for formalising the supply chain operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravković, Milan; Panetto, Hervé; Trajanović, Miroslav; Aubry, Alexis

    2011-11-01

    Reference models play an important role in the knowledge management of the various complex collaboration domains (such as supply chain networks). However, they often show a lack of semantic precision and, they are sometimes incomplete. In this article, we present an approach to overcome semantic inconsistencies and incompleteness of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model and hence improve its usefulness and expand the application domain. First, we describe a literal web ontology language (OWL) specification of SCOR concepts (and related tools) built with the intention to preserve the original approach in the classification of process reference model entities, and hence enable the effectiveness of usage in original contexts. Next, we demonstrate the system for its exploitation, in specific - tools for SCOR framework browsing and rapid supply chain process configuration. Then, we describe the SCOR-Full ontology, its relations with relevant domain ontology and show how it can be exploited for improvement of SCOR ontological framework competence. Finally, we elaborate the potential impact of the presented approach, to interoperability of systems in supply chain networks.

  5. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  6. Production Planning and Simulation for Reverse Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Takeshi; Yoda, Mitsunobu; Eguchi, Toru; Oba, Fuminori

    This paper describes a production planning method for a reverse supply chain, in which a disassembly company takes reusable components from returned used products and supplies the reusable components for a product manufacturer. This method addresses the issue that the timings and quantities of returned products and reusable components obtained from them are unknown. This method first predicts the quantities of returned products and reusable components at each time period by using reliability models. Using the prediction result, the method performs production planning based on Material Requirements Planning (MRP). This method enables us to plan at each time period: the quantity of the products to be disassembled; the quantity of the reusable components to be used; and the quantity of the new components to be produced. The flow of the components and products through a forward and reverse supply chain is simulated to show the effectiveness of the method.

  7. Supply chain management/ Some lessons learned the hard way.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper will look at some of the experiences, lessons and frustrations experienced in managing supply chains for business continuity. No-one has time to make all the mistakes, nor to learn all the lessons on their own, so it is useful to share experiences. Over the last 25 years, the author has been involved in supply chain management as a contract manager; a programme and project manager; and as a business continuity manager. Although times change, there are some fundamental principles that are absolutely critical in making sure that supply chains do what they are needed to do/ to keep business going. Supply chains are here to stay. Indeed, with today's drive towards outsourcing, best-shoring and contracting out, they are becoming more important every year and this will only continue over time. Moreover, in the highly competitive markets in which all organisations operate, suppliers may well be carrying out operations that not all that long ago would have been considered to be part of core business. Getting the right relationship with the supply chain is more critical than ever before.1 What does this mean to business continuity professionals? They need to think not just about their own BC plans, but about the plans of their suppliers, and even those of their suppliers' suppliers. This may seem obvious, but unlike internal BC plans written by and for an organisation, it must be considered just what a supplier's plans are designed to achieve. What business outcomes will their plans deliver? If they recover their own business, how does that affect the business they serve? Are others' assumptions of how they will react in line with theirs? PMID:23615062

  8. Modelling and genetic algorithm based optimisation of inverse supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányai, T.

    2009-04-01

    The design and control of recycling systems of products with environmental risk have been discussed in the world already for a long time. The main reasons to address this subject are the followings: reduction of waste volume, intensification of recycling of materials, closing the loop, use of less resource, reducing environmental risk [1, 2]. The development of recycling systems is based on the integrated solution of technological and logistic resources and know-how [3]. However the financial conditions of recycling systems is partly based on the recovery, disassembly and remanufacturing options of the used products [4, 5, 6], but the investment and operation costs of recycling systems can be characterised with high logistic costs caused by the geographically wide collection system with more collection level and a high number of operation points of the inverse supply chain. The reduction of these costs is a popular area of the logistics researches. These researches include the design and implementation of comprehensive environmental waste and recycling program to suit business strategies (global system), design and supply all equipment for production line collection (external system), design logistics process to suit the economical and ecological requirements (external system) [7]. To the knowledge of the author, there has been no research work on supply chain design problems that purpose is the logistics oriented optimisation of inverse supply chain in the case of non-linear total cost function consisting not only operation costs but also environmental risk cost. The antecedent of this research is, that the author has taken part in some research projects in the field of closed loop economy ("Closing the loop of electr(on)ic products and domestic appliances from product planning to end-of-life technologies), environmental friendly disassembly (Concept for logistical and environmental disassembly technologies) and design of recycling systems of household appliances

  9. Improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology.

    PubMed

    Matanza, David; Hallouard, François; Rioufol, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem; Fraysse, Marc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an approach for improving radiopharmaceutical supply chain safety by implementing bar code technology. We first evaluated the current situation of our radiopharmaceutical supply chain and, by means of the ALARM protocol, analysed two dispensing errors that occurred in our department. Thereafter, we implemented a bar code system to secure selected key stages of the radiopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we evaluated the cost of this implementation, from overtime, to overheads, to additional radiation exposure to workers. An analysis of the events that occurred revealed a lack of identification of prepared or dispensed drugs. Moreover, the evaluation of the current radiopharmaceutical supply chain showed that the dispensation and injection steps needed to be further secured. The bar code system was used to reinforce product identification at three selected key stages: at usable stock entry; at preparation-dispensation; and during administration, allowing to check conformity between the labelling of the delivered product (identity and activity) and the prescription. The extra time needed for all these steps had no impact on the number and successful conduct of examinations. The investment cost was reduced (2600 euros for new material and 30 euros a year for additional supplies) because of pre-existing computing equipment. With regard to the radiation exposure to workers there was an insignificant overexposure for hands with this new organization because of the labelling and scanning processes of radiolabelled preparation vials. Implementation of bar code technology is now an essential part of a global securing approach towards optimum patient management. PMID:25144560

  10. Traceability in the food animal industry and supermarket chains.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, R G

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact of recent food scares in the UK, where scrutiny of the food industry has led to the introduction of new controls at all stages of production. Animal feed manufacture, livestock production, slaughter and the use or disposal of animal by-products are now controlled in ways unimagined prior to the identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the late 1980s. Traceability has become an important issue for consumers and, by proxy, for the multiple retailers that service consumer needs. Retailers have increasingly managed the food chain to ensure high standards that can be proven by audit. The retailers have also found that a commercial advantage can be gained from certain aspects of source verification. In order to maximise sales in a depressed market, producer groups have themselves developed a multiplicity of assurance schemes. PMID:11548528

  11. Optimizing energy for a ‘green’ vaccine supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the ‘net zero energy’ (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7–10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. PMID:25444811

  12. Optimizing energy for a 'green' vaccine supply chain.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the 'net zero energy' (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7-10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. PMID:25444811

  13. Supply chain value creation methodology under BSC approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golrizgashti, Seyedehfatemeh

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is proposing a developed balanced scorecard approach to measure supply chain performance with the aim of creating more value in manufacturing and business operations. The most important metrics have been selected based on experts' opinion acquired by in-depth interviews focused on creating more value for stakeholders. Using factor analysis method, a survey research has been used to categorize selected metrics into balanced scorecard perspectives. The result identifies the intensity of correlation between perspectives and cause-and-effect chains among them using statistical method based on a real case study in home appliance manufacturing industries.

  14. NUTRIENT CONTENT OF THE FOOD SUPPLY, 1909 - 1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under Secretary Shirley Watkins the publication the "Nutrient Content of the U.S. Food Supply, 1909-94" was released. It was prepared by the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion and presents historical data on the nutrient content of the U.S. food supply through 1994, w...

  15. All about Food Chains. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Whether animals are herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores, each one is part of an eternal food chain that carries on from one generation to the next. In this videotape, students learn more about terms like "predator,""pre-consumer" and "producer," as well as the cycles of food chains and food webs and how they support all of Earth's creatures. This…

  16. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  17. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future. PMID:27195756

  18. Progress in combating cigarette smuggling: controlling the supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2008-01-01

    Background: The illicit tobacco trade results in huge losses of revenue to governments, estimated at $US40–50 billion in 2006, and in increased consumption and thus health problems because it makes tobacco available more cheaply. On 20 October 2008 the second meeting of the International Negotiating Body (INB2) on the illicit trade protocol of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will discuss measures to tackle the illicit trade in tobacco products. Methods: This paper presents the experience over the last decade of three countries, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, which shows that tobacco smuggling can be successfully tackled. Conclusion: The evidence strongly suggests that the key to controlling smuggling is controlling the supply chain, and that the supply chain is controlled to a great extent by the tobacco industry. PMID:18784154

  19. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future. PMID:27195756

  20. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  1. Hybrid Algorithms for Fuzzy Reverse Supply Chain Network Design

    PubMed Central

    Che, Z. H.; Chiang, Tzu-An; Kuo, Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    In consideration of capacity constraints, fuzzy defect ratio, and fuzzy transport loss ratio, this paper attempted to establish an optimized decision model for production planning and distribution of a multiphase, multiproduct reverse supply chain, which addresses defects returned to original manufacturers, and in addition, develops hybrid algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA), Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GA-SA), and Particle Swarm Optimization-Simulated Annealing (PSO-SA) for solving the optimized model. During a case study of a multi-phase, multi-product reverse supply chain network, this paper explained the suitability of the optimized decision model and the applicability of the algorithms. Finally, the hybrid algorithms showed excellent solving capability when compared with original GA and PSO methods. PMID:24892057

  2. Environmental and sustainability ethics in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Beamon, Benita M

    2005-04-01

    Environmentally Conscious Supply Chain Management (ECSCM refers to the control exerted over all immediate and eventual environmental effects of products and processes associated with converting raw materials into final products. While much work has been done in this area, the focus has traditionally been on either: product recovery (recycling, remanufacturing, or re-use) or the product design function only (e.g., design for environment). Environmental considerations in manufacturing are often viewed as separate from traditional, value-added considerations. However, the case can be made that professional engineers have an ethical responsibility to consider the immediate and eventual environmental impacts of products and processes that they design and/or manage. This paper describes ECSCM as a component of engineering ethics, and highlights the major issues associated with ethical decision-making in supply chain management. PMID:15915861

  3. When supply chain strategy changes, what doesn't change?

    PubMed

    Sochocki, L; Kaminski, P

    1999-02-01

    Although implementation of an assemble-to-order supply chain strategy can often improve customer service, the transition to an assemble-to-order system requires many new processes, organizations, and skills. This article, in describing how Etec Systems, a leader in patterning solutions for the semiconductor and electronics industries, has implemented an assemble-to-order strategy, illuminates some of the issues that will be faced by any company choosing such a strategy. PMID:10345633

  4. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    PubMed

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  5. Modelling and analysis of workflow for lean supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinping; Wang, Kanliang; Xu, Lida

    2011-11-01

    Cross-organisational workflow systems are a component of enterprise information systems which support collaborative business process among organisations in supply chain. Currently, the majority of workflow systems is developed in perspectives of information modelling without considering actual requirements of supply chain management. In this article, we focus on the modelling and analysis of the cross-organisational workflow systems in the context of lean supply chain (LSC) using Petri nets. First, the article describes the assumed conditions of cross-organisation workflow net according to the idea of LSC and then discusses the standardisation of collaborating business process between organisations in the context of LSC. Second, the concept of labelled time Petri nets (LTPNs) is defined through combining labelled Petri nets with time Petri nets, and the concept of labelled time workflow nets (LTWNs) is also defined based on LTPNs. Cross-organisational labelled time workflow nets (CLTWNs) is then defined based on LTWNs. Third, the article proposes the notion of OR-silent CLTWNS and a verifying approach to the soundness of LTWNs and CLTWNs. Finally, this article illustrates how to use the proposed method by a simple example. The purpose of this research is to establish a formal method of modelling and analysis of workflow systems for LSC. This study initiates a new perspective of research on cross-organisational workflow management and promotes operation management of LSC in real world settings.

  6. Complex interdependent supply chain networks: Cascading failure and robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Jing, Ke; He, Jie; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-02-01

    A supply chain network is a typical interdependent network composed of an undirected cyber-layer network and a directed physical-layer network. To analyze the robustness of this complex interdependent supply chain network when it suffers from disruption events that can cause nodes to fail, we use a cascading failure process that focuses on load propagation. We consider load propagation via connectivity links as node failure spreads through one layer of an interdependent network, and we develop a priority redistribution strategy for failed loads subject to flow constraint. Using a giant component function and a one-to-one directed interdependence relation between nodes in a cyber-layer network and physical-layer network, we construct time-varied functional equations to quantify the dynamic process of failed loads propagation in an interdependent network. Finally, we conduct a numerical simulation for two cases, i.e., single node removal and multiple node removal at the initial disruption. The simulation results show that when we increase the number of removed nodes in an interdependent supply chain network its robustness undergoes a first-order discontinuous phase transition, and that even removing a small number of nodes will cause it to crash.

  7. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  8. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    PubMed

    Avadí, Angel; Fréon, Pierre; Tam, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities. PMID:25003196

  9. Coupled Ecosystem/Supply Chain Modelling of Fish Products from Sea to Shelf: The Peruvian Anchoveta Case

    PubMed Central

    Avadí, Angel; Fréon, Pierre; Tam, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities. PMID:25003196

  10. Enhancing supply chain performance with improved order-control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilakantan, K.

    2010-09-01

    This article takes up the study of the dynamics of a single product in a prototype three-stage supply chain system, at the downstream warehouse end of the chain, under a responsive chain strategy. The dynamics under various ordering policies and the parameters which will yield desired responses are systematically analysed, both for deterministic and stochastic systems. Higher-order control policies are then proposed and analysed. The considered key performance criteria are the permanent inventory deviations from the desired levels, or the offset, the maximum dip in inventory, the 'undershoot', the damping effect and decay rates, and the duration of time in the negative region, for deterministic systems; and additionally, the inventory variance for stochastic systems. It is shown that the disadvantages of the conventional (proportional-integral-derivative) control policies, like large negative deviations, low decay rates, and high inventory variance, can be overcome by the use of higher-order control policies proposed herein.

  11. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Guarino, Luigi; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security. PMID:24591623

  12. Myco-Heterophytes and Parasitic Plants in Food Chains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Advocates including plants at several trophic levels when studying food chains. Presents background information on parasitic plants, myco-heterophytes (saprophytes), and carnivorous plants. Contains 20 references. (WRM)

  13. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  14. The Ocean Book: Food Chains...Come and Eat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Six paper and pencil activities on marine ecology are presented with answers. Included are a food pyramid, a maze, a find-a-word puzzle, a sea food chain, a crossword puzzle, and a predator-prey puzzle. (CW)

  15. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners. PMID:25990975

  16. Study on Full Supply Chain Quality and Safetytraceability Systems For Cereal And Oilproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shihong; Zheng, Huoguo; Meng, Hong; Hu, Haiyan; Wu, Jiangshou; Li, Chunhua

    Global food industry and Governments in many countries are putting increasing emphasis on establishment of food traceability systems. Food traceability has become an effective way in food safety management. Aimed at the major quality problems of cereal and oil products existing in the production, processing, warehousing, distribution and other links in the supply chain, this paper firstly proposes a new traceability framework combines the information flow with critical control points and quality indicators. Then it introduces traceability database design and data access mode to realize the framework. In practice, Code design for tracing goods is a challenge thing, so this paper put forward a code system based on UCC/EAN-128 standard.Middleware and Electronic terminal design are also briefly introduced to accomplish traceability system for cereal and oil products.

  17. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  18. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  19. Effect of parity on productivity and sustainability of Lotka-Volterra food chains: bounded orbits in food chains.

    PubMed

    Massarelli, Nicole; Hoffman, Kathleen; Previte, Joseph P

    2014-12-01

    Hairston, Slobodkin, and Smith conjectured that top down forces act on food chains, which opposed the previously accepted theory that bottom up forces exclusively dictate the dynamics of populations. We model food chains using the Lotka-Volterra predation model and derive sustainability constants which determine which species will persist or go extinct. Further, we show that the productivity of a sustainable food chain with even trophic levels is predator regulated, or top down, while a sustainable food chain with odd trophic levels is resource limited, which is bottom up, which is consistent with current ecological theory. PMID:24362648

  20. Study on supply chain management in tourism e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaodong; Wu, Shuyan; Ma, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    On-line customer research has been conducted for European and American markets by marketers and academics. Whilst e-Commerce and tourism develop rapidly in China, and the fraud information in E-commerce market makes the conditions of information asymmetry becoming more seriously, understanding of Chinese internet travelers is required. This paper reviews current research on supply chain management (SCM) within the context of tourism. SCM in the manufacturing industry has attracted widespread research interest over the past two decades, whereas studies of SCM in the tourism e-commerce are very limited. The potential benefit of considering not only individual enterprises but also the tourism value chain becomes evident. This paper presents the model e-market structure and process analysis of tourism e-commerce, and also sets up tourism supply chain and tourism e-commerce system to probe how to apply tourism ecommerce to promote the sustainable development of tourism. The paper also identifies key research questions in TSCM worthy of future theoretical and empirical exploration.

  1. 76 FR 68159 - Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness and Solicitation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness and... establishment of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness and solicitation of nominations for... Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (the Committee) by the Secretary of Commerce. The Committee...

  2. 78 FR 79401 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Charter Renewal AGENCY... Administration, renewed the Charter for the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness on November 20, 2013. DATES: The Charter for the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness was renewed...

  3. Open-Source ERP: Is It Ripe for Use in Teaching Supply Chain Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Minh Q.; Chu, Hung W.

    2011-01-01

    The field of supply chain management has changed greatly and rapidly. With the advent of enterprise systems, supply chains are now operating with up-to-the-minute information. The value of the information flow is marked by speed, accessibility, accuracy, and most of all relevancy. As it continually evolves, the supply chain management curriculum…

  4. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Supply Chain Group, including leased workers from QFlex, North America Logistics and UPS...

  5. Modelling and genetic algorithm based optimisation of inverse supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányai, T.

    2009-04-01

    The design and control of recycling systems of products with environmental risk have been discussed in the world already for a long time. The main reasons to address this subject are the followings: reduction of waste volume, intensification of recycling of materials, closing the loop, use of less resource, reducing environmental risk [1, 2]. The development of recycling systems is based on the integrated solution of technological and logistic resources and know-how [3]. However the financial conditions of recycling systems is partly based on the recovery, disassembly and remanufacturing options of the used products [4, 5, 6], but the investment and operation costs of recycling systems can be characterised with high logistic costs caused by the geographically wide collection system with more collection level and a high number of operation points of the inverse supply chain. The reduction of these costs is a popular area of the logistics researches. These researches include the design and implementation of comprehensive environmental waste and recycling program to suit business strategies (global system), design and supply all equipment for production line collection (external system), design logistics process to suit the economical and ecological requirements (external system) [7]. To the knowledge of the author, there has been no research work on supply chain design problems that purpose is the logistics oriented optimisation of inverse supply chain in the case of non-linear total cost function consisting not only operation costs but also environmental risk cost. The antecedent of this research is, that the author has taken part in some research projects in the field of closed loop economy ("Closing the loop of electr(on)ic products and domestic appliances from product planning to end-of-life technologies), environmental friendly disassembly (Concept for logistical and environmental disassembly technologies) and design of recycling systems of household appliances

  6. Predictive Analytics for Safer Food Supply

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Science based risk analysis improves the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service’s ability to combat threats to public health from food-borne illness by allowing the Agency to focus resources on hazards that pose the greatest risk. Innovative algorithms enable detection and containment of threat by an...

  7. PRODUCTION OF NON-FOOD-CHAIN CROPS WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Feasibility and market potential were determined for non-food-chain crops cultivated using sewage sludge. Non-food-chain crops that are currently being sold on the open market or that have a good potential for marketability were selected. From a list of 20 crops, 3 were selected ...

  8. RFIDs can improve the patient care supply chain.

    PubMed

    Revere, Lee; Black, Ken; Zalila, Faiza

    2010-01-01

    Technologies that increase efficiency, enhance quality, and improve patient safety are essential for all healthcare organizations. Radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) seem to be right for this challenge. RFIDs can be integrated into all areas of the internal patient supply chain, serving as clearinghouses of information. By providing timely information on patients, processes, and equipment, RFIDs can save time and reduce costs while simultaneously improving quality and patient safety. Healthcare leaders owe it to all constituencies to take a serious look at what RFIDs can offer. PMID:20194108

  9. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains.

    PubMed

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-01

    Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case. PMID:25863767

  10. Using SCOR as a Supply Chain Management Framework for Government Agency Contract Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise Supply Chain Management consists of: Specifying suppliers to support inter-program and inter-agency efforts. Optimizing inventory levels and locations throughout the supply chain. Executing corrective actions to improve quality and lead time issues throughout the supply chain. Processing reported data to calculate and make visible supply chain performance (provide information for decisions and actions). Ensuring the right hardware and information is provided at the right time and in the right place. Monitoring the industrial base while developing, producing, operating and retiring a system. Seeing performance deep in the supply chain that could indicate issues affecting system availability and readiness.

  11. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  12. Managing the innovation supply chain to maximize personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2014-02-01

    Personalized medicine epitomizes an evolving model of care tailored to the individual patient. This emerging paradigm harnesses radical technological advances to define each patient's molecular characteristics and decipher his or her unique pathophysiological processes. Translated into individualized algorithms, personalized medicine aims to predict, prevent, and cure disease without producing therapeutic adverse events. Although the transformative power of personalized medicine is generally recognized by physicians, patients, and payers, the complexity of translating discoveries into new modalities that transform health care is less appreciated. We often consider the flow of innovation and technology along a continuum of discovery, development, regulation, and application bridging the bench with the bedside. However, this process also can be viewed through a complementary prism, as a necessary supply chain of services and providers, each making essential contributions to the development of the final product to maximize value to consumers. Considering personalized medicine in this context of supply chain management highlights essential points of vulnerability and/or scalability that can ultimately constrain translation of the biological revolution or potentiate it into individualized diagnostics and therapeutics for optimized value creation and delivery. PMID:24448453

  13. Shrinking the Supply Chain for Implantable Coronary Stent Devices.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean S; O'Sullivan, Kevin J; Verdecchia, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Stenting treatments for the management of disease in the heart, arterial and venous systems, biliary ducts, urethras, ureters, oesophageal tract and prostate have made enormous technical advances since their introduction into clinical use. The progression from metallic to polymer based bio-absorbable stents, coupled with the advances in additive manufacturing techniques, present a unique opportunity to completely re-envision the design, manufacture, and supply chain of stents. This paper looks at current stenting trends and proposes a future where the stent supply chain is condensed from ~150 days to ~20 min. The Cardiologist therefore has the opportunity to become a designer, manufacturer and user with patients receiving custom stents specific to their unique pathology that will be generated, delivered and deployed in the Cath-lab. The paper will outline this potentially revolutionary development and consider the technical challenges that will need to be overcome in order to achieve these ambitious goals. A high level overview of the generating eluting stents in situ program-GENESIS-is outlined including some early experimental work. PMID:26438449

  14. Emergency management logistics must become emergency supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard R; Peterson, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about how emergency management (EM) needs to look to the future regarding issues of resource management (monetary, human, and material). Constraints on budgets are ongoing and the staffing of emergency response activities is often difficult because volunteers have little to no training. The management of material resources has also been a challenge because 1) the categories of material vary by the type of emergency, 2) the necessary quantities of material are often not located near the ultimate point of need, and 3) the transportation assets are rarely available in the form and quantity required to allow timely and effective response. The logistics and resource management functions of EM (what we refer to as EM logistics) have been largely reactive, with little to no pre-event planning for potential demand. We applied the Supply Chain Operational Reference (SCOR) model to EM logistics in an effort to transform it to an integrated and scalable system of physical, information, and financial flows into which are woven the functions of sourcing, making, delivering, and returning, with an overarching planning function that transcends the organizational boundaries of participants. The result is emergency supply chain management, which embraces many more participants who share in a larger quantity of more useful information about the resources that need to be deployed when responding to and recovering from emergency events. PMID:24828913

  15. Analysing the external supply chain risk driver competitiveness: a risk mitigation framework and business continuity plan.

    PubMed

    Blos, Mauricio F; Wee, Hui-Ming; Yang, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    Innovation challenges for handling supply chain risks have become one of the most important drivers in business competitiveness and differentiation. This study analyses competitiveness at the external supply chain level as a driver of risks and provides a framework for mitigating these risks. The mitigation framework, also called the supply chain continuity framework, provides insight into six stages of the business continuity planning (BCP) process life cycle (risk mitigation management, business impact analysis, supply continuity strategy development, supply continuity plan development, supply continuity plan testing and supply continuity plan maintenance), together with the operational constructs: customer service, inventory management, flexibility, time to market, ordering cycle time and quality. The purpose of the BCP process life cycle and operational constructs working together is to emphasise the way in which a supply chain can deal with disruption risks and, consequently, bring competitive advantage. Future research will consider the new risk scenarios and analyse the consequences to promote the improvement of supply chain resilience. PMID:21177223

  16. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise. PMID:21624916

  17. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain

    PubMed Central

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise. PMID:21624916

  18. Production and supply of high-quality food protein for human consumption: sustainability, challenges, and innovations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Fanzo, Jessica; Miller, Dennis D; Pingali, Prabhu; Post, Mark; Steiner, Jean L; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. These changes in population and dietary practices have led to a tremendous rise in the demand for food protein, especially animal-source protein. Consuming the required amounts of protein is fundamental to human growth and health. Protein needs can be met through intakes of animal and plant-source foods. Increased consumption of food proteins is associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and overutilization of water. Consequently, concerns exist regarding impacts of agricultural production, processing and distribution of food protein on the environment, ecosystem, and sustainability. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference. PMID:25123207

  19. The palm oil supply chain, deforestation and peat clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    The palm oil industry has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, particularly in Indonesia. A considerable amount of this expansion has been at the expense of forests and peatlands, resulting in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. Now the industry is faced with two new challenges. There is a possible oversupply on the global market due to recent expansion and the time lag between clearing and new production coming on line, which may depress prices considerably. Furthermore, there is increasing pressure to reduce the industry's impact on climate and biodiversity, exemplified by the commitment by the businesses of the Consumer Goods Forum to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains by 2020. This presentation will examine the interaction between these two challenges and its implications for the industry, in both southeast Asia and new regions of expansion, and how this interaction could transform the industry's mode of expansion in the coming decade.

  20. Supply-chain environmental effects of wastewater utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-01-01

    This letter describes a comprehensive modeling framework and the Wastewater-Energy Sustainability Tool (WWEST) designed for conducting hybrid life-cycle assessments of the wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge infrastructure in the United States. Results from a case study treatment plant which produces electricity using methane offgas are discussed. The case study system supplements influent with 'high-strength organic waste' to augment electricity production. The system balance is 55 kg of greenhouse gases per million liters of wastewater. Sensitivity analysis confirms that reusing biogas from anaerobic digestion for electricity reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by nine times. When biogas is captured and reused for electricity, material production (e.g., chemicals and pipes) and the corresponding supply chains, rather than energy production, are responsible for most of the environmental effects. When biogas is flared, the material and energy production contributions are similar.

  1. How to Increase Value in the Footwear Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasiero, Rosanna; Tescaro, Mauro; Scarso, Enrico; Gottardi, Giorgio

    The Lean approach has been implemented in many different sectors as a methodology to improve industrial performance at company level. In the latest years this approach has been further developed in literature and in practice to integrate the principles of agility, adaptability and the mass customization paradigm where product and services have to be designed together to meet specific requirements, and where value originated by the supply chain enhance the value of single company thanks to the use of ICT and remote control. In this paper we analyze the Beyond-Lean paradigm and propose a path for companies in the footwear sector to improve their performance based on high-value-added products and processes. A detailed process analysis based on Value Stream Mapping is used to define criticalities and suggest improvements paths both at technological and organizational level.

  2. Supply chain coordination with defective items and quantity discount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jen

    2014-12-01

    This study develops an integrated inventory system involving defective items and quantity discount for optimal pricing and ordering strategies. The model analysed in this study is one in which the buyer orders a quantity, the vendor produces more than buyer's order quantity in order to reduce set-up cost, and then he/she offers an all-units quantity discount to the buyer. Our objective is to determine the optimal order quantity, retail price, mark-up rate, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer, so that the entire supply chain joint total profit incurred has a maximum value. Furthermore, an algorithm of finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  3. Macroergomonics' contribution to the effectiveness of collaborative supply chains.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sandra Mejias; Huatuco, Luisa Huaccho

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model that combines Macroergonomics and Supply chain. The authors combine their expertise on these individual topics, building on their previous research. The argument of the paper is that human factors are key to achieve effective supplier-customer collaboration. A conceptual model is presented, its elements and their interactions are explained. The Content-Context-Process is applied as a departing point to this model. Macroergonomics aspects considered are: a systemic approach, participatory ergonomics, formation of ergonomics teams and evaluation of ergonomics projects. The expected outcomes are: (a) improvement of production and productivity levels, (b) improvement of the product quality, (c) Reduction of absenteeism, (d) Improvement in the quality of work life (from the employees' perspective), and (e) increase in the employees' contribution rate of ideas for improvement. A case study was carried out at a vitroplant production organisation incorporating environmental aspects to obtain sustainable benefits. PMID:22317128

  4. An Organizational Knowledge Ontology for Automotive Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Witthaut, Markus; Böhle, Carsten; Brügger, Stephan

    The currently completed ILIPT (Intelligent Logistics for Innovative Product Technologies) project was concerned with the concept of the “5 day car” (a customized car that is delivered within five days after its ordering) and encompassed extensive research on the required production and logistics network structures and processes. As car manufacturers in the automotive industry (commonly referred to as OEMs) rely heavily on their suppliers, the major challenge lies in the organization of inter-enterprise cooperation supported by information systems (IS) in an efficient manner. A common understanding of supply chain concepts is indispensable for this. Ontologies as formal representations of concepts can be used as a semantic basis for cooperation. Relevant results from ILIPT are presented followed by a concept as well as a prototype of how to transfer the theoretical findings to a practical implementation, in this case a multi-agent system.

  5. Using SCOR as a Supply Chain Management Framework for Government Agency Contract Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Joseph; Tucker, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a model that uses the Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model as a foundation for a framework to illustrate the information needed throughout a product lifecycle to support a healthy supply chain management function and the subsequent contract requirements to enable it. It will also show where in the supply chain the information must be extracted. The ongoing case study used to exemplify the model is NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ares I program for human spaceflight. Effective supply chain management and contract requirements are ongoing opportunities for continuous improvement within government agencies, specifically development of systems for human spaceflight operations. Multiple reports from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reinforce this importance. The SCOR model is a framework for describing a supply chain with process building blocks and business activities. It provides a set of metrics for measuring supply chain performance and best practices for continuously improving. This paper expands the application of the SCOR to also provide the framework for defining information needed from different levels of the supply chain and at different phases of the lifecycle. These needs can be incorporated into contracts to enable more effective supply chain management. Depending on the phase of the lifecycle, effective supply chain management will require involvement from different levels of the organization and different levels of the supply chain.

  6. Food Chain Defense in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Leeanne

    Protecting the United States food and agricultural critical infrastructure and key resources is an important responsibility shared by Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial governments and private industry partners. Interference with the food or agricultural infrastructure could have a devastating impact on the Nation's public health and economy. Adequate protection and resiliency of infrastructure in the Food and Agriculture Sector requires a number of integrated processes and procedures undertaken by all sector partners. A number of tools, guidance documents, educational materials, and regulations are available to aid in protecting the United States Food and Agriculture Sector.

  7. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Hinder, Stephanie L.; Bodger, Owen G.; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.

    2014-09-01

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p < 0.01) with habitat configuration a probable driver. Juvenile fish comprised 26% of the fishery catch and gear type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security.

  8. An intelligent traceability system: Efficient tool for a supply chain sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougdira, Abdesselam; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Akharraz, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    The supply chain sustainability becomes a necessity for a smooth, a rapid and a fluid economic transaction. To reach a sustainable supply chain, we propose to focus attention on products and their lifecycle. So, we consider the traceability as a major success key to ensure the supply chain sustainability. For that, we consider a supply chain design that use an intelligent products traced by an intelligent traceability system. This system identifies, restores history and properties of a product, besides it tracks, in real-time a product. This solution can, also, bring, in the product environment, appropriate adjustments to prevent any risk of threatening qualities for the product. So, it helps supply chain contributors making the sustainable adjustments and the instant benchmark of the supply chain sustainability.

  9. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. PMID:27233046

  10. The application of supply chain management principles to emergency management logistics: An empirical study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew R; Young, Richard R; Gordon, Gary A

    2016-01-01

    Key elements of supply chain theory remain relevant to emergency management (EM) logistics activities. The Supply Chain Operations Reference model can also serve as a useful template for the planning, organizing, and execution of EM logistics. Through a series of case studies (developed through intensive survey of organizations and individuals responsible for EM), the authors identified the extent supply chain theory is being adopted and whether the theory was useful for emergency logistics managers. The authors found several drivers that influence the likelihood of an organization to implement elements of supply chain management: the frequency of events, organizational resources, population density, range of events, and severity of the disaster or emergency. PMID:27575640

  11. Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Valeeva, N I; Meuwissen, M P M; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Huirne, R B M

    2005-04-01

    This study determined the relative importance of attributes of food safety improvement in the production chain of fluid pasteurized milk. The chain was divided into 4 blocks: "feed" (compound feed production and its transport), "farm" (dairy farm), "dairy processing" (transport and processing of raw milk, delivery of pasteurized milk), and "consumer" (retailer/catering establishment and pasteurized milk consumption). The concept of food safety improvement focused on 2 main groups of hazards: chemical (antibiotics and dioxin) and microbiological (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to investigate food safety experts' perceptions of the attributes' importance. Preference data from individual experts (n = 24) on 101 attributes along the chain were collected in a computer-interactive mode. Experts perceived the attributes from the "feed" and "farm" blocks as being more vital for controlling the chemical hazards; whereas the attributes from the "farm" and "dairy processing" were considered more vital for controlling the microbiological hazards. For the chemical hazards, "identification of treated cows" and "quality assurance system of compound feed manufacturers" were considered the most important attributes. For the microbiological hazards, these were "manure supply source" and "action in salmonellosis and M. paratuberculosis cases". The rather high importance of attributes relating to quality assurance and traceability systems of the chain participants indicates that participants look for food safety assurance from the preceding participants. This information has substantial decision-making implications for private businesses along the chain and for the government regarding the food safety improvement of fluid pasteurized milk. PMID:15778330

  12. Teaching the Social Issues of a Sustainable Food Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuttleworth, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the pressing need for humans to limit their consumption to more supportable levels, this study investigated how one social studies teacher taught the social issues associated with a sustainable food supply. This article discusses what the teacher's curricular, pedagogical, and assessment strategies were in engaging students with…

  13. Selected Aspects Of The Risk In The Supply Chain In Context Of The Supplier Quality Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblen, Ivan; Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína

    2015-06-01

    The introductory part of the paper underlines the importance of "Risk-based thinking" in the Quality Management System (QMS) and risk in the supply chain, as a principle part of the QMS. After introducing the key terms, the authors focused on the principle part of the article - explanation of the external and internal supply chain risks and the main factors concerning the supply risks, demand risks and environmental risks (as cardinal types of external supply chain risks) as well as the manufacturing and process risks, network/planning and control risks (as most important types of internal supply chain risks). The authors inform on the selected supply chain risk management tools, especially on those which are linked to the appropriate utilization of quality management tools.

  14. Intelligent decision support tool for supply chain planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Barnes, Cathy; Axtell, C.; McKay, Alison; de Pennington, Alan

    2001-10-01

    A decision support system using extended quality function deployment model (EQFDM) and internet application for manufacturing supply chain (SC) planning has been developed in this research. In this paper, a customer-focused quality evaluation approach, the EQFDM with internet application is employed to develop a coordinated planning system in SCs and assist mapping decisions of strategic planning into each partner's internal planning processes. To facilitate cooperation of SC partners in strategic planning, the hybrid planning process has been programmed into a web tool. The local planning has been supported by fuzzy logic approach so that approximate optimal solutions can be obtained avoiding difficulties of acquiring quantitative data. Through this intelligent Web based architecture, individual planning processes can be efficiently co-ordinated by means of efficient communication and visualizing consequences of a decision to be made on SC performance. Case study in a manufacturing (packaging) SC has been conducted to implement a scenario planning process for strategies on re-engineering the manufacturing SC. The research result shows that the intelligent system could be a promising tool for assisting strategic planning in a SC cooperation context.

  15. Processing Uncertain RFID Data in Traceability Supply Chains

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Dong; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries. PMID:24737978

  16. Processing uncertain RFID data in traceability supply chains.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Xiao, Jie; Guo, Guangjun; Jiang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries. PMID:24737978

  17. An integrated supply chain model for new products with imprecise production and supply under scenario dependent fuzzy random demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Lokesh; Dutta, Pankaj; Jain, Karuna

    2014-05-01

    In the present day business scenario, instant changes in market demand, different source of materials and manufacturing technologies force many companies to change their supply chain planning in order to tackle the real-world uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi-objective two-stage stochastic programming supply chain model that incorporates imprecise production rate and supplier capacity under scenario dependent fuzzy random demand associated with new product supply chains. The objectives are to maximise the supply chain profit, achieve desired service level and minimise financial risk. The proposed model allows simultaneous determination of optimum supply chain design, procurement and production quantities across the different plants, and trade-offs between inventory and transportation modes for both inbound and outbound logistics. Analogous to chance constraints, we have used the possibility measure to quantify the demand uncertainties and the model is solved using fuzzy linear programming approach. An illustration is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis is performed for maximisation of the supply chain profit with respect to different confidence level of service, risk and possibility measure. It is found that when one considers the service level and risk as robustness measure the variability in profit reduces.

  18. Food Chain to Food Web: A Natural Progression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Paul; Boltt, Gill

    1990-01-01

    Investigated is the ability of high school pupils and university students to answer questions based on relationships within food webs using sound ecological principles. Research methods used and the results of this study are discussed. (CW)

  19. Modelling inter-supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Teng, Chunxian; Zhang, Ding; Sun, Jiayi

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive model for studying supply chain versus supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption. We assume that there are supply chains with heterogeneous supply network structures that compete at multiple demand markets. Each supply chain is comprised of internal and external firms. The internal firms are coordinated in production and distribution and share some common but limited resources within the supply chain, whereas the external firms are independent and do not share the internal resources. The supply chain managers strive to develop optimal strategies in terms of production level and resource allocation in maximising their profit while facing competition at the end market. The Cournot-Nash equilibrium of this inter-supply chain competition is formulated as a variational inequality problem. We further study the case when there is demand disruption in the plan-execution phase. In such a case, the managers need to revise their planned strategy in order to maximise their profit with the new demand under disruption and minimise the cost of change. We present a bi-criteria decision-making model for supply chain managers and develop the optimal conditions in equilibrium, which again can be formulated by another variational inequality problem. Numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  20. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ramajo, Laura; Pérez-León, Elia; Hendriks, Iris E.; Marbà, Núria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Sejr, Mikael K.; Blicher, Martin E.; Lagos, Nelson A.; Olsen, Ylva S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification. PMID:26778520

  1. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Ramajo, Laura; Pérez-León, Elia; Hendriks, Iris E; Marbà, Núria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Sejr, Mikael K; Blicher, Martin E; Lagos, Nelson A; Olsen, Ylva S; Duarte, Carlos M

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification. PMID:26778520

  2. SCRL-Model for Human Space Flight Operations Enterprise Supply Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Brian; Paxton, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a Supply Chain Readiness Level (SCRL) model that can be used to evaluate and configure adaptable and sustainable program and mission supply chains at an enterprise level. It will also show that using SCRL in conjunction with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs) and National Aeronautics Space Administrations (NASA s) Project Lifecycle Process will provide a more complete means of developing and evaluating a robust sustainable supply chain that encompasses the entire product, system and mission lifecycle. In addition, it will be shown that by implementing the SCRL model, NASA can additionally define supplier requirements to enable effective supply chain management (SCM). Developing and evaluating overall supply chain readiness for any product, system and mission lifecycle is critical for mission success. Readiness levels are presently being used to evaluate the maturity of technology and manufacturing capability during development and deployment phases of products and systems. For example, TRLs are used to support the assessment of the maturity of a particular technology and compare maturity of different types of technologies. MRLs are designed to assess the maturity and risk of a given technology from a manufacturing perspective. In addition, when these measurement systems are used collectively they can offer a more comprehensive view of the maturity of the system. While some aspects of the supply chain and supply chain planning are considered in these familiar metric systems, certain characteristics of an effective supply chain, when evaluated in more detail, will provide an improved insight into the readiness and risk throughout the supply chain. Therefore, a system that concentrates particularly on supply chain attributes is required to better assess enterprise supply chain readiness.

  3. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (P<0·001). The HETI score was lower in obese compared with normal-weight participants (55·9 v. 60·3; P<0·01). Obese participants spent more on discretionary foods (38·3 v. 32·7 %; P<0·01) and less on fruits and vegetables (19·3 v. 22·2 %; P<0·01). The HETI may be a useful tool to describe supermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased. PMID:26467200

  4. Chaos in a three-species food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, A.; Powell, T. )

    1991-06-01

    A continuous time model of a food chain incorporating nonlinear functional (and numerical) responses exhibits chaotic dynamics in long-term behavior when biologically reasonable parameter values are chosen. The appearance of chaos in this model suggests the chaotic dynamics may be common in natural food webs. One approach to the study of an ecological community begins with an important object: its food web. Theoretical studies of food webs must contend with the question of how to couple the large number of interacting species.

  5. Designing Supply Chains for Sustainability by the P-graph Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  6. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  7. The Diffusion and Impact of Radio Frequency Identification in Supply Chains: A Multi-Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoran

    2012-01-01

    As a promising and emerging technology for supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a new alternative to existing tracking technologies and also allows a range of internal control and supply chain coordination. RFID has generated a significant amount of interest and activities from both practitioners and researchers in…

  8. The Multidisciplinary Nature of Supply Chain Management: Where Does It Fit in Business Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.; Cope, Robert; Budden, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Supply chain management is an area of growing interest in both industry and academics. A number of new text books are available for courses in the area, and a number of Colleges of Business are adding relevant curriculum. However, questions arise as to what Supply Chain Management comprises, as to needed courses in the area, and an appropriate…

  9. Teaching Teachers about Supply Chain Management to Influence Students' Career and Education Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Leslie L.

    2013-01-01

    Since teachers are influential in high school students' career choices, enabling high school teachers to introduce educational and career opportunities in supply chain management is a viable strategy for reaching high school students about these opportunities. This article presents a pilot program of supply chain workshops to educate high school…

  10. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-graph Framework under Cost Constraints and Sustainability Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...