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Sample records for football league players

  1. Morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players.

    PubMed

    Jelaska, Petra Mandić; Katić, Ratko; Jelaska, Igor

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the structure of morphological and motor characteristics of Croatian first league female football players and their impact on the estimated quality of the players. According to the goal of the research, a sample consisted of 70 Croatian first league female football players. Participants were measured in 18 tests for assessing morphological characteristics, a set of 12 basic motor abilities tests and a set of 7 tests for assessing football-specific motor abilities. Exploratory factor analysis strategy was applied separately to all measured tests: morphological, basic motor abilities and football specific motor abilities. Factor analysis of morphological tests has shown existence of 3 significant latent dimensions that explain 64% of the total variability. Factors are defined as transverse dimensionality of the skeleton and voluminosity (35%), subcutaneous fat tissue (16%) and longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton (13%). In the area of basic motor abilities, four factors were extracted. The first factor is responsible for the integration of agility and explosive power of legs, i.e. a factor of movement regulation (agility/lower body explosiveness) (23%), the second one defines muscle tone regulation (15%), the third one defines the frequency of leg movements (12%), while the fourth one is recognized as responsible for the manifestation of basic strength, particularly of basic core strength (19%). Two factors were isolated in the space of football-specific motor abilities: football-specific efficiency (53%) and situational football coordination (27%). Furthermore, by use of factor analysis on extracted latent dimensions (morphological, basic and football specific motor abilities) two higher order factors (explaining 87% of common variability) were extracted. They were named morphological-motor factor (54%) and football-specific motor abilities factor (33%). It is assumed that two extracted higher-order factors fully

  2. Perfusion Neuroimaging Abnormalities Alone Distinguish National Football League Players from a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Amen, Daniel G.; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. Objective: To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. Method: A cohort of retired and current NFL players (n = 161) were recruited in a longitudinal study starting in 2009 with ongoing interval follow up. A healthy control group (n = 124) was separately recruited for comparison. Assessments included medical examinations, neuropsychological tests, and perfusion neuroimaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion estimates of each scan were quantified using a standard atlas. We hypothesized that hypoperfusion particularly in the orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, anterior temporal, hippocampal, amygdala, insular, caudate, superior/mid occipital, and cerebellar sub-regions alone would reliably separate controls from NFL players. Cerebral perfusion differences were calculated using a one-way ANOVA and diagnostic separation was determined with discriminant and automatic linear regression predictive models. Results: NFL players showed lower cerebral perfusion on average (p < 0.01) in 36 brain regions. The discriminant analysis subsequently distinguished NFL players from controls with 90% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 94% accuracy (95% CI 95-99). Automatic linear modeling achieved similar results. Inclusion of age and clinical co-morbidities did not improve diagnostic classification. Conclusion: Specific brain regions commonly damaged in traumatic brain injury show abnormally low perfusion on SPECT in professional NFL players. These same regions alone can distinguish this group from healthy subjects with high diagnostic accuracy. This

  3. Comparison of somatotype values of football players in two professional league football teams according to the positions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic. PMID:23940981

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Retired National Football League Players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alice Y.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Cannaday, John; Zhang, Song; Patel, Amit; Palmer, M. Dean; Reddy, Gautham P.; Ordovas, Karen G.; Stillman, Arthur E; Janowitz, Warren; Radford, Nina B.; Roberts, Arthur J.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity exists among National Football League (NFL) players as determined by body mass index (BMI). It is not established whether elevated BMI is associated with a greater prevalence of CV risk factors or coronary atherosclerosis in former NFL players as in non-athletes. This study compared cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and coronary atherosclerosis among retired NFL players and two groups of community controls, the population-based Dallas Heart Study and the preventive medicine cohort, the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Retired NFL players (n=201) were matched for ethnicity, age and BMI (Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, age only). CV risk factors were assessed by survey and screening visit. Coronary atherosclerosis was measured by computed tomography as coronary artery calcium (CAC). Compared to population-based controls, retired NFL players had a significantly lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome, yet a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and hyperlipidemia. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of detectable CAC (46 v 48.3%, p=0.69) or distribution of CAC (0-10, 10-100, 100-400, 400+, p=0.11). Comparing retired NFL players to the physically active preventive medicine controls, there was no difference in the amount of CAC. Among retired NFL players, age and hyperlipidemia, not body size, were the most significant predictors of CAC. In conclusion, despite their large body size, retired NFL players do not have a greater prevalence of CV risk factors or amount of CAC than community controls. PMID:19733715

  5. Body composition and bone mineral density of national football league players.

    PubMed

    Dengel, Donald R; Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weir, Nate L; Weston, Todd D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the body composition of National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the regular season. Four hundred eleven NFL players were measured for height, weight and lean, fat, and bone mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were categorized by their offensive or defensive position for comparison. On average, positions that mirror each other (i.e., offensive lineman [OL] vs. defensive lineman [DL]) have very similar body composition. Although OL had more fat mass than DL, they were similar in total and upper and lower lean mass. Linebackers (LB) and running backs (RB) were similar for all measures of fat and lean mass. Tight ends were unique in that they were similar to RB and LB on measures of fat mass; however, they had greater lean mass than both RB and LB and upper-body lean mass that was similar to OL. Quarterbacks and punters/kickers were similar in fat and lean masses. All positions had normal levels of bone mineral density. The DXA allowed us to measure differences in lean mass between arms and legs for symmetry assessments. Although most individuals had similar totals of lean mass in each leg and or arms, there were outliers who may be at risk for injury. The data presented demonstrate not only differences in total body composition, but also show regional body composition differences that may provide positional templates. PMID:24149760

  6. Positional physical characteristics of players drafted into the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the positional physical requirements necessary to be drafted into the National Football League (NFL), data from the annual NFL combine over the years 2005-2009 were examined. Only those players invited to the combine and subsequently drafted in the same year (n = 1,136) were included in the study. Data from 8 combine physical performance tests were examined for 15 positions. Combine measures evaluated for the center, cornerback, defensive end, defensive tackle, free safety, fullback, inside linebacker, offensive guard, offensive tackle, outside linebacker, quarterback, running back, strong safety, tight end, and wide receiver positions were the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints, the vertical and broad jumps, the 18.3-m shuttle run, the 3-cone drill, and the 102.1-kg bench press for maximum repetitions and, from this, a predicted measure of 1 repetition maximum. A 1-way analysis of variance detected differences in all 9 performance measures (p < 0.01). Post hoc independent t-tests indicated that over most tests many positions exhibited outcomes significantly different from most other positions. Generally, lineman positions performed inferiorly in sprint, jump and change-of-direction ability measures and superiorly in the upper body strength measures. Conversely, defensive back positions were the worst performers in the upper body strength test, and wide receivers and defensive backs were the best performers in all other measures. In general, offensive and defensive positions that commonly compete directly against one another display similar physical characteristics. Any advantages (statistically significant and not) between positions in direct competition were consistently in favor of defensive positions. The results of the present research present position-specific profiles for each of 15 positions. Coaches and practitioners will be able to use the findings of this research to better prepare athletes for entry into the NFL. PMID:21886010

  7. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p < 0.02). Short-term heavy resistance training may alter the association between muscular strength and muscular endurance in college football players and render the NFL-225 test less effective in predicting the change in 1RM bench press strength after short-term training. PMID:25574610

  8. Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Womack, Kyle B; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. PATIENTS Cross-sectional sample of former NFL players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region and age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. Thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age, 61.8 years) underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. A subset of 26 players also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared with imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging mea-sures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow. RESULTS Of the 34 former NFL players, 20 were cognitively normal. Four were diagnosed as having a fixed cognitive deficit; 8, mild cognitive impairment; 2, dementia; and 8, depression. Of the subgroup in whom neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired participants showed the greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in cognitively impaired and depressed retired players compared with their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the cognitively impaired group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming, and word finding). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy

  9. Biopsychosocial characteristics and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League players: an initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Haase, Richard F

    2008-09-01

    The use of neurocognitive testing in the assessment of professional athletes sustaining sports-related concussions has become widespread over the past decade. Baseline neurocognitive testing is now a requirement for athletes in the National Football League (NFL). We present preliminary normative data on a computer based neurocognitive test (Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing; ImPACT) for 159 NFL athletes. Also included are summary data on basic biopsychosocial characteristics, including medical, psychiatric, chemical dependency, concussion, learning disability/attention deficit disorder, and symptom variables, and the relevance of each to baseline neurocognitive test scores. PMID:18614333

  10. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. PMID:26595758

  11. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  12. Management of concussion in the professional football player.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Elizabeth M; Hanks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is no other sport that has come under greater scrutiny surrounding the incidence and treatment of concussion than football, and there is no other professional sports league that has experienced more intense focus of its handling of concussions than the National Football League (NFL). The NFL has received significant criticism of their management of concussion in players from both the popular press and the medical community. However, those working with active NFL players have changed their assessment and treatment of these injuries as the knowledge of concussions has evolved over time. We review the current approach to the management of concussions in the professional football player. PMID:24923402

  13. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  14. Concussion in the National Football League: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2009-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area. PMID:19084771

  15. Concussion in the national football league: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2008-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area. PMID:18295092

  16. Midfoot sprains in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Drakos, Mark C; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2014-12-01

    Midfoot sprains in the National Football League (NFL) are uncommon. There are few studies on midfoot sprains in professional athletes, as most studies focus on severe traumatic injuries resulting in Lisfranc fracture-dislocations. We conducted a study to evaluate midfoot sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. All midfoot sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from participation. Fifteen NFL players sustained midfoot sprains. Most injuries occurred during games as opposed to practice, and the injury typically resulted from direct impact rather than torsion. Twelve players had nonoperative treatment, and 3 had operative treatment. Nonoperative management resulted in a mean of 11.7 days of time lost from participation. However, there was a significant (P=.047) difference in mean (SD) time lost between the grade 1 sprain group, 3.1 (1.9) days, and the grade 2 sprain group, 36 (26.1) days. Of the 3 operative grade 3 patients, 1 returned in 73 days, and 2 were injured late in the season and returned the next season. Eleven (92%) of the 12 players who had nonoperative treatment had a successful return to play, and 10 (83%) of the 12 played more games and seasons after their midfoot injury. Depending on the diastasis category, NFL team physicians vary treatment: no diastasis (84% cam walker), latent diastasis (47% surgery, 34% cam walker), and frank diastasis (94% surgery). In the NFL, midfoot sprains can be a source of significant disability. Successful return to play can be achieved with nonoperative management for grade 1 injuries within 1 week and grade 2 injuries within 5 weeks. However, severe injuries with frank diastasis that require operative management will

  17. The National Football League and chronic traumatic encephalopathy: legal implications.

    PubMed

    Korngold, Caleb; Farrell, Helen M; Fozdar, Manish

    2013-01-01

    The growing awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has the potential to change the public perception and on-field rules of the National Football League (NFL). More than 3,000 ex-NFL players or their relatives are engaged in litigation alleging that the NFL failed to acknowledge and address the neuropsychiatric risks associated with brain injuries that result from playing in the NFL. This article explores the intersection between the medical and legal aspects of CTE in the NFL from a forensic psychiatry perspective. PMID:24051597

  18. Hidden power law patterns in the top European football leagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Silveira, Eliza

    2013-11-01

    Because sports are stylized combat, sports may follow power laws similar to those found for wars, individual clashes, and acts of terrorism. We show this fact for football (soccer) by adjusting power laws that show a close relationship between rank and points won by the clubs participating in the latest seasons of the top fifteen European football leagues. In addition, we use Shannon entropy for gauging league competitive balance. As a result, we are able to rank the leagues according to competitiveness.

  19. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Drakos, Mark C; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Kennedy, John G; Warren, Russell F

    2013-11-01

    Syndesmosis sprains in the National Football League (NFL) can be a persistent source of disability, especially compared with lateral ankle injuries. This study evaluated syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains in NFL players to allow for better identification and management of these injuries. Syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains from a single NFL team database were reviewed over a 15-year period, and 32 NFL team physicians completed a questionnaire detailing their management approach. A comparative analysis was performed analyzing several variables, including diagnosis, treatment methods, and time lost from sports participation. Thirty-six syndesmosis and 53 lateral ankle sprains occurred in the cohort of NFL players. The injury mechanism typically resulted from direct impact in the syndesmosis and torsion in the lateral ankle sprain group (P=.034). All players were managed nonoperatively. The mean time lost from participation was 15.4 days in the syndesmosis and 6.5 days in the lateral ankle sprain groups (P⩽.001). National Football League team physicians varied treatment for syndesmosis sprains depending on the category of diastasis but recommended nonoperative management for lateral ankle sprains. Syndesmosis sprains in the NFL can be a source of significant disability compared with lateral ankle sprains. Successful return to play with nonoperative management is frequently achieved for syndesmosis and lateral ankle sprains depending on injury severity. With modern treatment algorithms for syndesmosis sprains, more aggressive nonoperative treatment is advocated. Although the current study shows that syndesmosis injuries require longer rehabilitation periods when compared with lateral ankle sprains, the time lost from participation may not be as prolonged as previously reported. PMID:24200441

  20. A profile of a National Football League team.

    PubMed

    Pryor, J Luke; Huggins, Robert A; Casa, Douglas J; Palmieri, Gerard A; Kraemer, William J; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physical profiles of players on the 2011 New York Giants (NYG) team and to make comparisons with the historical literature on previous National Football League (NFL) player profiles. In this study, height, body mass (BM), body fat percentage (BF%) using skinfold measurements, and several predicted 1 repetition maximal strength and power measures in 30 returning players from the 2011 NYG team, who recently won the Super Bowl, were collected. Players were grouped by position: running back, quarterback (QB), wide receiver (WR), tight end, offensive lineman (OL), defensive lineman (DL), linebacker (LB), and defensive back (DB). Pooled and weighted mean differences (NYG - NFL) and effect sizes were used to evaluate height, BM, and BF% comparisons of NYG to previous NFL studies from 1998 to 2009. The characteristics of the players as a group were: age, height, BM, BF%: 26 ± 2 years, 183.8 ± 9.0 cm, 144.9 ± 20.8 kg, 14.3 ± 5.5%, respectively. Comparisons highlight distinct position-specific dissimilarity in strength measures, BM, and BF%, which reflect current strength training, conditioning, and team play strategy. As expected, NYG positional differences were found for height (p ≤ 0.05), BM (p ≤ 0.037), BF% (p ≤ 0.048), bench press (p ≤ 0.048), inclined bench press (p ≤ 0.013), and squat (p ≤ 0.026). Anthropometrics profiles did not significantly differ from previously published trends in NFL players indicating equity in physical characteristics over the past 13 years. However, NYG LBs, DLs, OLs, QBs, and WRs trended toward less BF% but generally similar BM compared with NFL players, suggesting greater lean BM in these positions. This study adds new players' data to prototypical position-specific databases that may be used as templates for comparison of players for draft selection or physical training. PMID:24343330

  1. The National Football League: cerebral concussion, peer-review, and the oath of Hippocrates: keynote address--NFL concussion summit, Chicago 2007.

    PubMed

    Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2008-01-01

    The following comments convey the assembled keynote points made at a summit called by Commissioner Roger Goodell involving all leading medical personnel in the National Football League, outside experts and players union representatives. PMID:18300908

  2. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  3. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  4. Outcomes of Lisfranc Injuries in the National Football League

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Kevin Jude; Rozell, Joshua; Milby, Andrew; Carey, James L.; Sennett, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint injuries commonly occur in American professional football competition; however, the career impact of these injuries is unknown. This study aims to define the time to return to competition for professional football players who sustained Lisfranc injuries and to quantify their effect on athletic performance. Methods: Data on National Football League (NFL) players who sustained a Lisfranc injury during a ten-year time period (2000-2010) were collected for analysis. Recorded demographic variables included age, experience, position, and operative vs. non-operative management. Outcomes data collected for offensive players (running backs, wide receivers, tight ends) included time to return to competition and yearly total yards and touchdowns. Outcomes data collected for defensive players (defensive linemen, linebackers, defensive backs) included time to return to competition and yearly total tackles, sacks, and interceptions. Offensive power ratings (OPR=total yards/10 + total touchdowns x6) and defensive power ratings (DPR=total tackles + total sacks x2 + total interceptions x2) were calculated for the injury season and for 3 seasons before and after the injury season. Offensive and defensive control groups consisted of all players of similar positions without an identified Lisfranc injury that competed in the 2005 season. Results: Lisfranc injuries were identified in 28 NFL athletes in the study period, including 11 offensive players and 17 defensive players. While 2 of 28 (7.1%) players never returned to the NFL, the remaining 26 (92.9%) athletes returned to competition at a median 11.1 (interquartile range: 10.3-12.5) months from time of injury and missed a median 8.5 (6.3-13.0) NFL regular season games. Players treated non-operatively were noted to have an earlier return to play with a median absence from play of 6.2 (1.9-10.7) months and 7.0 (4.5-8.0) games compared to those treated operatively who returned after a median

  5. The Irish brawn drain: English League clubs and Irish footballers, 1946-1995.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P

    2000-09-01

    This paper draws on world systems and resource dependency theories to show how the changing recruitment practices of English League clubs have deepened the brawn drain from Irish football, thereby compounding its underdevelopment. An analysis of the origins, method of recruitment and destinations of Irish players (North and South) who appeared in the English League between 1946 and 1995 shows that English clubs imported large numbers of Irish players throughout the second half of the twentieth century. However, it was the inclusion of Irish teenagers within the youth policies of the largest clubs in the period after the 1970s that marked a break from the traditional pattern of buyer-supplier relations. Instead of continuing to purchase players who had established reputations within the Irish leagues, English clubs began to hire the most promising schoolboys before they joined Irish sides. As this practice spread, it eventually eliminated a valuable source of income: the selling of players to English clubs. Despite this development it would, however, be inappropriate to view the relationship between the Irish and English football industries as a simple zero sum game as Irish clubs benefit from employing highly trained young players who return home after failing to establish careers in England. PMID:11038130

  6. [Almaty club "KAIRAT" young football players' health].

    PubMed

    Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved. PMID:24214593

  7. Twelve Years of National Football League Concussion Data

    PubMed Central

    Casson, Ira R.; Viano, David C.; Powell, John W.; Pellman, Elliot J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Concussion in the National Football League (NFL) remains an important issue. An initial description of the injury epidemiology involved 6 years from 1996 to 2001. Hypothesis: The increased attention to concussions may have resulted in team physicians being more conservative in treating players in recent years. Study Design: Two consecutive 6-year periods (1996-2001 and 2002-2007) were compared to determine changes in the circumstances associated with the injury, the patterns of signs and symptoms, and the players’ time loss from participation in the NFL. Methods: During 2002-2007, concussions were recorded by NFL team physicians and athletic trainers using the same standardized reporting form used from 1996 to 2001. Player position, type of play, concussion signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness, and medical action taken were recorded. Results: There were 0.38 documented concussions per NFL game in 2002-2007—7.6% lower than the 0.42 in the earlier period (1996-2001). The injury rate was lower in quarterbacks and wide receivers but significantly higher in tight ends during the second 6 years. The most frequent symptoms were headaches and dizziness; the most common signs were problems with information processing and immediate recall. During 2002-2007, a significantly lower fraction of concussed players returned to the same game, and more were removed from play. Most concussed players (83.5%) returned to play in < 7 days; the percentage decreased to 57.4% with loss of consciousness. The number of players returning in < 7 days was 8% lower during 2002-2007 and 25% lower for those with loss of consciousness. Conclusion: The most recent 6 years of NFL concussion data show a remarkable similarity to the earlier period. However, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of players returning to the same game, and players were held out of play longer. Clinical Relevance: There was a more conservative management of concussion in NFL players from

  8. The role of community in the development of elite handball and football players in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rossing, N N; Nielsen, A B; Elbe, A-M; Karbing, D S

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the place of early development in a sample of Danish male elite and youth handball and football players. The sample included 366 handball and football players from the elite Danish league in the season 2011-2012 and a comparison sample of youth players under the age of 12 from 2003, including 147,221 football and 26,290 handball players. Odds ratio analysis showed that both population size and density significantly affected the proportional number of youth players per community and the odds of athletes reaching an elite level in football and handball. The odds for youth player registrations in both handball and football increased in rural in contrast to urban communities. However, elite football players primarily came from communities of high density (>1000 pop./km(2)), whereas elite handball players primarily came from less densely populated communities (100 to <250 pop./km(2)). Furthermore, there seems to be a relation between representation of elite and talent clubs in different communities and the probability of becoming an elite player in both sports. The limited number of elite players in both sports from rural communities may be due to national talent development strategies that do not incorporate development support for clubs in rural areas. Additionally, the results of the study clearly suggest the need to include the youth player population to advance research findings in birthplace effect studies. PMID:25703343

  9. Etiology and Biomechanics of Tarsometatarsal Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Richard W.; Lievers, W. Brent; Riley, Patrick O.; Frimenko, Rebecca E.; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tarsometatarsal (TMT) dislocations are uncommon yet debilitating athletic injuries, particularly in American football. To date, the mechanisms of athletic TMT dislocation have been described only anecdotally. This lack of information confounds the development of preventative countermeasures. Purpose: To use video analysis to provide direct, independent identification of the etiologic and mechanistic variables responsible for TMT dislocations in professional football players. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Sixteen professional National Football League players who sustained publicly reported TMT dislocations were identified. Publicly broadcast game footage of the plays in which injury occurred was reviewed by a panel of 5 biomechanists. Consensus was reached regarding the details surrounding injury, and a weighting was assigned to each detail based on the panel’s confidence. Results: Roughly 90% of injuries occurred while the injured player was engaged with or by another player, a detail that has heretofore been undocumented. Few injuries resulted from direct loading of either the foot or the ipsilateral limb; however, the injured foot was frequently subjected to axial loading from ground engagement with the foot in plantar flexion and the toes dorsiflexed. Injurious loading was often due to external rotation of the midfoot (86%). Fifteen of 16 injuries were season ending. Conclusion: TMT dislocations are frequently associated with engagement by or with a second player but infrequently caused by a direct blow to the foot. Axial loading of the foot, external rotation, and pronation/supination are the most common conditions during injurious loading. PMID:26535306

  10. New Fantasy Football League Tests NCAA's Rules on Amateur Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The long-simmering debate over the commercialization of college sports reached a boiling point recently when CBS, the NCAA's key corporate partner, announced that it was creating a fantasy football league that uses college athletes' names. Not everyone however, is quite so enthusiastic. Some observers see it as part of a continuing assault on the…

  11. The Cheerleader and the Football Player.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Malati

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  12. The polygenic profile of Russian football players.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Emiliya S; Borisova, Alyona V; Mustafina, Leysan J; Arkhipova, Alina A; Gabbasov, Rashid T; Druzhevskaya, Anastasiya M; Astratenkova, Irina V; Ahmetov, Ildus I

    2014-01-01

    Research concerned with predictors of talent in football has highlighted a number of potentially important and partially inherited measures such as body size, anaerobic power, aerobic capacity, agility, psychological profile, game intelligence and susceptibility to injuries. Genotyping for performance-associated DNA polymorphisms at an early age could be useful in predicting later success in football. The aim of the study was to investigate individually and in combination the association of common gene polymorphisms with football player's status. A total of 246 Russian football players and 872 controls were genotyped for 8 gene polymorphisms, which were previously reported to be associated with athlete status. Four alleles (ACE D, ACTN3 Arg577, PPARA rs4253778 C and UCP2 55Val) were first identified, showing discrete associations with football player's status. Next, we determined the total genotype score (TGS, from the accumulated combination of the 4 polymorphisms, with a maximum value of 100 for the theoretically optimal polygenic score) in athletes and controls. The mean TGS was significantly higher in football players (52.0 (17.6) vs. 41.3 (15.5); P < 0.0001) than in controls. These data suggest that the likelihood of becoming a football player depends on the carriage of a high number of "favourable" gene variants. PMID:24784145

  13. The Financial and Professional Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Dodson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. Purpose: To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, <$500,000; group B, ≤$500,000 to $2,000,000; and group C, >$2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. Results: NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P < .05). In group A, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 to 3 seasons after injury (P < .05), and in group B, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 and 2 seasons after injury (P < .05). There was no significant decrease in group C. Players in groups A and B remaining in the NFL also had a lower mean salary than controls (P < .05 in season 1). The mean cumulative earnings over 4 years for ACL-injured players was $2,070,521 less per player than uninjured controls. Conclusion: On average, ACL-injured players earned $2,070,521 less than salary-matched controls over the 4 years after injury. Players initially earning less than $2 million

  14. Player acceleration and deceleration profiles in professional Australian football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Austin, D; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring a standardized set of acceleration and deceleration zones and whether these standardized zones were capable of identifying differences between playing positions in professional Australian football. Eight well trained male participants were recruited to wear two 5 Hz or 10 Hz GPS units whilst completing a team sport simulation circuit to measure acceleration and deceleration movements. For the second part of this article 30 professional players were monitored between 1-29 times using 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for the collection of acceleration and deceleration movements during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. Players were separated into four distinct positional groups - nomadic players, fixed defenders, fixed forwards and ruckman. The GPS units analysed had good to poor levels of error for measuring the distance covered (<19.7%), time spent (<17.2%) and number of efforts performed (<48.0%) at low, moderate and high acceleration and deceleration zones. The results demonstrated that nomadic players and fixed defenders perform more acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match than fixed forwards and ruckman. These studies established that these GPS units can be used for analysing the distance covered and time spent at the acceleration and deceleration zones used. Further, these standardized zones were proven to be capable of distinguishing between player positions, with nomadic players and fixed defenders required to complete more high acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match. PMID:26470636

  15. The Anatomy of the Global Football Player Transfer Network: Club Functionalities versus Network Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club’s success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network. PMID:27253198

  16. The Anatomy of the Global Football Player Transfer Network: Club Functionalities versus Network Properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Liu, Yu-Liang; Lu, Xin-Hang; Wang, Qi-Xuan; Wang, Tong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club's success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network. PMID:27253198

  17. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  18. High School Football Players Suffer More Symptoms After Concussion

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158603.html High School Football Players Suffer More Symptoms After Concussion: Study Meanwhile, ... MONDAY, May 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- High school football players are more likely to suffer more symptoms ...

  19. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  20. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes From 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Christopher C.; Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Woods, Daniel P.; Deluca, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among National Football League (NFL) athletes; however, the incidence of reinjury in this population is unknown. Purpose: This retrospective epidemiological study analyzed all publicly disclosed ACL tears occurring in NFL players between 2010 and 2013 to characterize injury trends and determine the incidence of reinjury. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A comprehensive online search identified any NFL player who had suffered an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013. Position, playing surface, activity, and date were recorded. Each player was researched for any history of previous ACL injury. The NFL games database from USA Today was used to determine the incidence of ACL injuries on artificial turf and grass fields. Databases from Pro Football Focus and Pro Football Reference were used to determine the injury rate for each position. Results: NFL players suffered 219 ACL injuries between 2010 and 2013. Forty players (18.3%) had a history of previous ACL injury, with 27 (12.3%) retears and 16 (7.3%) tears contralateral to a previous ACL injury. Five players (2.28%) suffered their third ACL tear. Receivers (wide receivers and tight ends) and backs (linebackers, fullbacks, and halfbacks) had significantly greater injury risk than the rest of the NFL players, while perimeter linemen (defensive ends and offensive tackles) had significantly lower injury risk than the rest of the players. Interior linemen (offensive guards, centers, and defensive tackles) had significantly greater injury risk compared with perimeter linemen. ACL injury rates per team games played were 0.050 for grass and 0.053 for turf fields (P > .05). Conclusion: In this retrospective epidemiological study of ACL tears in NFL players, retears and ACL tears contralateral to a previously torn ACL constituted a substantial portion (18.3%) of total ACL injuries. The significant majority of ACL injuries in

  1. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25187247

  2. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  3. Monitoring for overreaching in rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Aaron J; Reaburn, Peter; Piva, Terrence J; Rowsell, Greg J

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify indicators of non-functional overreaching (NFOR) in team sport athletes undertaking intensive training loads. Eighteen semi-professional rugby league players were randomly assigned into two pair matched groups. One group completed 6 weeks of normal training (NT) whilst the other group was deliberately overreached through intensified training (IT). Both groups then completed the same 7-day stepwise training load reduction taper. Multistage fitness test (MSFT) performance, VO2 (max), peak aerobic running velocity (V (max)), maximal heart rate, vertical jump, 10-s cycle sprint performance and body mass were measured pre- and post-training period and following the taper. Hormonal, haematological and immunological parameters were also measured pre-training and following weeks 2, 4 and 6 of training and post-taper. MANOVA for repeated measures with contrast analysis indicated that MSFT performance and VO2 (max) were significantly reduced in the IT group over time and condition, indicating that a state of overreaching was attained. However, the only biochemical measure that was significantly different between the IT and NT group was the glutamine to glutamate (Gln/Glu) ratio even though testosterone, testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio, plasma glutamate, and CK activity were significantly changed after training in both groups. Positive endurance and power performance changes were observed post-taper in the IT group confirming NFOR. These changes were associated with increases in the T/C ratio and the Gln/Glu ratio and decreases in plasma glutamate and CK activity. These results indicate that although there was no single reliable biochemical marker of NFOR in these athletes, the Gln/Glu ratio and MSFT test may be useful measures for monitoring responses to IT in team sport athletes. PMID:17219174

  4. Lack of blood pressure difference by race in professional American football players.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Andrew M; Lincoln, Andrew E; Vogel, Robert A; Black, Henry R; Dunn, Reginald E; Wilson, Peter W F; Pellman, Elliot J

    2015-05-01

    Previous findings suggest that professional American football players have higher blood pressures (BP) and a higher prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension than the general population. We sought to determine whether race is associated with differences in BP and prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension among a large sample of professional football players. BP was measured at 2009 team mini-camps for 1484 black (n = 1007) and white (n = 477) players from 27 National Football League (NFL) teams. Players were categorized into three position groups based on body mass index (BMI). There was no racial difference in mean systolic or diastolic BP in any of the three position groups. There were no racial differences in prevalence of hypertension (99 [9.8%] black players vs. 39 [8.2%] white players; P = .353) or pre-hypertension (557 [55.3%] black players vs. 264 [55.3%] white players; P = 1.0). Contrary to findings in the general population, BP and prevalence of pre-hypertension/hypertension did not vary with race in a large population of active NFL players. PMID:25979411

  5. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-02-15

    Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE

  6. U.S. National Football League athletes seeking unproven stem cell treatments.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L

    2014-12-01

    From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically. PMID:25457965

  7. U.S. National Football League Athletes Seeking Unproven Stem Cell Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kirstin R.W.; Cuchiara, Maude L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically. PMID:25457965

  8. Epidemiology and outcomes of Achilles tendon ruptures in the National Football League.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Selene G; Wray, Walter H; Brimmo, Olubusola; Sennett, Brian J; Wapner, Keith L

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the epidemiology of Achilles tendon ruptures in the National Football League (NFL) and to quantify the impact of these injuries on player performance. A retrospective review of several online NFL player registries identified 31 Achilles tendon ruptures in NFL players between 1997 and 2002. Nineteen percent of injuries occurred during preseason play, while another 18% occurred during the first month of the official season. There was a postinjury reduction of 88%, 83%, and 78% in power ratings for wide receivers, running backs, and tight ends, respectively, over a 3-year period. There was a 95%, 87%, and 64% postinjury reduction in power ratings for linebackers, cornerbacks, and defensive tackles over a 3-year period. On average, players experienced a greater than 50% reduction in their power ratings following such an injury. Thirty-two percent (n = 10) of NFL players who sustained an Achilles tendon rupture did not return to play in the NFL. PMID:20400426

  9. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure. PMID:26200068

  10. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Comper, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The risk of all-cause injury and concussion associated with football is significant. The National Football League (NFL) has implemented changes to increase player safety warranting investigation into the incidence and patterns of injury. Purpose: To document the incidence and patterns of all-cause injury and concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were collected prospectively from official NFL injury reports over 2 regular seasons from 2012 to 2014, with identification of injury incidence rates and patterns. Concussion rate ratios were calculated using previously reported NFL rates. Results: A total of 4284 injuries were identified, including 301 concussions. The all-cause injury rate was 395.8 per 1000 athletes at risk (AAR) and concussion incidence was 27.8 per 1000 AAR. Only 2.3% of team games were injury free. Wide receivers, tight ends, and defensive backs had the highest incidence of injury and concussion. Concussion incidence was 1.61-fold higher in 2012 to 2014 compared with 2002 to 2007. The knee was injured most frequently, followed by the ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and head. Conclusion: The incidence of all-cause injury and concussion in the NFL is significant. Concussion injury rates are higher than previous reports, potentially reflecting an improvement in recognition and awareness. Injury prevention efforts should continue to reduce the prevalence of injury associated with football. PMID:26675321

  11. Practice and play in the development of German top-level professional football players.

    PubMed

    Hornig, Manuel; Aust, Friedhelm; Güllich, Arne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the developmental sporting activities of 52 German football first Bundesliga professionals (including 18 senior national team members) and 50 fourth to sixth league amateur players. They reported their volumes of organised football practice/training, including its "microstructure" (proportions of physical conditioning, skill exercises and playing forms), non-organised leisure football play and engagement in other sports through their career, respectively. Analyses revealed that the Bundesliga professionals performed moderate amounts of organised football practice/training throughout their career. They accumulated 4264 (mean value) hours over ~16 years before debuting in 1st Bundesliga; senior National Team debut was preceded by 4532 hours (mean) over ~17 years. Within the "microstructure" of organised practice/training, the proportion of playing forms developed from ~52% (childhood) to ~45% (adolescence) and ~40% (adulthood) and physical conditioning from ~13% to ~14% and ~23%. Outside organised involvement, these players engaged in extensive non-organised leisure football play making ~68%, ~54% and ~9% of all football involvement. Subsuming organised and non-organised football, ~86% (childhood), ~73% (adolescence) and ~43% (adulthood) of all activity was game play (exclusive matchplay). National Team differed from amateurs in more non-organised leisure football in childhood, more engagement in other sports in adolescence, later specialisation, and in more organised football only at age 22+ years. Relative to numerous other studies, these players performed less organised practice, particularly less physical conditioning, but greater proportions of playing activities. The findings are discussed relative to the significance of playing forms and variable involvements and are reflected against the deliberate practice and Developmental Model of Sport Participation (DMSP) frameworks. PMID:25440296

  12. From childhood to senior professional football: elite youth players' engagement in non-football activities.

    PubMed

    Haugaasen, Mathias; Toering, Tynke; Jordet, Geir

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Despite the large amount of research available on how engagement in football practice relates to future performance level among football players, similar information about the contribution of non-football activities is scarce. Based on data from 745 elite youth players this study aimed to identify the characteristics and contribution of diverse participation towards elite youth and senior professional status. The data were collected using a retrospective questionnaire where the players reported the amount of time spent in other sports than football, in addition to their perceived contribution of different non-football activities for developing football skills. The accumulated hours of time spent in other sports of players who had obtained a senior professional contract were compared to non-professional players, using multilevel modelling (n = 558), while a t-test compared the activity ratings to each other. No significant differences were identified between professional and non-professional players' engagement history, but overall, the players rated sports similar to football to be significantly more relevant for developing football skills than other sports. The results suggests that spending time in non-football activities did not contribute to present differences in performance attainment in football, but also that potential advantages of such activities may be related to their characteristics. PMID:25357261

  13. Hamstring Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Steven B.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Zoga, Adam; Irrgang, Jay J.; Makda, Junaid; Deluca, Peter F.; Bradley, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for detailed evaluation of hamstring injuries; however, there is no classification that allows prediction of return to play. Purpose: To correlate time for return to play in professional football players with MRI findings after acute hamstring strains and to create an MRI scoring scale predictive of return to sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Methods: Thirty-eight professional football players (43 cases) sustained acute hamstring strains with MRI evaluation. Records were retrospectively reviewed, and MRIs were evaluated by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists, graded with a traditional radiologic grade, and scored with a new MRI score. Results were correlated with games missed. Results: Players missed 2.6 ± 3.1 games. Based on MRI, the hamstring injury involved the biceps femoris long head in 34 cases and the proximal and distal hamstrings in 25 and 22 cases, respectively. When < 50% of the muscle was involved, the average number of games missed was 1.8; if > 75%, then 3.2. Ten players had retraction, missing 5.5 games. By MRI, grade I injuries yielded an average of 1.1 missed games; grade II, 1.7; and grade III, 6.4. Players who missed 0 or 1 game had an MRI score of 8.2; 2 or 3 games, 11.1; and 4 or more games, 13.9. Conclusions: Rapid return to play (< 1 week) occurred with isolated long head of biceps femoris injures with < 50% of involvement and minimal perimuscular edema, correlating to grade I radiologic strain (MRI score < 10). Prolonged recovery (missing > 2 or 3 games) occurs with multiple muscle injury, injuries distal to musculotendinous junction, short head of biceps injury, > 75% involvement, retraction, circumferential edema, and grade III radiologic strain (MRI score > 15). Clinical Relevance: MRI grade and this new MRI score are useful in determining severity of injury and games missed—and, ideally, predicting time missed from sports. PMID:23016038

  14. Recovery–stress balance and injury risk in professional football players: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Philipp; Krumm, Bertram; Diers, Martin; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Professional football is a contact sport with a high risk of injury. This study was designed to examine the contribution of stress and recovery variables as assessed with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) to the risk of injury in professional football players. In a prospective, non-experimental cohort design, 22 professional football players in the highest German football league were observed over the course of 16 months. From January 2010 until April 2011, the players completed the RESTQ-Sport a total of 222 times in monthly intervals. In addition, injury data were assessed by the medical staff of the club. Overall, 34 traumatic injuries and 10 overuse injuries occurred. Most of the injuries were located in the lower limb (79.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (43.2%) were the most frequently occurring injury type. In a generalised linear model, the stress-related scales Fatigue (OR 1.70, P = 0.007), Disturbed Breaks (OR 1.84, P = 0.047) and Injury (OR 1.77, P < 0.001) and the recovery-related scale Sleep Quality (OR 0.53, P = 0.010) significantly predicted injuries in the month after the assessment. These results support the importance of frequent monitoring of recovery and stress parameters to lower the risk of injuries in professional football. PMID:26168148

  15. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions. PMID:26284680

  16. Room for Improvement in Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Intake of Male Football (Soccer) Players in Australia.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Michael C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6-82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5-10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices. PMID:26251549

  17. The University of the National Football League: How Technology, Injury Surveillance, and Health Care Have Improved the Safety of America's Game.

    PubMed

    Matava, Matthew J; Görtz, Simon

    2016-07-01

    American football has become one of the most popular sports in the United States. Despite the millions of players at all levels of competition who gain the physical, social, and psychological rewards that football provides, many interested stakeholders continue to ask, "Is football safe?" Although there are only approximately 1,700 players on National Football League (NFL) rosters, the injuries they sustain have garnered the most attention-and criticism-from the national media. Increased public awareness of the injury potential football possesses has led to an open debate and a major shift in public sentiment over the past 5 years. Although no sport is perfectly safe, the question is whether it can be made relatively safe and if the long-term consequences are worth the risk. This article reviews the methods by which one sports league-the NFL-has used advances in medical technology and injury surveillance to improve the health and safety of its players. PMID:27258045

  18. Inter-Rater Reliability and Validity of the Australian Football League's Kicking and Handball Tests.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Ashley J; Hopper, Luke S; Joyce, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Talent identification tests used at the Australian Football League's National Draft Combine assess the capacities of athletes to compete at a professional level. Tests created for the National Draft Combine are also commonly used for talent identification and athlete development in development pathways. The skills tests created by the Australian Football League required players to either handball (striking the ball with the hand) or kick to a series of 6 randomly generated targets. Assessors subjectively rate each skill execution giving a 0-5 score for each disposal. This study aimed to investigate the inter-rater reliability and validity of the skills tests at an adolescent sub-elite level. Male Australian footballers were recruited from sub-elite adolescent teams (n = 121, age = 15.7 ± 0.3 years, height = 1.77 ± 0.07 m, mass = 69.17 ± 8.08 kg). The coaches (n = 7) of each team were also recruited. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Inter-class correlations (ICC) and Limits of Agreement statistics. Both the kicking (ICC = 0.96, p < .01) and handball tests (ICC = 0.89, p < .01) demonstrated strong reliability and acceptable levels of absolute agreement. Content validity was determined by examining the test scores sensitivity to laterality and distance. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing coaches' perceptions of skill to actual test outcomes. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) examined the main effect of laterality, with scores on the dominant hand (p = .04) and foot (p < .01) significantly higher compared to the non-dominant side. Follow-up univariate analysis reported significant differences at every distance in the kicking test. A poor correlation was found between coaches' perceptions of skill and testing outcomes. The results of this study demonstrate both skill tests demonstrate acceptable inter-rater reliable. Partial content validity was confirmed for the kicking test, however further research is required to confirm validity of

  19. Considering maturation status and relative age in the longitudinal evaluation of junior rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, K; Cobley, S; O' Hara, J; Cooke, C; Chapman, C

    2014-06-01

    This study longitudinally evaluated whether maturation and relative age interact with time during adolescence to differentially affect the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players. Anthropometric and fitness characteristics of 81 junior players selected into the UK Rugby Football League's talent identification and development process were assessed over three consecutive occasions (i.e., under-13s, -14s, -15s). Players were grouped and compared in relation to maturational status (i.e., early, average, late) and relative age quartile (i.e., quartile 1). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance identified significant (P < 0.001) overall main effects for maturation group, relative age quartile and importantly a maturation group by time interaction. Findings showed that the early-maturing group had the greatest anthropometric characteristics and medicine ball throw across the three occasions. However, the late-maturing group increased their height (early = 5.0 cm, late = 10.3 cm), medicine ball throw and 60-m sprint (early = -0.46 s, late = -0.85 s) the most throughout the 2-year period. Early (de)selection policies currently applied in talent identification and development programs are questionable when performance-related variables are tracked longitudinally. During adolescence, maturation status alongside relative age should be considered and controlled for when assessing athlete potential for future progression. PMID:23289942

  20. Concussion Incidences and Severity in Secondary School Varsity Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerberich, Susan Goodwin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Study of Minnesota high school football players found an injury rate of 78 per 100 players; 19/100 players reported a concussion experience characterized by loss of consciousness/awareness. Of these, 69 percent returned to play the same day. Illegal blocking and tackling contributed to increased concussion. Lasting effects were prevalent. (GC)

  1. Age of first exposure to football and later-life cognitive impairment in former NFL players

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Julie M.; Bourlas, Alexandra P.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Martin, Brett M.; McClean, Michael D.; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between exposure to repeated head impacts through tackle football prior to age 12, during a key period of brain development, and later-life executive function, memory, and estimated verbal IQ. Methods: Forty-two former National Football League (NFL) players ages 40–69 from the Diagnosing and Evaluating Traumatic Encephalopathy using Clinical Tests (DETECT) study were matched by age and divided into 2 groups based on their age of first exposure (AFE) to tackle football: AFE <12 and AFE ≥12. Participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List Learning test (NAB-LL), and Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4) Reading subtest as part of a larger neuropsychological testing battery. Results: Former NFL players in the AFE <12 group performed significantly worse than the AFE ≥12 group on all measures of the WCST, NAB-LL, and WRAT-4 Reading tests after controlling for total number of years of football played and age at the time of evaluation, indicating executive dysfunction, memory impairment, and lower estimated verbal IQ. Conclusions: There is an association between participation in tackle football prior to age 12 and greater later-life cognitive impairment measured using objective neuropsychological tests. These findings suggest that incurring repeated head impacts during a critical neurodevelopmental period may increase the risk of later-life cognitive impairment. If replicated with larger samples and longitudinal designs, these findings may have implications for safety recommendations for youth sports. PMID:25632088

  2. Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of acute hamstring injuries in professional football players

    PubMed Central

    ZANON, GIACOMO; COMBI, FRANCO; COMBI, ALBERTO; PERTICARINI, LORIS; SAMMARCHI, LUIGI; BENAZZO, FRANCESCO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose muscle injuries have a high incidence in professional football and are responsible for the largest number of days lost from competition. Several in vitro studies have confirmed the positive role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in accelerating recovery and in promoting muscle regeneration, and not fibrosis, in the healing process. This study examines the results of intralesional administration of PRP in the treatment of primary hamstring injuries sustained by players belonging to a major league football club. Methods twenty-five hamstring injuries (grade 2 according to MRI classification) sustained by professional football players during a 31-months observation period were treated with PRP and analyzed. Sport participation absence (SPA), in days, was considered to correspond to the healing time, and we also considered the re-injury rate, and tissue healing on MRI. The mean follow-up was 36.6 months (range 22–42). Results there were no adverse events. The mean SPA for the treated muscle injuries was 36.76±19.02 days. The re-injury rate was 12%. Tissue healing, evaluated on MRI, was characterized by the presence of excellent repair tissue and a small scar. Conclusions this study confirmed the safety of PRP in treating hamstring lesions in a large series of professional football players. PRP-treated lesions did not heal more quickly than untreated lesions described in the literature, but they showed a smaller scar and excellent repair tissue. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:27386443

  3. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  4. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    PubMed Central

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  5. Study: Ex-NFL Players Aren't At Greater Risk for Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Professional football players aren't at greater risk of suicide ... suicide death rate for 3,439 retired National Football League players who played for at least five ...

  6. Cold Weather Can Spike Football Injuries, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158070.html Cold Weather Can Spike Football Injuries, Study Finds NFL concussions and ankle injuries ... most common injuries that occurred during two National Football League seasons between 2012 and 2014. Players had ...

  7. What Research Tells the Coach About Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Roderick R.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…

  8. Comparison of lower body strength, power, acceleration, speed, agility, and sprint momentum to describe and compare playing rank among professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2008-01-01

    Success in rugby league football seems heavily reliant on players possessing an adequate degree of various physical fitness qualities, such as strength, power, speed, agility, and endurance, as well as the individual skills and team tactical abilities. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the lower body strength, power, acceleration, maximal speed, agility, and sprint momentum of elite first-division national rugby league (NRL) players (n = 20) to second-division state league (SRL) players (n = 20) players from the same club. Strength and maximal power were the best discriminators of which players were in the NRL or SRL squads. None of the sprinting tests, such as acceleration (10-m sprint), maximal speed (40-m sprint), or a unique 40-m agility test, could distinguish between the NRL or SRL squads. However, sprint momentum, which was a product of 10-m velocity and body mass, was better for discriminating between NRL and SRL players as heavier, faster players would possess better drive forward and conversely be better able to repel their opponents' drive forward. Strength and conditioning specialists should therefore pay particular attention to increasing lower body strength and power and total body mass through appropriate resistance training while maintaining or improving 10-m sprint speed to provide their players with the underlying performance characteristics of play at the elite level in rugby leagues. PMID:18296969

  9. A BALANCED TEAM WINS CHAMPIONSHIPS: 66 YEARS OF DATA FROM THE NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION AND THE NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE.

    PubMed

    Otten, Mark P; Miller, Travis J

    2015-12-01

    Explicitly monitoring one's own actions has been noted as detrimental to the performance of fine motor skills under duress. Offensive skills rather than defensive skills are typically studied in this context. Defensive techniques typically require skills such as footwork and continuous movement, as opposed to more precise, hand-eye coordinated action. Explicit monitoring theory may be less relevant for defensive skills than offensive skills when playing under pressure. Archival data (66 years) for teams and for individual players was compiled from the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Football League (NFL). For basketball (n=778) and football (n=515) teams, regular season offensive and defensive statistics similarly predicted success in the postseason, which was assumed to create more pressure. For individual basketball players (n=5,132), nine indices of offensive (FG, free throw and three-point shooting, offensive win shares, points, and assists) and defensive (defensive win shares, steals, and blocks) production were compared; among these, three-point shooting percentage was least correlated from season to postseason, suggesting it is especially variable under pressure. A balanced basketball or football team that focuses on both offense and defense may be most successful. PMID:26595202

  10. In Pursuit of Becoming a Senior Coach: The Learning Culture for Australian Football League Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…

  11. The Overtime Rule in the National Football League: Fair or Unfair?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgievski, Nicholas; DeFranco, Thomas C.; Swaminatha, Hariharan; Sofronas, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    In 1974, the National Football League (NFL) initiated a sudden death overtime rule for games ending in a tie score at the end of regulation time. The rule states that the sudden death system of determining the winner shall prevail when the score is tied at the end of the regulation playing time of all NFL games. The team scoring first during…

  12. Chasing Rainbows: A Comment on School Choice and the National Football League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Brent D.; Olson Beal, Heather K.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Brent Beal, and Heather Olson Beal respond to comments made about their article: "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," appearing in this issue of the Journal of School Choice. Comments were made by Vitteritti, Houck, Coulson, Bast, and Merrifield. In their…

  13. Pre-Existing Rotator Cuff Tears as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Daniel; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Gomberawalla, M. Mustafa; Schroeder, Greg; LaBelle, Mark; Hollett, Brian P.; Saltzman, Matthew; Nuber, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Fifty percent of all athletes at the National Football League (NFL) Combine report having had a shoulder injury at some point during their playing career. Rotator cuff tears are rare injuries in young athletes, but an increasing incidence has been noted amongst competitive football players. It is unknown how pre-existing rotator cuff tears affect career longevity and performance of NFL athletes. In Combine athletes with pre-existing rotator cuff tears, knowledge of outcomes may help athletes and physicians manage expectations of draft potential, career length and performance. Methods: The written medical evaluations of prospective professional American football athletes from 2003-2011 during the NFL Combine were compiled and evaluated. All players were evaluated for the diagnosis of a pre-existing rotator cuff tear and stratified based on whether or not they underwent surgical intervention. Athletes with rotator cuff tears, who were selected in the NFL draft, were matched by age, position, year, and round drafted to control draftees without significant documented shoulder pathology. Career statistics, including a previously established “Performance Score,” were compiled. The continuous variables of each cohort were compared using a Student's t-test. A Chi Squared test was performed to analyze the categorical data. Statistical significance was accepted with a p-value < 0.05. Results: Between the years of 2003 and 2011, 2,965 consecutive athletes were evaluated. Forty-nine athletes were identified with a pre-existing rotator cuff tear; twenty-two of these athletes underwent surgical intervention for their tear and 27 were treated non-operatively. Those who attended the NFL Combine with a history of a rotator cuff tear were significantly less likely to be drafted than those without a previous injury (55.1% vs. 77.5% respectively, p = 0.002) (Table 1A). The 27 drafted athletes with pre-existing rotator cuff tears played significantly fewer years (4.3 vs

  14. Syndesmotic Ankle Sprains in Football: A Survey of National Football League Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Doughtie, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain information regarding syndesmotic ankle sprains and to identify a specific treatment modality that reduces the recovery time for syndesmotic ankle sprains. Design and Setting: A mailed survey conducted from the Sports Medicine Department of Tufts University. Subjects: I sent a survey to the head athletic trainers of all 30 National Football League teams. Of the surveys mailed, 23 (77%) were returned. Measurements: The survey consisted of 8 questions pertaining to syndesmotic ankle sprains with respect to mechanism of injury, playing surface, diagnostic tests, immediate and follow-up treatment modalities, best treatment, recovery time, and taping procedure. Results: A variety of causes were noted as being responsible for syndesmotic ankle sprains; the most frequently described mechanism of injury involved a rotational component. Playing surface was not thought to be a factor in the incidence of syndesmotic ankle sprains. Most athletic trainers (96%) indicated that plain radiographs were part of the diagnostic process, while 52% noted that magnetic resonance imaging was also ordered for suspected syndesmotic ankle sprains. The most frequently used modalities during the acute stage were ice, electrical muscle stimulation, casting or bracing (or both), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Proprioception training, ultrasound, and taping were the most commonly used modalities during follow-up treatment. Immobilization, cortico-steroid injection, and ice and exercise were reported to be the best treatments for reducing recovery time of syndesmotic ankle sprains. Conclusions: To date, no treatment plan or modality for syndesmotic ankle sprains has been shown to effectively provide an early and safe return to football. Therefore, the need is clear for prospective studies comparing treatment protocols and severity of injury. PMID:16558541

  15. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

    PubMed Central

    Possin, Katherine L.; Hess, Christopher P.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Nolan, Amber L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Ghosh, Pia M.; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players. PMID:26336629

  16. Style of Play and Rate of Concussions in the National Football League

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Masaru; Petron, David J.; Cross, Chad L.; Willick, Stuart E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of studies on concussion in the National Football League (NFL) focus on testing, evaluation, and outcomes. Meanwhile, there is a paucity of research on how a team’s style of play influences the risk of concussion. Hypothesis: Style of play, such as offensive and defensive strategies, is associated with the rate of concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The current study retrospectively analyzed data from the 2012 to 2014 NFL regular seasons. Reported numbers of concussions were stratified by each team and each position and were compared based on style of play, including offensive scheme (West Coast offense, Air Coryell offense, or other offensive schemes) and defensive alignment (3-4 or 4-3), attempts statistics, per-drive statistics, and offensive and defensive productions, along with strength of schedule (SoS) and team quality measured by simple rating system (SRS). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. Results: There were 437 documented concussions during the 2012 to 2014 NFL regular seasons, with a mean 4.6 concussions per season per team. In general, players most involved in pass plays reported more concussions. The number of concussions sustained by offensive players was significantly higher among the teams adopting the West Coast offense (mean, 3.0) than among those utilizing the Air Coryell offense (mean, 1.6; P = .006) or those with non–West Coast offenses combined (mean, 1.9; P = .004). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the West Coast offense or not, SoS, and SRS explained 25.3% of the variance in the number of concussions by offensive players. After accounting for SRS, the West Coast offense was found to be a significant predictor of the number of concussions (P = .007), while there was a tendency for SoS to be inversely associated with the number of concussions (P = .105). None of the

  17. Predictive Value of National Football League Scouting Combine on Future Performance of Running Backs and Wide Receivers.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Willick, Stuart E

    2016-05-01

    The National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine is held each year before the NFL Draft to measure athletic abilities and football skills of college football players. Although the NFL Scouting Combine can provide the NFL teams with an opportunity to evaluate college players for the upcoming NFL Draft, its value for predicting future success of players has been questioned. This study examined whether the NFL Combine measures can predict future performance of running backs (RBs) and wide receivers (WRs) in the NFL. We analyzed the 2000-09 Combine data of RBs (N = 276) and WRs (N = 447) and their on-field performance for the first 3 years after the draft and over their entire careers in the NFL, using correlation and regression analyses, along with a principal component analysis (PCA). The results of the analyses showed that, after accounting for the number of games played, draft position, height (HT), and weight (WT), the time on 10-yard dash was the most important predictor of rushing yards per attempt of the first 3 years (p = 0.002) and of the careers (p < 0.001) in RBs. For WRs, vertical jump was found to be significantly associated with receiving yards per reception of the first 3 years (p = 0.001) and of the careers (p = 0.004) in the NFL, after adjusting for the covariates above. Furthermore, HT was most important in predicting future performance of WRs. The analyses also revealed that the 8 athletic drills in the Combine seemed to have construct validity. It seems that the NFL Scouting Combine has some value for predicting future performance of RBs and WRs in the NFL. PMID:27100168

  18. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI. PMID:25970145

  19. Retrospective study of concussive convulsions in elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers: phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P. R.; Bladin, P. F.; Berkovic, S. F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the ictal phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome of convulsions occurring within seconds of impact in violent collision sport. DESIGN: Retrospective identification of convulsions associated with concussive brain injury from case records from medical officers of football clubs over a 15 year period. SUBJECTS: Elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuroimaging studies, electroencephalography, neuropsychological test data, and statistics on performance in matches to determine presence of structural or functional brain injury. Clinical follow up and electroencephalography for evidence of epilepsy. RESULTS: Twenty two cases of concussive convulsions were identified with four events documented on television videotape. Convulsions began within 2 seconds of impact and comprised an initial period of tonic stiffening followed by myoclonic jerks of all limbs lasting up to 150 seconds. Some asymmetry in the convulsive manifestations was common, and recovery of consciousness was rapid. No structural or permanent brain injury was present on clinical assessment, neuropsychological testing, or neuroimaging studies. All players returned to elite competition within two weeks of the incident. Epilepsy did not develop in any player over a mean (range) follow up of 3.5 (1-13) years. CONCLUSIONS: These concussive or impact convulsions are probably a non-epileptic phenomenon, somewhat akin to convulsive syncope. The mechanism may be a transient traumatic functional decerebration. In concussive convulsions the outcome is universally good, antiepileptic treatment is not indicated, and prolonged absence from sport is unwarranted. PMID:9022428

  20. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index,…

  1. Comparison of athletic movement between elite junior and senior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carl T; McKeown, Ian; Haff, Gregory G; Robertson, Sam

    2016-07-01

    This study compared the athletic movement skill between elite Under-18 (U18) Australian football (AF) and senior Australian Football League (AFL) players. The U18 sample (n = 13; 17.7 ± 0.6 years) were representatives of an elite talent development programme. The AFL players were classified accordingly; Group 1 (1-4 AFL seasons; n = 20; 21.2 ± 1.9 years) and Group 2 (>5 AFL seasons; n = 14; 26.3 ± 2.6 years). Participants performed an athletic movement skill assessment, inclusive of five foundational movements. Each movement was scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale. Total score for each movement (maximum of nine) and overall score (maximum of 63) were used as criteria. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the effect of developmental group (three levels) on the criteria. Receiver operating curves were built to examine the discriminant capability of the overall score. A significant effect of developmental group was noted, with the U18 sample having a lower mean total score for four of the five movements. Overall scores of 49/63 and 50/63 discriminated the elite U18 sample from Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. U18 players may have less developed athletic movement skills when compared to their senior AFL counterparts. PMID:26525174

  2. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  3. Nutrition and hydration concerns of the female football player.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2007-08-01

    There is little information on the nutritional habits of female football players at any level of the game. There is also a shortage of information on the nutrition and hydration strategies that players should adopt. In general, differences in nutritional needs between males and females are smaller than differences between individuals, so that principles developed for male players also apply to women. There is a need to address energy balance and body composition: prolonged energy deficits cannot be sustained without harm to health and performance. Published reports show mean carbohydrate intakes for female players of about 5 g/kg/day, and this seems to be too low to sustain consistent intensive training. The timing of protein intake may be as important as the amounts consumed, provided that the total intake is adequate. Dehydration adversely affects skill and stamina in women as it does in men, so an individualised hydration strategy should be developed. The prevalence of iron deficiency in women generally is high, but it seems to be alarmingly high in female players. All players should adopt dietary habits that ensure adequate iron intake. Football training seems to increase bone mass in the weight-bearing limbs, with positive implications for bone health in later life, but some players may be at risk from inadequate calcium dietary intake. PMID:17646250

  4. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    PubMed Central

    Feairheller, Deborah L.; Aichele, Kristin R.; Oakman, Joyann E.; Neal, Michael P.; Cromwell, Christina M.; Lenzo, Jessica M.; Perez, Avery N.; Bye, Naomi L.; Santaniello, Erica L.; Hill, Jessica A.; Evans, Rachel C.; Thiele, Karla A.; Chavis, Lauren N.; Getty, Allyson K.; Wisdo, Tia R.; McClelland, JoAnna M.; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Chlad, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm) and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3 ± 0.5 mm versus 3.7 ± 0.6 mm), but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2 ± 6.4 mmHg versus 122.4 ± 6.8 mmHg), submaximal exercise (150.4 ± 18.8 mmHg versus 137.3 ± 9.5 mmHg), maximal exercise (211.3 ± 25.9 mmHg versus 191.4 ± 19.2 mmHg), and 24-hour BP (124.9 ± 6.3 mmHg versus 109.8 ± 3.7 mmHg). Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6 ± 6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 5.8 mg/dL), lower HDL (36.5 ± 11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1 ± 14.8 mg/dL), and higher body fat percentage (29.2 ± 7.9% versus 23.2 ± 7.0%). Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:26904291

  5. Comparison of anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in different levels of Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Johann C; Greenway, Kate G; Opar, David A; Livingstone, Steuart G; Cordy, Justin T; Bird, Stephen R; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometry, upper-body strength, and lower-body power characteristics in elite junior, sub-elite senior, and elite senior Australian Football (AF) players. Nineteen experienced elite senior (≥4 years Australian Football League [AFL] experience), 27 inexperienced elite senior (<4 years AFL experience), 22 sub-elite senior, and 21 elite junior AF players were assessed for anthropometric profile (fat-free soft tissue mass [FFSTM], fat mass, and bone mineral content) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, upper-body strength (bench press and bench pull), and lower-body power (countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump with 20 kg). A 1-way analysis of variance assessed differences between the playing levels in these measures, whereas relationships between anthropometry and performance were assessed with Pearson's correlation. The elite senior and sub-elite senior players were older and heavier than the elite junior players (p ≤ 0.05). Both elite playing groups had greater total FFSTM than both the sub-elite and junior elite players; however, there were only appendicular FFSTM differences between the junior elite and elite senior players (p < 0.001). The elite senior playing groups were stronger and had greater CMJ performance than the lower level players. Both whole-body and regional FFSTM were correlated with bench press (r = 0.43-0.64), bench pull (r = 0.58-0.73), and jump squat performance measures (r = 0.33-0.55). Australian Football players' FFSTM are different between playing levels, which are likely because of training and partly explain the observed differences in performance between playing levels highlighting the importance of optimizing FFSTM in young players. PMID:25226309

  6. Osteochondral and Meniscal Allograft Transplantation in the Football (Soccer) Player

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Riley J.; Gersoff, Wayne K.; Bugbee, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Knee injuries are common in football, frequently involving damage to the meniscus and articular cartilage. These injuries can cause significant disability, result in loss of playing time, and predispose players to osteoarthritis. Osteochondral allografting is an increasingly popular treatment option for osteoarticular lesions in athletes. Osteochondral allografts provide mature, orthotopic hyaline cartilage on an osseous scaffold that serves as an attachment vehicle, which is rapidly replaced via creeping substitution, leading to reliable graft integration that allows for simplified rehabilitation and accelerated return to sport. The indications for meniscal replacement in football players are currently still evolving. Meniscus allografts offer potential functional, analgesic, and chondroprotective benefits in the meniscectomized knee. In the player at the end of his or her professional/competitive career, meniscal allografts can play a role in averting progression of chondropenia and facilitating knee function and an active lifestyle. This article is intended to present a concise overview of the limited published results for osteochondral and meniscal allografting in the athletic population and to provide a practical treatment algorithm that is of relevance to the clinician as well as the patient/football player, based on current consensus of opinion. PMID:26069605

  7. Wireless nanosensors for monitoring concussion of football players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  8. Analysis of football player's motion in view of fractional calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couceiro, Micael; Clemente, Filipe; Martins, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Accurately retrieving the position of football players over time may lay the foundations for a whole series of possible new performance metrics for coaches and assistants. Despite the recent developments of automatic tracking systems, the misclassification problem (i.e., misleading a given player by another) still exists and requires human operators as final evaluators. This paper proposes an adaptive fractional calculus (FC) approach to improve the accuracy of tracking methods by estimating the position of players based on their trajectory so far. One half-time of an official football match was used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach under different sampling periods of 250, 500 and 1000 ms. Moreover, the performance of the FC approach was compared with position-based and velocity-based methods. The experimental evaluation shows that the FC method presents a high classification accuracy for small sampling periods. Such results suggest that fractional dynamics may fit the trajectory of football players, thus being useful to increase the autonomy of tracking systems.

  9. Analysis of football player's motion in view of fractional calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couceiro, Micael S.; Clemente, Filipe M.; Martins, Fernando M. L.

    2013-06-01

    Accurately retrieving the position of football players over time may lay the foundations for a whole series of possible new performance metrics for coaches and assistants. Despite the recent developments of automatic tracking systems, the misclassification problem ( i.e., misleading a given player by another) still exists and requires human operators as final evaluators. This paper proposes an adaptive fractional calculus (FC) approach to improve the accuracy of tracking methods by estimating the position of players based on their trajectory so far. One half-time of an official football match was used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach under different sampling periods of 250, 500 and 1000 ms. Moreover, the performance of the FC approach was compared with position-based and velocity-based methods. The experimental evaluation shows that the FC method presents a high classification accuracy for small sampling periods. Such results suggest that fractional dynamics may fit the trajectory of football players, thus being useful to increase the autonomy of tracking systems.

  10. Discriminating talent-identified junior Australian football players using a video decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Woods, Carl T; Raynor, Annette J; Bruce, Lyndell; McDonald, Zane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if a video decision-making task could discriminate talent-identified junior Australian football players from their non-talent-identified counterparts. Participants were recruited from the 2013 under 18 (U18) West Australian Football League competition and classified into two groups: talent-identified (State U18 Academy representatives; n = 25; 17.8 ± 0.5 years) and non-talent-identified (non-State U18 Academy selection; n = 25; 17.3 ± 0.6 years). Participants completed a video decision-making task consisting of 26 clips sourced from the Australian Football League game-day footage, recording responses on a sheet provided. A score of "1" was given for correct and "0" for incorrect responses, with the participants total score used as the criterion value. One-way analysis of variance tested the main effect of "status" on the task criterion, whilst a bootstrapped receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the discriminant ability of the task. An area under the curve (AUC) of 1 (100%) represented perfect discrimination. Between-group differences were evident (P < 0.05) and the ROC curve was maximised with a score of 15.5/26 (60%) (AUC = 89.0%), correctly classifying 92% and 76% of the talent-identified and non-talent-identified participants, respectively. Future research should investigate the mechanisms leading to the superior decision-making observed in the talent-identified group. PMID:26019058

  11. Self-Esteem Profile among the Female Futsal-Football Players at Jordanian Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Aman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of physical and body self-esteem among the female futsal - football players at Jordanian clubs. The sample of the study was composed of (38) female players among the Jordanian clubs' players of futsal-football who were chosen randomly out of the study community, and the self-esteem scale was used,…

  12. High School Football Players and Their Coaches: A Qualitative Study of Their Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaza, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…

  13. Comparison of Speed, Agility, Anaerobic Strength and Anthropometric Characteristics in Male Football and Futsal Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Resat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare speed, agility, anaerobic strength and some anthropometric characteristics in male football and futsal players. The sample of the study is composed of male futsal team players of Aydin Adnan Menderes University (19-24 aged) (n = 12) and Aydin Merkez Yeniköy Football Club players (19-24 aged) (n = 12). Within…

  14. Comment on Brent Beal's and Heather Olson Beal's "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bast, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In their article "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," Brent D. Beal and Heather K. Olson Beal (this issue) promise to update some of the arguments made by Jeffrey R. Henig (1994) and add an interesting twist by proposing the National Football League (NFL) as a possible…

  15. Examining the External Training Load of an English Premier League Football Team With Special Reference to Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Akenhead, Richard; Harley, Jamie A; Tweddle, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Akenhead, R, Harley, J, and Tweddle, S. Examining the external training load of an English Premier League football team with special reference to acceleration. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2424-2432, 2016-Practitioners and coaches often use external training load variables such as distance run and the number of high-speed running (HSR) activities to quantify football training. However, an important component of the external load may be overlooked when acceleration activities are not considered. The aim of this study was to describe the within-microcycle distribution of external load, including acceleration, during in-season 1-game weeks in an elite football team. Global Positioning System technology was used to collect time-motion data from 12 representative 7-day microcycles across a competitive season (48 training days, 295 data sets). Training time, total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) distance (>5.8 m·s), sprint running distance (>6.7 m·s) and acceleration variables were recorded during each training session. Data were analysed for interday and interposition differences using mixed linear modeling. The distribution of external load was characterized by the second training day of the microcycle (5 days prematch) exhibiting the highest values for all variables of training load, with the fourth day (1 day prematch) exhibiting the lowest values. Central midfield players covered ∼8-16% greater TD than other positions excluding wide midfielders (p ≤ 0.03, d = 0.2-0.4) and covered ∼17% greater distance accelerating 1-2 m·s than central defenders (p = 0.03, d = 0.7). When expressed relative to training duration and TD, the magnitude of interday and interposition differences were markedly reduced (p = 0.03, d = 0.2-0.3). When managing the distribution of training load, practitioners should be aware of the intensity of training sessions and consider the density of external load within sessions. PMID:26817740

  16. A Preseason Checklist for Predicting Elbow Injury in Little League Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Yukutake, Taiki; Kuwata, Masumi; Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite pitch count limits, the incidence of Little League elbow is increasing. A risk-evaluation tool capable of predicting which players are predisposed to throwing injury could potentially prevent injuries. Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of a risk factor checklist for predicting elbow injury in Little League baseball players during 1 season. The hypothesis was that a preseason risk-evaluation checklist could predict which players were predisposed to elbow injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A preseason risk-evaluation checklist was distributed to Little League baseball teams in Japan. Six months later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to determine injuries sustained during the season. Logistic regression analysis was performed, assigning presence or absence of elbow injury during the season as the dependent variable, and an injury risk score (IRS) was developed based on the statistically significant variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to determine the predictive validity of the checklist and the optimal cutoff IRS. Results: Data from 389 Little League players were analyzed. Among them, 53 players experienced an elbow injury requiring medical treatment during the season. Six checklist items associated with a medical history of throwing injury, pitch volume, and arm fatigue were found to be significant. Responses to the items could predict the players who were susceptible to injury during the season, with a two-thirds cutoff value for a 6-item checklist (area under the curve, 0.810; sensitivity, 0.717; specificity, 0.771). Conclusion: Results from a 6-item preseason checklist can predict which Little League players are to sustain an elbow injury by the end of the season. Clinical Relevance: The ability to predict which Little League baseball players are predisposed to elbow injury allows parents and coaches to initiate preventive measures in those players

  17. Precocity Predicts Shorter Life for Major League Baseball Players: Confirmation of Mccann's Precocity-Longevity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis, which proposes that early career achievement is related to premature death, for Major League baseball players (N = 3,760). Age at debut was the definition for precocity. We controlled for possible artifacts of life expectancy selection, the "healthy worker" effect, player position, and body-mass…

  18. Reproducibility of computer based neuropsychological testing among Norwegian elite football players

    PubMed Central

    Straume-Naesheim, T; Andersen, T; Bahr, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Head injuries account for 4–22% of all football injuries. The rate of brain injuries is difficult to assess, due to the problem of defining and grading concussion. Thus computerised testing programs for cognitive function have been developed. Objective: To assess the reliability of a computerised neuropsychological test battery (CogSport) among Norwegian professional football players. Methods: Norwegian professional football league players (90.3% participation) performed two consecutive baseline Cogsport tests before the 2004 season. CogSport consists of seven different subtasks: simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (ChRT), congruent reaction time (CgRT), monitoring (MON), one-back (OBK), matching (Match) and learning (Learn). Results: There was a small but significant improvement from repeated testing for the reaction time measurements of all seven subtasks (SRT: 0.7%, ChRT: 0.4%, CgRT: 1.2%, MON: 1.3%, OBK: 2.7%, Match: 2.0%, Learn: 1.1%). The coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 1.0% to 2.7%; corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.45 (0.34 to 0.55) to 0.79 (0.74 to 0.84). The standard deviation data showed higher CVs, ranging from 3.7% (Learn) to 14.2% (SRT). Thus, the variance decreased with increasing complexity of the task. The accuracy data displayed uniformly high CV (10.4–12.2) and corresponding low intraclass correlation coefficient (0.14 (0.01 to 0.26) to 0.31 (0.19 to 0.42)). Conclusion: The reproducibility for the mean reaction time measures was excellent, but less good for measures of accuracy and consistency. Consecutive testing revealed a slight learning effect from test 1 to test 2, and double baseline testing is recommended to minimise this effect. PMID:16046358

  19. Training loads and incidence of injury during the preseason in professional rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Killen, Natasha M; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G

    2010-08-01

    Research into rugby league has found a significant, positive relationship between training load and injury rates. However, there has been limited research investigating this relationship in the preseason period, and the relationship between training load, and injury among professional rugby league players is yet to be examined. The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between training load, various psychological data, and the incidence of injury during preseason training at a professional rugby league club. Thirty-six male professional rugby league players undertook a 14-week training program. Each player's training time, intensity rating, and injury status were recorded after each training session. In addition, players rated their sleep, food, energy, mood, and stress on a scale of 1-10 (with 1 being extremely poor and 10 being excellent) biweekly. Over the entire preseason period, a total of 2,877.9 training hours were recorded for the players, with an overall incidence of injury of 6.9 per 1,000 training hours. Higher training loads during the first half of the preseason corresponded to a higher injury rate in comparison to the second half of the preseason. No significant relationship was found between the preseason weekly injury rate and the weekly load, nor was there a relationship between injury and psychological data. These findings suggest no relationship between training load, psychological data, and injury incidence during the preseason training period in professional rugby league players. However, results suggest that players may have an increased risk of injury during the early preseason period. The findings of this study may be particularly useful in professional rugby league teams to determine when a player is at increased risk of injury, using their training loads and psychological data. PMID:20613646

  20. Influence of players' physique on rugby football injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A J; Myers, J L; Garraway, W M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is an association between a player's physique and injuries incurred while playing rugby football. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out involving all senior rugby clubs in the Scottish Borders during the 1993-1994 rugby season. Somatotype estimates were determined for 1152 (95%) of the 1216 eligible players. Body mass index (BMI), chest to waist ratio, and the ponderal index (PI) were used to classify players' physique as endomorphic (obese), mesomorphic (muscular), and ectomorphic (linear). RESULTS: A strong association was found between physique and age (chi 2 test: chi 2 = 317.2, df = 10, P < 0.0001). More younger players were ectomorphs. Older players were more often endomorphic. The physiques of forwards and backs were significantly different (chi 2 test: chi 2 = 58.6, df = 2, P < 0.0001), with forwards being of a heavier build than three-quarters, even after adjustment for age. Endomorphic players were more likely than ectomorphs to be injured in a match after adjustment for age (age-adjusted mean BMI for players who were injured in a match was 25.4 compared with 24.6 for players who were not injured in a match, P < 0.0001; adjusted chest to waist ratio means were 1.136 and 1.125 respectively, P = 0.0307; adjusted PI means were 0.414 and 0.417 respectively, P = 0.0056). Increased risk of injury may occur when players play out of position, since one fifth of all injuries occurred in this circumstance. CONCLUSIONS: Further research needs to be conducted using a more objective method of measuring somatotype on a further cohort of players so that the risk of injury for different body types can be examined more closely and related to other potential confounding factors. The level of increased risk for individuals playing out of their usual playing position needs to be established with a greater degree of certainty. PMID:9192128

  1. Changes in the athletic profile of elite college American football players.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W; Goodale, Tyler L; Kuzmits, Frank E; Adams, Arthur J

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare positional anthropometric and National Football League (NFL) Combine performance levels in elite college American football players over the 3-year period from 1999 to 2001 to the 3-year period from 2008 to 2010. The sample included 15 offensive and defensive positions, and only those players invited to the combine and subsequently drafted in the same year (n = 1,712) were included in the study. Data from 10 combine physical tests were examined, including weight; height; the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints; the vertical and horizontal jumps; the 18.3-m shuttle run; the 3-cone drill; and the 102.1-kg bench press for maximum repetitions. Independent samples t-tests detected differences for each of the 15 positions (p < 0.05). There were no discernible trends in height and weight over the period in question, whereas players in the more recent group significantly improved performance in straight sprinting, the 3-cone drill, and the horizontal jump. Findings suggest that these tests better reflect characteristics such as explosiveness and first-step quickness as compared with the 18.3-m shuttle and the vertical jump, and that such characteristics have become more highly sought after by NFL coaches and scouts. The results of the present research suggest that the position-specific profiles changed over a relatively short period of time. Coaches and practitioners will be able to use the findings of this research to better prepare athletes for entry into the NFL. PMID:22692112

  2. Concussion in professional football: summary of the research conducted by the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2006-01-01

    PIn 1994 the National Football League (NFL) initiated a comprehensive clinical and biomechanical research study of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), a study that is ongoing. Data on mild TBIs sustained between 1996 and 2001 were collected and submitted by NFL team physicians and athletic trainers, and these data were analyzed by the NFL's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. At the same time, analysis of game videos was performed for on-field mild TBIs to quantify the biomechanics involved and to develop means to improve the understanding of these injuries so that manufacturers could systematically improve and update their head protective equipment. The findings and analysis of the Committee have been presented in a series of articles in Neurosurgery. PMID:17112190

  3. The normalization of explosive functional movements in a diverse population of elite American football players.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the need to normalize, for body mass, explosive functional tasks in a population exhibiting diverse body masses. Measures investigated in elite college American football players attending the National Football League's annual combine (n = 1,136) were the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints, vertical and horizontal jumps, 18.3-m shuttle, and 3-cone drill. To determine the relationship between body mass and performance outcomes, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were generated using log-transformed data. Task-specific allometric exponents, accounting for body mass, were also determined. The strength of the correlations suggests that sprint and jump abilities are associated with body mass, whereas change-of-direction ability is not. The determined allometric exponents range between 0.296 and -0.463 for the sprint and jump tasks and are -0.022 and -0.006 for the 18.3-m shuttle and the 3-cone drill, respectively. In populations exhibiting relatively large variations in body mass, normalization of sprint and jump abilities is recommended, whereas normalization of change-of-direction ability is unwarranted. Novel suggestions derived from the present research are that sprint and jump abilities in diverse populations warrant normalization and that physical attributes associated with explosive functional movements deserve attribute-specific consideration when contemplating normalization. PMID:22388492

  4. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits. PMID:25137112

  5. Study Suggests Brain Damage in 40 Percent of Ex-NFL Players

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158243.html Study Suggests Brain Damage in 40 Percent of Ex-NFL Players ... National Football League players may suffer from traumatic brain injuries, a small study suggests. Brain scans of ...

  6. Inguinal mass in a college football player: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rich, B S; Hough, D O; Monroe, J S; Nogle, S

    1993-03-01

    A 22-yr-old male college football player presented with a 3-wk history of a mass in his right inguinal area. Originally thought by the athlete to be a groin strain, evaluation revealed a large indirect inguinal hernia. Surgical evaluation was obtained to confirm the diagnosis of a 4-cm opening at the external inguinal ring. The hernia completely and spontaneously reduced in the supine position. The athlete was successfully allowed to participate with the use of a truss and underwent an uneventful surgical repair at the end of the season. The diagnosis and treatment of inguinal hernias are reviewed. PMID:8455445

  7. Measuring the tuning accuracy of thousands singing in unison: an English Premier Football League table of fans' singing tunefulness.

    PubMed

    Howard, David M

    2004-01-01

    Tunefulness in singing is well understood in the context of solo stage performance, singing in small groups and singing in choirs, with or without accompaniment, and it can be readily measured under laboratory conditions. When thousands of people are singing outside in support of their football team, however, the singing is impromptu; there is no conductor, no starting note, and generally no accompaniment. This paper describes the measurement of the tunefulness of the singing of fans of the twenty clubs in the 2001-2002 English Premier League. The technique adopted is unusual in that it makes direct reference to the formal definition of pitch as a subjective phenomenon. The results are presented in the form of a 2001-2002 English Premier League football fans singing league table. PMID:15260183

  8. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P < 0.005) fat intake (118 v 93 g d-1): there was no difference in the absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, or alcohol consumed. When expressed as a fraction of total energy intake, mean protein intake was higher (P < 0.05) and fat intake lower (P < 0.01) at club A. CONCLUSIONS: The mean energy intake of these players was not high compared with athletes in endurance sports. Fractional contribution of the macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population. PMID:9132211

  9. PLAYERS' PERCEPTIONS OF HOME ADVANTAGE IN THE AUSTRALIAN RUGBY LEAGUE COMPETITION.

    PubMed

    Mcguckin, Teneale A; Sinclair, Wade H; Sealey, Rebecca M; Bowman, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to pilot a survey to explore players' perception of home advantage in a rugby league. Twenty-seven players from one team with an identified home advantage believed a home advantage existed as a result of their home crowd (52%), family and friends' support (41%), normal travel (45%) and sleeping arrangements (37%), home weather conditions (48%), and familiarity with playing amenities (37%). However, the players were less definite about influences while playing away from home. The current sample of players identified differing influences, highlighting individual variations in perceived determinants. Individual interviews or focus groups will be required for further exploration. PMID:26682611

  10. Volleyball injuries: a survey of injuries of Scottish National League male players.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, J; Green, B N

    1992-01-01

    Injuries sustained in male volleyball players in the first division of the Scottish National League during the 1989-1990 season were investigated by means of a questionnaire survey. Forty-six injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 0.53 injuries per player. Damage to muscles, tendons and ligaments accounted for most of the injuries. The cause of most injuries was blocking or spiking. In 74% of cases the injured players were able to resume training and playing within 2 weeks of the injury. In 10% of cases the injured players were unable to train or play for 7-14 weeks. PMID:1623361

  11. Volleyball injuries: a survey of injuries of Scottish National League male players.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J; Green, B N

    1992-06-01

    Injuries sustained in male volleyball players in the first division of the Scottish National League during the 1989-1990 season were investigated by means of a questionnaire survey. Forty-six injuries were reported, representing an incidence of 0.53 injuries per player. Damage to muscles, tendons and ligaments accounted for most of the injuries. The cause of most injuries was blocking or spiking. In 74% of cases the injured players were able to resume training and playing within 2 weeks of the injury. In 10% of cases the injured players were unable to train or play for 7-14 weeks. PMID:1623361

  12. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy. PMID:25434530

  13. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position. PMID:23879184

  14. "Role Models" among Elite Young Male Rugby League Players in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Scott; Hardman, Alun; Jones, Carwyn; Sheridan, Heather

    2005-01-01

    There is a taken-for-granted acceptance that sports stars have responsibilities as "role models", yet the concept of a "role model" is unclear. The present study addressed the choice of "role models" amongst elite young British rugby league players, and the reasons for their choices. During the summer of 2002 under-13 and under-14 participants of…

  15. Creatine kinase and endocrine responses of elite players pre, during, and post rugby league match play.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I; Gass, Gregory C

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to (a) examine player-movement patterns to determine total distance covered during competitive Rugby League match play using global positioning systems (GPSs) and (b) examine pre, during, and postmatch creatine kinase (CK) and endocrine responses to competitive Rugby League match play. Seventeen elite rugby league players were monitored for a single game. Player movement patterns were recorded using portable GPS units (SPI-Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). Saliva and blood samples were collected 24 hours prematch, 30 minutes prematch, 30 minutes postmatch, and then at 24-hour intervals for a period of 5 days postmatch to determine plasma CK and salivary testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone:cortisol ratio (T:C). The change in the dependent variables at each sample collection time was compared to 24-hour prematch measures. Backs and forwards traveled distances 5,747 ± 1,095 and 4,774 ± 1,186 m, respectively, throughout the match. Cortisol and CK increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 30 minutes prematch to 30 minutes postmatch. Creatine kinase increased significantly (p < 0.05) postmatch, with peak CK concentration measured 24 hours postmatch (889.25 ± 238.27 U·L). Cortisol displayed a clear pattern of response with significant (p < 0.05) elevations up to 24 hours postmatch, compared with 24 hours prematch. The GPS was able to successfully provide data on player-movement patterns during competitive rugby league match play. The CK and endocrine profile identified acute muscle damage and a catabolic state associated with Rugby League match play. A return to normal T:C within 48 hours postmatch indicates that a minimum period of 48 hours is required for endocrine homeostasis postcompetition. Creatine kinase remained elevated despite 120 hours of recovery postmatch identifying that a prolonged period of at least 5 days modified activity is required to achieve full recovery after muscle damage during competitive Rugby

  16. Cardiovascular risk and fitness in veteran football players.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, M; Steffen, A; Pütz, K; Würtz, N; Such, U; Faude, O; Bohm, P; Meyer, T

    2016-01-01

    Veteran football players above 40 years have rarely been subject to scientific investigations. This is worrisome because their number is considerable and their cardiovascular risk probably increased. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 100 football players between 40 and 63 years of age. This included a medical history and physical examination, venous blood sampling, measurement of resting blood pressure, a resting electrocardiogram (ECG), an exhaustive cycle ergometry and a multistage field test. Also, measurements of heart rate and blood lactate concentration were carried out during one typical training session and one match. Participants trained 1.0 ± 0.6 sessions per week and played 27 ± 8 matches per season. Of them, 19% were smokers. Resting blood pressure was 138 ± 15/88 ± 8 mmHg. Hypertension prevalence (WHO definition) was 66%. Total cholesterol averaged 220 ± 41 mg . dl(-1), HDL 46 ± 13 mg . dl(-1) and LDL 134 ± 33 mg . dl(-1). The average 10-year risk for cardiovascular events (Framingham score) was 6%. Mean maximal power output on the cycle ergometer was 2.8 ± 0.6 W . kg(-1), mean VO2peak 40.0 ± 7.3 ml . min(-1) . kg(-1). Comparing training and competition, no significant differences in cardiovascular and metabolic load were found. In summary, their cardiovascular risk was similar to age-adjusted reference values. However, they showed slightly better ergometric performance. More frequent training stimuli might be necessary to reach more favourable risk factor profiles. Training and competition lead to similar cardiocirculatory and metabolic stress which is considerably high and might put players into danger who have pre-existing cardiac disease. PMID:26691390

  17. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P <.001) than in players who wore a generic mouth guard. The rate of SRC was also higher (HR = 1.96 [95% CI, 1.40–2.73], P <.001) in players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months (15.1% of the 259 players [95% CI, 11.0%–20.1%]) than in players without a previous SRC (8.2% of the 2028 players [95% CI, 7.1%–9.5%]). Conclusion Incidence of SRC was similar

  18. Reliability and Usefulness of Linear Sprint Testing in Adolescent Rugby Union and League Players.

    PubMed

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Roe, Gregory; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Darrall-Jones, JD, Jones, B, Roe, G, and Till, K. Reliability and usefulness of linear sprint testing in adolescent rugby union and league players. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1359-1364, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) whether there were differences in sprint times at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 m between rugby union and rugby league players, (b) determine the reliability and usefulness of linear sprint testing in adolescent rugby players. Data were collected on 28 rugby union and league academy players over 2 testing sessions, with 3-day rest between sessions. Rugby league players were faster at 5 m than rugby union players, with further difference unclear. Sprint time at 10, 20, 30, and 40 m was all reliable (coefficient of variation [CV] = 3.1, 1.8, 2.0, and 1.3%) but greater than the smallest worthwhile change (SWC [0.2 × between-subject SD]), rating the test as marginal for usefulness. Although the test was incapable of detecting the SWC, we recommend that practitioners and researchers use Hopkins' proposed method; whereby plotting the change score of the individual at each split (±typical error [TE] expressed as a CV) against the SWC and visually inspecting whether the TE crosses into the SWC are capable of identifying whether a change is both real (greater than the noise of the test, i.e., >TE) and of practical significance (>SWC). Researchers and practitioners can use the TE and SWC from this study to assess changes in performance of adolescent rugby players when using single beam timing gates. PMID:26466131

  19. Skill-based conditioning games as an alternative to traditional conditioning for rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of skill-based conditioning games and traditional conditioning for improving speed, agility, muscular power, and maximal aerobic power in rugby league players. Sixty-nine subelite rugby league players performed either a skill-based conditioning games program (N = 32) or a traditional conditioning (i.e., running activities with no skill component) program (N = 37). Each player participated in a 9-week in-season training program, performed over 2 competitive seasons. Players performed 2 organized field-training sessions each week. Players underwent measurements of speed (10-m, 20-m, and 40-m sprint), muscular power (vertical jump), agility (L run), and maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test) before and after the training period. Skill-based conditioning games induced a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in 10-m, 20-m, and 40-m speed, muscular power, and maximal aerobic power, whereas traditional conditioning activities improved 10-m speed and maximal aerobic power only. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected between the traditional conditioning and skill-based conditioning games groups for changes in 10-m speed, agility, and maximal aerobic power. Both groups won 6 of 8 matches played within the training period, resulting in a win-loss ratio of 75%. However, on average, the skill-based conditioning games group scored more points in attack (p < 0.05) and had a greater (p < 0.05) points differential than the traditional conditioning group. The results of this study demonstrate that skill-based conditioning games offer an effective method of in-season conditioning for rugby league players. In addition, given that skills learned from skill-based conditioning games are more likely to be applied in the competitive environment, their use may provide a practical alternative to traditional conditioning for improving the physiological capacities and playing performance of rugby league players. PMID:16686558

  20. Muscle Activation and Performance During Trunk Strength Testing in High-Level Female and Male Football Players.

    PubMed

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    For performance and injury prevention in sport, core strength and endurance are focused prerequisites. Therefore we evaluated characteristics of trunk muscle activation and performance during strength-endurance related trunk field tests. Strength-endurance ability, as total time to failure, and activation of trunk muscles was measured in 39 football players of the highest German female football league (Bundesliga) (N = 18, age: 20.7 y [SD 4.4]) and the highest national male under-19 league (N = 21, age: 17.9 y [0.7]) in prone plank, side plank, and dorsal position. Maximal isometric force was assessed during trunk extension and flexion, rotation, and lateral flexion to normalize EMG and to compare with the results of strength-endurance tests. For all positions of endurance strength tests, a continuous increase in normalized EMG activation was observed (P < .001). Muscle activation of the rectus abdominis and external oblique in prone plank position exceeded the maximal voluntary isometric contraction activation, with a significantly higher activation in females (P = .02). We conclude, that in the applied strength-endurance testing, the activation of trunk muscles was high, especially in females. As high trunk muscle activation can infer fatigue, limb strength can limit performance in prone and side plank position, particularly during high trunk muscle activation. PMID:26671894

  1. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Collegiate American Football Players, by Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Emily Millard; Wagner, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in a collegiate football team. Participants: Eighty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players volunteered to participate. Methods: The authors measured height, weight, and waist circumference (WC), and estimated…

  2. Lumbar Spine Injury/Pathology as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Schroeder, Greg; Gibbs, Daniel; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark; Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh; Hsu, Wellington; Nuber, Gordon W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine if a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis such as spondylosis, a herniated lumbar disc, or spondylolysis affects a football player’s draft status or his performance and longevity in the NFL. Methods: The written medical evaluations and imaging reports of prospective professional American football athletes from 2003-2011 from one NFL franchise during the NFL combine (annual college football player evaluation prior to the NFL draft) were compiled and evaluated. All players were evaluated for a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis which were compiled from previous injury/medical records including radiographic imaging reports. Those players with a lumbar spine diagnosis and with appropriate radiograph, MRI and CT imaging were included in this study. These athletes were then matched by age, position, year, and round drafted to control draftees without a lumbar spine diagnosis. Career statistics were compiled including length of play and number of games started. Additionally, a previously established “Performance Score” was calculated for all players excluding offensive linemen. The continuous variables of each cohort were compared using a two-sided (tailed) Student’s t-test for normally distributed data. A chi-squared analysis was performed to analyze the categorical data. Statistical significance was accepted with a p < 0.05. Results: Out of a total of 2,965 athletes evaluated from the NFL combine, 414 players were identified with a pre-existing lumbar spine diagnosis. Athletes who attended the NFL combine without a lumbar spine diagnosis were significantly more likely to be drafted than those with one (74% vs. 61% respectively, p < 0.01). There was no difference between the investigational and control group with regard to round drafted, age, year drafted, or position. Overall, athletes with a lumbar spine injury compared to the control group had no difference in the number of years played (4.0 vs. 4.3 years, respectively

  3. Physical Qualities of International Female Rugby League Players by Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Emmonds, Stacey; Hind, Karen; Nicholson, Gareth; Rutherford, Zoe; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anthropometric, body composition, and fitness characteristics of female rugby league players by playing position. Data were collected on 27 players who were part of the English elite women's rugby league squad. Player assessments comprised anthropometric (stature and body mass), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and fitness {lower-body power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 20 kg jump squat [JS], and 30 cm drop jump), 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 m sprint, 505 agility, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1} measures. Players were classified into playing position (i.e., forwards and backs) before analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences for body mass, stature, total fat, lean mass, and percentage body fat between forwards and backs. Positional differences were also observed for speed, agility, and lower-body power. Significant relationships were observed between total body fat and all fitness variables, and total lean mass was related to CMJ and JS peak power. This study provides comparative data for female rugby league forwards and backs. Body fat was strongly associated with performance and should therefore be considered in developing fitness characteristics. The relationship to match performance and trainability of these characteristics warrants further investigation. PMID:26439784

  4. Applied physiology of rugby league.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim; King, Trish; Jenkins, David

    2008-01-01

    Rugby league football is played in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs), with matches played over two 40-minute halves separated by a 10-minute rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities of rugby league players and the physiological demands of competition, with the physiological capacities of players and the physiological demands of competition increasing as the playing level is increased. However, there is also evidence to suggest that the physiological capacities of players may deteriorate as the season progresses, with reductions in muscular power and maximal aerobic power and increases in skinfold thickness occurring towards the end of the rugby league season, when training loads are lowest and match loads and injury rates are at their highest. Player fatigue and playing intensity have been suggested to contribute to injuries in rugby league, with a recent study reporting a significant correlation (r=0.74) between match injury rates and playing intensity in semi-professional rugby league players. Studies have also reported a higher risk of injury in players with low 10-m and 40-m speed, while players with a low maximal aerobic power had a greater risk of sustaining a contact injury. Furthermore, players who completed <18 weeks of training prior to sustaining their initial injury were at greater risk of sustaining a subsequent injury. These findings provide some explanation for the high incidence of fatigue-related injuries in rugby league players and highlight the importance of speed and endurance training to reduce the incidence of injury in rugby league players. To date, most, but not all, studies have investigated the movement patterns and physiological demands of rugby league competition, with little emphasis on how training activities simulate the competition environment. An understanding of the movement patterns and physiological demands of specific individual

  5. Anthropometric and somatotype variables related to strength in American football players.

    PubMed

    Bale, P; Colley, E; Mayhew, J L; Piper, F C; Ware, J S

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in somatotype, % fat, and strength in relation to body mass of two groups of American football players. One hundred and forty-three football players (85 high school and 58 college) were classified into five weight groups (< 73 kg, 73-82 kg, 83-91 kg, 91-100 kg, > 100 kg). Body composition was estimated from skinfold, and somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Strength was measured from one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts in the bench press and deadlift. Most of the somatotypes were dominant mesomorphs for the high school player and endomesomorphs for the college player. The weight groups in both the high school and college footballer showed significant differences in % fat, somatotype, and strength measures between the lower and higher weight categories. Weight was a greater factor dictating strength in either lift in the high school player than in the college player. A higher mesomorphic component was a more important factor determining strength in the college player while a lower ectomorphic component contributed more in the high school player. The proportion of the variance accounted for by regression equations for the bench press and deadlift was 17% to 41% in the high school player and 35% to 61% in the college player. Although football requires a large individual at certain positions, the question remains concerning overall size versus muscularity to achieve a superior performance level. PMID:7643584

  6. Acute subdural hematoma in a high school football player.

    PubMed

    Litt, D W

    1995-03-01

    A 16-year-old football player developed a headache following a collision during a game. When his headache persisted for 1 week, he underwent a computerized tomographic (CT) scan to determine the cause. Findings were normal and a concussion was diagnosed. Seventeen days after the injury, the athlete reported disappearance of his symptoms. Provocative testing failed to recreate symptoms. The athlete continued to deny any symptoms and was cleared for unlimited participation 30 days after the initial injury. In the next game, the athlete collided with an opposing player, ran to the sidelines, and deteriorated on the sidelines after complaining of dizziness. Local Emergency Medical Squad personnel intubated him and transported him to a local hospital emergency room. Attending neurosurgeons diagnosed a right subdural hematoma by CT scan. A burr hole craniotomy evacuated the lesion. The operative report noted a second area of chronic membrane formation consistent with past head trauma. This lesion had escaped detection on two CT scans. In an interview 4 months postoperatively, the athlete admitted having experienced constant symptoms between the first and second injuries. PMID:16558315

  7. Influence of Field Position on Rugby League Players Requiring Shoulder Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bokor, D J; Sundaram, A; Graham, P L

    2016-06-01

    A consecutive series of patients sustaining their index anterior instability while playing Rugby League and requiring shoulder reconstruction was retrospectively reviewed and evaluated. The details of their on-field position and hand dominance at time of injury, the side of injury, and mechanism of injury were collated and statistically analyzed. A total of 173 Bankart repairs were performed on 132 patients, and 102 players had one injury while 30 had 2 or more injuries. Players are more likely to injure their non-dominant side (P=0.009) in the first-time injury. Whereas second and subsequent injuries were not associated with a particular side (P=0.81). Applying a Bonferroni correction to the chi-squared goodness-of-fit test of position at time of injury revealed players on the wing had a significantly lower frequency of injury (P<0.001), whereas the full back had a significantly higher frequency of injury (P<0.001). 30 players sustained 69 re-dislocations with the lock and fullback positions incurring significantly more re-injuries and the wing position fewer re-injuries than expected (P<0.006). Understanding which player positions on the rugby league field are more likely to sustain an anterior instability will assist medical and support staff to optimize the pre-season conditioning and post surgical rehabilitation of players. PMID:26990719

  8. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key Points Shin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries. Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  9. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  10. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (P< 0.01) in ET than UT, respectively. Cardiac dimensions and function were greater in ET than UT, with left ventricular diastolic diameter, right ventricular diastolic diameter, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and peak transmitral flow in early diastole divided by peak transmitral flow velocity in late diastole during atrial contraction (E/A-ratio) being 13, 19, 27 and 41%, respectively, greater in ET than UT (P< 0.001 to< 0.05). Yo-Yo IE2 performance was 7-fold higher in ET than UT (1772 ± 508 vs. 234 ± 66 m, P< 0.001), fat mass was 51% lower (P< 0.001) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were 20% higher (P< 0.01). Sixteen weeks of football elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status. PMID:23829646

  11. Attitudes on inclusion of a player with disabilities in a regular softball league.

    PubMed

    Block, M E; Malloy, M

    1998-04-01

    Although attitudes of sports participants relate significantly to the successful inclusion of individuals with disabilities in regular sport programs, there has been no published research on attitudes toward inclusion or rule modifications. We examined attitudes of girls without disabilities, their parents, and their coaches towards inclusion of a child with disabilities in a regular girls' fast-pitch softball league. They completed the Attitudes Towards Integrated Sports Inventory prior to the season. Results suggest that players and parents had a favorable attitude towards inclusion and towards modifying the game rules to enable this player to have a safe, successful experience. Coaches were undecided about inclusion and rule modifications. PMID:9573723

  12. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B.; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key points Some minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat. The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season. Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  13. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p < 0.05) during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007) after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat

  14. Influence of Extrinsic Risk Factors on National Football League Injury Rates

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of injury associated with American football is significant, with recent reports indicating that football has one of the highest rates of all-cause injury, including concussion, of all major sports. There are limited studies examining risk factors for injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Purpose: To identify risk factors for NFL concussions and musculoskeletal injuries. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Injury report data were collected prospectively for each week over the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons for all 32 teams. Poisson regression models were used to identify the relationship between predetermined variables and the risk of the 5 most frequent injuries (knee, ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and concussion). Results: A total of 480 games or 960 team games (TGs) from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 regular seasons were included in this study. A trend to an increasing risk of concussion and TG ankle injury with decreasing mean game-day temperature was observed. The risk of TG concussion (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.16; 95% CI, 1.35-3.45; P = .001) and TG ankle injury (IRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.98; P = .01) was significantly greater for TGs played at a mean game-day temperature of ≤9.7°C (≤49.5°F) compared with a mean game-day temperature of ≥21.0°C (≥69.8°F). The risk of TG shoulder injury was significantly increased for TGs played on grass surfaces (IRR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81; P = .038) compared with synthetic surfaces. The risk of TG injury was not associated with time in season, altitude, time zone change prior to game, or distance traveled to a game. Conclusion: This study evaluated extrinsic risk factors for injury in the NFL. A hazardous association was identified for risk of concussion and ankle injury with colder game-day temperature. Further research should be conducted to substantiate this relationship and its potential implication for injury prevention initiatives. PMID

  15. [Physiological basics of sport activity of professional football players].

    PubMed

    Shaljyan, A; Nebogova, K; Grigoryan, S

    2011-10-01

    Maintenance of motor activity by autonomic nervous system is adjusted, mainly, by congenital reflexes. But alongside with inborn reactions to muscular work at formation of motor skill the specific vegetative components are formed to the given kind of sport activity. The aim of our research was revealing those physiological features which are characteristic for an organism of the high skilled sportsmen, with large experience of training and competitive activity. At tested football players have been measured some parameters of external respiration and cardiovascular system. In our investigation it is shown, that programming of the same productivity of work and the same effect are achieved by unequal vegetative support and a different combination of separate components of the general vegetative reaction. Definition and a due estimation of these intermediate parameters in conditions of rest and at physical loading enables objective judgement about a functional condition of the sportsman, about weak parts in system of maintenance of a homeostasis of an organism and directions of accomplish the functioning of the basic effectors. PMID:22155808

  16. Relationship Between Accelerometer Load, Collisions, and Repeated High-Intensity Effort Activity in Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-12-01

    Triaxial accelerometers have been critical in providing information on the high-acceleration, low-velocity movements that occur in team sports. In addition, these sensors have proven to be useful in quantifying the activities that do not involve the vertical acceleration associated with locomotion (e.g., tackling, on-ground wrestling, and grappling). This study investigated the relationship between Player Load (PL), 2D Player Load (2DPL), and Player Load Slow (PL Slow), collisions, and repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) activity in rugby league players. One hundred and eighty-two rugby league players (age, 24.3 ± 3.3 years) participated in this study. Movement was recorded using a global positioning system unit sampling at 10 Hz and triaxial accelerometer sampling at 100 Hz. Analysis was completed during 26 matches (totaling 386 appearances). Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow and total collisions and RHIE activity. When all players were considered, weak relationships were found between PL and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts performed. However, PL was strongly associated (p ≤ 0.05) with total distance, low-speed activity, high-speed running distance, total collisions, and the number of RHIE bouts for forwards and hookers. Weak and typically insignificant relationships were found between PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts performed by the adjustables and outside backs positional groups. The relationships between PL and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts are stronger in positions where contact and repeated-effort demands are high. From a practical perspective, these results suggest that PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow offer useful "real-time" measures of collision and RHIE activity, particularly in forwards and hookers, to inform interchange strategies and ensure players are training at an adequate intensity. PMID:26196661

  17. Epidemiology and Impact of Knee Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives. PMID:26991584

  18. The female football player, disordered eating, menstrual function and bone health

    PubMed Central

    Sundgot‐Borgen, Jorunn; Torstveit, Monica Klungland

    2007-01-01

    Most female football players are healthy. However, recent findings from our studies on Norwegian female elite athletes also show that football players are dieting and experiencing eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction and stress fractures. Dieting behaviour and lack of knowledge of the energy needs of the athlete often leads to energy deficit, menstrual dysfunction and increased risk of bone mass loss. Although dieting, eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction are less common than in many other sports, it is important to be aware of the problem as eating disorders in female athletes can easily be missed. Therefore, individuals, including the players themselves, coaches, administrators and family members, who are involved in competitive football, should be educated about the three interrelated components of the female athlete triad (disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mass), and strategies should be developed to prevent, recognise and treat the triad components. PMID:17609221

  19. Serum zinc and blood rheology in sportsmen (football players).

    PubMed

    Khaled, S; Brun, J F; Micallel, J P; Bardet, L; Cassanas, G; Monnier, J F; Orsetti, A

    1997-01-01

    We aimed at investigating relationships between zinc status, blood rheology and blood glucose during exercise. Twenty-one professional football players underwent a triangular maximal exercise test on cycloergometer, with progressively increasing work loads until VO2max. On the whole these subjects had a low serum zinc because nine of them had a hypozincemia (0.54 +/- 0.01 mg/l) which suggested a zinc deficiency. Subjects with low serum zinc were able to perform a lower power output (123 +/- 8.71 vs. 166.27 +/- 14.84 watts, p = 0.029) and exhibited a higher increase in blood lactate during exercise (7.51 +/- 0.81 vs. 5.57 +/- 0.33 mmol/l, p = 0.024) resulting in a lower 2 mmol lactate threshold (44.7 +/- 3.9% vs. 58.9 +/- 4.8% of maximal power output, p = 0.04). They were less able to maintain their plasma glucose and exhibited a tendency towards hypoglycemia (p = 0.0153). Hypozincemia was associated with a higher viscometric RBC rigidity index (p = 0.0009), and this index was negatively correlated to serum zinc (r = -0.68, p = 0.7 x 10(-3)). Blood viscosity at high shear rate (MT90 viscosimeter) corrected for hematocrit (45%) remained higher during exercise in these hypozincemic subjects (p = 0.003). This study suggests that zinc status may influence blood rheology during exercise, either by its direct action on RBC flexibility (demonstrated in vitro) or by its effect on lactate accumulation which may in turn modify erythrocyte fexibility. PMID:9181758

  20. What is the Safest Sprint Starting Position for American Football Players?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnechere, Bruno; Beyer, Benoit; Rooze, Marcel; Sint, Jan Serge Van

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of three different sprint start patterns to determine the safest position in term of neck injury and Sport-Related Concussion (SRC). The second objective was to collect data on the learning process effect between football players and non-players. Three different sprint initial positions adopted by football players were studied (i.e., 4-, 3- and 2-point positions). Twenty five young healthy males, including 12 football players, participated to this study. A stereophotogrammetric system (i.e., Vicon) was used to record motion patterns and body segments positions. Various measurements related to head and trunk orientation, and player field-of-view were obtained (e.g., head height, trunk bending, time to reach upright position, head speed (vertical direction) and body speed (horizontal direction)). Learning process was found to have no influence on studied parameters. Head redress is also delayed when adopting a 4-point position leading to a reduce field-of-view during the start and increasing therefore the probability of collision. Concerning the three different positions, the 4-point position seems to be the more dangerous because leading to higher kinetic energy than the 2- and 3-point start positions. This study proposes a first biomechanical approach to understand risk/benefit balance for athletes for those three different start positions. Results suggested that the 4-point position is the most risky for football players. Key points Motion analysis and biomechanical analysis of the initial start position of the sprint could be used to increase the safety of the football players. Analysis of kinematic and trajectory of the head and the time to reach the upright position could be used to determine whether or not a player can return to play after concussion. A balance needs to be found between player’s safety (2-point start) and speed (4-point start). PMID:24790500

  1. Physical and psychomotor performance of Australian football and rugby league officials during a match simulation.

    PubMed

    Elsworthy, Nathan; Burke, Darren; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    The onset of exercise facilitates an improvement in psychomotor performance until the second ventilatory threshold, after which performance is reduced. This inverted-U relationship appears valid for incremental and steady-state exercise, however, not for intermittent exercise. This study examined changes in psychomotor performance of team sport officials during a laboratory-based match simulation. Twelve elite Australian football (n = 5) and rugby league (n = 7) officials (32.5 ± 5.5 years; 180.0 ± 6.8 cm; 78.8 ± 7.6 kg) completed the match simulation on a non-motorised treadmill. Physiological measures were routinely taken, while psychomotor performance was assessed using the Eriksen flanker task (multiple-choice response time). Significant reductions (P < 0.05) were observed in distance covered and high-speed running during the second half when compared to the first. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in psychomotor performance at different time points were observed. Response time was significantly improved when running above 65% of maximal sprinting speed (P < 0.01). This data questions the application of the inverted-U hypothesis for intermittent exercise and suggests that the short high-intensity efforts may not result in the same physiological events that limit psychomotor performance during sustained high-intensity exercise. More so, the high-intensity efforts during the match protocol appeared to promote psychomotor performance during the intermittent exercise. PMID:26077979

  2. Effective learning among elite football players: the development of a football-specific self-regulated learning questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Toering, Tynke; Jordet, Geir; Ripegutu, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop a football-specific self-report instrument measuring self-regulated learning in the context of daily practice, which can be used to monitor the extent to which players take responsibility for their own learning. Development of the instrument involved six steps: 1. Literature review based on Zimmerman's (2006) theory of self-regulated learning, 2. Item generation, 3. Item validation, 4. Pilot studies, 5. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and 6. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The instrument was tested for reliability and validity among 204 elite youth football players aged 13-16 years (Mage = 14.6; s = 0.60; 123 boys, 81 girls). The EFA indicated that a five-factor model fitted the observed data best (reflection, evaluation, planning, speaking up, and coaching). However, the CFA showed that a three-factor structure including 22 items produced a satisfactory model fit (reflection, evaluation, and planning; non-normed fit index [NNFI] = 0.96, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.95, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.067). While the self-regulation processes of reflection, evaluation, and planning are strongly related and fit well into one model, other self-regulated learning processes seem to be more individually determined. In conclusion, the questionnaire developed in this study is considered a reliable and valid instrument to measure self-regulated learning among elite football players. PMID:23731271

  3. Injury profile among elite male youth soccer players in a Swedish first league

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Tania; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the injury profile among elite male youth soccer players in a Swedish first league during two seasons. The present cohort study is based on data collected during the 2013–2014 seasons. In total, 43 young elite male soccer players, aged 15 to 19 yr, were prospectively followed regarding injuries, time of exposure, injury location, type of injury, and injury severity. The overall incidence of injury in the present study was estimated to 6.8 injuries per 1,000 exposure hours and 15.5 and 5.6 injuries per 1,000 hr for matches and training, respectively. The single most common injury subtype was muscle strain (53%). The hip and groin were the most common locations for injuries. Thirty-one percent of the injuries were classified as severe injury and caused >28 days absence from training and match play. Both the injury incidence and the number of serious injury seems to be relatively high in youth elite players according to this study. Although the injury incidence seems to be slightly lower than in adult elite players the injuries seem to be more traumatic in youth elite players. PMID:27162769

  4. Prevalence of Pituitary Hormone Dysfunction, Metabolic Syndrome, and Impaired Quality of Life in Retired Professional Football Players: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaloner, Charlene; Evans, Diana; Mathews, Amy; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Sim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Jihey; Wright, Mathew J.; Kernan, Claudia; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Yuen, Kevin C.J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypopituitarism is common after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we address the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and pituitary and metabolic function in retired football players. Retirees 30–65 years of age, with one or more years of National Football League (NFL) play and poor quality of life (QoL) based on Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Component Score (MCS) were prospectively enrolled. Pituitary hormonal and metabolic syndrome (MetS) testing was performed. Using a glucagon stimulation test, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was defined with a standard cut point of 3 ng/mL and with a more stringent body mass index (BMI)-adjusted cut point. Subjects with and without hormonal deficiency (HD) were compared in terms of QoL, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, metabolic parameters, and football career data. Of 74 subjects, 6 were excluded because of significant non-football-related TBIs. Of the remaining 68 subjects (mean age, 47.3±10.2 years; median NFL years, 5; median NFL concussions, 3; mean BMI, 33.8±6.0), 28 (41.2%) were GHD using a peak GH cutoff of <3 ng/mL. However, with a BMI-adjusted definition of GHD, 13 of 68 (19.1%) were GHD. Using this BMI-adjusted definition, overall HD was found in 16 (23.5%) subjects: 10 (14.7%) with isolated GHD; 3 (4.4%) with isolated hypogonadism; and 3 (4.4%) with both GHD and hypogonadism. Subjects with HD had lower mean scores on the IIEF survey (p=0.016) and trended toward lower scores on the SF-36 MCS (p=0.113). MetS was present in 50% of subjects, including 5 of 6 (83%) with hypogonadism, and 29 of 62 (46.8%) without hypogonadism (p=0.087). Age, BMI, median years in NFL, games played, number of concussions, and acknowledged use of performance-enhancing steroids were similar between HD and non-HD groups. In summary, in this cohort of retired NFL players with poor QoL, 23.5% had HD, including 19% with GHD (using a BMI-adjusted definition), 9% with hypogonadism, and

  5. Prevalence of pituitary hormone dysfunction, metabolic syndrome, and impaired quality of life in retired professional football players: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel F; Chaloner, Charlene; Evans, Diana; Mathews, Amy; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Sim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Jihey; Wright, Mathew J; Kernan, Claudia; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Yuen, Kevin C J; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    Hypopituitarism is common after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we address the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and pituitary and metabolic function in retired football players. Retirees 30-65 years of age, with one or more years of National Football League (NFL) play and poor quality of life (QoL) based on Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Component Score (MCS) were prospectively enrolled. Pituitary hormonal and metabolic syndrome (MetS) testing was performed. Using a glucagon stimulation test, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was defined with a standard cut point of 3 ng/mL and with a more stringent body mass index (BMI)-adjusted cut point. Subjects with and without hormonal deficiency (HD) were compared in terms of QoL, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, metabolic parameters, and football career data. Of 74 subjects, 6 were excluded because of significant non-football-related TBIs. Of the remaining 68 subjects (mean age, 47.3±10.2 years; median NFL years, 5; median NFL concussions, 3; mean BMI, 33.8±6.0), 28 (41.2%) were GHD using a peak GH cutoff of <3 ng/mL. However, with a BMI-adjusted definition of GHD, 13 of 68 (19.1%) were GHD. Using this BMI-adjusted definition, overall HD was found in 16 (23.5%) subjects: 10 (14.7%) with isolated GHD; 3 (4.4%) with isolated hypogonadism; and 3 (4.4%) with both GHD and hypogonadism. Subjects with HD had lower mean scores on the IIEF survey (p=0.016) and trended toward lower scores on the SF-36 MCS (p=0.113). MetS was present in 50% of subjects, including 5 of 6 (83%) with hypogonadism, and 29 of 62 (46.8%) without hypogonadism (p=0.087). Age, BMI, median years in NFL, games played, number of concussions, and acknowledged use of performance-enhancing steroids were similar between HD and non-HD groups. In summary, in this cohort of retired NFL players with poor QoL, 23.5% had HD, including 19% with GHD (using a BMI-adjusted definition), 9% with hypogonadism, and 50% had Met

  6. Injuries, Matches Missed and the Influence of Minimum Medical Standards in the A-League Professional Football: A 5-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hughes Schwab, Brendan A.; Vivian, Adam; M. M. J. Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological data on the occurrence of time-loss injuries over several A-League seasons remains lacking, while the effect of the mandatory implementation of ‘Minimum Medical Standards’ as a part of the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) needs to be explored. Objectives: To explore the 5 year evolution of hamstring, groin, knee, ankle and total time-loss injuries among professional footballers in the A-League; to evaluate the consequences of these time-loss injuries in terms of total matches missed and costs incurred; and to explore whether the mandatory implementation of ‘Minimum Medical Standards’ in the A-League had led to a decrease in the occurrence of total time-loss injuries and total matches missed. Patients and Methods: An observational prospective study has been carried out since 2008. Data were collected weekly during the seasons 2008 - 2009 to 2012 - 2013 through official match previews/reviews, official media releases, official websites and/or self-reports by players. Total and specific (hamstring, groin, knee and ankle) numbers of time-loss injuries and matches missed were obtained for each season and the related financial costs calculated. Results: The total number of time-loss injuries and matches missed rose from 129 and 506 respectively in 2008 - 2009 to 202 and 1110 in 2010 - 2011. Following the introduction of ‘Minimum Medical Standards’, both categories decreased (significantly for matches missed). These time-loss injuries and matches missed led to high costs of up to AUD$ 37,317,029.29 (2012 - 2013 season). The same trend was found for knee injuries, while hamstring and ankle injuries remained almost the same. However, time-loss due to groin injuries increased despite the introduction of “Minimum Medical Standards”. Conclusions: The introduction of “Minimum Medical Standards” in the A-League had a favorable effect on the number of total, hamstring, knee and ankle injuries and on the number of matches missed

  7. Injury prevention in male veteran football players - a randomised controlled trial using "FIFA 11+".

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The warm-up programme "FIFA 11+" has been shown to reduce football injuries in different populations, but so far veteran players have not been investigated. Due to differences in age, skill level and gender, a simple transfer of these results to veteran football is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of the "FIFA 11+" in veteran football players. Twenty veteran football teams were recruited for a prospective 9-month (1 season) cluster-randomised trial. The intervention group (INT, n = 146; 45 ± 8 years) performed the "FIFA 11+" at the beginning of each training session, while the control group (CON, n = 119; 43 ± 6 years) followed its regular training routine. Player exposure hours and injuries were recorded according to an international consensus statement. No significant difference was found between INT and CON in overall injury incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.91 [0.64-1.48]; P = 0.89). Only severe injuries reached statistical significance with higher incidence in CON (IRR: 0.46 [0.21-0.97], P = 0.04). Regular conduction (i.e. once a week) of the "FIFA 11+" did not prevent injuries in veteran footballers under real training and competition circumstances. The lack of preventive effects is likely due to the too low overall frequency of training sessions. PMID:25370591

  8. Changes in physical size among major league baseball players and its attribution to elite offensive performance.

    PubMed

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players have not been longitudinally examined for changes in physical size. Height, weight, and body mass indices (BMIs) were examined among offensive league leaders (OLL) and MLB reference cohorts at 1970, 1990, and 2010. Anthropometric values were expected to increase successively, where OLL were expected to be larger at each respective time point. A Mixed Model analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) examined anthropometric differences over time within and between groups. Mass and BMI increased over successive years with the largest effect seen between 1990 and 2010 (p < 0.001). A significant height reduction was shown for OLL from 1970 to 1990 (p ≤ 0.05), being the only significant decrease in physical size; yet, leaders were heavier and taller compared with the MLB reference population (p < 0.014). Results show that physical size has evolved in MLB, with the OLL being the largest players shown at each year in succession. Professional baseball scouts may have been influenced by greater offensive prowess shown by larger athletes; yet, increased secular anthropometrics must also be factored in greater heights, weights, BMIs shown over time in MLB. It is possible that greater participation in strength and conditioning programs at an earlier age, advances in sport nutrition, and potential abuse of anabolic drugs are factors perpetuating growth rates at present. PMID:24714544

  9. Dietary Practices, Attitudes, and Physiological Status of Collegiate Freshman Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Rosenbloom, Christine A.; Skinner, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Determined the eating habits, attitudes, and physiological status of freshman collegiate football players who completed a nutrition screening survey and provided fasting blood samples and data on height and weight. Results indicated that as a group, there were no major problems in dietary practices and physiological status, though there was room…

  10. Rehabilitation of Football Players with Lumbar Spine Injury. (Part 2 of 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saal, Jeffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    The training phase of a rehabilitation program for football players who have sustained lower back injuries proceeds after the pain-control phase, and seeks to minimize risk of reinjury. This phase emphasizes movement training and exercise for strengthening abdominal muscles to stabilize the lumbar spine. A removable exercise guide is included.…

  11. Sports Biographies of African American Football Players: The Racism of Colorblindness in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of racism in a genre of children's literature that has been largely overlooked by research and teaching in multicultural children's literature: sports biographies and, in particular, the biographies of African American professional football players. By examining the race bias of this genre of children's literature, the…

  12. Optimal Pre-Competition Emotional Arousal of High School Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavora, Peter

    A popular belief among leading sport psychologists has been that optimal performance of specific tasks in athletics is associated with different optimal emotional arousal levels of performers. This study was undertaken to test this generalization by examining possible differences in precompetition emotional arousal level of football players who…

  13. Traumatic Carpal Axial Instability in a Professional Football Player: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rettig, Lance; Rettig, Arthur; Cleland, Kirk

    2016-05-01

    This is a case of traumatic carpal axial instability in a professional football player. Traumatic carpal axial instability characteristically involves longitudinal separation of the ulnar or radial distal carpal row along with intermetacarpal injury. Rarely, pancarpal ligament disruption occurs, as in this case. Early diagnosis and treatment of unstable wrist injuries is important in achieving a satisfactory outcome. PMID:26502186

  14. The Effects of Verbal Instruction and Shaping to Improve Tackling by High School Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Antonio M.; Pyles, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated verbal instruction and shaping using TAG (teaching with acoustical guidance) to improve tackling by 3 high school football players. Verbal instruction and shaping improved tackling for all 3 participants. In addition, performance was maintained as participants moved more quickly through the tackling procedure.

  15. A Study of Pacific Islander Scholarship Football Players and Their Institutional Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Monica K.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the theories of social and cultural capital and introduces athletic capital in order to gain an understanding of Polynesian scholarship football players and their experiences at an institution of higher education. Additionally, theories of student identity development and student-athlete development are also utilized to gain a…

  16. Time to Return to Play After High Ankle Sprains in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bruce S.; Downie, Brian K.; Johnson, Philip D.; Schmidt, Paul W.; Nordwall, Stephen J.; Kijek, Theresa G.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Carpenter, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Determining the severity of high ankle sprains in athletes and predicting the time that an athlete can return to unrestricted sport activities following this injury remain significant challenges. Purpose: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if objective measurements of injury severity after high ankle sprains could predict the time to return to play in Division I football players and (2) to determine whether physical examination or diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound was more predictive of return to play. The hypothesis was that objective measures of injury severity of a high ankle sprain can be predictive of time to return to athletic participation in collegiate football players. Study Design: Prospective case series. Methods: Twenty consecutive Division I collegiate football players with a diagnosis of a grade I high ankle sprain (syndesmosis sprain without diastasis) were studied. Two clinical measurements of injury severity were determined: the height of the zone of injury on physical examination and the height of the zone of injury as defined by diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound examination. All athletes followed a standardized treatment program and return-to-play criteria. A regression model and Cox proportional hazards model were developed to determine time to return to unrestricted play as a function of injury severity and player position. Results: Physical examination but not ultrasound was significantly correlated with time to return to play. Regression and Cox analyses revealed that injury severity on physical examination and player position were significant predictors of time to return to unrestricted play following high ankle sprain. Conclusions: Injury severity on physical examination and player position are associated with the time to return to unrestricted athletic activity after injury. A model based on the data can be applied to help predict the time to return to unrestricted play in Division I collegiate football

  17. Sprint Accelerations to First Base Among Major League Baseball Players With Different Years of Career Experience.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A Eugene; Amonette, William E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare times to first base in Major League Baseball games to determine whether running velocity decreases to the foul line and first base among players with differing years of playing experience. From 1998 to 2012, 1,185 sprint times to first base were analyzed: 469 outfielders, 601 infielders, and 115 catchers. The players were divided into differing experience categories depending on their years of service in Major League Baseball: 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20+ years. Velocity at the foul line and first base was compared and interval accelerations were reported. Comparisons were completed by playing position, and within left- and right-handed batters. Left-handed outfielders exhibited reduced velocities at 6-10 (p = 0.04), 11-15 (p = 0.004), and 16-20 years (p < 0.001) compared with 1-5 years; there were no statistical differences in velocity at the foul line. Right-handed outfielders exhibited significantly reduced velocities at first base in 6-10 (p = 0.002) and 11-15 years (p = 0.001); they also had a reduced velocities at the foul line in 6-10 (p = 0.004) and 11-15 years (p = 0.009). Right-handed infielders had reduced velocities at first base in 11-15 years (p < 0.001). No other differences were observed within infielders at first base or the foul line. There were no differences within the compared variables for catchers. Decreases in running velocity to first base with experience are seen in outfielders but are less prominent in infielders and catchers. Although physical capabilities for sprinting may decline with age, it is possible that through repetition more experienced players perfect the skill-related component of running to first base, thus preserving speed. PMID:25353082

  18. Quantification of Competitive Game Demands of NCAA Division I College Football Players Using Global Positioning Systems.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Goulet, Grant C; McLellan, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the competitive physiological movement demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college football players using portable global positioning system (GPS) technology during games and to examine positional groups within offensive and defensive teams, to determine if a player's physiological requirements during games are influenced by playing position. Thirty-three NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision football players were monitored using GPS receivers with integrated accelerometers (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season. Individual data sets (n = 295) from players were divided into offensive and defensive teams and subsequent position groups. Movement profile characteristics, including total, low-intensity, moderate-intensity, high-intensity, and sprint running distances (m), sprint counts, and acceleration and deceleration efforts, were assessed during games. A one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni statistical analysis were used to determine differences in movement profiles between each position group within offensive and defensive teams. For both offensive and defensive teams, significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences exist between positional groups for game physical performance requirements. The results of the present study identified that wide receivers and defensive backs completed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater total distance, high-intensity running, sprint distance, and high-intensity acceleration and deceleration efforts than their respective offensive and defensive positional groups. Data from the present study provide novel quantification of position-specific physical demands of college football games and support the use of position-specific training in the preparation of NCAA Division I college football players for competition. PMID:26382134

  19. Motion analysis of U11 to U16 elite English Premier League Academy players.

    PubMed

    Goto, Heita; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (1) the distances and speeds covered during match play for U11 to U16 English Premier League Academy players, (2) the differences in match performance between retained and released players and (3) the effect of calculating speed zones in different ways when analysing match performance. Eighty-one academy outfield players (10-16 years old), competing in 11-a-side matches, were analysed using a 1-Hz global positioning system with three speed zones (absolute, squad and individual). Pitch dimensions were 78.7 × 54.1 m (U11 and U12), 88.0 × 64.2 m (U13) and 100.8 × 68.2 m (U14-U16). Match durations were 20 min × 2 + 15 min × 2 or 25 min × 3 (U11), 25 min × 3 (U12 and U13) and 40 min × 2 (U14-U16). The matches were part of the regular series of inter-academy matches between Premier League Academies during a season. Completion of at least a half of the duration of a match in two separate matches (mean ± s = 3.1 ± 0.8 matches; range: 2-4 matches) was the criterion for inclusion in the study. Total match running distance increased with age from ~5700 (U11) to ~6700 m · h(-1) (U15) (P < 0.01). Using the absolute speed zones, it was possible to discern differences in high-intensity (>6.0 m · s(-1)) distance covered with age (U11: 29 m · h(-1), U16: 164 m · h(-1), P < 0.01). Using the squad speed zones, it was possible to discern differences between retained and released players in the U11/U12s (moderate-speed running) and in the U15/U16s (walking, jogging and low-speed running) (P < 0.01). Thus, total and high-intensity running distances increase with age, and walking, jogging, low-speed running and moderate-speed running distances are greater in retained than in released players and these differences are best identified through the use of absolute and squad speed zones, respectively. PMID:25583077

  20. Injury prediction in veteran football players using the Functional Movement Screen™.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2016-07-01

    The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) is aimed at assessing fundamental movements and is often used to identify players' injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the FMS™ can be used to predict injuries in veteran footballers (aged > 32 years). Eighteen veteran football teams (n = 238) were recruited and prospectively followed for 9 months. The players (44 ± 7 years; 178 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 11 kg) performed the FMS™ at the start of the study period. Players' exposure hours and injuries were recorded. The difference of FMS™ overall score between injured and uninjured players was not significant (11.7 ± 2.9 vs 12.2 ± 2.8 points; Mann-Whitney U-test P = 0.17). Players scoring <10 (score < 1 standard deviation [SD]) below the mean) had a significantly higher injury incidence (z-statistics P < 0.05) compared to an intermediate reference group (mean ± 1 SD; scores of 10-14). No lower injury incidence for players with scores of >14 (score > 1 SD above the mean) was found. Further analyses of potential risk factors suggest higher age, lower body mass and a longer football career to be risk factors for injuries. The findings of this study suggest that the suitability of the FMS™ for injury prediction in veteran footballers is limited. PMID:26939907

  1. Project NFFL: The Niagara Fantasy Football League and Sport Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dexter J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates are that 32 million people currently play fantasy football every year. Project Based Learning (PBL) is one method of engaging students in the educational process. This paper outlines a semester long project undertaken by undergraduate sport management students that uses fantasy football as a vehicle to enhance student knowledge of basic…

  2. FMRI of visual working memory in high school football players.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Trey E; Robinson, Meghan E; Svaldi, Diana O; Abbas, Kausar; Breedlove, Katherine M; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Visual working memory deficits have been observed in at-risk athletes. This study uses a visual N-back working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging task to longitudinally assess asymptomatic football athletes for abnormal activity. Athletes were increasingly "flagged" as the season progressed. Flagging may provide early detection of injury. PMID:25961587

  3. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injuries in professional football players

    PubMed Central

    MASSIDDA, MYOSOTIS; CORRIAS, LAURA; BACHIS, VALERIA; CUGIA, PAOLO; PIRAS, FRANCESCO; SCORCU, MARCO; CALÒ, CARLA M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injury (MI) in elite football players. In total, 54 male professional football players were recruited from an official Italian professional championship team between 2009 and 2013. The cohort was genotyped for the ApaI, BsmI and FokI polymorphisms and MI data were collected over four football seasons. No significant differences were identified among the genotypes in the incidence rates or severity of MI (P=0.254). In addition, no significant associations were observed between VDR polymorphisms and MI phenotypes (P=0.460). However, the results of the casewise multiple regression analysis indicated that the ApaI genotypes accounted for 18% of injury severity (P=0.002). Therefore, while the BsmI and FokI polymorphisms did not appear to be associated with the severity or incidence of MI, the ApaI genotypes may have influenced the severity of muscle injury in top-level football players. PMID:26161149

  4. Variation in the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA genes in Lithuanian football players.

    PubMed

    Gineviciene, Valentina; Jakaitiene, Audrone; Tubelis, Linas; Kucinskas, Vaidutis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of ACE (I/D), PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms on footballers performance among 199 Lithuanian professional footballers and 167 sedentary, healthy men (controls). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods on DNA from leucocytes. Results revealed that the angiotensin-1-coverting enzyme gene (ACE) genotype distribution was significantly different between total football players group (II 23.6%, ID 46.7% and DD 29.6%) and the controls (II 24.6%, ID 29.9% and DD 45.5%; P=0.002). Although investigating PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms no significant results were obtained in the total football players group, however, significant differences were determined between forwards and controls [PPARGC1A: GG 54.6%, GA 29.5%, AA 15.9% vs. GG 49.7%, GA 44.3% and AA 6.0% (P = 0.044); PPARA: GG 52.3%, GC 40.9%, CC 6.8% vs. GG 72.4%, GC 24.6% and CC 3.0% (P = 0.034)]. In the whole cohort, the odds ratio of the genotype [ACE ID + PPARA GG] being a footballer was 1.69 (95% CI 1.04-2.74), and of [ACE ID + PPARGC1A GG] 1.93 (95% CI 1.10-3.37) and of [ACE II + PPARA GC] 2.83 (95% CI 1.02-7.91) compared to controls. It was revealed that ACE ID genotype together with PPARA GG and PPARGC1A GG as well as ACE II genotype with PPARA GC is probably the 'preferable genotype' for footballers. Summing up, the present study suggests that the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA polymorphisms genotypes are associated, separately and in combination, with Lithuanian footballers' performance. PMID:24444220

  5. Consequences of repeated blood-brain barrier disruption in football players.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Nicola; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Puvenna, Vikram; Janigro, Mattia; Ghosh, Chaitali; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhu, Tong; Blackman, Eric; Stewart, Desiree; Ellis, Jasmina; Butler, Robert; Janigro, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The acknowledgement of risks for traumatic brain injury in American football players has prompted studies for sideline concussion diagnosis and testing for neurological deficits. While concussions are recognized etiological factors for a spectrum of neurological sequelae, the consequences of sub-concussive events are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) and the accompanying surge of the astrocytic protein S100B in blood may cause an immune response associated with production of auto-antibodies. We also wished to determine whether these events result in disrupted white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DT) scans. Players from three college football teams were enrolled (total of 67 volunteers). None of the players experienced a concussion. Blood samples were collected before and after games (n = 57); the number of head hits in all players was monitored by movie review and post-game interviews. S100B serum levels and auto-antibodies against S100B were measured and correlated by direct and reverse immunoassays (n = 15 players; 5 games). A subset of players underwent DTI scans pre- and post-season and after a 6-month interval (n = 10). Cognitive and functional assessments were also performed. After a game, transient BBB damage measured by serum S100B was detected only in players experiencing the greatest number of sub-concussive head hits. Elevated levels of auto-antibodies against S100B were elevated only after repeated sub-concussive events characterized by BBBD. Serum levels of S100B auto-antibodies also predicted persistence of MRI-DTI abnormalities which in turn correlated with cognitive changes. Even in the absence of concussion, football players may experience repeated BBBD and serum surges of the potential auto-antigen S100B. The correlation of serum S100B, auto-antibodies and DTI changes support a link between repeated BBBD and future risk for cognitive changes. PMID:23483891

  6. Consequences of Repeated Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Puvenna, Vikram; Janigro, Mattia; Ghosh, Chaitali; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhu, Tong; Blackman, Eric; Stewart, Desiree; Ellis, Jasmina; Butler, Robert; Janigro, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The acknowledgement of risks for traumatic brain injury in American football players has prompted studies for sideline concussion diagnosis and testing for neurological deficits. While concussions are recognized etiological factors for a spectrum of neurological sequelae, the consequences of sub-concussive events are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) and the accompanying surge of the astrocytic protein S100B in blood may cause an immune response associated with production of auto-antibodies. We also wished to determine whether these events result in disrupted white matter on diffusion tensor imaging (DT) scans. Players from three college football teams were enrolled (total of 67 volunteers). None of the players experienced a concussion. Blood samples were collected before and after games (n = 57); the number of head hits in all players was monitored by movie review and post-game interviews. S100B serum levels and auto-antibodies against S100B were measured and correlated by direct and reverse immunoassays (n = 15 players; 5 games). A subset of players underwent DTI scans pre- and post-season and after a 6-month interval (n = 10). Cognitive and functional assessments were also performed. After a game, transient BBB damage measured by serum S100B was detected only in players experiencing the greatest number of sub-concussive head hits. Elevated levels of auto-antibodies against S100B were elevated only after repeated sub-concussive events characterized by BBBD. Serum levels of S100B auto-antibodies also predicted persistence of MRI-DTI abnormalities which in turn correlated with cognitive changes. Even in the absence of concussion, football players may experience repeated BBBD and serum surges of the potential auto-antigen S100B. The correlation of serum S100B, auto-antibodies and DTI changes support a link between repeated BBBD and future risk for cognitive changes. PMID:23483891

  7. Multilevel lumbar transverse process fractures in a professional association football player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew; Catterson, Paul

    2015-05-01

    We present a case of multilevel lumbar transverse process fracture in a professional association football player, incurred after a fall from height during competitive play. Traditionally associated with high impact trauma in the general population, this injury is relatively rare in the context of professional football where it is more likely to be associated with lower impact trauma. We outline our experience of mechanism of injury, treatment options and recovery time serving as a guide for fellow clinicians when treating this condition in practice. In this particular case, the return to play time was 68 days. PMID:26019886

  8. Profile of 1-month training load in male and female football and futsal players.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the variance of training load between male and female football and futsal players. The statistical analysis tested the variance between gender and type of sport during training sessions. Fifty-nine male and female amateur football and futsal amateur players were monitored during 48 training sessions. The heart rate (HR) responses and the percentage of time spent in zones of intensity were analysed during training sessions. Differences were found in football between the gender and the dependent variables of %HRmax (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.042; minimum effect), %time in Z2 (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.054; minimum effect), %time in Z4 (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.031; minimum effect) and %time in Z5 (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.053; minimum effect). The analysis in male players revealed differences between football and futsal in %HRmax (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.172; minimum effect). Similar results were found in female category (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.040; minimum effect). In this study it was possible to verify that female players spent more time in high intensity zones and that futsal training sessions are more intense than football sessions. Based on such results, coaches and fitness trainers may identify the physiological characteristics of training load imposed to different sports and genders and optimize the training plan for specific categories. PMID:27347469

  9. Comparison between different off-season resistance training programs in Division III American college football players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Klatt, Marc; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ross, Ryan E; Tranchina, Nicholas M; McCurley, Robert C; Kang, Jie; Kraemer, William J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of periodization and to compare different periodization models in resistance trained American football players. Fifty-one experienced resistance trained American football players of an NCAA Division III football team (after 10 weeks of active rest) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups that differed only in the manipulation of the intensity and volume of training during a 15-week offseason resistance training program. Group 1 participated in a nonperiodized (NP) training program, group 2 participated in a traditional periodized linear (PL) training program, and group 3 participated in a planned nonlinear periodized (PNL) training program. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE), after 7 weeks of training (MID), and at the end of the training program (POST). Significant increases in maximal (1-repetition maximum [1RM]) squat, 1RM bench press, and vertical jump were observed from PRE to MID for all groups; these increases were still significantly greater at POST; however, no MID to POST changes were seen. Significant PRE to POST improvements in the medicine ball throw (MBT) were seen for PL group only. The results do not provide a clear indication as to the most effective training program for strength and power enhancements in already trained football players. Interestingly, recovery of training-related performances was achieved after only 7 weeks of training, yet further gains were not observed. These data indicate that longer periods of training may be needed after a long-term active recovery period and that active recovery may need to be dramatically shortened to better optimize strength and power in previously trained football players. PMID:19130636

  10. Junior football players' classification of runners as their teammates from 400-msec. video clips.

    PubMed

    Steel, Kylie A; Adams, Roger D; Canning, Colleen G

    2008-08-01

    It was hypothesized that a specialized gait recognition skill enables humans to distinguish the gait of familiar from unfamiliar individuals, and that this may have relevance in team sports. Runners seen for less than half a second can be classified as teammates or not by adult players, so it may be asked whether this skill would also be demonstrated by young team players. In the current study, junior football players (M age = 10.0 yr., SD = 0.8, N = 13) viewed 400-msec. video clips of runners sprinting past a fixed forward facing digital video camera and similarly showed teammate recognition scores significantly above chance. Given the variation among the junior players in this skill, it seems possible for researchers to assess whether improvement can be obtained with structured training for young team players, where running teammates are seen in peripheral vision during training drills. PMID:18986058

  11. Comparison of Dynamic Balance in Collegiate Field Hockey and Football Players Using Star Excursion Balance Test

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Rashi; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The preliminary study aimed to compare dynamic balance between collegiate athletes competing or training in football and hockey using star excursion balance test. Methods A total thirty university level players, football (n = 15) and field hockey (n = 15) were participated in the study. Dynamic balance was assessed by using star excursion balance test. The testing grid consists of 8 lines each 120 cm in length extending from a common point at 45° increments. The subjects were instructed to maintain a stable single leg stance with the test leg with shoes off and to reach for maximal distance with the other leg in each of the 8 directions. A pencil was used to point and read the distance to which each subject's foot reached. The normalized leg reach distances in each direction were summed for both limbs and the total sum of the mean of summed normalized distances of both limbs were calculated. Results There was no significant difference in all the directions of star excursion balance test scores in both the groups. Additionally, composite reach distances of both groups also found non-significant (P=0.5). However, the posterior (P=0.05) and lateral (P=0.03) normalized reach distances were significantly more in field hockey players. Conclusion Field hockey players and football players did not differ in terms of dynamic balance. PMID:24427482

  12. The Assessment of Airway Maneuvers and Interventions in University Canadian Football, Ice Hockey, and Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, J. Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Baylis, Penny-Jane; Troutman, Tracy; Aljufaili, Mahmood; Correa, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Managing an airway in an unconscious athlete is a lifesaving skill that may be made more difficult by the recent changes in protective equipment. Different airway maneuvers and techniques may be required to help ventilate an unconscious athlete who is wearing full protective equipment. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of different airway maneuvers with football, ice hockey, and soccer players wearing full protective equipment. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University sports medicine clinic. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 146 university varsity athletes, consisting of 62 football, 45 ice hockey, and 39 soccer players. Intervention(s): Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three investigators then evaluated the effectiveness of different bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation techniques in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while inline cervical spine immobilization was maintained. Main Outcome Measure(s): The effectiveness of 1-person BVM ventilation (1-BVM), 2-person BVM ventilation (2-BVM), and inline immobilization and ventilation (IIV) was judged by each investigator for each athlete using a 4-point rating scale. Results: All forms of ventilation were least difficult in soccer players and most difficult in football players. When compared with 1-BVM, both 2-BVM and IIV were deemed more effective by all investigators for all athletes. Interference from the helmet and stabilizer were common reasons for difficult ventilation in football and ice hockey players. Conclusions: Sports medicine professionals should practice and be comfortable with different ventilation techniques for athletes wearing full equipment. The use of a new ventilation technique, termed inline immobilization and ventilation, may be beneficial, especially when the number of responders is limited. PMID:21391796

  13. Quality of life and energy expenditure in transplant recipient football players.

    PubMed

    Totti, V; Zancanaro, M; Trerotola, M; Nanni Costa, A; Antonetti, T; Anedda, A; Roi, G S

    2013-09-01

    Football (soccer) is a highly motivating leisure activity with important potential as a health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to assess the "on the field" energy expenditure during football games and the quality of life of transplant recipients practicing football. Twenty-two recipients of kidney (n = 11), bone marrow (n = 7), liver (n = 3) or corneal (n = 1) transplantations had an overall mean age of 37 ± 9 years, body mass index of 23.5 ± 2.4 kg/m(2), and time after transplantation of 9.3 ± 6.4 years. They were compared with 25 healthy football players of mean age 41 ± 10 years and body mass index of 26.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2). There were no significant differences between transplant recipients and controls regarding mean energy expenditure (393 ± 113 vs 392 ± 132 kcal/h) number of steps (3.978 ± 1.317 vs 3.933 ± 1.563) during, and capillary blood lactate concentrations (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 5.2 ± 1.3 mmol/L) after the matches. The SF-36 questionnaire administered before the matches showed transplant recipient players to score significantly worse in the scales of general (P < .05) and mental health (P < .01). This study indicated that transplant recipients involved in football matches attained a level of energy expenditure and a quality of life consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Football has the potential to be implemented as a permanent health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients. PMID:24034041

  14. Risk Stratification for Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury in Major League Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    DeFroda, Steven F.; Kriz, Peter K.; Hall, Amber M.; Zurakowski, David; Fadale, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury has become increasingly common in Major League Baseball (MLB) players in recent years. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in preinjury fastball velocity between MLB pitchers with tears and matched controls without UCL injury. Pitchers with injuries are throwing harder and getting injured earlier in their MLB careers. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, a total of 170 documented UCL injuries (156 pitchers, 14 position players) occurred in MLB. Inclusion criteria for this study consisted of any player who tore his UCL in MLB during this time frame. There were 130 regular-season tears (April-September). From this group, 118 players who pitched more than 100 innings prior to tear were matched to subjects with no tear and were compared using a logistic regression analysis. A subgroup of “early tear” players who threw less than 100 career innings (n = 37) was also identified and compared with the larger tear group using a logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 130 tears that occurred during the regular season, a significantly larger number (62%) occurred in the first 3 months (P = .011). The rate of UCL tears per MLB player (P = .001) was statistically significant. In the group of 118 matched tears, the mean fastball velocity was greater in the tear group (91.7 mph) compared with the control group (91.0 mph; P = .014). Furthermore, relief pitchers made up a greater percentage of the early tear group (<100 innings) compared with the later tear group (P = .011). Sixteen of the 170 UCL tears (9.4%) were recurrent tears, with 5 of 16 experiencing both tear and retear within the past 4 years. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference in the mean fastball velocity of pitchers who injure their UCL. Small increases in pitcher fastball velocity are a main contribution to the increased rate of tear in MLB. In addition, there has been an increased

  15. Perceived social loafing and anticipated effort reduction among young football (soccer) players: an achievement goal perspective.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motivational climates, personal achievement goals, and three different aspects of social loafing in football (soccer). 170 male competitive football players completed questionnaires assessing perceived motivational climate, achievement goal, and measures of perceived social loafing (anticipation of lower effort amongst their teammates and themselves). The results indicated a marginal but significant positive relationship between an ego-oriented achievement goal and perceived social loafing. In addition, a mastery climate was negatively associated with perceived social loafing and anticipation of lower effort of team members, particularly for athletes who also strongly endorsed a task-oriented achievement goal. A performance climate, in contrast, related positively with these two aspects of social loafing. A mastery climate also related negatively to the third aspect of social loafing, i.e., players' readiness to reduce their own effort in response to their perception of social loafing among their teammates. PMID:17688105

  16. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. PMID:26991566

  17. Personal Food Systems of Male Collegiate Football Players: A Grounded Theory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Long, Doug; Perry, Christina; Unruh, Scott A.; Lewis, Nancy; Stanek-Krogstrand, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    Context: Factors that affect food choices include the physical and social environments, quality, quantity, perceived healthfulness, and convenience. The personal food choice process was defined as the procedures used by athletes for making food choices, including the weighing and balancing of activities of daily life, physical well-being, convenience, monetary resources, and social relationships. Objective: To develop a theoretical model explaining the personal food choice processes of collegiate football players. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II football program. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen football players were purposefully sampled to represent various positions, years of athletic eligibility, and ethnic backgrounds. Data Collection and Analysis: For text data collection, we used predetermined, open-ended questions. Data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. The athletes' words were used to label and describe their interactions and experiences with the food choice process. Member checks and an external audit were conducted by a qualitative methodologist and a nutrition specialist, and the findings were triangulated with the current literature to ensure trustworthiness of the text data. Results: Time was the core category and yielded a cyclic graphic of a theoretical model for the food choice system. Planning hydration, macronutrient strategies, snacks, and healthful food choices emerged as themes. Conclusions: The athletes planned meals and snacks around their academic and athletic schedules while attempting to consume foods identified as healthful. Healthful foods were generally lower in fat but high in preferred macronutrients. High-protein foods were the players' primary goal; carbohydrate consumption was secondary. The athletes had established plans to maintain hydration. Professionals may use these findings to implement educational programs on food choices for football players

  18. Effects of hamstring-emphasized neuromuscular training on strength and sprinting mechanics in football players.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, J; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Morin, J B; Samozino, P; Edouard, P; Alcaraz, P E; Esparza-Ros, F; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training program combining eccentric hamstring muscle strength, plyometrics, and free/resisted sprinting exercises on knee extensor/flexor muscle strength, sprinting performance, and horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running in football (soccer) players. Sixty footballers were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Twenty-seven players completed the EG and 24 players the CG. Both groups performed regular football training while the EG performed also a neuromuscular training during a 7-week period. The EG showed a small increases in concentric quadriceps strength (ES = 0.38/0.58), a moderate to large increase in concentric (ES = 0.70/0.74) and eccentric (ES = 0.66/0.87) hamstring strength, and a small improvement in 5-m sprint performance (ES = 0.32). By contrast, the CG presented lower magnitude changes in quadriceps (ES = 0.04/0.29) and hamstring (ES = 0.27/0.34) concentric muscle strength and no changes in hamstring eccentric muscle strength (ES = -0.02/0.11). Thus, in contrast to the CG (ES = -0.27/0.14), the EG showed an almost certain increase in the hamstring/quadriceps strength functional ratio (ES = 0.32/0.75). Moreover, the CG showed small magnitude impairments in sprinting performance (ES = -0.35/-0.11). Horizontal mechanical properties of sprint running remained typically unchanged in both groups. These results indicate that a neuromuscular training program can induce positive hamstring strength and maintain sprinting performance, which might help in preventing hamstring strains in football players. PMID:25556888

  19. Functionally-Detected Cognitive Impairment in High School Football Players without Clinically-Diagnosed Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Nauman, Eric A.; Breedlove, Evan L.; Yoruk, Umit; Dye, Anne E.; Morigaki, Katherine E.; Feuer, Henry; Leverenz, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Head trauma and concussion in football players have recently received considerable media attention. Postmortem evidence suggests that accrual of damage to the brain may occur with repeated blows to the head, even when the individual blows fail to produce clinical symptoms. There is an urgent need for improved detection and characterization of head trauma to reduce future injury risk and promote development of new therapies. In this study we examined neurological performance and health in the presence of head collision events in high school football players, using longitudinal measures of collision events (the HIT™ System), neurocognitive testing (ImPACT™), and functional magnetic resonance imaging MRI (fMRI). Longitudinal assessment (including baseline) was conducted in 11 young men (ages 15–19 years) participating on the varsity and junior varsity football teams at a single high school. We expected and observed subjects in two previously described categories: (1) no clinically-diagnosed concussion and no changes in neurological behavior, and (2) clinically-diagnosed concussion with changes in neurological behavior. Additionally, we observed players in a previously undiscovered third category, who exhibited no clinically-observed symptoms associated with concussion, but who demonstrated measurable neurocognitive (primarily visual working memory) and neurophysiological (altered activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]) impairments. This new category was associated with significantly higher numbers of head collision events to the top-front of the head, directly above the DLPFC. The discovery of this new category suggests that more players are suffering neurological injury than are currently being detected using traditional concussion-assessment tools. These individuals are unlikely to undergo clinical evaluation, and thus may continue to participate in football-related activities, even when changes in brain physiology (and potential

  20. Comparison of the backward overhead medicine ball throw to power production in college football players.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Jerry L; Bird, Michael; Cole, Mary L; Koch, Alex J; Jacques, Jeff A; Ware, John S; Buford, Brittney N; Fletcher, Kate M

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the backward overhead medicine ball (BOMB) throw to power production in college football players. Forty National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II college football players were studied at the end of an 8-week off-season conditioning program for power output determined from a countermovement vertical jump on a force plate and for maximal distance in the standing BOMB throw. Although the reliability of the BOMB test was high (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.86), there was a significant learning effect across 3 trials (p < 0.01). Peak and average powers generated during the vertical jump correlated moderately but significantly with the best BOMB throw distance (r = 0.59 and 0.63, respectively). Considering power relative to body mass or lean body mass failed to produce significant correlations with BOMB throw distance (r = 0.27 and 0.28, respectively). Therefore, the BOMB throw may have limited potential as a predictor of total body explosive power in college football players. PMID:16095399

  1. The Effects of Low-Dose Creatine Supplementation Versus Creatine Loading in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Deivert, Richard G.; Hagerman, Frederick; Gilders, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of low doses of creatine and creatine loading on strength, urinary creatinine concentration, and percentage of body fat. Design and Setting: Division IA collegiate football players took creatine monohydrate for 10 weeks during a sport-specific, periodized, off-season strength and conditioning program. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) squat, urinary creatinine concentrations, and percentage of body fat were analyzed. Subjects: Twenty-five highly trained, Division IA collegiate football players with at least 1 year of college playing experience. Measurements: We tested strength with a 1-RM squat exercise before, during, and after creatine supplementation. Percentage of body fat was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after supplementation. Urinary creatinine concentration was measured via light spectrophotometer at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 48, 56, and 63 days. An analysis of variance with repeated measures was computed to compare means for all variables. Results: Creatine supplementation had no significant group, time, or interaction effects on strength, urinary creatinine concentration, or percentage of body fat. However, significant time effects were found for 1-RM squat and fat-free mass in all groups. Conclusions: Our data suggest that creatine monohydrate in any amount does not have any beneficial ergogenic effects in highly trained collegiate football players. However, a proper resistance training stimulus for 10 weeks can increase strength and fat-free mass in highly trained athletes. PMID:12937451

  2. Analysis of Body Mass Components in National Club Football Players in Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Slobodan; Todorovska, Lidija; Maleska, Vesela; Dejanova, Beti; Efremova, Ljudmila; Zivkovic, Vujica; Pluncevic-Gligoroska, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to analyze body composition in adult male football players and its changes during adulthood. Methods: Adult male football players (n=942, mean age 24.11 ±4.69y), all members of national competitive clubs from Macedonia were included in the study. The absolute and the relative body components were calculated: lean body mass (LBMkg), muscle mass (MMkg; MM%), bone mass (BMkg; BM%) and fat components (FMkg; FM%), using the anthropometric protocol by Matiegka. Results: Mean values of anthropometric measures for all included participants were as follows: height=178.39±6.11cm; weight=77.02±7.57; LBM=65.65±6.38; MM%=53.23±2.78; BM%=17.05±1.27; FM%=14.58±1.48. Descriptive statistics for these parameters was made for age specific groups. Conclusions: The results obtained could be used as reference values for adult football players in Republic of Macedonia. In the examined age span (18-35 years) a slight increase of absolute values of all three body components has been registered with advancing age. The most significant increase in the absolute values was registered for the muscle component, followed by the fat and bone components, respectively. Regarding the relative values (%), the muscle and the fat components showed an equally slight positive correlation with the age increase of 1 year, whilst the bone component decreased with advancing age. PMID:25568532

  3. MRI of the wrist is not recommended for age determination in female football players of U-16/U-17 competitions.

    PubMed

    Tscholl, P M; Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Zubler, V

    2016-03-01

    Age determination on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist is a reliable method in male football players to evaluate their eligibility to participate in Under 17 tournaments. MRI of the wrist was performed in 487 female volunteers aged 13-19 years from Brazil, Germany, Malaysia, and Tanzania, and in 139 female football players participating in Under-16 and Under-17 football tournaments. A previously validated method for grading fusion of the distal radial epiphysis in male adolescent was used. Moderate correlation of chronological age and epiphyseal fusion was found in the normative control group (r = .59) and weak correlation in female football players (r = .27). Complete fusion of the distal radial epiphysis was observed in two 15-year-old volunteers of the control group (1.7%) and in 17.6% (3 of 17) of 14-year-old football players. Up to 10.8% (47 of 437) in the control group and 14.4% (20 of 139) of the football players 17 years or younger had complete fused epiphysis. Because of earlier osseous maturity in female adolescents, the grade of fusion of the distal radial epiphysis on MRI is not recommended for pretournament age determination for the age of 17 and younger in female. PMID:25880786

  4. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2016-08-01

    The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session. PMID:26637525

  5. Match intensity and pacing strategies in rugby league: an examination of whole-game and interchanged players, and winning and losing teams.

    PubMed

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J

    2014-06-01

    There is currently limited information on whether pacing occurs during rugby league match play. In addition, to date no research has investigated whether pacing strategies differ between winning and losing teams. This study investigated the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged rugby league players. Furthermore, we investigated the pacing strategies of winning and losing teams. Fifty-two rugby league players, from a sample of 11 teams competing in a semi-elite competition, underwent global positioning system analysis. Performances were divided into match quartiles for whole-game and interchanged players. Total distance, including low- and high-speed distances, and repeated high-intensity effort bouts were recorded. The total distance and low-speed distance covered across all quartiles of the match, but specifically quartiles 1 and 8, were greater for interchanged players than whole-game players. The match outcome differentially affected the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged players. Whole-game players from winning teams set a higher pacing strategy than whole-game players from losing teams (effect size [ES] = 1.03 ± 0.77, 96%, very likely), whereas interchanged players from losing teams demonstrated a greater "end-spurt" than interchanged players from winning teams (ES = 0.60 ± 0.52, 96%, very likely). The pacing strategies of interchanged players were higher than whole-game players, irrespective of playing position. The results of this study suggest that pacing strategies differ between interchanged and whole-game rugby league players. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a different pacing strategy between winning and losing teams. These findings suggest that physical preparation for rugby league matches, and recovery from these matches, should be individualized for whole-game and interchanged players. Finally, performing physically intense training on a regular basis is likely to develop the physical and mental qualities required to

  6. Prediction of In-Season Shoulder Injury From Preseason Testing in Division I Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Pontillo, Marisa; Spinelli, Bryan A.; Sennett, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Collegiate football is a high-demand sport in which shoulder injuries are common. Research has described the incidence of these injuries, with little focus on causative factors or injury prevention. Hypothesis: Football athletes who score lower on preseason strength and functional testing are more likely to sustain an in-season shoulder injury. Study Design: Prospective, cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: Twenty-six collegiate football players underwent preseason testing with a rotational profile for shoulder range of motion, isometric strength of the rotator cuff at 90° elevation and external rotation in the 90/90 position, fatigue testing (prone-Y, scaption, and standing cable press), and the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST). Data collected postseason included the type of shoulder injury and the side injured. Logistic regression was used to determine if the testing measures predicted injury, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to examine the relationship of CKCUEST to injury. Results: Six athletes sustained shoulder injuries during the season. Predictor variables could significantly predict whether that player would sustain an injury during the season for both the right and left shoulders (P < 0.05). The variables that were significantly correlated with injury of the right side were forward elevation strength, prone-Y to fatigue, and the CKCUEST (P < 0.05); on the left, only the CKCUEST was significant (P < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the CKCUEST was 0.86 (ϵ = 0.87, P = 0.01). Using a score of 21 touches, the CKCUEST had a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.79, and an odds ratio of 18.75 in determining whether a player sustained a shoulder injury. Conclusion: For this sample, the combination of preseason strength, fatigue, and functional testing was able to identify football players who would sustain a shoulder injury during the

  7. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    PubMed

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p < 0.001), PM (83.5 ± 10.2% vs. 86.7 ± 10.7%; p = 0.001), and COMP (75.4 ± 8.5% vs. 78.0 ± 7.4%; p = 0.001) scores. Anterior scores did not differ between high school (69.9 ± 7.9%) and collegiate (70.3 ± 7.1%) athletes (p = 0.545). Age, mass, and height were not meaningful contributors to ANT (R = 0.089; p < 0.001), PL (R = 0.032; p < 0.001), PM (R = 0.030; p = 0.002), and COMP (R = 0.048; p < 0.001) variances. Disparity between high school and collegiate athletes should be considered when using the SEBT to identify risk of or deficits related to lower extremity injury in football players. PMID:25785704

  8. Anthropometric and Three-Compartment Body Composition Differences between Super League and Championship Rugby League Players: Considerations for the 2015 Season and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Barlow, Matthew; Lees, Matthew; O'Hara, John Paul; Hind, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Super League (SL) and Championship (RLC) rugby league players will compete against each other in 2015 and beyond. To identify possible discrepancies, this study compared the anthropometric profile and body composition of current SL (full-time professional) and RLC (part-time semi-professional) players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A cross-sectional design involved DXA scans on 67 SL (n=29 backs, n=38 forwards) and 46 RLC (n=20 backs, n=26 forwards) players during preseason. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare age, stature, body mass, soft tissue fat percentage, bone mineral content (BMC), total and regional (i.e., arms, legs and trunk) fat and lean mass between SL forwards, SL backs, RLC forwards and RLC backs. No significant differences in age, stature or body mass were observed. SL forwards and backs had relatively less soft tissue fat (17.5 ± 3.7 and 14.8 ± 3.6 vs. 21.4 ± 4.3 and 20.8 ± 3.8%), greater BMC (4,528 ± 443 and 4,230 ± 447 vs. 4,302 ± 393 and 3,971 ± 280 g), greater trunk lean mass (37.3 ± 3.0 and 35.3 ± 3.8 vs. 34.9 ± 32.3 and 32.3 ± 2.6 kg) and less trunk fat mass (8.5 ± 2.7 and 6.2 ± 2.1 vs. 10.7 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 2.9 kg) than RLC forwards and backs. Observed differences may reflect selection based on favourable physical attributes, or training adaptations. To reduce this discrepancy, some RLC players should reduce fat mass and increase lean mass, which may be of benefit for the 2015 season and beyond. PMID:26221720

  9. Anthropometric and Three-Compartment Body Composition Differences between Super League and Championship Rugby League Players: Considerations for the 2015 Season and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Barlow, Matthew; Lees, Matthew; O’Hara, John Paul; Hind, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Super League (SL) and Championship (RLC) rugby league players will compete against each other in 2015 and beyond. To identify possible discrepancies, this study compared the anthropometric profile and body composition of current SL (full-time professional) and RLC (part-time semi-professional) players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A cross-sectional design involved DXA scans on 67 SL (n=29 backs, n=38 forwards) and 46 RLC (n=20 backs, n=26 forwards) players during preseason. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare age, stature, body mass, soft tissue fat percentage, bone mineral content (BMC), total and regional (i.e., arms, legs and trunk) fat and lean mass between SL forwards, SL backs, RLC forwards and RLC backs. No significant differences in age, stature or body mass were observed. SL forwards and backs had relatively less soft tissue fat (17.5 ± 3.7 and 14.8 ± 3.6 vs. 21.4 ± 4.3 and 20.8 ± 3.8%), greater BMC (4,528 ± 443 and 4,230 ± 447 vs. 4,302 ± 393 and 3,971 ± 280 g), greater trunk lean mass (37.3 ± 3.0 and 35.3 ± 3.8 vs. 34.9 ± 32.3 and 32.3 ± 2.6 kg) and less trunk fat mass (8.5 ± 2.7 and 6.2 ± 2.1 vs. 10.7 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 2.9 kg) than RLC forwards and backs. Observed differences may reflect selection based on favourable physical attributes, or training adaptations. To reduce this discrepancy, some RLC players should reduce fat mass and increase lean mass, which may be of benefit for the 2015 season and beyond. PMID:26221720

  10. Change of Direction Ability Performance in Cerebral Palsy Football Players According to Functional Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Raúl; Sarabia, Jose M.; Yanci, Javier; García-Vaquero, María P.; Campayo-Piernas, María

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the validity and reliability of the two different change of direction ability (CODA) tests in elite football players with cerebral palsy (CP) and to analyse the differences in performance of this ability between current functional classes (FT) and controls. The sample consisted of 96 international cerebral palsy football players (FPCP) and 37 football players. Participants were divided into four different groups according to the International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football (IFCPF) classes and a control group (CG): FT5 (n = 8); FT6 (n = 12); FT7 (n = 62); FT8 (n = 14); and CG (n = 37). The reproducibility of Modified Agility Test (MAT) and Illinois Agility Test (IAT) (ICC = 0.82–0.95, SEM = 2.5–5.8%) showed excellent to good values. In two CODA tests, CG performed faster scores compared with FPCP classes (p < 0.01, d = 1.76–3.26). In IAT, FT8 class comparisons regarding the other classes were: FT5 (p = 0.047, d = 1.05), FT6 (p = 0.055, d = 1.19), and FT7 (p = 0.396, d = 0.56). With regard to MAT, FT8 class was also compared with FT5 (p = 0.006, d = 1.30), FT6 (p = 0.061, d = 0.93), and FT7 (p = 0.033, d = 1.01). No significant differences have been found between FT5, FT6, and FT7 classes. According to these results, IAT and MAT could be useful and reliable and valid tests to analyse CODA in FPCP. Each test (IAT and MAT) could be applied considering the cut point that classifiers need to make a decision about the FT8 class and the other FT classes (FT5, FT6, and FT7). PMID:26779037

  11. Effect of hot environmental conditions on physical activity patterns and temperature response of football players.

    PubMed

    Ozgünen, K T; Kurdak, S S; Maughan, R J; Zeren, C; Korkmaz, S; Yazici, Z; Ersöz, G; Shirreffs, S M; Binnet, M S; Dvorak, J

    2010-10-01

    Heat stress may contribute to decreased match performance when football is played in extreme heat. This study evaluated activity patterns and thermal responses of players during soccer matches played in different environmental conditions. Non-acclimatized soccer players (n=11, 20±2 years) played two matches in conditions of moderate heat (MH) and high heat (HH) index. Core temperature (T(c) ) and physical performance were measured using a telemetric sensor and a global positioning system, respectively. The average ambient temperature and relative humidity were MH 34±1 °C and 38±2%; HH 36±0 °C and 61±1%. Peak T(c) in the MH match was 39.1±0.4 °C and in the HH match it was 39.6±0.3 °C. The total distance covered in the first and second halves was 4386±367 and 4227±292 m for the MH match and 4301±487 and 3761±358 m for the HH match. Players covered more distance (P<0.001) in the first half of the HH match than in the second half. In football matches played at high environmental temperature and humidity, the physical performance of the players may decrease due to high thermal stress. PMID:21029201

  12. A Prospective Analysis of the Injury Incidence of Young Male Professional Football Players on Artificial Turf

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to

  13. Airway Preparation Techniques for the Cervical Spine-Injured Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Richard; Luchies, Carl; Bazuin, Doug; Farrell, Robert N.

    1995-01-01

    Athletic health care professionals have been concerned about how to optimize the emergency care the cervical spine-injured football player receives on the field. Much of the discussion has centered on how to best expose and prepare the airway for rescue breathing in the quickest and safest manner possible. This study compared the time required and the extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine during three traditional and one new airway exposure and preparation technique. Twelve subjects wearing football helmets and shoulder pads were exposed to multiple trials of airway exposure via face mask repositioning using a manual screwdriver, power screwdriver, and the Trainer's Angel cutting device. Subjects also underwent airway preparation using the pocket mask insertion technique. Cervical spine motion was measured in two dimensions using an optoelectronic motion analysis system. Time and qualitative assessment were obtained through videotape analysis. Significant differences were found between the techniques with respect to time and cervical spine motion. The pocket mask allowed quicker activation of rescue breathing than the other three traditional techniques. There was no significant difference in the amount of extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine between the pocket mask, manual screwdriver, and power screwdriver techniques. The Trainer's Angel induced significantly more motion than the other three techniques in each of the four motions measured. Changes in traditional protocols used to treat cervical spine-injured football players on the field are recommended based on these data. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2. PMID:16558339

  14. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world. PMID:22012041

  15. The effect of dietary supplements on the quality of life of retired professional football players.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Robert; Maddela, Rolando Lorenzo; Bae, Sejong; Best, Talitha

    2013-03-01

    Professional football players may experience negative health consequences when they retire such as chronic pain, cognitive problems as well as other consequences of sports-related injuries. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with multiple nutrients on the quality of life of retired football players. Fifteen retired players received daily supplementation of fish oil with cholecalciferol, antioxidants, natural vitamins and minerals, polysaccharides and phytosterol-amino acid complex for 6 months. Using an open-labeled repeated measures design, volunteers completed self-report assessment measures at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures were CDC HRQOL-4, WHOQOL-BREF, POMS, MFQ and pain self-assessment. General health rating improvement on CDC HRQOL-4 from month 1 was sustained to month 6 (p<0.0001). Mental health days improved at 6 months (p<0.05). WHOQOL-BREF showed increased health satisfaction at all measurement points (p<0.05) and the Physical and Psychological Domain Scores at 6 months (p<0.05). MFQ General Rating of Memory improved at 3 and 6 months (p<0.05). Vigor scale in POMS was significant at 3 months (p<0.05). Decreased pain was noted only for the elbow at month 1 and the knee at month 3 (p<0.05). No adverse events were reported. Results of this study offer preliminary insight into using dietary supplements to support and optimize quality of life in retired football players. Further research using a placebo-controlled design is needed to characterize the potential benefit to physical and psychological well-being of multiple dietary supplementations for this cohort. PMID:23445692

  16. Risk of injury on artificial turf and natural grass in young female football players

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Kathrin; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald

    2007-01-01

    Background Artificial turf is becoming increasingly popular, although the risk of injury on newer generations of turf is unknown. Aim To investigate the risk of injury on artificial turf compared with natural grass among young female football players. Study design Prospective cohort study. Methods 2020 players from 109 teams (mean (SD) 15.4 (0.8) years) participated in the study during the 2005 football season. Time‐loss injuries and exposure data on different types of turf were recorded over an eight‐month period. Results 421 (21%) players sustained 526 injuries, leading to an injury incidence of 3.7/1000 playing hours (95% CI 3.4 to 4.0). The incidence of acute injuries on artificial turf and grass did not differ significantly with respect to match injuries (rate ratio (RR) 1.0, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.3; p = 0.72) or training injuries (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.5, p = 0.93). In matches, the incidence of serious injuries was significantly higher on artificial turf (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2; p = 0.03). Ankle sprain was the most common type of injury (34% of all acute injuries), and there was a trend towards more ankle sprains on artificial turf than on grass (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p = 0.06). Conclusion In the present study among young female football players, the overall risk of acute injuries was similar between artificial turf and natural grass. PMID:17550919

  17. The Effect of Dietary Supplements on the Quality of Life of Retired Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Robert A.; Maddela, Rolando L.; Bae, Sejong; Best, Talitha

    2013-01-01

    Professional football players may experience negative health consequences when they retire such as chronic pain, cognitive problems as well as other consequences of sports-related injuries. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with multiple nutrients on the quality of life of retired football players. Fifteen retired players received daily supplementation of fish oil with cholecalciferol, antioxidants, natural vitamins and minerals, polysaccharides and phytosterol-amino acid complex for 6 months. Using an open-labeled repeated measures design, volunteers completed self-report assessment measures at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures were CDC HRQOL-4, WHOQOL-BREF, POMS, MFQ and pain self-assessment. General health rating improvement on CDC HRQOL-4 from month 1 was sustained to month 6 (p<0.0001). Mental health days improved at 6 months (p<0.05). WHOQOL-BREF showed increased health satisfaction at all measurement points (p<0.05) and the Physical and Psychological Domain Scores at 6 months (p<0.05). MFQ General Rating of Memory improved at 3 and 6 months (p<0.05). Vigor scale in POMS was significant at 3 months (p<0.05). Decreased pain was noted only for the elbow at month 1 and the knee at month 3 (p<0.05). No adverse events were reported. Results of this study offer preliminary insight into using dietary supplements to support and optimize quality of life in retired football players. Further research using a placebo-controlled design is needed to characterize the potential benefit to physical and psychological well-being of multiple dietary supplementations for this cohort. PMID:23445692

  18. Prevention of acute knee injuries in adolescent female football players: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Atroshi, Isam; Magnusson, Henrik; Wagner, Philippe; Hägglund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular training in reducing the rate of acute knee injury in adolescent female football players. Design Stratified cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. Setting 230 Swedish football clubs (121 in the intervention group, 109 in the control group) were followed for one season (2009, seven months). Participants 4564 players aged 12-17 years (2479 in the intervention group, 2085 in the control group) completed the study. Intervention 15 minute neuromuscular warm-up programme (targeting core stability, balance, and proper knee alignment) to be carried out twice a week throughout the season. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury; secondary outcomes were rates of severe knee injury (>4 weeks’ absence) and any acute knee injury. Results Seven players (0.28%) in the intervention group, and 14 (0.67%) in the control group had an anterior cruciate ligament injury. By Cox regression analysis according to intention to treat, a 64% reduction in the rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury was seen in the intervention group (rate ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.85). The absolute rate difference was −0.07 (95% confidence interval −0.13 to 0.001) per 1000 playing hours in favour of the intervention group. No significant rate reductions were seen for secondary outcomes. Conclusions A neuromuscular warm-up programme significantly reduced the rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury in adolescent female football players. However, the absolute rate difference did not reach statistical significance, possibly owing to the small number of events. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00894595. PMID:22556050

  19. Epidemiologic investigation of a cancer cluster in professional football players.

    PubMed

    Kraut, A; Chan, E; Lioy, P J; Cohen, F B; Goldstein, B D; Landrigan, P J

    1991-12-01

    In 1976, the New York Giants professional football team relocated to the newly constructed Meadowlands Sports Complex (MSC) in East Rutherford, NJ. Between 1980 and 1987 four team members developed cancer: one case each of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, glioblastoma, angiosarcoma, and Hodgkin's disease. Because the surrounding area contains three superfund sites, concern was widespread that the cancers were related to environmental contamination. To assess for a possible environmental etiology, we conducted clinical, environmental, and epidemiologic studies at the MSC. Measurements of volatile organic compounds were all below occupational exposure limits and were similar to ambient levels in nearby Lyndhurst, NJ. Outdoor AM radio broadcast field strengths were in the uppermost 0.1% of field strengths measured in urban areas of the United States. Proportionate mortality ratio and proportional cancer incidence ratio studies of the MSC workforce found no excesses of cancer deaths or of incident cancer cases either for all sites combined or for any specific site. No significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between indoor and nonindoor workers. Based on examination of all available data, the four cancer cases were judged most likely to have been clustered by chance and not to have been caused by environmental conditions at the MSC. PMID:1769360

  20. Epidemiologic investigation of a cancer cluster in professional football players

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A. ); Chan, E.; Landrigan, P.J. ); Lioy, P.J.; Goldstein, B.D. ); Cohen, F.B. )

    1991-12-01

    In 1976, the New York Giants profession football team relocated to the newly constructed Meadowlands Sports Complex (MSC) in East Rutherford, NJ. Between 1980 and 1987 four team members developed cancer: one case each of non-hodgkin's lymphoma, glioblastoma, angiosarcoma, and Hodgkin's disease. Because the surrounding area contains three superfund sites, concern was widespread that the cancers were related to environmental contamination. To assess for a possible environmental etiology, the authors conducted clinical, environmental, and epidemiologic studies at the MSC. Measurements of volatile organic compounds were all below occupational exposure limits and were similar to ambient levels in nearby Lyndhurst, NJ. Outdoor AM radio broadcast field strengths were in the uppermost 0.1% of field strengths measured in urban areas of the US. Proportionate mortality ratio and proportional cancer incidence ratio studies of the MSC workforce found no excesses of cancer deaths or of incident cancer cases either for all sites combined or for any specific site. No significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between indoor and nonindoor workers. Based on examination of all available data, the four cancer cases were judged most likely to have been clustered by chance and not to have been caused by environmental conditions at the MSC.

  1. Talking with parents of high school football players about chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a concise summary.

    PubMed

    Love, Shawn; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, athletic-related chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has garnered a great deal of attention in the popular press and, more recently, in the scientific press. With increasing frequency, sports medicine practitioners and providers are faced with questions from the parents of high school football players about CTE and the risk posed to children who participate in this or other contact or collision sports. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research on CTE in an attempt to provide some evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions in clinics from parents. Addressed are (1) the definitions of CTE and its symptoms, (2) the evidence for CTE in football, (3) abnormal tau protein, (4) the use of neuroimaging in CTE diagnosis, (5) risk for CTE, (6) CTE diagnosis in youth, (7) CTE and its relationship to suicide, and (8) contact and collision sports as a risk factor for permanent brain injury or death. PMID:24907288

  2. Evaluation of longitudinal steroid profiles from male football players in UEFA competitions between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Geyer, Hans; Vouillamoz, Marc; Grisdale, Richard; Earl, Mike; Aguilera, Rodrigo; Cowan, David A; Ericsson, Magnus; Gmeiner, Günter; Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Kioukia-Fougia, Nassia; Molina, Adeline; Ruivo, João; Segura, Jordi; Van Eenoo, Peter; Jan, Nicolas; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial

    2016-07-01

    Testosterone and related compounds are the most recurrent doping substances. The steroid profile, consisting of the quantification of testosterone and its metabolites, has been described as the most significant biomarker to detect doping with pseudo-endogenous anabolic steroids. The steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was launched by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 2014. To assess the value of introducing the module to its anti-doping programme, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) decided to analyze retrospectively the steroid profile data of 4195 urine samples, collected from 879 male football players and analyzed in 12 WADA-accredited laboratories between 2008 and mid-2013. This study focused on the evaluation of T/E ratios. The coefficient of variation (CV) and the adaptive model were the two statistical models used to study the longitudinal follow-up. A CV of 46% was determined to be the maximal natural intra-individual variation of the T/E when the sequence consisted of single data points analyzed in different laboratories. The adaptive model showed some profiles with an atypical T/E sequence and also enabled an estimate of the prevalence of external factors impacting the T/E sequences. Despite the limitations of this retrospective study, it clearly showed that the longitudinal and individual follow-up of the T/E biomarker of the players is a good tool for target testing in football. UEFA has therefore decided to implement the steroidal module of the ABP from the start of the next European football season in September 2015. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26338140

  3. Just like the lottery? Player behaviour and anomalies in the market for football pools.

    PubMed

    Forrest, David; Pérez, Levi

    2015-06-01

    Football pools were an antecedent to lotto in providing a long-odds, high-prize gambling opportunity for a mass market in Europe. Even after lotto has become well established, pools games continue to occupy a significant niche in the gaming market in several jurisdictions, most notably Spain. This paper employs 23 years of sales data from the national pools game in Spain to investigate similarities between the behaviour of lotto players and pools players. It observes similar phenomena as have been noted in lotto sales studies, including strong sensitivity of sales to the size of jackpot on offer, significant habit effects, a halo effect whereby there is some short-term persistence in increased sales whenever a high jackpot is offered (even after jackpot size has returned to normal), and a tendency to jackpot fatigue (over time, the size of the jackpot has to be increased to more than before to stimulate the same increase in sales). Notwithstanding that the football pools are marketed as based on knowledge and understanding of sport whereas lotto is a pure numbers game, modelling sales of the pools therefore yields findings very similar to those reported in the literature on lotto. This suggests that both sets of players share common psychological and cognitive traits and economic motivation. Those responsible for promoting pools should therefore be able to draw on findings from the much more extensive literature on lotto when formulating strategy in terms of game design and marketing. PMID:24292983

  4. Motivational patterns as an instrument for predicting success in promising young football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Zibung, Marc; Conzelmann, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Psychological characteristics are crucial to identifying talents, which is why these are being incorporated in today's multidimensional talent models. In addition to multidimensionality, talent studies are increasingly drawing on holistic theories of development, leading to the use of person-oriented approaches. The present study adopts such an approach by looking at the influence that motivational characteristics have on the development of performance, in a person-oriented way. For this purpose, it looks at how the constructs achievement motive, achievement goal orientation and self-determination interact with one another, what patterns they form and how these patterns are linked to subsequent sports success. Ninety-seven top young football players were questioned twice. Another year later, it was enquired which of these players had been selected for the U15 national team. At both measuring points, four patterns were identified, which displayed a high degree of structural and individual stability. As expected, the highly intrinsically achievement-oriented players were significantly more likely to move up into the U15 national team. The results point to the importance of favourable patterns of motivational variables in the form of specific types, for medium-term performance development among promising football talents, and thus provide valuable clues for the selection and promotion of those. PMID:24938614

  5. Impaired sleep and recovery after night matches in elite football players.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Duffield, Rob; Julian, Ross; Bartlett, Jon; Meyer, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Despite the perceived importance of sleep for elite footballers, descriptions of the duration and quality of sleep, especially following match play, are limited. Moreover, recovery responses following sleep loss remain unclear. Accordingly, the present study examined the subjective sleep and recovery responses of elite footballers across training days (TD) and both day and night matches (DM and NM). Sixteen top division European players from three clubs completed a subjective online questionnaire twice a day for 21 days during the season. Subjective recall of sleep variables (duration, onset latency, time of wake/sleep, wake episode duration), a range of perceptual variables related to recovery, mood, performance and internal training loads and non-exercise stressors were collected. Players reported significantly reduced sleep durations for NM compared to DM (-157 min) and TD (-181 min). In addition, sleep restfulness (SR; arbitrary scale 1 = very restful, 5 = not at all restful) and perceived recovery (PR; acute recovery and stress scale 0 = not recovered at all, 6 = fully recovered) were significantly poorer following NM than both TD (SR: +2.0, PR: -2.6), and DM (SR: +1.5; PR: -1.5). These results suggest that reduced sleep quantity and quality and reduced PR are mainly evident following NM in elite players. PMID:26750446

  6. The estimation of body density in rugby union football players.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, W

    1995-01-01

    The general regression equation of Durnin and Womersley for estimating body density from skinfold thicknesses in young men, was examined by comparing the estimated density from this equation, with the measured density of a group of 45 rugby union players of similar age. Body density was measured by hydrostatic weighing with simultaneous measurement of residual volume. Additional measurements included stature, body mass and skinfold thicknesses at the biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac sites. The estimated density was significantly different from the measured density (P < 0.001), equivalent to a mean overestimation of relative fat of approximately 4%. A new set of prediction equations for estimating density was formulated from linear regression using the logarithm of single and sums of skinfold thicknesses. Equations were derived from a validation sample (n = 22) and tested on a crossvalidation sample (n = 23). The standard error of the estimate (s.e.e.) of the equations ranged from 0.0058 to 0.0062 g ml-1. The derived equations were successfully crossvalidated. Differences between measured and estimated densities were not significant (P > 0.05), total errors ranging from 0.0067 to 0.0092 g ml-1. An exploratory assessment was also made of the effect of fatness and aerobic fitness on the prediction equations. The equations should be applied to players of similar age and playing ability, and for the purpose of identifying group characteristics. Application of the equations to individuals may give rise to errors of between -3.9% to +2.5% total body fat in two-thirds of cases. PMID:7788218

  7. Family fun or cultural free-for-all? A critique of the 2015 National Football League Super Bowl commercials

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Kernan, William D; Reeves, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to enumerate and describe violent and risky behaviors as well as other general health behaviors exhibited in the advertisements during the National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl 2015. Methods: Commercials during the NFL Super Bowl 2015 were assessed for violent and risky behaviors. Additional health behaviors were indicated such as the advertisement of unhealthy food, promotion of physical activity, and sexual content. Results: A total of 110 commercials were documented, accounting for 64 minutes of broadcast time. Commercials promoting automobiles, television shows, food, and movies were the most prevalent, representing just over half (53.7%) of all of the advertisements featured. Depictions of unsafe driving were found in 10.9% (n = 12) of the commercials. All 12 commercials contained some sort of risky or wild driving behavior, and speeding was observed in 11 of the 12 commercials. A total of 32 (29.1%) of the commercials were coded as including violent content.Physical activity behavior was present in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials. Conversely, substance use was observed in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials, none of which included health promotion messaging. Of the 110 commercials aired during the 2015 Super Bowl, 12.7% (n = 14) included sexual content. Conclusion: Parents should consider the possibility that their children may observe acts of violence or conflicting safety messages during commercial breaks. PMID:27123435

  8. Direct and indirect measurement of neuromuscular fatigue in Canadian football players.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nick; Farthing, Jonathan P; Lanovaz, Joel L; Krentz, Joel R

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of a fatiguing game simulation (G-Sim) on the balance of collegiate Canadian football players. The purpose of the study was to evaluate postural control as a potential tool for monitoring neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) in collision-based team sports. Fifteen male Canadian football players were recruited (mean±SD: age 21.8±1.6 years, weight 97.6±14.7 kg). Indirect NMF measures (postural sway and countermovement jump (CMJ)) were performed 24 h before (TBase), immediately before (TPre) and after (TPost), and 24 h (T24) and 48 h after (T48) a Canadian football G-Sim. Peak isometric knee extensor torque of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electrically evoked tetani at 20 Hz (P20) and 80 Hz (P80) were also recorded as direct NMF measures at TBase, TPre, TPost, and T48. At TPost, we observed significant declines in MVC, P20, and the MVC/P80 ratio (-15.3%, -15.7%, and -12.1%, respectively; n=12) along with reductions in CMJ takeoff velocity and peak power (-6.9% and -6.5%, respectively; n=12) and larger area of the center of pressure trajectory (95.2%; n=10) during a 60-s postural sway task. All variables were no longer different than baseline by T48. Acute neuromuscular impairment in this cohort is likely attributable to alterations in excitation-contraction coupling due to structural damage and central activation failure. Congruency between the direct and indirect measures of NMF suggests monitoring postural sway has the potential to identify both neuromuscular and somatosensory alterations induced by acute game-induced fatigue in collision-based team sports players. PMID:25894521

  9. Effects of a Custom Bite-Aligning Mouthguard on Performance in College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Drum, Scott N; Swisher, Anna M; Buchanan, Christina A; Donath, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Besides injury prevention, mouthguards can also be employed to improve physical performance. The effects of personalization of mouthguards have rarely been investigated. This 3-armed, randomized, controlled crossover trial investigated the difference of wearing (a) personalized or custom-made (CM, e.g., bite-aligned), (b) standard (BB, boil and bite), and (c) no (CON) mouthguards on general fitness parameters in experienced collegiate football players. A group of 10 upperclassmen (age, 19-22 years; mean ± SD: age = 20.7 ± 0.8 years; body mass = 83 ± 7.4 kg; height = 179.1 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index = 25.9 ± 2.2 kg·cm), National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II football players with at least 2 years of playing experience, were randomly assigned to the 3 mouthguard conditions: a randomized, within-subjects repeated-measures design was applied. All participants were randomly tested on strength and endurance performance V[Combining Dot Above]O2max testing, with Bruce treadmill protocol including (a) time to fatigue, (b) blood lactate concentration in millimoles per liter at stage 2 and (c) at peak fatigue, (d) flexibility, (e) reaction time, (f) squat vertical jump, (g) countermovement vertical jump, and (h) 1 repetition maximum bench press. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences between the 3 conditions for each outcome variable (0.23 < p < 0.94; 0.007 < (Equation is included in full-text article.)< 0.15). These data indicate that CM mouthguards did not superiorly affect general fitness parameters compared with BB and CON. In turn, protective BB or CM mouthpieces did not appear to impair general fitness performance vs. CON. The recommendation of a custom bite-aligning mouthguards for performance enhancement in young Division II football players is questioned. Further studies with larger sample sizes, gender comparison, and (sport) discipline-specific performance testing are needed. PMID:26466128

  10. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE REHABILITATION OF A COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYER FOLLOWING ANKLE FRACTURE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Musto, Tony; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A.; Gailey, Robert S.; Kelley, William P.; Alemi, Timothy J.; Espinosa, Braulio; Mandler, Eli; Scavo, Vincent A.; West, Dustin C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and Purpose Multiple rehabilitation factors including overall wellness need to be considered when an athlete returns to sport after an injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe a multidisciplinary approach for return to sport of a Division I collegiate football player following a traumatic ankle fracture requiring surgical repair. The assessment and treatment approach included the use of a performance-based physical therapy outcome measure, self-reported functional abilities, body composition assessments, and nutritional counseling. Case Description A 21 year-old running back fractured his lateral malleolus due to a mechanism of injury of excessive eversion with external rotation of the ankle. Surgical intervention included an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of the fibula and syndesmosis. In addition to six months of rehabilitation, the patient received consultations from the team sports nutritionist specialist to provide dietary counseling and body composition testing. The Comprehensive High-level Activity Mobility Predictor-Sport (CHAMP-S), a performance-based outcome measure, self-report on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI-ADL, FADI-S), and body composition testing using whole body densitometry (BOD POD®), were administered throughout rehabilitation. Outcomes The subject was successfully rehabilitated, returned to his starting role, and subsequently was drafted by a National Football League (NFL) franchise. High-level mobility returned to above pre-injury values, achieving 105% of his preseason CHAMP-S score at discharge. Self-reported function on the FADI-ADL and FADI-Sport improved to 100% at discharge. Body fat percentages decreased (13.3% to 11.9%) and fat mass decreased (12.0 kg to 11.0kg). Lean body mass (78.1 kg to 81.5 kg) and lbm/in increased (1.14 kg/in to 1.19 kg/in). His BMI changed from 29.8 kg/m2 to 30.6 kg/m2. Discussion This case report illustrates the positive effects of a

  11. Season-long increases in perceived muscle soreness in professional rugby league players: role of player position, match characteristics and playing surface.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ben D; Twist, Craig; Haigh, Julian D; Brewer, Clive; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2016-06-01

    Rugby League (RL) is a high-impact collision sport characterised by repeated sprints and numerous high-speed impacts and consequently players often report immediate and prolonged muscle soreness in the days after a match. We examined muscle soreness after matches during a full season to understand the extent to which match characteristics influence soreness. Thirty-one elite Super League players provided daily measures of muscle soreness after each of the 26 competitive fixtures of the 2012 season. Playing position, phase of the season, playing surface and match characteristics were recorded from each match. Muscle soreness peaked at day 1 and was still apparent at day 4 post-game with no attenuation in the magnitude of muscle soreness over the course of the season. Neither playing position, phase of season or playing surface had any effects on the extent of muscle soreness. Playing time and total number of collisions were significantly correlated with higher ratings of muscle soreness, especially in the forwards. These data indicate the absence "contact adaptations" in elite rugby players with soreness present throughout the entire season. Strategies must now be implemented to deal with the physical and psychological consequences of prolonged feeling of pain. PMID:26368285

  12. Impact of limited hamstring flexibility on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility in young football players.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, F; Ruiz-Ariza, A; Moreno del Castillo, R; Latorre-Román, P Á

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the impact of limited hamstring flexibility (HF) on specific football skills, such as sprinting and jumping ability, agility, and kicking speed in young football players. Forty-three male football players (aged 14-18) from a semi-professional football academy participated voluntarily in this study. Data about anthropometric measurements, HF (unilateral passive straight-leg raise test: PSLR), vertical jumping ability (countermovement jump: CMJ), sprinting ability (5, 10, 20 m: S5 m, S10 m, S20 m), agility (Balsom agility test: BAT), and kicking speed in terms of ball speed (dominant and non-dominant leg: KSdom and KSnon-dom) were collected. Cluster analysis grouped according to HF, dividing participants into a flexible group (FG, n = 24) and a non-flexible group (NFG, n = 19) in relation to performances on the PSLR test. Despite finding no significant differences between groups in body composition and age, the FG performed better in terms of sprint scores (S5 m: 6.12%, S10 m: 4.09%, S20 m: 3.29%), BAT score (4.11%), CMJ score (10.49%), and scores for KSdom (6.86%) and KSnon-dom (8%) than the NFG. The results suggest that HF is a key factor for performing football-specific skills, such as sprinting, jumping, agility, and kicking in young football players. These results support the rationale that muscle flexibility must be specifically trained in football players beginning at early ages. PMID:25761523

  13. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games. PMID:27089630

  14. Injuries and illnesses of football players during the 2010 FIFA World Cup

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background The incidence and characteristics of football injuries during matches in top-level international tournaments are well documented, but training injuries and illnesses during this period have rarely been studied. Aim To analyse the incidence and characteristics of injuries and illnesses incurred during the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup. Methods The chief physicians of the 32 finalist teams reported daily all newly incurred injuries and illnesses of their players on a standardised medical report form. Results Out of 229 injuries reported, 82 match and 58 training injuries were expected to result in time loss, equivalent to an incidence of 40.1 match and 4.4 training injuries per 1000 h. Contact with another player was the most frequent cause of match (65%) and of training (40%) injuries. The most frequent diagnoses were thigh strain and ankle sprain. 99 illnesses of 89 (12%) players were reported. Illnesses were mainly infections of the respiratory or the digestive system. Most illnesses did not result in absence from training or match. The incidence of time-loss illnesses was 3.0 per 1000 player days. Conclusion The incidence of match injuries during the 2010 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than in the three proceeding World Cups. This might be a result of more regard to injury prevention, less foul play and stricter refereeing. Tackling skills and fair play need to be improved to prevent contact injuries in training and matches. Prevention of illness should focus on reducing the risk of infections by considering the common modes of transmission and environmental conditions. PMID:21257668

  15. A Refined Prediction Model for Core and Lower Extremity Sprains and Strains Among Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Gary B.; Colston, Marisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Researchers have identified high exposure to game conditions, low back dysfunction, and poor endurance of the core musculature as strong predictors for the occurrence of sprains and strains among collegiate football players. Objective To refine a previously developed injury-prediction model through analysis of 3 consecutive seasons of data. Design Cohort study. Setting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Subdivision football program. Patients or Other Participants For 3 consecutive years, all 152 team members (age = 19.7 ± 1.5 years, height = 1.84 ± 0.08 m, mass = 101.08 ± 19.28 kg) presented for a mandatory physical examination on the day before initiation of preseason practice sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s) Associations between preseason measurements and the subsequent occurrence of a core or lower extremity sprain or strain were established for 256 player-seasons of data. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify optimal cut points for dichotomous categorizations of cases as high risk or low risk. Both logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to identify a multivariable injury-prediction model with optimal discriminatory power. Results Exceptionally good discrimination between injured and uninjured cases was found for a 3-factor prediction model that included equal to or greater than 1 game as a starter, Oswestry Disability Index score equal to or greater than 4, and poor wall-sit–hold performance. The existence of at least 2 of the 3 risk factors demonstrated 56% sensitivity, 80% specificity, an odds ratio of 5.28 (90% confidence interval = 3.31, 8.44), and a hazard ratio of 2.97 (90% confidence interval = 2.14, 4.12). Conclusions High exposure to game conditions was the dominant injury risk factor for collegiate football players, but a surprisingly mild degree of low back dysfunction and poor core-muscle endurance appeared to be important modifiable risk factors that

  16. Constraints on dynamic stability during forward, backward and lateral locomotion in skilled football players.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of speed and plane of motion on stability during locomotion in skilled football players. Ten male national-level football players participated in this study to run forward, backward and in lateral directions on a treadmill at 80%, 100% and 120% of their preferred running speeds. The coordinate data of passive reflective markers attached to body segments were recorded using motion capture systems. Time series data obtained from the ankle marker were used for further analyses. The largest finite-time Lyapunov exponent and maximum Floquet multiplier were adopted to quantify local and orbital dynamic stabilities, respectively. Results showed that speed did not significantly change local and orbital dynamic stabilities in any of running patterns. However, both local and orbital dynamic stability were significantly higher in the secondary plane of progression. Data revealed that in running, unlike walking, stability in the direction perpendicular to the direction of running is significantly higher, implying that less active control is required in the secondary plane of progression. The results of this study could be useful in sports training and rehabilitation programmes where development of fundamental exercise programmes that challenge both speed and the ability to maintain stability might produce a tangible enhancement of athletic skill level. PMID:25553807

  17. Exercise program for prevention of groin pain in football players: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hölmich, P; Larsen, K; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2010-12-01

    Groin injuries cause major problems in sports and particularly in football. Exercise is effective in treating adductor-related groin pain, but no trials have been published regarding the specific prevention of groin pain or prevention specifically targeting overuse injuries in sport using exercise programs. We performed a cluster-randomized trial including 55 football clubs representing 1211 players. The clubs were randomized to an exercise program aimed at preventing groin injuries (n=27) or to a control group training as usual (n=28). The intervention program consisted of six exercises including strengthening (concentric and eccentric), coordination, and core stability exercises for the muscles related to the pelvis. Physiotherapists assigned to each club registered all groin injuries. Twenty-two clubs in each group completed the study, represented by 977 players. There was no significant effect of the intervention (HR=0.69, 95% CI 0.40-1.19). The risk of a groin injury was reduced by 31%, but this reduction was not significant. A univariate analysis showed that having had a previous groin injury almost doubles the risk of developing a new groin injury and playing at a higher level almost triples the risk of developing a groin injury. PMID:19883386

  18. Increased plantar force and impulse in American football players with high arch compared to normal arch

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Daniel W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Heidt, Robert S.; Ford, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk of overuse injury among athletes is high due in part to repeated loading of the lower extremities. Compared to individuals with normal arch (NA) structure, those with high (HA) or low arch (LA) may be at increased risk of specific overuse injuries, including stress fractures. A high medial longitudinal arch may result in decreased shock absorbing properties due to increased rigidity in foot mechanics. While the effect of arch structure on dynamic function has been examined in straight line walking and running, the relationship between the two during multi-directional movements remains unstudied. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in plantar loading in football players occur during both walking and pivoting movements. Method Plantar loading was examined in 9 regions of the foot for 26 participants (16 NA, 10 HA). Results High arch athletes demonstrated increased maximum force in the lateral rear foot and medial forefoot, and force time integral in the medial forefoot while walking. HA athletes also demonstrated increased maximum force in the medial rear foot and medial and central forefoot during rapid pivoting. Conclusions The current findings demonstrate that loading patterns differ between football players with high and normal arch structure, which could possibly influence injury risk in this population. PMID:23141809

  19. Identifying factors perceived to influence the development of elite youth football academy players.

    PubMed

    Mills, Andrew; Butt, Joanne; Maynard, Ian; Harwood, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Based on the developmental theory presented by Gagné (2009), we examined the factors perceived to influence the development of elite youth football players at a critical stage in their progression to the professional level. Transcribed interviews with ten expert development coaches were inductively and deductively content analysed. Conceptualisation of the data revealed six interrelated higher-order categories that represented the factors perceived to either positively or negatively influence player development. These were: awareness (e.g. self-awareness, awareness of others); resilience (e.g. coping with setbacks, optimistic attitude); goal-directed attributes (e.g. passion, professional attitude); intelligence (e.g. sport intelligence, emotional competence); sport-specific attributes (e.g. coachability, competitiveness); and environmental factors (e.g. significant others, culture of game). In this investigation, awareness emerged as a fundamental and mediating element for understanding how young players are able to transition to the professional level. Collectively, the findings underline the multidimensional nature of talent development and suggest that an intricate combination of stage-specific factors must manifest for gifted young players to translate their potential into excellence. Mechanisms by which academies could be helped to shape the characteristics and conditions associated with effective development are discussed. PMID:22888797

  20. The Effect of Lace-up Ankle Braces on Injury Rates in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; Wilson, John; Brooks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a nkle injuries occur frequently in high school football players no prospective studies have been performed to determine if wearing lace-up ankle braces will reduce the incidence and severity of ankle and other lower extremity injuries in these athletes. Purpose Determine if lace-up ankle braces reduce the incidence and severity of lower extremity injuries sustained by high school football players. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods 2081 players from 50 high schools were randomly-assigned to braced or control group. Braced group subjects wore lace-up ankle braces during the 2010 football season. Athletic trainers recorded brace compliance, athletic exposures and injuries. Cox Proportional Hazards models were utilized to compare injury rates between groups. Injury severity (days lost) was tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum. Results The rate of acute ankle injury (per 1,000 exposures) was 0.48 in the braced group compared to 1.12 in the control group (Cox Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.39, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.24, 0.65, p<0.001). The severity (median days lost) of acute ankle injuries was the same (5 days) in both groups (p=0.985). The rate of acute knee injury was 0.70 in the braced group compared to 0.69 in the control group, (HR=0.92 [0.57, 1.47], p=0.721). There was no difference (p=0.242) in the severity of knee injuries between the groups (controls 11.5 days, braced =17 days. The rate of other lower extremity injuries was 0.95 in the braced group and 1.32 in the control group, (HR=0.72 [0.48, 1.09], p=0.117) while the severity was similar in both groups (6 days versus 7 days, p=0.295). Conclusions Players who used lace-up ankle braces had a lower incidence of acute ankle injuries but no difference in the incidence of acute knee or other lower extremity injuries. Braces did not reduce the severity of ankle, knee or other lower extremity injuries. PMID:21926383

  1. Differences in Degree Aspirations and Attainment Outcomes between Football or Basketball Players and Other Intercollegiate Athletes. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Charlotte L.

    Using data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program of students who were college freshmen in 1986 and responded to a follow-up survey in 1990, this study examined differences in degree aspirations and attainment between intercollegiate football or basketball players (N=158) and other intercollegiate athletes (N=801). Although there were…

  2. An Examination of the Effect of Coach Leadership Behaviors on the Psychosocial Development of Division III College Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between student athlete development and coach leadership behaviors in NCAA Division III football players. Three key elements support this study. The first, Thelma Horn's model of coaching effectiveness, provided the framework for the impact of coaching behaviors on student athlete development. The second,…

  3. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  4. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players. PMID:27026887

  5. Longitudinal Body Composition Changes in NCAA Division I College Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Trexler, Eric T.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Mann, J. Bryan; Ivey, Pat A.; Hirsch, Katie R.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    Many athletes seek to optimize body composition to fit the physical demands of their sport. American football requires a unique combination of size, speed, and power. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in body composition in Division I collegiate football players. For 57 players (Mean ± SD; Age=19.5 ± 0.9 yrs; Height=186.9 ± 5.7 cm; Weight=107.7 ± 19.1 kg), body composition was assessed via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the off-season (March-Pre), end of off-season (May), mid-July (Pre-Season), and the following March (March-Post). Outcome variables included weight, body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), android (AND) and gynoid (GYN) fat, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone density (BMD). For a subset of athletes (n=13 out of 57), changes over a 4-year playing career were evaluated with measurements taken every March. Throughout a single year, favorable changes were observed for BF% (Δ=−1.3 ± 2.5%), LM (Δ=2.8 ± 2.8 kg), GYN (Δ=−1.5 ± 3.0%), BMC (Δ=0.06 ± 0.14 kg), and BMD (Δ=0.015 ± 0.027g·cm−2; all p<0.05). Across four years, weight increased significantly (Δ=6.6 ± 4.1kg), and favorable changes were observed for LM (Δ=4.3 ± 3.0 kg), BMC (Δ=0.18 ± 0.17 kg), and BMD (Δ=0.033 ± 0.039 g·cm−2; all p<0.05). Similar patterns in body composition changes were observed for linemen and non-linemen. Results indicate that well-trained collegiate football players at high levels of competition can achieve favorable changes in body composition, even late in the career, which may confer benefits for performance and injury prevention. PMID:11834106

  6. Comment on "football-specific fitness testing: adding value or confirming the evidence?".

    PubMed

    Carling, Christopher; Collins, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The recent point-counter-point exchange arising from the article by Mendez-Villanueva and Buchheit (2013) (Football-specific fitness testing: Adding value or confirming the evidence? Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 1503-1508) has generated an interesting debate on the real-world utility of fitness testing in professional association football (soccer). In the present authors' opinion, this exchange could also have been placed more in the context of the physical testing and subsequent benchmark profiling of the youth player within elite academy talent identification and development processes. This point is further strengthened by the current media debate at the time of writing on the development of elite youth football players in England and the Elite Player Performance Plan or EPPP (The Premier League. (2011). Elite Player Performance Plan. London: Author) published by the English Premier League as part of a vision for the future development of youth football in the League and throughout the English professional game. The EPPP recommends the implementation of a national database to enable comparison of Academy player performances against national physical testing "benchmark" profiles. In continuing the above debate, this letter questions the real-world utility and potential pitfalls of nationwide athletic benchmark profiling programmes for elite youth football. PMID:24878103

  7. The Association of the Type of Football Helmet and Mouth Guard With the Incidence of Sport Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy; Brooks, Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Rasmussen, Jessica; McCrea, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately 40,000 Sport Related Concussions (SRC) occur annually in high school football in the US. Football helmet and mouth guard manufacturers cite laboratory research to claim that their models will absorb and lessen impact forces associated with SRC greater than their competitors models. Therefore, players who utilize their equipment may reduce the likelihood they will sustain a SRC. However, there are limited prospective data detailing how specific types of football helmets and mouth guards affect the incidence and severity of SRC in players actually participating in high school football. The objective of this study is to determine which types of football helmets and mouth guards are associated with the incidence and severity of SRC in high school football players. Methods: This prospective study collected data at 36 public and private high schools in Wisconsin during the 2012 high school football season. A convenience sample of N = 1,332 football players (grades 9 - 12, age: 15.9 + 1.8 yrs) enrolled in the study. During the pre-season, subjects completed a demographic questionnaire. Athletic Trainers (ATCs) at each high school recorded the incidence and severity (days lost) of SRC throughout the season. Chi-square tests were used to compare the incidence of SRC in players with their non-injured peers. SRC severity (median days lost, IQR) was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Relative risks [RR, 95% CI] were calculated for variables with significant tests (p <.05). Results: Two hundred fifty-one (19%) reported at least one SRC within the last 6 years while 171 (13%) reported SRC within the previous 12 months. The helmets worn by the players were manufactured by Riddell (52%), Schutt (35%) and Xenith (13%) and were purchased in 2011-2012 (39%), 2009-2010 (33%), 2002-2008 (28%). Mouth guards worn by players included generic models provided by the school (61%) and specialized mouth guards (39%) custom fitted by a dental professional or

  8. Positional group significantly influences the offensive and defensive skill involvements of junior representative rugby league players during match play.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kyle J M; Fransen, Job; Scott, Brendan R; Sanctuary, Colin E; Gabbett, Tim J; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the skill involvements of three positional groups across a junior representative rugby league season. Data were collected from 45 rugby league players (mean ± SD; age = 16.5 ± 1.0 years) currently participating in the Harold Matthews and SG Ball Cup. Players were subdivided into hit-up forwards, adjustables and outside backs. The frequency (n · min(-1)) of offensive, defensive and overall involvements was coded for each group using a notation system and a practical coach skill analysis tool. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a significant effect of playing position on skill involvements (F = 9.06; P < 0.001; ES = 0.41). Hit-up forwards performed a significantly greater frequency of offensive (0.31 ± 0.10), defensive (0.42 ± 0.15) and overall involvements (0.74 ± 0.19) when compared to adjustables (0.20 ± 0.08, 0.28 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.15, respectively) and outside backs (0.20 ± 0.12, 0.11 ± 0.07 and ± 0.31 ± 0.17, respectively). Further, adjustables performed a significantly greater number of defensive (0.28 ± 0.08) and overall involvements (0.52 ± 0.15) when compared to outside backs (0.11 ± 0.07 and 0.31 ± 0.17, respectively). The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider a junior player's positional group when analysing their skill involvements. Information gained from this study could assist in the design of specific training methodologies for junior rugby league players in high-level talent development programmes. PMID:26651383

  9. Nonfunctional overreaching during off-season training for skill position players in collegiate American football.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher A; Fry, Andrew C

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance and hormonal responses to a 15-week off-season training program for American football. Nine skill position players from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A football team participated as subjects in this study. Following 4 weeks of weight training (phase I), subjects performed weight training concurrently with high-volume conditioning drills (phase II). Phase III consisted of 15 spring football practice sessions executed over a 30-day period. Performance and hormonal changes were assessed prior to phase I, and following phases I, II, and III. Maximal strength was significantly increased (p < 0.05) for all strength tests during phase I. Squat and power clean values decreased following phase II (p < 0.05), with all values returning to baseline upon completion of phase III. Sprinting speed significantly worsened during phase I (p < 0.05), but then returned to baseline during phase III. Vertical jump and agility improved during phase I (p < 0.05), with vertical jump remaining unchanged for the duration of the study and agility returning to baseline following phase II. Testosterone levels decreased during phase II (p < 0.05) prior to returning to baseline levels during phase III. Cortisol and the testosterone/cortisol ratio remained unchanged during the course of the investigation. Even though overtraining did not occur in the current investigation, a significant maladaptation in performance did occur subsequent to phase II. For this particular athletic population, a strength and conditioning program utilizing a reduced training volume-load may prove more effective for improving performance in the future. PMID:17685717

  10. A Systematic Review of Prophylactic Braces in the Prevention of Knee Ligament Injuries in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Pietrosimone, Brian G; Grindstaff, Terry L; Linens, Shelley W; Uczekaj, Elizabeth; Hertel, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative risk reduction associated with prophylactic knee braces in the prevention of knee injuries in collegiate football players. Data Sources: An exhaustive search for original research was performed using the PubMed, SportDiscus, and CINAHL databases from 1970 through November 2006, with the search terms knee brace, knee braces, knee bracing and football, prophylactic brace, and prophylactic knee braces. Study Selection: Seven studies comparing knee injuries among braced and nonbraced collegiate football players were included. Study methods were assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. PEDro scores ranged from 2 to 5. Data Extraction: The number of participants and frequency of knee injuries were used to calculate the relative risk reduction or increase. Data Synthesis: We found a relative risk reduction for 3 studies with point estimates of 10% (36% to −26%), 58% (25% to 76%), and 56% (13% to 77%). Four studies demonstrated an increased risk of injury, with point estimates of 17% (19% to −71%), 49% (−31% to −69%), 114% (23% to −492%), and 42% (−18% to −70%). Conclusions: Data from existing research are inconsistent. Based on a Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy level of evidence of 2 with a grade B recommendation, we cannot conclusively advocate or discourage the use of prophylactic knee braces in the prevention of knee injuries in collegiate football players. PMID:18668174

  11. The effect of winter sports participation on high school football players: strength, power, agility, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Wroble, R R; Moxley, D R

    2001-02-01

    In this study, football players (N = 57) in grades 9-11 from 3 high schools chose to participate in 1 of 2 groups. Group WC (N = 39) participated in off-season strength training only. Group SP (N = 18) participated in both a winter sport (either wrestling or basketball) and an identical strength training program. All participants were tested at the close of football season (Pre) and at the end of the winter sports season (Post), a period of 4 months. Body composition (weight [W] and body fat percentage [BF]), strength (calculated 1RM [1 repetition maximum] max for barbell bench press [BP] and squat [SQ]), power (vertical jump [VJ] and seated shot put [UP]), and agility (18.3-m agility run [AG]) were measured. Both groups WC and SP increased significantly in W and BF and improved significantly in BP and VJ (p < 0.05). Only the WC group improved significantly in SQ and AG (p < 0.05). Only the SP group increased significantly in UP (p < 0.05). Only the difference in SQ was statistically greater in the WC than in the SP group (p < 0.05). Regardless of winter activity, football players gain significant amounts of BF resulting in overall W increases. Football players participating in winter sports improved significantly in measurements of strength and power. There appears to be no clear advantage to devoting time solely to strength training. PMID:11708697

  12. Brachial Plexopathy/Nerve Root Avulsion in a Football Player: The Role of Electrodiagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Radecki, Jeffrey; Wolfe, Scott W.; Strauss, Helene L.; Mintz, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) studies are a useful tool in anatomical localization of peripheral nerve and brachial plexus injuries. They are especially helpful in distinguishing between brachial plexopathy and nerve root injuries where surgical intervention may be indicated. EMG can also assist in providing prognostic information after nerve injury as well as after nerve repair. In this case report, a football player presented with weakness in his right upper limb after a traction/traumatic injury to the right brachial plexus. EMG studies revealed evidence of both pre- and postganglionic injury to multiple cervical roots. The injury was substantial enough to cause nerve root avulsions involving the C6 and C7 levels. Surgical referral led to nerve grafts targeted at regaining function in shoulder abduction and elbow flexion. After surgery, the patient’s progress was monitored utilizing EMG to assist in identifying true axonal regeneration. PMID:18751870

  13. A Case of Posterior Sternoclavicular Dislocation in a Professional American Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Justin S.; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.; Scott, Reggie; Matava, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Sternoclavicular (SC) dislocation is a rare injury of the upper extremity. Treatment of posterior SC dislocation ranges from conservative (closed reduction) to operative (open reduction with or without surgical reconstruction of the SC joint). To date, we are unaware of any literature that exists pertaining to this injury or its treatment in elite athletes. The purpose of this case report is to describe a posterior SC joint dislocation in a professional American football player and to illustrate the issues associated with its diagnosis and treatment and the athlete’s return to sports. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported in a professional athlete. He was treated successfully with closed reduction and returned to play within 5 weeks of injury. PMID:26137177

  14. Training Load and Player Monitoring in High-Level Football: Current Practice and Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Akenhead, Richard; Nassis, George P

    2016-07-01

    Training load (TL) is monitored with the aim of making evidence-based decisions on appropriate loading schemes to reduce injuries and enhance team performance. However, little is known in detail about the variables of load and methods of analysis used in high-level football. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide information on the practices and practitioners' perceptions of monitoring in professional clubs. Eighty-two high-level football clubs from Europe, the United States, and Australia were invited to answer questions relating to how TL is quantified, how players' responses are monitored, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of monitoring. Forty-one responses were received. All teams used GPS and heart-rate monitors during all training sessions, and 28 used rating of perceived exertion. The top-5-ranking TL variables were acceleration (various thresholds), total distance, distance covered above 5.5 m/s, estimated metabolic power, and heart-rate exertion. Players' responses to training are monitored using questionnaires (68% of clubs) and submaximal exercise protocols (41%). Differences in expected vs actual effectiveness of monitoring were 23% and 20% for injury prevention and performance enhancement, respectively (P < .001 d = 1.0-1.4). Of the perceived barriers to effectiveness, limited human resources scored highest, followed by coach buy-in. The discrepancy between expected and actual effectiveness appears to be due to suboptimal integration with coaches, insufficient human resources, and concerns over the reliability of assessment tools. Future approaches should critically evaluate the usefulness of current monitoring tools and explore methods of reducing the identified barriers to effectiveness. PMID:26456711

  15. Racial and Gender Report Card, 2003: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Hiring Practices of the National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, Women's National Basketball Association, and NCAA and Its Member Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapchick, Richard E.

    This is the 12th issue of the "Racial and Gender Report Card," which assesses hiring practices of women and people of color in U.S. professional and amateur sports and sporting organizations. It considers the composition of players, coaches, and front office/athletic department employees in the leading sports organizations. Each organization is…

  16. Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Helena; Ekblom, Björn; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints (21, s = 1 vs. 22, s = 2), standing tackles (10, s = 1 vs. 11, s = 1) or headers per game (8, s = 1 vs. 8, s = 1), whereas there were fewer sliding tackles (P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass (2.1, s = 0.5 vs. 4.3, s = 0.6). There were more short passes (218, s = 14 vs. 167, s = 12) and midfield-to-midfield passes (148, s = 11 vs. 107, s = 8) (both P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass. On a scale of 0-10, where 0 = "better than", 5 = "equal to", and 10 = "worse than", the male players reported a negative overall impression (8.3, s = 0.2), poorer ball control (7.3, s = 0.3), and greater physical effort (7.2, s = 0.2) on artificial turf than natural grass. In conclusion, the running activities and technical standard were similar during games on artificial turf and natural grass. However, fewer sliding tackles and more short passes were performed during games on artificial turf. The observed change in playing style could partly explain the male players' negative impression of artificial turf. PMID:17852688

  17. Comparison of Indiana High School Football Injury Rates by Inclusion of the USA Football “Heads Up Football” Player Safety Coach

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dalton, Sara L.; Roos, Karen G.; Djoko, Aristarque; Phelps, Jennifer; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Indiana, high school football coaches are required to complete a coaching education course with material related to concussion awareness, equipment fitting, heat emergency preparedness, and proper technique. Some high schools have also opted to implement a player safety coach (PSC). The PSC, an integral component of USA Football’s Heads Up Football (HUF) program, is a coach whose primary responsibility is to ensure that other coaches are implementing proper tackling and blocking techniques alongside other components of the HUF program. Purpose: To compare injury rates in Indiana high school football teams by their usage of a PSC or online coaching education only. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers (ATs) evaluated and tracked injuries at each practice and game during the 2015 high school football season. Players were drawn from 6 teams in Indiana. The PSC group, which used the PSC component, was comprised of 204 players from 3 teams. The “education only” group (EDU), which utilized coaching education only, was composed of 186 players from 3 teams. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 25,938 athlete-exposures (AEs), a total of 149 injuries were reported, of which 54 (36.2%) and 95 (63.8%) originated from the PSC and EDU groups, respectively. The practice injury rate was lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (2.99 vs 4.83/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95). The game injury rate was also lower in the PSC group than the EDU group (11.37 vs 26.37/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). When restricted to concussions only, the rate was lower in the PSC group (0.09 vs 0.73/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), although only 1 concussion was reported in the PSC group. No differences were found in game concussion rates (0.60 vs 4.39/1000 AEs; IRR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.11). Conclusion: Findings support the PSC as an effective

  18. At return to play following hamstring injury the majority of professional football players have residual isokinetic deficits

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Johannes L; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; Muxart, Patrice; Jacobsen, Philipp; Whiteley, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal criteria for return to sport after an acute hamstring injury. Less than 10% isokinetic strength deficit is generally recommended but this has never been documented in professional football players after rehabilitation. Our aim was to evaluate isokinetic measurements in MRI-positive hamstring injuries. Methods Isokinetic measurements of professional football players were obtained after completing a standardised rehabilitation programme. An isokinetic strength deficit of more than 10% compared with the contralateral site was considered abnormal. Reinjuries within 2 months were recorded. Results 52 players had a complete set of isokinetic testing before clinical discharge. There were 27 (52%) grade 1 and 25 (48%) grade 2 injuries. 35 of 52 players (67%) had at least one of the three hamstring-related isokinetic parameters that display a deficit of more than 10%. The percentage of players with 10% deficit for hamstring concentric 60°/s, 300°/s and hamstring eccentric was respectively 39%, 29% and 28%. There was no significant difference of mean isokinetic peak torques and 10% isokinetic deficits in players without reinjury (N=46) compared with players with reinjury (N=6). Conclusions When compared with the uninjured leg, 67% of the clinically recovered hamstring injuries showed at least one hamstring isokinetic testing deficit of more than 10%. Normalisation of isokinetic strength seems not to be a necessary result of the successful completion of a football-specific rehabilitation programme. The possible association between isokinetic strength deficit and increased reinjury risk remains unknown. PMID:24493666

  19. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Helena A; Randers, Morten B; Heiner-Møller, Anja; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM. The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p < 0.05) in INT compared with DOM. More (p < 0.05) HIR was covered in INT than DOM during first and second half. Additionally, more (p < 0.05) sprinting occurred in INT compared with DOM in the first half. In both game types, the amount of HIR was reduced by 24-27% (p < 0.05) in the last 15-minute period compared with the first four 15-minute periods of the game. The midfielders covered longer (p < 0.05) distances with HIR in INT than in DOM over the entire game and in the most intense 5-minute period of the games, whereas no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus, our results are important to coaches to prepare players to meet the challenges of international soccer games and show that the ability to perform intense intermittent exercise should be trained regularly in elite female players. PMID:20300037

  20. The type, amount, frequency and timing of dietary supplement use by elite players in the First Spanish Basketball League.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Navarro, E; Mora, J; Seco, J; Torregrosa, J M; Tramullas, A

    2002-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the type, frequency and amount of dietary supplement consumption among a group of professional basketball players. The type, amount and specific timing of supplement use were recorded by 55 professional basketball players from seven different teams of the First Spanish Basketball League. Most participants (58%) consumed dietary supplements. Multivitamins and vitamins were the most frequently used supplements among the athletes (50.9%), followed by sport drinks (21.8%), miscellaneous supplements (21.8%), amino acids (14.5%), proteins (12.7%) and carbohydrates (12.7%). The average daily dietary supplement was one capsule of multivitamins, one capsule of antioxidant vitamins, 0.2-1.0 g vitamin C, 10.3 g protein, 1.9 g amino acids, 16.2 g carbohydrates and 377 ml of a commercial sport drink. Although the proportion of participants who consumed dietary supplements before, during and immediately after exercise was 25.4%, 16.3% and 7.3% respectively, only a few consumed a potentially ergogenic supplement at these times. It would appear unlikely that the type or amount of dietary supplements consumed had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of these professional basketball players, with the possible exception of antioxidant vitamins and the commercial sport drinks. PMID:12003281

  1. Historical trends in height, weight, and body mass: Data from U.S. Major League Baseball players, 1869–1983

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Rogers, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players – a select, healthy population – to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1 cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later. PMID:18753017

  2. Abdominal muscle response to a simulated weight-bearing task by elite Australian Rules football players.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Jodie; Stanton, Warren R; Hides, Julie A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the automatic recruitment of the deep abdominal muscles during a unilateral simulated weight-bearing task by elite Australian Rules football (AFL) players with and without low back pain (LBP). An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using ultrasound imaging to measure the thickness of the internal oblique (IO) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles. Thirty-seven elite male AFL players participated. Repeated measures factors included 'force level' (rest, 25% and 45% of body weight), 'leg' (dominant or non-dominant kicking leg) and 'side' (ultrasound side ipsilateral or contralateral to the leg used for the weight-bearing task). The dependent variables were thickness of the IO and TrA muscles. The results of this study showed that thickness of the IO (p<.0001) and TrA (p<.0001) muscles increased in response to 'force level'. During the task, the thickness of the IO muscle on the contralateral side of the trunk relative to the leg being tested, increased more in participants with current LBP (p=.034). This pattern was more distinct on the non-dominant kicking leg. Altered abdominal muscle recruitment in elite athletes with low back pain may be an attempt by the central nervous system (CNS) to compensate for inadequate lumbo-pelvic stability. PMID:21840078

  3. Changes in selected biochemical, muscular strength, power, and endurance measures during deliberate overreaching and tapering in rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Coutts, A; Reaburn, P; Piva, T J; Murphy, A

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of overreaching on muscle strength, power, endurance and selected biochemical responses in rugby league players. Seven semi-professional rugby league players (.VO(2max) = 56.1 +/- 1.7 mL . kg (-1) . min (-1); age = 25.7 +/- 2.6 yr; BMI = 27.6 +/- 2.0) completed 6 weeks of progressive overload training with limited recovery periods. A short 7-day stepwise reduction taper immediately followed the overload period. Measures of muscular strength, power and endurance and selected biochemical parameters were taken before and after overload training and taper. Multistage fitness test running performance was significantly reduced (12.3 %) following the overload period. Although most other performance measures tended to decrease following the overload period, only peak hamstring torque at 1.05 rad . s (-1) was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Following the taper, a significant increase in peak hamstring torque and isokinetic work at both slow (1.05 rad . s (-1)) and fast (5.25 rad . s (-1)) movement velocities were observed. Minimum clinically important performance decreases were measured in a multistage fitness test, vertical jump, 3-RM squat and 3-RM bench press and chin-up (max) following the overload period. Following the taper, minimum clinically important increases in the multistage fitness test, vertical jump, 3-RM squat and 3-RM bench press and chin-up (max) and 10-m sprint performance were observed. Compared to resting measures, the plasma testosterone to cortisol ratio, plasma glutamate, plasma glutamine to glutamate ratio and plasma creatine kinase activity demonstrated significant changes at the end of the overload training period (p < 0.05). These results suggest that muscular strength, power and endurance were reduced following the overload training, indicating a state of overreaching. The most likely explanation for the decreased performance is increased muscle damage via a decrease in the anabolic

  4. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9’s-U18’s), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio’s (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08–6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4’s, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45–6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53–0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62–0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31–0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36–0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid

  5. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and unwarranted

  6. The impact of the FIFA 11+ training program on injury prevention in football players: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barengo, Noël C; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Tovar, Gustavo; Bautista, Jorge Enrique Correa

    2014-11-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms "FIFA 11+", "football", "soccer", "injury prevention", and "The 11". The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits. PMID:25415209

  7. A headform for testing helmet and mouthguard sensors that measure head impact severity in football players.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Bonin, Stephanie J

    2014-09-01

    A headform is needed to validate and compare helmet- and mouthguard-based sensors that measure the severity and direction of football head impacts. Our goal was to quantify the dynamic response of a mandibular load-sensing headform (MLSH) and to compare its performance and repeatability to an unmodified Hybrid III headform. Linear impactors in two independent laboratories were used to strike each headform at six locations at 5.5 m/s and at two locations at 3.6 and 7.4 m/s. Impact severity was quantified using peak linear acceleration (PLA) and peak angular acceleration (PAA), and direction was quantified using the azimuth and elevation of the PLA. Repeatability was quantified using coefficients of variation (COV) and standard deviations (SD). Across all impacts, PLA was 1.6±1.8 g higher in the MLSH than in the Hybrid III (p=0.002), but there were no differences in PAA (p=0.25), azimuth (p=0.43) and elevation (p=0.11). Both headforms exhibited excellent or acceptable repeatability for PLA (HIII:COV=2.1±0.8%, MLSH:COV=2.0±1.2%, p=0.98), but site-specific repeatability ranging from excellent to poor for PAA (HIII:COV=7.2±4.0%, MLSH:COV=8.3±5.8%, p=0.58). Direction SD were generally <1° and did not vary between headforms. Overall, both headforms are similarly suitable for validating PLA in sensors that measure head impact severity in football players, however their utility for validating sensor PAA values varies with impact location. PMID:24920257

  8. Is a Cognitive-Behavioural Biofeedback Intervention Useful to Reduce Injury Risk in Junior Football Players?

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  9. Is a cognitive-behavioural biofeedback intervention useful to reduce injury risk in junior football players?

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  10. Neural network modelling and dynamical system theory: are they relevant to study the governing dynamics of association football players?

    PubMed

    Dutt-Mazumder, Aviroop; Button, Chris; Robins, Anthony; Bartlett, Roger

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have explored the organization of player movements in team sports using a range of statistical tools. However, the factors that best explain the performance of association football teams remain elusive. Arguably, this is due to the high-dimensional behavioural outputs that illustrate the complex, evolving configurations typical of team games. According to dynamical system analysts, movement patterns in team sports exhibit nonlinear self-organizing features. Nonlinear processing tools (i.e. Artificial Neural Networks; ANNs) are becoming increasingly popular to investigate the coordination of participants in sports competitions. ANNs are well suited to describing high-dimensional data sets with nonlinear attributes, however, limited information concerning the processes required to apply ANNs exists. This review investigates the relative value of various ANN learning approaches used in sports performance analysis of team sports focusing on potential applications for association football. Sixty-two research sources were summarized and reviewed from electronic literature search engines such as SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, Scirus, ScienceDirect and Elsevier. Typical ANN learning algorithms can be adapted to perform pattern recognition and pattern classification. Particularly, dimensionality reduction by a Kohonen feature map (KFM) can compress chaotic high-dimensional datasets into low-dimensional relevant information. Such information would be useful for developing effective training drills that should enhance self-organizing coordination among players. We conclude that ANN-based qualitative analysis is a promising approach to understand the dynamical attributes of association football players. PMID:22060175