Science.gov

Sample records for forcing parameters determination

  1. Evaluation of Three Methods for Determining EMG-Muscle Force Parameter Estimates for the Shoulder Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Christopher J.; Doro, Lisa Case; Langenderfer, Joseph E.; Mell, Amy G.; Maratt, Joseph D.; Carpenter, James E.; Hughes, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Accurate prediction of in vivo muscle forces is essential for relevant analyses of musculoskeletal biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three methods for predicting muscle forces of the shoulder by comparing calculated muscle parameters, which relate electromyographic activity to muscle forces. Methods Thirteen subjects performed sub-maximal, isometric contractions consisting of six actions about the shoulder and two actions about the elbow. Electromyography from 12 shoulder muscles and internal shoulder moments were used to determine muscle parameters using traditional multiple linear regression, principal-components regression, and a sequential muscle parameter determination process using principal-components regression. Muscle parameters were evaluated based on their sign (positive or negative), standard deviations, and error between the measured and predicted internal shoulder moments. Findings It was found that no method was superior with respect to all evaluation criteria. The sequential principal-components regression method most frequently produced muscle parameters that could be used to estimate muscle forces, multiple regression best predicted the measured internal shoulder moments, and the results of principal-components regression fell between those of sequential principal-components regression and multiple regression. Interpretation The selection of a muscle parameter estimation method should be based on the importance of the evaluation criteria. Sequential principal-components regression should be used if a greater number of physiologically accurate muscle forces are desired, while multiple regression should be used for a more accurate prediction of measured internal shoulder moments. However, all methods produced muscle parameters which can be used to predict in vivo muscle forces of the shoulder. PMID:17945401

  2. Compaction and Tensile Forces Determine the Accuracy of Folding Landscape Parameters from Single Molecule Pulling Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Greg; Hyeon, Changbong; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2011-04-01

    We establish a framework for assessing whether the transition state location of a biopolymer, which can be inferred from single molecule pulling experiments, corresponds to the ensemble of structures that have equal probability of reaching either the folded or unfolded states (Pfold=0.5). Using results for the forced unfolding of a RNA hairpin, an exactly soluble model, and an analytic theory, we show that Pfold is solely determined by s, an experimentally measurable molecular tensegrity parameter, which is a ratio of the tensile force and a compaction force that stabilizes the folded state. Applications to folding landscapes of DNA hairpins and a leucine zipper with two barriers provide a structural interpretation of single molecule experimental data. Our theory can be used to assess whether molecular extension is a good reaction coordinate using measured free energy profiles.

  3. Compaction and tensile forces determine the accuracy of folding landscape parameters from single molecule pulling experiments.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Greg; Hyeon, Changbong; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D

    2011-04-01

    We establish a framework for assessing whether the transition state location of a biopolymer, which can be inferred from single molecule pulling experiments, corresponds to the ensemble of structures that have equal probability of reaching either the folded or unfolded states (P(fold)=0.5). Using results for the forced unfolding of a RNA hairpin, an exactly soluble model, and an analytic theory, we show that P(fold) is solely determined by s, an experimentally measurable molecular tensegrity parameter, which is a ratio of the tensile force and a compaction force that stabilizes the folded state. Applications to folding landscapes of DNA hairpins and a leucine zipper with two barriers provide a structural interpretation of single molecule experimental data. Our theory can be used to assess whether molecular extension is a good reaction coordinate using measured free energy profiles. PMID:21517423

  4. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  5. Specific force field parameters determination for the hybrid ab initio QM/MM LSCF method.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Nicolas; Assfeld, Xavier; Rivail, Jean-Louis

    2002-04-30

    The pure quantum mechanics method, called Local Self-Consistent Field (LSCF), that allows to optimize a wave function within the constraint that some predefined spinorbitals are kept frozen, is discussed. These spinorbitals can be of any shape, and their occupation numbers can be 0 or 1. Any post-Hartree-Fock method, based on the restricted or unrestricted Hartree-Fock Slater determinant, and Kohn-Sham-based DFT method are available. The LSCF method is easily applied to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) procedure where the quantum and the classical parts are covalently bonded. The complete methodology of our hybrid QM/MM scheme is detailed for studies of macromolecular systems. Not only the energy but also the gradients are derived; thus, the full geometry optimization of the whole system is feasible. We show that only specific force field parameters are needed for a correct description of the molecule, they are given for some general chemical bonds. A careful analysis of the errors induced by the use of molecular mechanics in hybrid computation show that a general procedure can be derived to obtain accurate results at low computation effort. The methodology is applied to the structure determination of the crambin protein and to Menshutkin reactions between primary amines and chloromethane. PMID:11939595

  6. Partial hessian fitting for determining force constant parameters in molecular mechanics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixing; Ozhgibesov, Mikhail; Hirao, Hajime

    2016-10-01

    We present a new protocol for deriving force constant parameters that are used in molecular mechanics (MM) force fields to describe the bond-stretching, angle-bending, and dihedral terms. A 3 × 3 partial matrix is chosen from the MM Hessian matrix in Cartesian coordinates according to a simple rule and made as close as possible to the corresponding partial Hessian matrix computed using quantum mechanics (QM). This partial Hessian fitting (PHF) is done analytically and thus rapidly in a least-squares sense, yielding force constant parameters as the output. We herein apply this approach to derive force constant parameters for the AMBER-type energy expression. Test calculations on several different molecules show good performance of the PHF parameter sets in terms of how well they can reproduce QM-calculated frequencies. When soft bonds are involved in the target molecule as in the case of secondary building units of metal-organic frameworks, the MM-optimized geometry sometimes deviates significantly from the QM-optimized one. We show that this problem is rectified effectively by use of a simple procedure called Katachi that modifies the equilibrium bond distances and angles in bond-stretching and angle-bending terms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27497261

  7. Nonconservative force model parameter estimation strategy for TOPEX/Poseidon precision orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Marshall, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft was launched on August 10, 1992 to study the Earth's oceans. To achieve maximum benefit from the altimetric data it is to collect, mission requirements dictate that TOPEX/Poseidon's orbit must be computed at an unprecedented level of accuracy. To reach our pre-launch radial orbit accuracy goals, the mismodeling of the radiative nonconservative forces of solar radiation, Earth albedo an infrared re-radiation, and spacecraft thermal imbalances cannot produce in combination more than a 6 cm rms error over a 10 day period. Similarly, the 10-day drag modeling error cannot exceed 3 cm rms. In order to satisfy these requirements, a 'box-wing' representation of the satellite has been developed in which, the satellite is modelled as the combination of flat plates arranged in the shape of a box and a connected solar array. The radiative/thermal nonconservative forces acting on each of the eight surfaces are computed independently, yielding vector accelerations which are summed to compute the total aggregate effect on the satellite center-of-mass. Select parameters associated with the flat plates are adjusted to obtain a better representation of the satellite acceleration history. This study analyzes the estimation of these parameters from simulated TOPEX/Poseidon laser data in the presence of both nonconservative and gravity model errors. A 'best choice' of estimated parameters is derived and the ability to meet mission requirements with the 'box-wing' model evaluated.

  8. Force-Field Parameter Fitter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-05-27

    ParFit is a flexible and extendable framework and library of classes for fitting force-field parameters to data from high-level ab-initio calculations on the basis of deterministic and stochastic algorithms. Currently, the code is fitting MM3 and Merck force-field parameters but could easily extend to other force-field types.

  9. Determination of forced convection parameters by interferometric imaging of the concentration field during growth of KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sunil; Muralidhar, K.

    2011-07-01

    Growth of a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal from its aqueous solution has been considered under forced convection conditions. The KDP crystal is grown in a conventional top hanging geometry. Forced convection conditions are created by rotating the crystal about a vertical axis. The rotational RPM is varied in a cycle, creating an accelerated rotation (AR) paradigm. The effect of varying the rotational RPM on the concentration field around the crystal was investigated. Mach-Zehnder interferometry was adopted as an optical technique to image the evolving concentration fields. Six different experiments were performed to obtain the specific set of time periods and rotation rates of the acceleration cycle that result in a uniform concentration field around the growing crystal. The Reynolds number, an index of the strength of forced convection, was optimized through the experiments. The optimized parameters of the accelerated rotation cycle were found to be as follows: maximum rotation rate of 32 RPM, spin up period=40 s, spin down period=40 s, steady period=40 s, and stationary period=40 s. The parametric study further revealed that concentration was highly sensitive to the maximum rotation rate adopted during the AR cycle. It did not depend crucially on the time periods that could be varied by as much as ±25% around the respective average values. Finally, a KDP crystal was grown using the optimized forced convection parameters and the crystal quality was found to be good.

  10. The role of impulse parameters in force variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, L. G.; Newell, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    One of the principle limitations of the human motor system is the ability to produce consistent motor responses. When asked to repeatedly make the same movement, performance outcomes are characterized by a considerable amount of variability. This occurs whether variability is expressed in terms of kinetics or kinematics. Variability in performance is of considerable importance because for tasks requiring accuracy it is a critical variable in determining the skill of the performer. What has long been sought is a description of the parameter or parameters that determine the degree of variability. Two general experimental protocals were used. One protocal is to use dynamic actions and record variability in kinematic parameters such as spatial or temporal error. A second strategy was to use isometric actions and record kinetic variables such as peak force produced. What might be the important force related factors affecting variability is examined and an experimental approach to examine the influence of each of these variables is provided.

  11. Force-field parameters for beryllium complexes in amorphous layers.

    PubMed

    Emelyanova, Svetlana; Chashchikhin, Vladimir; Bagaturyants, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Unknown force-field parameters for metal organic beryllium complexes used in emitting and electron transporting layers of OLED structures are determined. These parameters can be used for the predictive atomistic simulations of the structure and properties of amorphous organic layers containing beryllium complexes. The parameters are found for the AMBER force field using a relaxed scan procedure and quantum-mechanical DFT calculations of potential energy curves for specific internal (angular) coordinates in a series of three Be complexes (Bebq2; Be(4-mpp)2; Bepp2). The obtained parameters are verified in calculations of some molecular and crystal structures available from either quantum-mechanical DFT calculations or experimental data. Graphical Abstract Beryllium complexes in amorphous layersᅟ. PMID:27550375

  12. Searching the Force Field Electrostatic Multipole Parameter Space.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Sofie; Jensen, Frank

    2016-04-12

    We show by tensor decomposition analyses that the molecular electrostatic potential for amino acid peptide models has an effective rank less than twice the number of atoms. This rank indicates the number of parameters that can be derived from the electrostatic potential in a statistically significant way. Using this as a guideline, we investigate different strategies for deriving a reduced set of atomic charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles capable of reproducing the reference electrostatic potential with a low error. A full combinatorial search of selected parameter subspaces for N-methylacetamide and a cysteine peptide model indicates that there are many different parameter sets capable of providing errors close to that of the global minimum. Among the different reduced multipole parameter sets that have low errors, there is consensus that atoms involved in π-bonding require higher order multipole moments. The possible correlation between multipole parameters is investigated by exhaustive searches of combinations of up to four parameters distributed in all possible ways on all possible atomic sites. These analyses show that there is no advantage in considering combinations of multipoles compared to a simple approach where the importance of each multipole moment is evaluated sequentially. When combined with possible weighting factors related to the computational efficiency of each type of multipole moment, this may provide a systematic strategy for determining a computational efficient representation of the electrostatic component in force field calculations. PMID:26925529

  13. CORRELATION OF AIRWAY RESISTANCE WITH FORCED RANDOM NOISE RESISTANCE PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The correlation between airway resistance (RAW) measured in a plethysmograph and three respiratory resistance parameters measured by forced random noise was evaluated. Forced random noise resistance parameters were the average resistance between 5 and 9 Hz (R5-9), the average res...

  14. Mathematical models use varying parameter strategies to represent paralyzed muscle force properties: a sensitivity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Frey Law, Laura A; Shields, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    Background Mathematical muscle models may be useful for the determination of appropriate musculoskeletal stresses that will safely maintain the integrity of muscle and bone following spinal cord injury. Several models have been proposed to represent paralyzed muscle, but there have not been any systematic comparisons of modelling approaches to better understand the relationships between model parameters and muscle contractile properties. This sensitivity analysis of simulated muscle forces using three currently available mathematical models provides insight into the differences in modelling strategies as well as any direct parameter associations with simulated muscle force properties. Methods Three mathematical muscle models were compared: a traditional linear model with 3 parameters and two contemporary nonlinear models each with 6 parameters. Simulated muscle forces were calculated for two stimulation patterns (constant frequency and initial doublet trains) at three frequencies (5, 10, and 20 Hz). A sensitivity analysis of each model was performed by altering a single parameter through a range of 8 values, while the remaining parameters were kept at baseline values. Specific simulated force characteristics were determined for each stimulation pattern and each parameter increment. Significant parameter influences for each simulated force property were determined using ANOVA and Tukey's follow-up tests (α ≤ 0.05), and compared to previously reported parameter definitions. Results Each of the 3 linear model's parameters most clearly influence either simulated force magnitude or speed properties, consistent with previous parameter definitions. The nonlinear models' parameters displayed greater redundancy between force magnitude and speed properties. Further, previous parameter definitions for one of the nonlinear models were consistently supported, while the other was only partially supported by this analysis. Conclusion These three mathematical models use

  15. Cell Forces and Cytoskeletal Order Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    Nematic, Smectic and Isotropic Order parameters have found wide-spread use in characterizing all manner of soft matter systems, but have not yet been applied to characterize and understand the structures within living cells, particularly cytoskeletal structures. Several examples will be used to illustrate the utility of such analyses, ranging from experiments on stem cells attached to or in various elastic matrices to embryonic heart tissue and simulations of membrane cytoskeletons under all manner of stressing. Recently developed theory will be shown to apply in general with account of cell contractility, matrix elasticity and dimensionality as well as cell shape and a newly defined ``cytoskeletal polarizability.'' The latter property of cells is likely different between different cell types due to different amounts of key cytoskeletal components with some types of stem cells being more polarizable than others. Evidence of coupling to the nucleus as a viscoelastic inclusion will also be presented. [4pt] References: (1) P. Dalhaimer, D.E. Discher, T. Lubensky. Crosslinked actin networks exhibit liquid crystal elastomer behavior, including soft-mode elasticity. Nature Physics 3: 354-360 (2007). (2) A. Zemel, F.Rehfeldt, A.E.X. Brown, D.E. Discher, and S.A. Safran. Optimal matrix rigidity in the self-polarization of stem cells. Nature Physics 6: 468 - 473 (2010).

  16. Force field parameter estimation of functional perfluoropolyether lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert; Seung Chung, Pil; Steckel, Janice A.; Jhon, Myung S.; Biegler, Lorenz T.

    2011-01-01

    The head disk interface in hard disk drive can be considered one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models .In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab-initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for the Zdol and Ztetraol were evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  17. Force Field Parameter Estimation of Functional Perfluoropolyether Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chung, P.S.; Steckel, J; Jhon, M.S.; Biegler, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    The head disk interface in hard disk drive can be considered one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models .In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab-initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for the Zdol and Ztetraol were evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  18. Force Field Parameter Estimation of Functional Perfluoropolyether Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chung, P.S.; Steckel, J; Jhon, M.S.; Biegler, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    The head disk interface in a hard disk drive can be considered to be one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models. In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for Zdol and Ztetraol were evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  19. Force Field Parameter Estimation of Functional Perfluoropolyether Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R; Chung, P S; Steckel, J A; Jhon, M S; Biegler, L T

    2011-01-01

    The head disk interface in hard disk drive can be considered one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models .In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab-initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for the Zdol and Ztetraolwere evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  20. Zero initial partial derivatives of satellite orbits with respect to force parameters nullify the mathematical basis of the numerical integration method for the determination of standard gravity models from space geodetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peiliang

    2015-04-01

    Satellite orbits have been routinely used to produce models of the Earth's gravity field. The numerical integration method is most widely used by almost all major institutions to determine standard gravity models from space geodetic measurements. As a basic component of the method, the partial derivatives of a satellite orbit with respect to the force parameters to be determined, namely, the unknown harmonic coefficients of the gravitational model, have been first computed by setting the initial values of partial derivatives to zero. In this talk, we first design some simple mathematical examples to show that setting the initial values of partial derivatives to zero is generally erroneous mathematically. We then prove that it is prohibited physically. In other words, setting the initial values of partial derivatives to zero violates the physics of motion of celestial bodies. To conclude, the numerical integration method, as is widely used today by major institutions to produce standard satellite gravity models, is simply incorrect mathematically. As a direct consequence, further work is required to confirm whether the numerical integration method can still be used as a mathematical foundation to produce standard satellite gravity models. More details can be found in Xu (2009, Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 52, 562-566).

  1. Brute force meets Bruno force in parameter optimisation: introduction of novel constraints for parameter accuracy improvement by symbolic computation.

    PubMed

    Nakatsui, M; Horimoto, K; Lemaire, F; Ürgüplü, A; Sedoglavic, A; Boulier, F

    2011-09-01

    Recent remarkable advances in computer performance have enabled us to estimate parameter values by the huge power of numerical computation, the so-called 'Brute force', resulting in the high-speed simultaneous estimation of a large number of parameter values. However, these advancements have not been fully utilised to improve the accuracy of parameter estimation. Here the authors review a novel method for parameter estimation using symbolic computation power, 'Bruno force', named after Bruno Buchberger, who found the Gröbner base. In the method, the objective functions combining the symbolic computation techniques are formulated. First, the authors utilise a symbolic computation technique, differential elimination, which symbolically reduces an equivalent system of differential equations to a system in a given model. Second, since its equivalent system is frequently composed of large equations, the system is further simplified by another symbolic computation. The performance of the authors' method for parameter accuracy improvement is illustrated by two representative models in biology, a simple cascade model and a negative feedback model in comparison with the previous numerical methods. Finally, the limits and extensions of the authors' method are discussed, in terms of the possible power of 'Bruno force' for the development of a new horizon in parameter estimation. PMID:22010755

  2. Identification of vehicle parameters and estimation of vertical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imine, H.; Fridman, L.; Madani, T.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate the vertical forces and to identify the unknown dynamic parameters of a vehicle using the sliding mode observers approach. The estimation of vertical forces needs a good knowledge of dynamic parameters such as damping coefficient, spring stiffness and unsprung masses, etc. In this paper, suspension stiffness and unsprung masses have been identified by the Least Square Method. Real-time tests have been carried out on an instrumented static vehicle, excited vertically by hydraulic jacks. The vehicle is equipped with different sensors in order to measure its dynamics. The measurements coming from these sensors have been considered as unknown inputs of the system. However, only the roll angle and the suspension deflection measurements have been used in order to perform the observer. Experimental results are presented and discussed to show the quality of the proposed approach.

  3. Effect of velocity and added resistance on selected coordination and force parameters in front crawl.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Brazier, Tim; Button, Chris; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier

    2011-10-01

    The effect of (a) increasing velocity and (b) added resistance was examined on the stroke (stroke length, stroke rate [SR]), coordination (index of coordination [IdC], propulsive phases), and force (impulse and peaks) parameters of 7 national-level front crawl swimmers (17.14 ± 2.73 years of swimming; 57.67 ± 1.62 seconds in the 100-m freestyle). The additional resistance was provided by a specially designed parachute. Parachute swimming (PA) and free-swimming (F) conditions were compared at 5 velocities per condition. Video footage was used to calculate the stroke and coordination parameters, and sensors allowed the determination of force parameters. The results showed that (a) an increase in velocity (V) led to increases in SR, IdC, propulsive phase duration, and peak propulsive force (p < 0.05), but no significant change in force impulse per cycle, whatever the condition (PA or F); and (b) in PA conditions, significant increases in the IdC, propulsive phase duration, and force impulse and a decrease in SR were recorded at high velocities (p < 0.05). These results indicated that, in the F condition, swimmers adapted to the change in velocity by modifying stroke and coordination rather than force parameters, whereas the PA condition enhanced the continuity of propulsive action and force development. Added resistance, that is, "parachute training," can be used for specific strength training purposes as long as swimming is performed near maximum velocity. PMID:21912344

  4. Force Field Independent Metal Parameters Using a Nonbonded Dummy Model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The cationic dummy atom approach provides a powerful nonbonded description for a range of alkaline-earth and transition-metal centers, capturing both structural and electrostatic effects. In this work we refine existing literature parameters for octahedrally coordinated Mn2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, as well as providing new parameters for Ni2+, Co2+, and Fe2+. In all the cases, we are able to reproduce both M2+–O distances and experimental solvation free energies, which has not been achieved to date for transition metals using any other model. The parameters have also been tested using two different water models and show consistent performance. Therefore, our parameters are easily transferable to any force field that describes nonbonded interactions using Coulomb and Lennard-Jones potentials. Finally, we demonstrate the stability of our parameters in both the human and Escherichia coli variants of the enzyme glyoxalase I as showcase systems, as both enzymes are active with a range of transition metals. The parameters presented in this work provide a valuable resource for the molecular simulation community, as they extend the range of metal ions that can be studied using classical approaches, while also providing a starting point for subsequent parametrization of new metal centers. PMID:24670003

  5. Force field independent metal parameters using a nonbonded dummy model.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Fernanda; Bauer, Paul; Barrozo, Alexandre; Amrein, Beat Anton; Purg, Miha; Aqvist, Johan; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2014-04-24

    The cationic dummy atom approach provides a powerful nonbonded description for a range of alkaline-earth and transition-metal centers, capturing both structural and electrostatic effects. In this work we refine existing literature parameters for octahedrally coordinated Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), as well as providing new parameters for Ni(2+), Co(2+), and Fe(2+). In all the cases, we are able to reproduce both M(2+)-O distances and experimental solvation free energies, which has not been achieved to date for transition metals using any other model. The parameters have also been tested using two different water models and show consistent performance. Therefore, our parameters are easily transferable to any force field that describes nonbonded interactions using Coulomb and Lennard-Jones potentials. Finally, we demonstrate the stability of our parameters in both the human and Escherichia coli variants of the enzyme glyoxalase I as showcase systems, as both enzymes are active with a range of transition metals. The parameters presented in this work provide a valuable resource for the molecular simulation community, as they extend the range of metal ions that can be studied using classical approaches, while also providing a starting point for subsequent parametrization of new metal centers. PMID:24670003

  6. Integral data analysis for resonance parameters determination

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.

    1997-09-01

    Neutron time-of-flight experiments have long been used to determine resonance parameters. Those resonance parameters have then been used in calculations of integral quantities such as Maxwellian averages or resonance integrals, and results of those calculations in turn have been used as a criterion for acceptability of the resonance analysis. However, the calculations were inadequate because covariances on the parameter values were not included in the calculations. In this report an effort to correct for that deficiency is documented: (1) the R-matrix analysis code SAMMY has been modified to include integral quantities of importance, (2) directly within the resonance parameter analysis, and (3) to determine the best fit to both differential (microscopic) and integral (macroscopic) data simultaneously. This modification was implemented because it is expected to have an impact on the intermediate-energy range that is important for criticality safety applications.

  7. A preliminary study of using a strain-gauged balance and parameter estimation techniques for the determination of aerodynamic forces on a model in a very short duration wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. P.; Feik, R. A.

    1983-12-01

    This memo presents a preliminary study of a proposed method of measuring the aerodynamic forces on a supported model in an intermittent very short duration wind tunnel with a relatively high airflow dynamic pressure (of the orders of 200 microsec and 1/3 atmosphere respectively). A semiconductor strain gauged cantilever beam balance is used to record strain time histories associated with model displacement in response to aerodynamic force. The practical feasibility of obtaining sufficiently resolvable strains for the prescribed tunnel conditions with the given strain gauge configuration is established. The proposed method uses a system identification procedure to determine the system dynamic response characteristics using a known calibration force input. Subsequently, aerodynamic forces during a tunnel run follow from the recorded strain gauge time histories. The procedure has been demonstrated successfully using simulated data. However, the experimental situation did not lead to a successful analysis in the way proposed. Reasons for this are discussed and recommendations made for improvements. A brief series of shots in the ANU free piston shock tunnel also highlights the need to isolate as much as possible the model/balance from external vibrations.

  8. Direct computation of parameters for accurate polarizable force fields

    SciTech Connect

    Verstraelen, Toon Vandenbrande, Steven; Ayers, Paul W.

    2014-11-21

    We present an improved electronic linear response model to incorporate polarization and charge-transfer effects in polarizable force fields. This model is a generalization of the Atom-Condensed Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (DFT), approximated to second order (ACKS2): it can now be defined with any underlying variational theory (next to KS-DFT) and it can include atomic multipoles and off-center basis functions. Parameters in this model are computed efficiently as expectation values of an electronic wavefunction, obviating the need for their calibration, regularization, and manual tuning. In the limit of a complete density and potential basis set in the ACKS2 model, the linear response properties of the underlying theory for a given molecular geometry are reproduced exactly. A numerical validation with a test set of 110 molecules shows that very accurate models can already be obtained with fluctuating charges and dipoles. These features greatly facilitate the development of polarizable force fields.

  9. Development of force field parameters for molecular simulation of polylactide

    PubMed Central

    McAliley, James H.; Bruce, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Polylactide is a biodegradable polymer that is widely used for biomedical applications, and it is a replacement for some petroleum based polymers in applications that range from packaging to carpeting. Efforts to characterize and further enhance polylactide based systems using molecular simulations have to this point been hindered by the lack of accurate atomistic models for the polymer. Thus, we present force field parameters specifically suited for molecular modeling of PLA. The model, which we refer to as PLAFF3, is based on a combination of the OPLS and CHARMM force fields, with modifications to bonded and nonbonded parameters. Dihedral angle parameters were adjusted to reproduce DFT data using newly developed CMAP dihedral cross terms, and the model was further adjusted to reproduce experimentally resolved crystal structure conformations, melt density, volume expansivity, and the glass transition temperature of PLA. We recommend the use of PLAFF3 in modeling PLA in its crystalline or amorphous states and have provided the necessary input files required for the publicly available molecular dynamics code GROMACS. PMID:22180734

  10. Determination of range parameters of observation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareła, J.; Kastek, M.; Firmanty, K.; Trzaskawka, P.; Dulski, R.; Kucharz, J.

    2012-10-01

    Range parameters of observation devices can be determined on the basis of numerical simulations (NVTherm) or on the basis of measured characteristics. Those measurements can be conducted in both laboratory and field conditions. It is, however, difficult to carry on reliable field measurements of range parameters because they are strongly depended on atmospheric conditions. Thus the laboratory measurements are more favorable option. Analysis of literature and catalogue specifications reveal, that range parameters are given mainly on the basis of Johnson criteria or TTP model. The Johnson criteria has been used since the 50s and most of catalogue range specifications are determined according to it. There are also NATO standards, which describe the measurement procedures and methodology required to define the detection, recognition and identification ranges for standard NATO targets. For the determination of range parameters the following device characteristics must be known: minimal resolvable temperature for thermal imaging devices and minimal resolvable contrast for VIS devices. The TTP model offers a new approach to the determination of range characteristics of observation devices. It has been developed by U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate since the year 2000. It was created because the modified Johnson criteria did not yield reliable results in case of modern systems with digital image processing. In order to determine the range parameters using TTP model, the modulation transfer function MTF, presample MTF function, and 3D noise of a tested system must be known as well as its basic design data as optical magnification and display type. The paper describes the measurement stand, measurement methodology and the procedure for the determination of range parameters. The results for thermal and VIS cameras are also presented, and they are analyzed and compared with the results obtained from current methods, including the measurement

  11. Influence of atmospheric forcing parameters on land surface simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, H. P.; Mandal, M.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of atmospheric forcing plays important role on land surface simulation using decoupled land surface modeling system. In the present study, the influence of the various atmospheric forcing parameters on land surface simulation is assessed through sensitivity experiments. Numerical experiments are conducted towards preparation of land surface analysis for the period Jan-2011 - Dec-2013 using offline 2D-Noah land surface model (LSM) based land data assimilation system (LDAS) over Indian region (5 - 39N, 60 - 100E) hereafter referred as LDASI. The surface temperature, specific humidity, horizontal winds and pressure as atmospheric forcing parameters are derived from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The downward (solar and thermal) radiation and precipitation is obtained from European Centre for Medium Range Forecast (ECMWF) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) respectively. The sensitivity experiments are conducted by introducing perturbation in one atmospheric forcing parameter at a time keeping the other parameters unchanged. Influence of temperature, specific humidity, downward (shortwave and long wave) radiation, rain-rate and wind speed is investigated by conducted 13 numerical experiments. It is observed that the land surface analysis from LDASI is most sensitive to the downward longwave radiation and least sensitive to wind speed. The analysis is also substantially influenced by the surface air temperature. The annual mean soil moisture at 5 cm is decreased by 12-15% if the downward long-wave radiation is increased by 20% and it is increased by 15% if the downward long-wave radiation is decreased by 20%. The influence is even more in the Himalayan region but the increase in long-wave radiation leads to increase in soil moisture and similar influence on decrease because downward long-wave radiation leads glacier melting. The annual mean soil temperature in the analysis is increased by 2.2 K if surface

  12. Determining Spacecraft Reaction Wheel Friction Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarani, Siamak

    2009-01-01

    Software was developed to characterize the drag in each of the Cassini spacecraft's Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs) to determine the RWA friction parameters. This tool measures the drag torque of RWAs for not only the high spin rates (greater than 250 RPM), but also the low spin rates (less than 250 RPM) where there is a lack of an elastohydrodynamic boundary layer in the bearings. RWA rate and drag torque profiles as functions of time are collected via telemetry once every 4 seconds and once every 8 seconds, respectively. Intermediate processing steps single-out the coast-down regions. A nonlinear model for the drag torque as a function of RWA spin rate is incorporated in order to characterize the low spin rate regime. The tool then uses a nonlinear parameter optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method to determine the viscous coefficient, the Dahl friction, and the two parameters that account for the low spin-rate behavior.

  13. Stellar Parameter Determination Using Bayesian Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanayake, Gemunu B.; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions of stars covering the wavelength range from far UV to far IR can be used to derive stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity and iron abundance) with a high reliability. For this purpose we are using a method based on Bayesian statistics, which make use of all available photometric data for a given star to construct stellar parameter probability distribution function (PDF) in order to determine the expectation values and their uncertainties in stellar parameters. The marginalized probabilities allow us to characterize the constraint for each parameter and estimate the influence of the quantity and quality of the photometric data on the resulting parameter values. We have obtained low resolution spectroscopy of blue horizontal branch, blue straggler and normal main sequence A, B, G and F stellar parameter standard stars using the McDonald observatory, 2.1m telescope to constrain both synthetic and empirical stellar libraries like Atlas9, MARCS, MILES and Pickles across a wide range in parameter space. This calibration process helps to evaluate the correlations between different stellar libraries and observed data especially in the UV part of the spectrum. When the calibration is complete the Bayesian analysis can be applied to large samples of data from GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS,WISE etc. We expect significant improvements to luminosity classification, distances and interstellar extinction using this technique.

  14. Determining wave direction using curvature parameters.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Eduardo Vitarelli; de Carvalho, João Luiz Baptista

    2016-01-01

    The curvature of the sea wave was tested as a parameter for estimating wave direction in the search for better results in estimates of wave direction in shallow waters, where waves of different sizes, frequencies and directions intersect and it is difficult to characterize. We used numerical simulations of the sea surface to determine wave direction calculated from the curvature of the waves. Using 1000 numerical simulations, the statistical variability of the wave direction was determined. The results showed good performance by the curvature parameter for estimating wave direction. Accuracy in the estimates was improved by including wave slope parameters in addition to curvature. The results indicate that the curvature is a promising technique to estimate wave directions.•In this study, the accuracy and precision of curvature parameters to measure wave direction are analyzed using a model simulation that generates 1000 wave records with directional resolution.•The model allows the simultaneous simulation of time-series wave properties such as sea surface elevation, slope and curvature and they were used to analyze the variability of estimated directions.•The simultaneous acquisition of slope and curvature parameters can contribute to estimates wave direction, thus increasing accuracy and precision of results. PMID:27408830

  15. Determination of kinetic parameters for biomass combustion.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, A; Pizarro, C; García, R; Bueno, J L; Lavín, A G

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a wide database of kinetic data for the most common biomass by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Due to the characteristic parameters of DTG curves, a two-stage reaction model is proposed and the kinetic parameters obtained from model-based methods with energy activation values for first and second stages in the range 1.75·10(4)-1.55·10(5)J/mol and 1.62·10(4)-2.37·10(5)J/mol, respectively. However, it has been found that Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose model-free methods are not suitable to determine the kinetic parameters of biomass combustion since the assumptions of these two methods were not accomplished in the full range of the combustion process. PMID:27233095

  16. Modeling radiation forces acting on satellites for precision orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Antreasian, P. G.; Rosborough, G. W.; Putney, B. H.

    1992-01-01

    Models of the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft are developed by means of finite-element analyses for use in generating acceleration histories for various orbit orientations which account for nonconservative radiation forces. The acceleration profiles are developed with an analysis based on the use of the 'box-wing' model in which the satellite is modeled as a combination of flat plates. The models account for the effects of solar, earth-albedo, earth-IR, and spacecraft-thermal radiation. The finite-element analysis gives the total force and induced accelerations acting on the satellite. The plate types used in the analysis have parameters that can be adjusted to optimize model performance according to the micromodel analysis and tracking observations. Acceleration related to solar radiation pressure is modeled effectively, and the techniques are shown to be useful for the precise orbit determinations required for spacecraft such as the TOPEX/Poseidon.

  17. Estimation of Transition-Metal Empirical Parameters for Molecular Mechanical Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Šebesta, Filip; Sláma, Vladislav; Melcr, Josef; Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2016-08-01

    Force-field parameters of the first row transition metals together with a few additional common elements such as those from the second (Rh, Ru) and third (Hg, Pt) rows of elements in ligated forms were determined based on the density functional theory calculations. Bonding characteristics were determined by averaging metal-ligand force constants in optimal geometries from several chosen complexes of each metal in the most common oxidation numbers and structural arrangements. Parameters of Lennard-Jones potential were determined based on a supermolecular model. Our determined molecular mechanical parameters are compared with presently available parameters published by other groups. We performed two different kinds of testing in order to demonstrate the reliability of these parameters in the case of ligated metallo complexes. First, the nonbonding potential was constructed for an additional set of 19 larger systems containing common complexes with organic molecules. The second test compares the Pt-O and Pt-H radial distribution functions for cisplatin in a box of TIP3P water with lately published studies. PMID:27337427

  18. Determining the Tsallis parameter via maximum entropy.

    PubMed

    Conroy, J M; Miller, H G

    2015-05-01

    The nonextensive entropic measure proposed by Tsallis [C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)] introduces a parameter, q, which is not defined but rather must be determined. The value of q is typically determined from a piece of data and then fixed over the range of interest. On the other hand, from a phenomenological viewpoint, there are instances in which q cannot be treated as a constant. We present two distinct approaches for determining q depending on the form of the equations of constraint for the particular system. In the first case the equations of constraint for the operator Ô can be written as Tr(F(q)Ô)=C, where C may be an explicit function of the distribution function F. We show that in this case one can solve an equivalent maxent problem which yields q as a function of the corresponding Lagrange multiplier. As an illustration the exact solution of the static generalized Fokker-Planck equation (GFPE) is obtained from maxent with the Tsallis enropy. As in the case where C is a constant, if q is treated as a variable within the maxent framework the entropic measure is maximized trivially for all values of q. Therefore q must be determined from existing data. In the second case an additional equation of constraint exists which cannot be brought into the above form. In this case the additional equation of constraint may be used to determine the fixed value of q. PMID:26066124

  19. Automation of the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF) II: assignment of bonded parameters and partial atomic charges.

    PubMed

    Vanommeslaeghe, K; Raman, E Prabhu; MacKerell, A D

    2012-12-21

    Molecular mechanics force fields are widely used in computer-aided drug design for the study of drug candidates interacting with biological systems. In these simulations, the biological part is typically represented by a specialized biomolecular force field, while the drug is represented by a matching general (organic) force field. In order to apply these general force fields to an arbitrary drug-like molecule, functionality for assignment of atom types, parameters, and partial atomic charges is required. In the present article, algorithms for the assignment of parameters and charges for the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF) are presented. These algorithms rely on the existing parameters and charges that were determined as part of the parametrization of the force field. Bonded parameters are assigned based on the similarity between the atom types that define said parameters, while charges are determined using an extended bond-charge increment scheme. Charge increments were optimized to reproduce the charges on model compounds that were part of the parametrization of the force field. A "penalty score" is returned for every bonded parameter and charge, allowing the user to quickly and conveniently assess the quality of the force field representation of different parts of the compound of interest. Case studies are presented to clarify the functioning of the algorithms and the significance of their output data. PMID:23145473

  20. Parameters Determination of Oscillatory Impulse Current Waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shuji; Nishimura, Seisuke; Seki, Shingo

    This paper proposes numerical techniques to distil waveform parameters out of digitally measured data of oscillatory impulse current. The first method, to be used for liner circuit, based on a curve-fitting technique in which a smooth analytical curve is defined to fit the noise-superposed measured data. The waveform parameters are derived from the curve. The algorithm is examined its performance using a measured waveform data which is obtained from a circuit composed of linear elements only. It is not rare when impulse current is measured in a circuit with non-linear element, namely an arrester. After carefully observed behaviours of the circuit current when the non-linear element turns on and off, authors developed two algorithms capable to determine the parameters from the recorded data obtained from a circuit having a ZnO arrester. The developed algorithm processed the waveform data generated by TDG which is to be issued in 2009 as a part of IEC 61083-2. The details of the algorithm are to be demonstrated in the paper.

  1. Gravity and Tide Parameters Determined from Satellite and Spacecraft Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Robert A.

    2015-05-01

    As part of our work on the development of the Jovian and Saturnian satellite ephemerides to support the Juno and Cassini missions, we determined a number of planetary system gravity parameters. This work did not take into account tidal forces. In fact, we saw no obvious observational evidence of tidal effects on the satellite or spacecraft orbits. However, Lainey et al. (2009 Nature 459, 957) and Lainey et. al (2012 Astrophys. J. 752, 14) have published investigations of tidal effects in the Jovian and Saturnian systems, respectively. Consequently, we have begun a re-examination of our ephemeris work that includes a model for tides raised on the planet by the satellites as well as tides raised on the satellites by the planet. In this paper we briefly review the observations used in our ephemeris production; they include astrometry from the late 1800s to 2014, mutual events, eclipses, occultatons, and data acquired by the Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Cassini, Galileo, and New Horizons spacecraft. We summarize the gravity parameter values found from our original analyses. Next we discuss our tidal acceleration model and its impact on the gravity parameter determination. We conclude with preliminary results found when the reprocessing of the observations includes tidal forces acting on the satellites and spacecraft.

  2. Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

    2014-04-01

    This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task. PMID:24702682

  3. Determining Supersymmetric Parameters With Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-07-01

    In this article, we explore the ability of direct and indirect dark matter experiments to not only detect neutralino dark matter, but to constrain and measure the parameters of supersymmetry. In particular, we explore the relationship between the phenomenological quantities relevant to dark matter experiments, such as the neutralino annihilation and elastic scattering cross sections, and the underlying characteristics of the supersymmetric model, such as the values of {mu} (and the composition of the lightest neutralino), m{sub A} and tan {beta}. We explore a broad range of supersymmetric models and then focus on a smaller set of benchmark models. We find that by combining astrophysical observations with collider measurements, {mu} can often be constrained far more tightly than it can be from LHC data alone. In models in the A-funnel region of parameter space, we find that dark matter experiments can potentially determine m{sub A} to roughly {+-}100 GeV, even when heavy neutral MSSM Higgs bosons (A, H{sub 1}) cannot be observed at the LHC. The information provided by astrophysical experiments is often highly complementary to the information most easily ascertained at colliders.

  4. The use of impact force as a scale parameter for the impact response of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The building block approach is currently used to design composite structures. With this approach, the data from coupon tests are scaled up to determine the design of a structure. Current standard impact tests and methods of relating test data to other structures are not generally understood and are often used improperly. A methodology is outlined for using impact force as a scale parameter for delamination damage for impacts of simple plates. Dynamic analyses were used to define ranges of plate parameters and impact parameters where quasi-static analyses are valid. These ranges include most low-velocity impacts where the mass of the impacter is large, and the size of the specimen is small. For large-mass impacts of moderately thick (0.35-0.70 cm) laminates, the maximum extent of delamination damage increased with increasing impact force and decreasing specimen thickness. For large-mass impact tests at a given kinetic energy, impact force and hence delamination size depends on specimen size, specimen thickness, boundary conditions, and indenter size and shape. If damage is reported in terms of impact force instead of kinetic energy, large-mass test results can be applied directly to other plates of the same thickness.

  5. The use of impact force as a scale parameter for the impact response of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The building block approach is currently used to design composite structures. With this approach, the data from coupon tests is scaled up to determine the design of a structure. Current standard impact tests and methods of relating test data to other structures are not generally understood and are often used improperly. A methodology is outlined for using impact force as a scale parameter for delamination damage for impacts of simple plates. Dynamic analyses were used to define ranges of plate parameters and impact parameters where quasi-static analyses are valid. These ranges include most low velocity impacts where the mass of the impacter is large and the size of the specimen is small. For large mass impacts of moderately thick (0.35 to 0.70 cm) laminates, the maximum extent of delamination damage increased with increasing impact force and decreasing specimen thickness. For large mass impact tests at a given kinetic energy, impact force and hence delamination size depends on specimen size, specimen thickness, boundary conditions, and indenter size and shape. If damage is reported in terms of impact force instead of kinetic energy, large mass test results can be applied directly to other plates of the same size.

  6. How Variability and Effort Determine Coordination at Large Forces

    PubMed Central

    Kolossiatis, Michalis; Charalambous, Themistoklis; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Motor control is a challenging task for the central nervous system, since it involves redundant degrees of freedom, nonlinear dynamics of actuators and limbs, as well as noise. When an action is carried out, which factors does your nervous system consider to determine the appropriate set of muscle forces between redundant degrees-of-freedom? Important factors determining motor output likely encompass effort and the resulting motor noise. However, the tasks used in many previous motor control studies could not identify these two factors uniquely, as signal-dependent noise monotonically increases as a function of the effort. To address this, a recent paper introduced a force control paradigm involving one finger in each hand that can disambiguate these two factors. It showed that the central nervous system considers both force noise and amplitude, with a larger weight on the absolute force and lower weights on both noise and normalized force. While these results are valid for the relatively low force range considered in that paper, the magnitude of the force shared between the fingers for large forces is not known. This paper investigates this question experimentally, and develops an appropriate Markov chain Monte Carlo method in order to estimate the weightings given to these factors. Our results demonstrate that the force sharing strongly depends on the force level required, so that for higher force levels the normalized force is considered as much as the absolute force, whereas the role of noise minimization becomes negligible. PMID:26934193

  7. How Variability and Effort Determine Coordination at Large Forces.

    PubMed

    Kolossiatis, Michalis; Charalambous, Themistoklis; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Motor control is a challenging task for the central nervous system, since it involves redundant degrees of freedom, nonlinear dynamics of actuators and limbs, as well as noise. When an action is carried out, which factors does your nervous system consider to determine the appropriate set of muscle forces between redundant degrees-of-freedom? Important factors determining motor output likely encompass effort and the resulting motor noise. However, the tasks used in many previous motor control studies could not identify these two factors uniquely, as signal-dependent noise monotonically increases as a function of the effort. To address this, a recent paper introduced a force control paradigm involving one finger in each hand that can disambiguate these two factors. It showed that the central nervous system considers both force noise and amplitude, with a larger weight on the absolute force and lower weights on both noise and normalized force. While these results are valid for the relatively low force range considered in that paper, the magnitude of the force shared between the fingers for large forces is not known. This paper investigates this question experimentally, and develops an appropriate Markov chain Monte Carlo method in order to estimate the weightings given to these factors. Our results demonstrate that the force sharing strongly depends on the force level required, so that for higher force levels the normalized force is considered as much as the absolute force, whereas the role of noise minimization becomes negligible. PMID:26934193

  8. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  9. SPADES: a Stellar PArameters DEtermination Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posbic, H.; Katz, D.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Sbordone, L.; Gomez, A.; Arenou, F.

    2011-12-01

    With the large amounts of spectroscopic data available today and the very large surveys to come (e.g. Gaia), the need for automatic data analysis software is unquestionable. We thus developed an automatic spectra analysis program for the determination of stellar parameters: radial velocity, effective temperature, surface gravity, micro-turbulence, metallicity and the elemental abundances of the elements present in the spectral range. Target stars for this software should include all types of stars. The analysis method relies on a line by line comparison of the spectrum of a target star to a library of synthetic spectra. The idea is built on the experience acquired in developing the TGMET (Katz et al. 1998, Soubiran et al. 2003), ETOILE (Katz 2001) and Abbo (Bonifacio & Caffau 2003) software.The method is presented and the performances are illustrated with GIRAFFE-like simulated spectra with high resolution (R = 25000), with high and low signal to noise ratios (down to SNR = 30). These spectra should be close to what could be targeted by the Gaia-ESO Survey (GCDS).

  10. Extracting intrinsic dynamic parameters of biomolecular folding from single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Nam, Gi-Moon; Makarov, Dmitrii E

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule studies in which a mechanical force is transmitted to the molecule of interest and the molecular extension or position is monitored as a function of time are versatile tools for probing the dynamics of protein folding, stepping of molecular motors, and other biomolecular processes involving activated barrier crossing. One complication in interpreting such studies, however, is the fact that the typical size of a force probe (e.g., a dielectric bead in optical tweezers or the atomic force microscope tip/cantilever assembly) is much larger than the molecule itself, and so the observed molecular motion is affected by the hydrodynamic drag on the probe. This presents the experimenter with a nontrivial task of deconvolving the intrinsic molecular parameters, such as the intrinsic free energy barrier and the effective diffusion coefficient exhibited while crossing the barrier from the experimental signal. Here we focus on the dynamical aspect of this task and show how the intrinsic diffusion coefficient along the molecular reaction coordinate can be inferred from single-molecule measurements of the rates of biomolecular folding and unfolding. We show that the feasibility of accomplishing this task is strongly dependent on the relationship between the intrinsic molecular elasticity and that of the linker connecting the molecule to the force probe and identify the optimal range of instrumental parameters allowing determination of instrument-free molecular dynamics. PMID:26088347

  11. What Determines the Static Force Chains in Stressed Granular Media?

    PubMed

    Gendelman, Oleg; Pollack, Yoav G; Procaccia, Itamar; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Zylberg, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    The determination of the normal and transverse (frictional) interparticle forces within a granular medium is a long-standing, daunting, and yet unresolved problem. We present a new formalism that employs the knowledge of the external forces and the orientations of contacts between particles (of any given size), to compute all the interparticle forces. Having solved this problem, we exemplify the efficacy of the formalism showing that the force chains in such systems are determined by an expansion in the eigenfunctions of a newly defined operator. PMID:26943559

  12. Isoelectronic determination of the thermal Casimir force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimonte, G.; López, D.; Decca, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    Differential force measurements between spheres coated with either nickel or gold and rotating disks with periodic distributions of nickel and gold are reported. The rotating samples are covered by a thin layer of titanium and a layer of gold. While titanium is used for fabrication purposes, the gold layer (nominal thicknesses of 21, 37, 47, and 87 nm) provides an isoelectronic environment, and is used to nullify the electrostatic contribution but allow the passage of long wavelength Casimir photons. A direct comparison between the experimental results and predictions from Drude and plasma models for the electrical permittivity is carried out. In the models, the magnetic permeability of nickel is allowed to change to investigate its effects. Possible sources of errors, both in the experimental and theoretical sides, are taken into account. It is found that a Drude response with magnetic properties of nickel taken into account is unequivocally ruled out. The full analysis of the data indicates that a dielectric plasma response with the magnetic properties of Ni included shows good agreement with the data. Neither a Drude nor a plasma dielectric response provide a satisfactory description if the magnetic properties of nickel are disregarded.

  13. Simulation-based Extraction of Key Material Parameters from Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsafi, Huseen; Peninngton, Gray

    Models for the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and sample interaction contain numerous material parameters that are often poorly known. This is especially true when dealing with novel material systems or when imaging samples that are exposed to complicated interactions with the local environment. In this work we use Monte Carlo methods to extract sample material parameters from the experimental AFM analysis of a test sample. The parameterized theoretical model that we use is based on the Virtual Environment for Dynamic AFM (VEDA) [1]. The extracted material parameters are then compared with the accepted values for our test sample. Using this procedure, we suggest a method that can be used to successfully determine unknown material properties in novel and complicated material systems. We acknowledge Fisher Endowment Grant support from the Jess and Mildred Fisher College of Science and Mathematics,Towson University.

  14. Determining camera parameters for round glassware measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldner, F. O.; Costa, P. B.; Gomes, J. F. S.; Filho, D. M. E. S.; Leta, F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there are many types of accessible cameras, including digital single lens reflex ones. Although these cameras are not usually employed in machine vision applications, they can be an interesting choice. However, these cameras have many available parameters to be chosen by the user and it may be difficult to select the best of these in order to acquire images with the needed metrological quality. This paper proposes a methodology to select a set of parameters that will supply a machine vision system with the needed quality image, considering the measurement required of a laboratory glassware.

  15. Micromechanical cohesion force measurements to determine cyclopentane hydrate interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Aman, Zachary M; Joshi, Sanjeev E; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2012-06-15

    Hydrate aggregation and deposition are critical factors in determining where and when hydrates may plug a deepwater flowline. We present the first direct measurement of structure II (cyclopentane) hydrate cohesive forces in the water, liquid hydrocarbon and gas bulk phases. For fully annealed hydrate particles, gas phase cohesive forces were approximately twice that obtained in a liquid hydrocarbon phase, and approximately six times that obtained in the water phase. Direct measurements show that hydrate cohesion force in a water-continuous bulk may be only the product of solid-solid cohesion. When excess water was present on the hydrate surface, gas phase cohesive forces increased by a factor of three, suggesting the importance of the liquid or quasi-liquid layer (QLL) in determining cohesive force. Hydrate-steel adhesion force measurements show that, when the steel surface is coated with hydrophobic wax, forces decrease up to 96%. As the micromechanical force technique is uniquely capable of measuring hydrate-surface forces with variable contact time, the present work contains significant implications for hydrate applications in flow assurance. PMID:22484169

  16. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Wittorski, Antoine; Losos, Jonathan B; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males. PMID:26471984

  17. Automated determination of volume phase hologram parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert D.; Stanley, James H.

    2015-03-01

    Commercially available ray tracing programs by themselves are not adequate for modelling optical systems with holographic gratings. In this paper, we describe a suite of tools that we have developed specifically for working with volume phase holograms. One tool measures the diffraction efficiency of a grating with respect to angle and position. Our automated measurement process is described. The measured diffraction data is analyzed to extract key grating parameters; such as, grating thickness and index modulation. The theoretical basis for this analysis is described. The extracted grating parameters can be used to ray trace expected performance for comparison with direct measurements. Such a methodology has allowed us to develop modelling capabilities that can be confidently used to compare design options and guide development activities. In our environment, data is collected and grating parameters are extracted using LabView; ray tracing is performed using Zemax. The concepts, however, are quite general. An example of measuring a grating recorded in a photopolymer and extracting its grating parameters is given. Results are compared to published datasheet specifications.

  18. Experimental determination of terahertz atmospheric absorption parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slocum, David M.; Goyette, Thomas M.; Giles, Robert H.; Nixon, William E.

    2015-05-01

    The terahertz frequency regime is often used as the `chemical fingerprint' region of the electromagnetic spectrum since many molecules exhibit a dense selection of rotational and vibrational transitions. Water is a major component of the atmosphere and since it has a large dipole moment the propagation of terahertz radiation will be dominated by atmospheric effects. This study will present the results of high-­-resolution broadband measurements of the terahertz atmospheric absorption and detail the technique for directly measuring the pressure broadening coefficients, absolute absorption coefficients, line positions, and continuum effects. Differences between these measured parameters and those tabulated in HITRAN will be discussed. Once the water vapor absorption was characterized, the same technique was used to measure the line parameters for methanol, a trace gas of interest within Earth's atmosphere. Methanol has a dense absorption spectrum in the terahertz frequency region and is an important molecule in fields such as environmental monitoring, security, and astrophysics. The data obtained in the present study will be of immediate use for the remote sensing community, as it is uncommon to measure this many independent parameters as well as to measure the absolute absorption of the transitions. Current models rely on tabulated databases of calculated values for the line parameters measured in this study. Differences between the measured data and those in the databases will be highlighted and discussed.

  19. External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

    2004-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

  20. Determining electrochemical parameters with dual electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1981-01-01

    Use of the two-electrode method for determining corrosion rates and Tafel constants is described. The method involves polarization resistance measurements, as well as polarization data further from the corrosion potential. Combined treatment of these data enables the determination of Tafel constants and corrosion rates. It is also shown that values for corrosion potentials can be obtained with good accuracy when exchange current densities of anodic and cathodic reactions are known. This method overcomes some of the earlier drawbacks of the two-electrode technique, such as the need for separate, three-electrode Tafel constant determinations.

  1. The Friction Force Determination of Large-Sized Composite Rods in Pultrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, S. N.; Krasnovskii, A. N.; Kazakov, I. A.

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays, the simple pull-force models of pultrusion process are not suitable for large sized rods because they are not considered a chemical shrinkage and thermal expansion acting in cured material inside the die. But the pulling force of the resin-impregnated fibers as they travels through the heated die is essential factor in the pultrusion process. In order to minimize the number of trial-and-error experiments a new mathematical approach to determine the frictional force is presented. The governing equations of the model are stated in general terms and various simplifications are implemented in order to obtain solutions without extensive numerical efforts. The influence of different pultrusion parameters on the frictional force value is investigated. The results obtained by the model can establish a foundation by which process control parameters are selected to achieve an appropriate pull-force and can be used for optimization pultrusion process.

  2. DETERMINATION OF TANGENTIAL AND NORMAL COMPONENTS OF ORAL FORCES

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las; de Almeida, André França; Cimini, Carlos Alberto; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Cornacchia, Tulimar Pereira Machado; Saffar, Jorge Milton Elian

    2007-01-01

    Oral forces applied to human teeth during biting and mastication are normally described in the literature only in terms of their axial components. The purpose of this study was to fully determine the spatial characteristics of the oral resultant force – its normal and tangential components - for a given individual. A load cell was especially manufactured to measure oral force and was temporarily implanted as a prosthetic device in the dental arch of a volunteer, replacing his missing upper first molar. The mastication and occlusion tests were carried out in such a way the cell should withstand the loads applied to the molar, and its state of strain was recorded by strain gauges attached to it. Based on the results of these tests and using balance equations, normal and tangential components of the resultant oral force were determined. For direct occlusion, without interposition any obstacle between cusps, a peak normal force of 135 N was recorded simultaneously to a tangential force of 44 N. For mastication of biscuits, a peak normal force of 133 N and a tangential force of 39 N were obtained. PMID:19089104

  3. Using explicit macroscopic feedback to determine efficacy of climate forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, B.; MacMartin, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    Calculating efficacies of climate forcings has been a useful method of determining the importance of forcing agents relative to CO2. However, because the strength of internal feedbacks is dependent upon the climate state, efficacies are dependent upon the strengths of the applied forcings, and simulations designed to capture these efficacies have tradeoffs between simulation length and accurately capturing the steady state climate response. We propose an alternate method of determining a quantity similar to climate efficacy via adjusting the amount of forcing by feeding back the observed climate state. By balancing CO2 forcing with another climate forcing, many internal feedbacks are suppressed, which linearizes the climate response to the forcing and promotes rapid convergence of the simulation. We performed simulations in two fully coupled general circulation models of Earth's climate. Doubling the present day CO2 concentration requires a steady state solar reduction of approximately 2.5%; this answer can be obtained with a simulation of less than 30 years. With this method, the amount of solar reduction scales linearly with the logarithmic change in CO2 concentration. We explore similar calculations using other climate forcings. Because this method circumvents calculation of radiative forcing, intercomparison of values between different climate forcings is difficult and is a drawback of our method as compared to the original method of calculating efficacy. Feedback can be used to estimate the efficacy of solar reductions in models. The solar reduction that is required to maintain temperature in the presence of an instantaneous change in atmospheric CO2 concentrations is computed using feedback. The left-hand panel illustrates both the solar forcing as a function of time for offsetting 2×CO2, and the efficacy estimated as the mean solar reduction after the initial transient; extremely rapid convergence is obtained. The right-hand panel illustrates the linearity

  4. Comet brightness parameters: Definition, determination, and correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meisel, D. D.; Morris, C. S.

    1976-01-01

    The power-law definition of comet brightness is reviewed and possible systematic influences are discussed that can affect the derivation of m sub o and n values from visual magnitude estimates. A rationale for the Bobrovnikoff aperture correction method is given and it is demonstrated that the Beyer extrafocal method leads to large systematic effects which if uncorrected by an instrumental relationship result in values significantly higher than those derived according to the Bobrovnikoff guidelines. A series of visual brightness parameter sets are presented which have been reduced to the same photometric system. Recommendations are given to insure that future observations are reduced to the same system.

  5. a Method for Determining the Impact Force in Crash Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Y.; Isobe, D.; Saito, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Miki, Y.

    2000-11-01

    A method for measuring the impact force in crash testing is developed. In this method, a mass is made to collide with the object being tested and the instantaneous value of the impact force is measured as the inertial force acting on the mass. To realise linear motion with sufficiently small friction acting on the mass, a pneumatic linear bearing is used, and the velocity and acceleration of the mass, the moving part of the bearing, are measured using an optical interferometer. The relative combined standard uncertainty in determining the impact force in a three-point bending test is estimated to be 0.5×10 -2(0.5%) of the maximum value of the impact force.

  6. Determination of dose distributions and parameter sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Farris, W.T.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 005) examined the contributions of numerous parameters to the uncertainty distribution of doses calculated for environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow's milk and the third scoping study, which added additional pathways. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1 as described in Calculation 001.

  7. The necessity of physiological muscle parameters for computing the muscle forces: application to lower extremity loading during pedalling.

    PubMed

    Cadová, Michala; Vilímek, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine how the use of physiological parameters of muscles is important. This work is focused on musculoskeletal loading analysis during pedalling adopting two approaches: without (1) and with (2) the use of physiological parameters of muscles. The static-optimization approach together with the inverse dynamics problem makes it possible to obtain forces in individual muscles of the lower extremity. Input kinematics variables were examined in a cycling experiment. The significant difference in the resultant forces in one-joint and two-joint muscles using the two different approaches was observed. PMID:20131752

  8. An improved method for determining force balance calibration accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    The results of an improved statistical method used at Langley Research Center for determining and stating the accuracy of a force balance calibration are presented. The application of the method for initial loads, initial load determination, auxiliary loads, primary loads, and proof loads is described. The data analysis is briefly addressed.

  9. Effect of hinge-moment parameters on elevator stick forces in rapid maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.; Greenberg, H.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the stick force per unit normal acceleration as a criterion of longitudinal stability and the critical dependence of this gradient on elevator hinge moment parameters are investigated with special reference to transient effects for maneuvers of short duration. The analysis shows that different combinations of elevator parameters, which give the same stick force per unit acceleration in turns, give widely different force variations during the entries into and recoveries from steady turns and during maneuvers of short duration such as abrupt pull-ups. The stick force per unit acceleration is greater for abrupt than for gradual control movements.

  10. Experimental Determination of the Multiplicity Deadtime Parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Menaa, N.; Croft, S.; Kane, S.C.; Philips, S.; Villani, M.; Evans, L.G.

    2008-07-01

    Definition, extraction, and application of dead-time parameters, in correlated neutron counting, are long standing, thorny issues. Traditionally, dead-time corrections have been estimated on the assumption of a simple paralyzing model, arising from the action of the discriminator in the charged amplifiers connected to the {sup 3}He proportional counters, using a fixed dead-time. Various schemes exist to apply the paralysable model to the multiplicity shift register histogram data. In principle, several methods could be used to estimate the dead-time parameter. The approach which is most widely applied involves measuring a series of Cf-252 sources spanning a wide dynamic range of counting rates. Ratios between the Singles, Doubles and Triples rates which ought to be independent of fissile mass are extracted. The dead-time is chosen so as to achieve the best independence in the ratios, characteristic of the fissioning system, over the counting range. These measurements can be quite laborious to conduct; require a set of Cf-252 sources matched in construction and isotopic composition; require long counts to achieve the requisite precision and involve a good deal of numerical analysis to interpret. In this work we present a simpler scheme which produces comparable values in a way that is easier to implement. In essence we place a near random neutron source, such as may be realized using Am/Li {alpha}-n sources, in the cavity and record the multiplicity histograms as one would for an assay. The variance to mean-squared is narrower than for a random counting experiment, however, as a result of the dead-time losses. A simple formula exists allowing the deadtime to be extracted from this measurement. In this paper, we present results for the traditional approach, the proposed approach and also a variation based on adjusting the total event rate by adding Am/Li sources to a single Cf-252 source fixed in position for the case of a pair of Passive Scrap Multiplicity Counters

  11. Kohlrausch Parameter Determination for Simple Chain Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, John; Dotson, Taylor; Heffernan, Julieanne; Dotson, Keenan; Budzien, Joanne; Adolf, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    The second Legendre polynomials of the end-to-end vector of freely jointed and freely rotating chains were extracted from molecular dynamics simulations and analyzed in terms of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function. Of particular interest is the variation of the stretching exponent, β, as a function of state point and, consequently, of the detailed compliance with time-temperature superposition. A new analysis methodology is introduced that permits the determination of β at the needed level of precision. Detailed time-temperature superposition does not hold for freely-jointed or freely-rotating chain liquids. Indications of a breakdown in time-temperature superposition are also found in violations of Stokes-Einstein and Debye-Stokes-Einstein behavior.

  12. [A computer-controlled flexing test for determining the elastic parameters of highly flexible orthodontic wires].

    PubMed

    Plietsch, R; Bourauel, C; Drescher, D; Nellen, B

    1994-04-01

    Metals are the most commonly used materials in the construction of orthodontic appliances designed for the correction of malocclusions. Knowledge of the force systems at work is a prerequisite for judging the functionality of these appliances. The elasticity parameters (Young's E-moduli, strain limits) of the alloys employed can be drawn upon to calculate numerically forces and torsional moments. Both tensile tests and bending experiments are used to determine the E-moduli and strain limits of standard steel and highly flexible NiTi wires frequently used in orthodontics. However, parameters obtained by tensile tests are less suited for studying the mechanical properties of orthodontic appliances. Since bending deformation prevails, bending experiments should be preferred method for ascertaining the relevant parameters. This study, therefore, presents a new experimental method for testing the bend ability of highly flexible materials and the determination of the underlying material parameters. A comparison of calculated force systems with direct measurements revealed that bending parameters lead to an appropriate description of forces and moments generated during clinical treatment, whereas calculations based on tensile test parameters differ substantially. The bending test proposed here is, thus, a suitable means for dependably predicting the force systems produced by an orthodontic appliance and the test therefore can contribute to an accurate design of new types of therapeutic devices. PMID:8194813

  13. Determination of electroweak parameters at the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Torrence, E.

    1996-09-01

    We present an improved measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A{sub LR}) for Z{sup 0} boson production by e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy of 91.28 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) during the 1994-95 running period. The luminosity-weighted average polarization of the SLC electron beam during this run was measured to be (77.23 {+-} 0.52)%. Using a sample of 93,644 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays, we measure the pole asymmetry A{sub LR}{sup 0} to be 0.1512 {+-} 0.0042(stat.) {+-} 0.0011(syst.) which is equivalent to an effective weak mixing angle of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.23100 {+-} 0.00054(stat.) {+-} 0.00014(syst.). We also present a preliminary direct measurement of the Z{sup 0}-lepton coupling asymmetries A{sub e}, A{sub {mu}}, and A{sub {tau}} extracted from the differential cross section observed in leptonic Z{sup 0} decays. We combine these results with our previous A{sub LR} measurement to obtain a combined determination of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.23061 {+-} 0.00047.

  14. Determination of characteristic parameters of human postural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johansson, R; Magnusson, M

    1989-01-01

    Posture control performance was quantified in three variables (swiftness, stiffness, damping). Subjects were tested with a force platform recording body sway induced by vibrators attached to the calf muscles. Parameter estimation was made with identification of a transfer function representing the stabilized inverted pendulum. It is conjectured that the state feedback parameters identified are suitable for use in assessing ability to maintain posture. PMID:2635507

  15. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P.

    2006-01-15

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  16. Determination of variable atom parameters in ionic crystals by electrostatic calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fujino, T.; Morss, L.R.

    1987-03-01

    An electrostatic method to determine variable atom parameters in ionic crystals with experimentally determined unit cell parameters and space group is proposed. The atom parameters are usually chosen to give the maximum Madelung constant. However, when these atom parameters generate interatomic distances at least one of which is less than a critical distance, which comes from repulsion between atoms, the atom parameters corresponding to that distance are assigned. Applicability was examined for three cases: TiO/sub 2/ (rutile), UCl/sub 3/, and ..beta..-Rb/sub 2/GeF/sub 6/. Agreement between the atom parameters of this method and of literature was good. Some discussion is presented on the basis of this method. In ionic crystals, the atoms with variable parameters are set first using the geometrical arrangement which is the most stable in an electrostatic sense, and then real distances are fixed under the interaction of repulsive forces. 34 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Paramfit: automated optimization of force field parameters for molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Betz, Robin M; Walker, Ross C

    2015-01-15

    The generation of bond, angle, and torsion parameters for classical molecular dynamics force fields typically requires fitting parameters such that classical properties such as energies and gradients match precalculated quantum data for structures that scan the value of interest. We present a program, Paramfit, distributed as part of the AmberTools software package that automates and extends this fitting process, allowing for simplified parameter generation for applications ranging from single molecules to entire force fields. Paramfit implements a novel combination of a genetic and simplex algorithm to find the optimal set of parameters that replicate either quantum energy or force data. The program allows for the derivation of multiple parameters simultaneously using significantly fewer quantum calculations than previous methods, and can also fit parameters across multiple molecules with applications to force field development. Paramfit has been applied successfully to systems with a sparse number of structures, and has already proven crucial in the development of the Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement Lipid14 force field. PMID:25413259

  18. Experimental and analytical determination of stability parameters for a balloon tethered in a wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, L. T.; Bennett, R. M.; Bland, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and analytical techniques for determining stability parameters for a balloon tethered in a steady wind are described. These techniques are applied to a particular 7.64-meter-long balloon, and the results are presented. The stability parameters of interest appear as coefficients in linearized stability equations and are derived from the various forces and moments acting on the balloon. In several cases the results from the experimental and analytical techniques are compared and suggestions are given as to which techniques are the most practical means of determining values for the stability parameters.

  19. Parameters for the AMBER force field for the molecular mechanics modeling of the cobalt corrinoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, H. M.; Ngoma, B.; Egan, T. J.; Brown, K. L.

    2001-04-01

    Additional parameters for the AMBER force field have been developed for the molecular mechanics modeling of the cobalt corrinoids. Parameter development was based on a statistical analysis of the reported structures of these compounds. The resulting force field reproduces bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles within 0.01 Å, 0.8°, and 4.0° of the mean crystallographic values, respectively. Parameters for the Co-C bond length and the Co-C-C bond angle for modeling the alkylcobalamins were developed by modeling six alkylcobalamins. The validity of the force field was tested by comparing the results obtained with known experimental features of the structures of the cobalt corrinoids as well as with the results from their modeling using a parameter set for the MM2 force field that has been previously developed and extensively tested. The AMBER force field reproduces the structures of the cobalt corrinoids as well as the MM2 force field, although it tends to underestimate the corrin fold angle, the angle between mean planes through the corrin atoms in the northern and southern half of the molecules, respectively. The force field was applied to a study of the structures of 5'-deoxy-5'-(3-isoadenosyl)cobalamin, 2',5'-dideoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamin and 2',3',5'-trideoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamin. This expansion of the standard AMBER force field provides a force field that can be used for modeling the structures of the B 12-dependent proteins, the structures of some of which are now beginning to emerge. This was verified in a preliminary modeling of the coenzyme B 12 binding site of methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase.

  20. Close intramolecular sulfur-oxygen contacts: modified force field parameters for improved conformation generation.

    PubMed

    Lupyan, Dmitry; Abramov, Yuriy A; Sherman, Woody

    2012-11-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) offers an excellent data source to study small molecule conformations and molecular interactions. We have analyzed 130 small molecules from the CSD containing an intramolecular sulfur-oxygen distance less than the sum of their van der Waals (vdW) radii. Close S···O distances are observed in several important medicinal chemistry motifs (e.g. a carbonyl oxygen connected by a carbon or nitrogen linker to a sulfur) and are not treated well with existing parameters in the MMFFs or OPLS_2005 force fields, resulting in suboptimal geometries and energetics. In this work, we develop modified parameters for the OPLS_2005 force field to better treat this specific interaction in order to generate conformations close to those found in the CSD structures. We use a combination of refitting a force field torsional parameter, adding a specific atom pair vdW term, and attenuating the electrostatic interactions to obtain an improvement in the accuracy of geometry minimizations and conformational searches for these molecules. Specifically, in a conformational search 58 % of the cases produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å from the CSD crystal conformation with the modified OPLS force field parameters developed in this work. In contrast, 25 and 37 % produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å with the MMFFs and OPLS_2005 force fields, respectively. As an application of the new parameters, we generated conformations for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib (trade name Inlyta) that could be correctly repacked into three observed polymorphic structures, which was not possible with conformations generated using MMFFs or OPLS_2005. The improved parameters can be mapped directly onto physical characteristics of the systems that are treated inadequately with the molecular mechanics force fields used in this study and potentially other force fields as well. PMID:23053737

  1. VFFDT: A New Software for Preparing AMBER Force Field Parameters for Metal-Containing Molecular Systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Suqing; Tang, Qing; He, Jian; Du, Shiyu; Xu, Shaofang; Wang, Chaojie; Xu, Yong; Lin, Fu

    2016-04-25

    Force fields are fundamental to molecular dynamics simulations. However, the incompleteness of force field parameters has been a long-standing problem, especially for metal-related systems. In our previous work, we adopted the Seminario method based on the Hessian matrix to systematically derive the zinc-related force field parameters for AMBER. In this work, in order to further simplify the whole protocol, we have implemented a user-friendly Visual Force Field Derivation Toolkit (VFFDT) to derive the force field parameters via simply clicking on the bond or angle in the 3D viewer, and we have further extended our previous program to support the Hessian matrix output from a variety of quantum mechanics (QM) packages, including Gaussian 03/09, ORCA 3.0, QChem, GAMESS-US, and MOPAC 2009/2012. In this toolkit, a universal VFFDT XYZ file format containing the raw Hessian matrix is available for all of the QM packages, and an instant force field parametrization protocol based on a semiempirical quantum mechanics (SQM) method is introduced. The new function that can automatically obtain the relevant parameters for zinc, copper, iron, etc., which can be exported in AMBER Frcmod format, has been added. Furthermore, our VFFDT program can read and write files in AMBER Prepc, AMBER Frcmod, and AMBER Mol2 format and can also be used to customize, view, copy, and paste the force field parameters in the context of the 3D viewer, which provides utilities complementary to ANTECHAMBER, MCPB, and MCPB.py in the AmberTools. PMID:26998926

  2. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  3. Real-time transverse force sensing using fiber Bragg grating through direct Stokes parameters measurement.

    PubMed

    Su, Yang; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Baofu; Zhou, Hua

    2015-12-14

    Characteristics of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) transverse force sensor based on Stokes parameters are presented. Real-time force measurement is achieved through direct measurement of the Stokes parameters at single wavelength. A proportional relationship and linear fit are found between Stokes parameters and applied force. The sensitivity and dynamic range dependence on the state of polarization (SOP) of the incident light is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A maximum sensitivity of 0.037/N is experimentally achieved and it can be improved further by adjusting the incident SOP. This design significantly reduces system complexity and improves data processing speed, which has great practical value in real-time FBG sensing applications. PMID:26699020

  4. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  5. Determination of stellar parameters using binary system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blay, Georgina; Lovekin, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Stellar parameters can be constrained more tightly with binary systems than can typically be done with single stars. We used a freely available binary fitting code to determine the best fitting parameters of a collection of potential eclipsing binary systems observed with the Kepler satellite. These model fits constrain the mass ratio, radii ratio, surface brightness ratio, and the orbital inclination of both stars in the binary system. The frequencies of these pulsations can then be determined and used to constrain asteroseismic models.

  6. Effect of including torsional parameters for histidine-metal interactions in classical force fields for metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Mera-Adasme, Raúl; Sadeghian, Keyarash; Sundholm, Dage; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2014-11-20

    Classical force-field parameters of the metal site of metalloproteins usually comprise only the partial charges of the involved atoms, as well as the bond-stretching and bending parameters of the metal-ligand interactions. Although for certain metal ligands such as histidine residues, the torsional motions at the metal site play an important role for the dynamics of the protein, no such terms have been considered to be crucial in the parametrization of the force fields, and they have therefore been omitted in the parametrization. In this work, we have optimized AMBER-compatible force-field parameters for the reduced state of the metal site of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and assessed the effect of including torsional parameters for the histidine-metal interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of the obtained results, we recommend that torsion parameters of the metal site are included when processes at the metal site are investigated or when free-energy calculations are performed. As the torsion parameters mainly affect the structure of the metal site, other kinds of structural studies can be performed without considering the torsional parameters of the metal site. PMID:25410708

  7. Method and Apparatus for Determining Operational Parameters of Thermoelectric Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zybała, Rafał; Schmidt, Maksymilian; Kaszyca, Kamil; Ciupiński, Łukasz; Kruszewski, Mirosław J.; Pietrzak, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work was to construct and test an apparatus for characterization of high temperature thermoelectric modules to be used in thermoelectric generator (TEGs) applications. The idea of this apparatus is based on very precise measurements of heat fluxes passing through the thermoelectric (TE) module, at both its hot and cold sides. The electrical properties of the module, under different temperature and load conditions, were used to estimate efficiency of energy conversion based on electrical and thermal energy conservation analysis. The temperature of the cold side, T c, was stabilized by a precise circulating thermostat (≤0.1°C) in a temperature range from 5°C to 90°C. The amount of heat absorbed by a coolant flowing through the heat sink was measured by the calibrated and certified heat flow meter with an accuracy better than 1%. The temperature of the hot side, T h, was forced to assumed temperature (T max = 450°C) by an electric heater with known power (P h = 0-600 W) with ample thermal insulation. The electrical power was used in calculations. The TE module, heaters and cooling plate were placed in an adiabatic vacuum chamber. The load characteristics of the module were evaluated using an electronically controlled current source as a load. The apparatus may be used to determine the essential parameters of TE modules (open circuit voltage, U oc, short circuit current, I sc, internal electrical resistance, R int, thermal resistance, R th, power density, and efficiency, η, as a function of T c and T h ). Several commercially available TE modules based on Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 alloys were tested. The measurements confirmed that the constructed apparatus was highly accurate, stable and yielded reproducible results; therefore, it is a reliable tool for the development of thermoelectric generators.

  8. Silicone hydrogel contact lens surface analysis by atomic force microscopy: shape parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldez, M. J.; Garcia-Resua, C.; Lira, M.; Sánchez-Sellero, C.; Yebra-Pimentel, E.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Average roughness (Ra) is generally used to quantify roughness; however it makes no distinction between spikes and troughs. Shape parameters as kurtosis (Rku) and skewness (Rsk) serve to distinguish between two profiles with the same Ra. They have been reported in many biomedical fields, but they were no applied to contact lenses before. The aim of this study is to analyze surface properties of four silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CL) by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) evaluating Ra, Rku and Rsk. Methods: CL used in this study were disposable silicone hydrogel senofilcon A, comfilcon A, balafilcon A and lotrafilcon B. Unworn CL surfaces roughness and topography were measured by AFM (Veeco, multimode-nanoscope V) in tapping modeTM. Ra, Rku and Rsk for 25 and 196 μm2 areas were determined. Results: Surface topography and parameters showed different characteristics depending on the own nature of the contact lens (Ra/Rku/Rsk for 25 and 196 μm2 areas were: senofilcon A 3,33/3,74/0,74 and 3,76/18,16/1,75; comfilcon A: 1,56/31,09/2,93 and 2,76/45,82/3,60; balafilcon A: 2,01/33,62/-2,14 and 2,54/23,36/-1,96; lotrafilcon B: 26,97/4,11/-0,34 and 29,25/2,82/-0,23). In lotrafilcon B, with the highest Ra, Rku showed a lower degree of peakedness of its distribution. Negative Rsk value obtained for balafilcon A showed a clear predominance of valleys in this lens. Conclusions: Kku and Rsk are two statistical parameters useful to analyse CL surfaces, which complete information from Ra. Differences in values distribution and symmetry were observed between CL.

  9. Determination of motility forces on isolated chromosomes with laser tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Nima; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Bui, Ann A. M.; Rocha, Yesenia; Cruz, Gladys M.; Loke, Vince; Shi, Linda Z.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Berns, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative determination of the motility forces of chromosomes during cell division is fundamental to understanding a process that is universal among eukaryotic organisms. Using an optical tweezers system, isolated mammalian chromosomes were held in a 1064 nm laser trap. The minimum force required to move a single chromosome was determined to be ≈0.8–5 pN. The maximum transverse trapping efficiency of the isolated chromosomes was calculated as ≈0.01–0.02. These results confirm theoretical force calculations of ≈0.1–12 pN to move a chromosome on the mitotic or meiotic spindle. The verification of these results was carried out by calibration of the optical tweezers when trapping microspheres with a diameter of 4.5–15 µm in media with 1–7 cP viscosity. The results of the chromosome and microsphere trapping experiments agree with optical models developed to simulate trapping of cylindrical and spherical specimens. PMID:25359514

  10. Attitude determination and parameter estimation using vector observations - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for attitude determination based on Wahba's loss function are generalized to include the estimation of parameters other than the attitude, such as sensor biases. Optimization with respect to the attitude is carried out using the q-method, which does not require an a priori estimate of the attitude. Optimization with respect to the other parameters employs an iterative approach, which does require an a priori estimate of these parameters. Conventional state estimation methods require a priori estimates of both the parameters and the attitude, while the algorithm presented in this paper always computes the exact optimal attitude for given values of the parameters. Expressions for the covariance of the attitude and parameter estimates are derived.

  11. [Influence of changed gas media on acoustic parameters of human forced exhalation].

    PubMed

    D'iachenko, A I; Korenbaum, V I; Shulagin, Iu A; Osipova, A A; Mikhaĭlovskaia, A N; Popova, Iu A; Kir'ianova, E V; Kostiv, A E; Mokerova, E S; Shin, S N; Pochekutova, I A

    2012-01-01

    In previous study it was shown that duration of tracheal forced expiratory noises is promising to reveal negative changes of lung function after dive. The objective is a study of parameters of tracheal forced expiratory noises in changed gas media. The first experiment involved 25 volunteers (22-60 years), performed forced exhalation under normal pressure with air, oxygen-helium and oxygen-krypton mixtures. The second experiment in the chamber involved 6 volunteers (25-46 years), which performed forced exhalation with air under normal pressure (0.1 MPa), and under elevated pressure 0.263 MPa with air and oxygen-helium mixture. In the first experiment the direct linear dependence on gas density was found for forced expiratory noises common duration in the band of 200-2000 Hz and for its durations in narrow 200-Hz bands, excluding high frequency range 1400-2000 Hz. In the second experiment a significant reversed dependence of high frequency durations and spectral energies in 200-Hz bands (1600-2000 Hz) on adiabatic gas compressibility. Individual dynamics of common duration of tracheal forced expiratory noises under model dive of 16.3 m (0.263 MPa) is more then the diagnostic threshold of this parameter for lung function decrease, previously obtained for divers under normal pressure. PMID:22567842

  12. Analysis of kinematic data and determination of ground reaction force of foot in slow squat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu-Shu; Guo, Yuan; An, Mei-Wen; Chen, Wei-Yi

    2013-02-01

    In the present paper, the ground reaction force (GRF) acting on foot in slow squat was determined through a force measuring system, and at the same time, the kinematic data of human squat were obtained by analyzing the photographed image sequences. According to the height and body weight, six healthy volunteers were selected, three men in one group and the other three women in another group, and the fundamental parameters of subjects were recorded, including body weight, height and age, etc. Based on the anatomy characteristics, some markers were placed on the right side of joints. While the subject squatted at slow speed on the force platform, the ground reaction forces on the forefoot and heel for each foot were obtained through calibrated force platform. The analysis results show that the reaction force on heel is greater than that on forefoot, and double feet have nearly constant force. Moreover, from processing and analyzing the synchronously photographed image sequences in squat, the kinematic data of human squat were acquired, including mainly the curves of angle, angular velocity and angular acceleration varied with time for knee, hip and ankle joints in a sagittal plane. The obtained results can offer instructive reference for photographing and analyzing the movements of human bodies, diagnosing some diseases, and establishing in the future appropriate mathematical models for the human motion.

  13. Determination of femto Newton forces and fluid viscosity using optical tweezers: application to Leishmania amazonensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes B., Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; Pozzo, Liliana d. Y.; Marques, Gustavo P.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this research is to use the displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) as a force transducer in mechanical measurements in life sciences. To do this we compared the theoretical optical and hydrodynamic models with experimental data under a broad variation of parameters such as fluid viscosity, refractive index, drag velocity and wall proximities. The laser power was measured after the objective with an integration sphere because normal power meters do not provide an accurate measurement for beam with high numerical apertures. With this careful laser power determination the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under very different conditions shows an almost 45 degrees straight line. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces and vice-versa. With this calibration we observed the forces of polystyrene bead attached to the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. The force range is from 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons and these experiments shows that OT can be used for infection mechanism and chemotaxis studies in parasites. The other application was to use the optical force to measure viscosities of few microliters sample. Our result shows 5% accuracy measurements.

  14. Effect of hinge-moment parameters on elevator stick forces in rapid maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert T; Greenberg, Harry

    1944-01-01

    The importance of the stick force per unit normal acceleration as a criterion of longitudinal stability and the critical dependence of this gradient on elevator hinge-moment parameters have been shown in previous reports. The present report continues the investigation with special reference to transient effects for maneuvers of short duration.

  15. Coefficients of an analytical aerosol forcing equation determined with a Monte-Carlo radiation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Taufiq; Moosmüller, H.; Chung, Chul E.

    2015-10-01

    Simple analytical equations for global-average direct aerosol radiative forcing are useful to quickly estimate aerosol forcing changes as function of key atmosphere, surface and aerosol parameters. The surface and atmosphere parameters in these analytical equations are the globally uniform atmospheric transmittance and surface albedo, and have so far been estimated from simplified observations under untested assumptions. In the present study, we take the state-of-the-art analytical equation and write the aerosol forcing as a linear function of the single scattering albedo (SSA) and replace the average upscatter fraction with the asymmetry parameter (ASY). Then we determine the surface and atmosphere parameter values of this equation using the output from the global MACR (Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation) model, as well as testing the validity of the equation. The MACR model incorporated spatio-temporally varying observations for surface albedo, cloud optical depth, water vapor, stratosphere column ozone, etc., instead of assuming as in the analytical equation that the atmosphere and surface parameters are globally uniform, and should thus be viewed as providing realistic radiation simulations. The modified analytical equation needs globally uniform aerosol parameters that consist of AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth), SSA, and ASY. The MACR model is run here with the same globally uniform aerosol parameters. The MACR model is also run without cloud to test the cloud effect. In both cloudy and cloud-free runs, the equation fits in the model output well whether SSA or ASY varies. This means the equation is an excellent approximation for the atmospheric radiation. On the other hand, the determined parameter values are somewhat realistic for the cloud-free runs but unrealistic for the cloudy runs. The global atmospheric transmittance, one of the determined parameters, is found to be around 0.74 in case of the cloud-free conditions and around 1.03 with cloud. The surface

  16. Magellan spacecraft - Attitude determination, updates and gyro parameter calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, W. H.; Reddy, N. S.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed mathematical algorithm for onboard autonomous attitude determination and parameter calibration in the Magellan Venus-orbiting spacecraft has been developed, and its performance has been estimated. This algorithm uses a contamination reduction attitude profile and retractive star scan maneuvers to minimize the interparameter error contamination and to maximize the parameter observability. The details of the underlying theory and strategy are described, and an extensive performance analysis with worst-case parameter errors is reported which indicates that the in-flight attitude determination unit/parameter calibration (ADU/PC) algorithm will be able to meet all the different mission phase requirements with comfortable margins. The problem of nonexact mapping retrace due to uncertain performance of control authority is addressed, and its lack of impact on the system performance is demonstrated.

  17. Determination of photosynthetic parameters in two seawater-tolerant vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Nianwei; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Wenqian

    2016-03-01

    It is difficult to determine the photosynthetic parameters of non-flat leaves/green stems using photosynthetic instruments, due to the unusual morphology of both organs, especially for Suaeda salsa and Salicornia bigelovii as two seawater-tolerant vegetables. To solve the problem, we developed a simple, practical, and effective method to measure and calculate the photosynthetic parameters (such as P N, g s, E) based on unit fresh mass, instead of leaf area. The light/CO2/temperature response curves of the plants can also be measured by this method. This new method is more effective, stable, and reliable than conventional methods for plants with non-flat leaves. In addition, the relative notes on measurements and calculation of photosynthetic parameters were discussed in this paper. This method solves technical difficulties in photosynthetic parameter determination of the two seawater-tolerant vegetables and similar plants.

  18. Determining Stand Parameters from Uas-Based Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, V.; Serifoglu, C.; Gungor, O.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, forest management plans are produced by terrestrial surveying techniques for 10 or 20 year periods, which can be considered quite long to maintain the sustainability of forests. For a successful forest management plan, it is necessary to collect accurate information about the stand parameters and store them in dynamic and robust databases. The position, number, height and closure of trees are among the most important stand parameters required for a forest management plan. Determining the position of each single tree is challenging in such an area consisting of too many interlocking trees. Hence, in this study, an object-based tree detection methodology has been developed in MATLAB programming language to determine the position of each tree top in a highly closed area. The developed algorithm uses the Canopy Height Model (CHM), which is computed from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated by using the point cloud extracted from the images taken from a UAS (Unmanned Aerial System). The heights of trees have been determined by using the CHM. The closure of the trees has been determined with the written MATLAB script. The results show that the developed tree detection methodology detected more than 70% of the trees successfully. It can also be concluded that the stand parameters may be determined by using the UAS-based point clouds depending on the characteristics of the study area. In addition, determination of the stand parameters by using point clouds reduces the time needed to produce forest management plans.

  19. Heavy vehicle suspension parameters identification and estimation of vertical forces: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imine, H.; Madani, T.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate the vertical forces of heavy vehicle and identify the unknown dynamic parameters using sliding mode observer approach. This observation needs a good knowledge of dynamic parameters such as damping coefficient, spring stiffness, etc. In this paper, suspension stiffness and unsprung masses have been identified. Experimental results carried out on an instrumented tractor have been presented in order to show the quality of the state observation, parameters identification and force estimation. These estimation results are then compared to the measured one coming from the sensors installed in the tractor. Many scenarios have been tested. In this paper, the results coming from zigzag test have been shown and commented.

  20. A technique for determining thermal parameters using measured temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Dincer, I.; Dost, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a simple but accurate technique for determining thermal parameters during direct cooling of solid objects, in terms of the cooling coefficient, lag factor, thermal diffusivity, and heat transfer coefficient. Solid objects are assumed to be cooled in a fluid medium. In the modeling the objects are approximated to infinite slabs, infinite cylinders or spherical bodies. A one-dimensional unsteady-state heat transfer analysis is carried out under three different conditions: Bi < 0.01, 0.1 < Bi < 100, and Bi > 100. A technique is then developed for determining the thermal parameters during cooling of such objects. The developed technique is illustrated by examples using actual temperature measurements taken from the studies presented previously. Results show that the technique presented here is capable of determining the thermal parameters during such a cooling process accurately.

  1. The study of the role of the two-body force in determining level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Lin

    The study of the role of the two-body force in determining level densities explored the characteristics of the two-body force and their impact on nuclear level densities. Two different theoretical approaches, the statistical mechanical model and moment expansion method, were used for the determining the impact of the two-body force on level densities. Discrete levels in the lower excitation region were compiled to provide information about level density systematics. A shell model calculation for a number of light nuclei allowed a test of the input parameters including single particle energies and two-body matrix elements. Generally good agreement was found between the calculated and observed energies of low-lying states. A comparison of the results obtained with three widely used interactions for nuclei with mass numbers 18 and 20 allowed some insight into the two-body interaction and the possibilities for improving it. For the level density calculations twenty four nuclei with mass numbers between 20 and 41 were used. Both the values from tabulations of low-lying levels and the results from previous studies of level densities at 7 Mev and at 20 Mev were included. It was found that the parameters derived from the higher energy measurements gave poor results at energies below 5 Mev. The discrepancies appeared to be related to problems in determining one of the two parameters involved. Two approaches were used in an effort to improve the precision of this parameter. Both were reasonably successful. Calculations of the level of density using a super conducting model within a statistical mechanical framework and a full two-body interaction utilizing a moment method approach were completed. Both gave a reasonably good representation of the data. An examination of the significance of the analysis for future study of the two body force and of nuclear level densities is presented.

  2. Determination of Quantum Chemistry Based Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Aromatic Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations for model molecules can be used to parameterize force fields for molecular dynamics simulations of polymers. Emphasis in our research group is on using quantum chemistry-based force fields for molecular dynamics simulations of organic polymers in the melt and glassy states, but the methodology is applicable to simulations of small molecules, multicomponent systems and solutions. Special attention is paid to deriving reliable descriptions of the non-bonded and electrostatic interactions. Several procedures have been developed for deriving and calibrating these parameters. Our force fields for aromatic polyimide simulations will be described. In this application, the intermolecular interactions are the critical factor in determining many properties of the polymer (including its color).

  3. Parameter sensitivity analysis of nonlinear piezoelectric probe in tapping mode atomic force microscopy for measurement improvement

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, Rachael; Nima Mahmoodi, S.

    2014-02-21

    The equations of motion for a piezoelectric microcantilever are derived for a nonlinear contact force. The analytical expressions for natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained. Then, the method of multiple scales is used to analyze the analytical frequency response of the piezoelectric probe. The effects of nonlinear excitation force on the microcantilever beam's frequency and amplitude are analytically studied. The results show a frequency shift in the response resulting from the force nonlinearities. This frequency shift during contact mode is an important consideration in the modeling of AFM mechanics for generation of more accurate imaging. Also, a sensitivity analysis of the system parameters on the nonlinearity effect is performed. The results of a sensitivity analysis show that it is possible to choose parameters such that the frequency shift minimizes. Certain parameters such as tip radius, microcantilever beam dimensions, and modulus of elasticity have more influence on the nonlinearity of the system than other parameters. By changing only three parameters—tip radius, thickness, and modulus of elasticity of the microbeam—a more than 70% reduction in nonlinearity effect was achieved.

  4. Atmosphere models and the determination of stellar parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.

    2014-11-01

    We present the basic concepts necessary to build atmosphere models for any type of star. We then illustrate how atmosphere models can be used to determine stellar parameters. We focus on the effects of line-blanketing for hot stars, and on non-LTE and three dimensional effects for cool stars. We illustrate the impact of these effects on the determination of the ages of stars from the HR diagram.

  5. Iterative methods for determination of parameters of spectroscopic binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dworak, T. Z.

    The paper contains the description of iterative methods for determinations of geometric and physical parameters of spectroscopic binaries, especially for computation of orbit plane inclination i and radii of components, which cannot be determined from observations. These methods are based of some considerations given in the previous paper (Dworak 1975). The methods have been tested using data for eclipsing binaries, taken from the catalogues of Batten et al. (1978) and Koch et al. (1970).

  6. Automatic Determination of the Conic Coronal Mass Ejection Model Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulkkinen, A.; Oates, T.; Taktakishvili, A.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of the three-dimensional structure of solar transients using incomplete plane of sky data is a difficult problem whose solutions have potential for societal benefit in terms of space weather applications. In this paper transients are characterized in three dimensions by means of conic coronal mass ejection (CME) approximation. A novel method for the automatic determination of cone model parameters from observed halo CMEs is introduced. The method uses both standard image processing techniques to extract the CME mass from white-light coronagraph images and a novel inversion routine providing the final cone parameters. A bootstrap technique is used to provide model parameter distributions. When combined with heliospheric modeling, the cone model parameter distributions will provide direct means for ensemble predictions of transient propagation in the heliosphere. An initial validation of the automatic method is carried by comparison to manually determined cone model parameters. It is shown using 14 halo CME events that there is reasonable agreement, especially between the heliocentric locations of the cones derived with the two methods. It is argued that both the heliocentric locations and the opening half-angles of the automatically determined cones may be more realistic than those obtained from the manual analysis

  7. On the Accuracy of Atmospheric Parameter Determination in BAFGK Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.; Shulyak, D.

    2015-04-01

    During the past few years, many papers determining the atmospheric parameters in FGK stars appeared in the literature where the accuracy of effective temperatures is given as 20-40 K. For main sequence stars within the 5 000-13 000 K temperature range, we have performed a comparative analysis of the parameters derived from the spectra by using the SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy) package and those found in the literature. Our sample includes standard stars Sirius, Procyon, δ Eri, and the Sun. Combining different spectral regions in the fitting procedure, we investigated an effect different atomic species have on the derived atmospheric parameters. The temperature difference may exceed 100 K depending on the spectral regions used in the SME procedure. It is shown that the atmospheric parameters derived with the SME procedure which includes wings of hydrogen lines in fitting agrees better with the results derived by the other methods and tools across a large part of the main sequence. For three stars—π Cet, 21 Peg, and Procyon—the atmospheric parameters were also derived by fitting a calculated energy distribution to the observed one. We found a substantial difference in the parameters inferred from different sets and combinations of spectrophotometric observations. An intercomparison of our results and literature data shows that the average accuracy of effective temperature determination for cool stars and for the early B-stars is 70-85 K and 170-200 K, respectively.

  8. Frontal sinus parameters in computed tomography and sex determination.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Mitra; Bakhtavar, Khadijeh; Moarefdoost, Jhale; Kamali, Artin; Rafeifar, Shahram

    2016-03-01

    The frontal sinus is a sturdy part of the skull that is likely to be retrieved for forensic investigations. We evaluated frontal sinus parameters in paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) images for sex determination. The study was conducted on 200 normal paranasal sinus CT images of 100 men and 100 women of Persian origin. We categorized the studied population into three age groups of 20-34, 35-49 and ⩾ 50 years. The number of partial septa in the right frontal sinus and the maximum height and width were significantly different between the two sexes. The highest precision for sex determination was for the maximum height of the left frontal sinus (61.3%). In the 20-34 years age-group, height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly different between the two sexes and the height of the left sinus had the highest precision (60.8%). In the 35-49 years age-group, right anterior-posterior diameter had a sex determination precision of 52.3%. No frontal sinus parameter reached a statistically significant level for sex determination in the ⩾ 50 years age-group. The number of septa and scallopings were not useful in sex determination. Frontal sinus parameters did not have a high precision in sex determination among Persian adults. PMID:26980249

  9. Determination of Complex Microcalorimeter Parameters with Impedance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saab, T.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lindeman, M. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J.

    2005-01-01

    The proper understanding and modeling of a microcalorimeter s response requires the accurate knowledge of a handful of parameters, such as C, G, alpha, . . . . While a few of these, such 8s the normal state resistance and the total thermal conductance to the heat bath (G) are directly determined from the DC IV characteristics, some others, notoriously the heat capacity (C) and alpha, appear in degenerate combinations in most measurable quantities. The case of a complex microcalorimeter, i.e. one in which the absorber s heat capacity is connected by a finite thermal impedance to the sensor, and subsequently by another thermal impedance to the heat bath, results in an added ambiguity in the determination of the individual C's and G's. In general, the dependence of the microcalorimeter s complex impedance on these parameters varies with frequency. This variation allows us to determine the individual parameters by fitting the prediction of the microcalorimeter model to the impedance data. We describe in this paper our efforts at characterizing the Goddard X-ray microcalorimeters. Using the parameters determined with this method we them compare the pulse shape and noise spectra predicted by the microcalorimeter model to data taken with the same devices.

  10. Intermolecular potential parameters and combining rules determined from viscosity data

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Lucas A.J.; Price, Phillip N.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2010-05-07

    The Law of Corresponding States has been demonstrated for a number of pure substances and binary mixtures, and provides evidence that the transport properties viscosity and diffusion can be determined from a molecular shape function, often taken to be a Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential, that requires two scaling parameters: a well depth {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and a collision diameter {sigma}{sub ij}, both of which depend on the interacting species i and j. We obtain estimates for {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and {sigma}{sub ij} of interacting species by finding the values that provide the best fit to viscosity data for binary mixtures, and compare these to calculated parameters using several 'combining rules' that have been suggested for determining parameter values for binary collisions from parameter values that describe collisions of like molecules. Different combining rules give different values for {sigma}{sub ij} and {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and for some mixtures the differences between these values and the best-fit parameter values are rather large. There is a curve in ({var_epsilon}{sub ij}, {sigma}{sub ij}) space such that parameter values on the curve generate a calculated viscosity in good agreement with measurements for a pure gas or a binary mixture. The various combining rules produce couples of parameters {var_epsilon}{sub ij}, {sigma}{sub ij} that lie close to the curve and therefore generate predicted mixture viscosities in satisfactory agreement with experiment. Although the combining rules were found to underpredict the viscosity in most of the cases, Kong's rule was found to work better than the others, but none of the combining rules consistently yields parameter values near the best-fit values, suggesting that improved rules could be developed.

  11. General AMBER Force Field Parameters for Diphenyl Diselenides and Diphenyl Ditellurides.

    PubMed

    Torsello, Mauro; Pimenta, Antonio C; Wolters, Lando P; Moreira, Irina S; Orian, Laura; Polimeno, Antonino

    2016-06-30

    The General AMBER Force Field (GAFF) has been extended to describe a series of selenium and tellurium diphenyl dichalcogenides. These compounds, besides being eco-friendly catalysts for numerous oxidations in organic chemistry, display peroxidase activity, i.e., can reduce hydrogen peroxide and harmful organic hydroperoxides to water/alcohols and as such are very promising antioxidant drugs. The novel GAFF parameters are tested in MD simulations in different solvents and the (77)Se NMR chemical shift of diphenyl diselenide is computed using structures extracted from MD snapshots and found in nice agreement with the measured value in CDCl3. The whole computational protocol is described in detail and integrated with in-house code to allow easy derivation of the force field parameters for analogous compounds as well as for Se/Te organocompounds in general. PMID:27267296

  12. Determining prestressing forces for inspection of prestressed concrete containments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    General Design Criterion 53, Provisions for Containment Testing and Inspection,'' of Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,'' to 10 CFR Part 50, Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,'' requires, in part, that the reactor containment be designed to permit (1) periodic inspection of all important areas and (2) an appropriate surveillance program. Regulatory Guide 1.35, Inservice Inspection of Ungrouted Tendons in Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures,'' describes a basis acceptable to the NRC staff for developing an appropriate inservice inspection and surveillance program for ungrouted tendons in prestressed concrete containment structures of light-water-cooled reactors. This guide expands and clarifies the NRC staff position on determining prestressing forces to be used for inservice inspections of prestressed concrete containment structures.

  13. Atomic force microscopy spring constant determination in viscous liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pirzer, Tobias; Hugel, Thorsten

    2009-03-15

    The spring constant of cantilever in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is often calibrated from thermal noise spectra. Essential for accurate implementation of this 'thermal noise method' is an appropriate fitting function and procedure. Here, we survey the commonly used fitting functions and examine their applicability in a range of environments. We find that viscous liquid environments are extremely problematic due to the frequency dependent nature of the damping coefficient. The deviations from the true spring constant were sometimes more than 100% when utilizing the fit routines built into the three investigated commercial AFM instruments; similar problems can arise with homebuilt AFMs. We discuss the reasons for this problem, especially the limits of the fitting process. Finally, we present a thermal noise based procedure and an improved fit function to determine the spring constant with AFMs in fluids of various viscosities.

  14. Atomic force microscopy spring constant determination in viscous liquids.

    PubMed

    Pirzer, Tobias; Hugel, Thorsten

    2009-03-01

    The spring constant of cantilever in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is often calibrated from thermal noise spectra. Essential for accurate implementation of this "thermal noise method" is an appropriate fitting function and procedure. Here, we survey the commonly used fitting functions and examine their applicability in a range of environments. We find that viscous liquid environments are extremely problematic due to the frequency dependent nature of the damping coefficient. The deviations from the true spring constant were sometimes more than 100% when utilizing the fit routines built into the three investigated commercial AFM instruments; similar problems can arise with homebuilt AFMs. We discuss the reasons for this problem, especially the limits of the fitting process. Finally, we present a thermal noise based procedure and an improved fit function to determine the spring constant with AFMs in fluids of various viscosities. PMID:19334955

  15. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  16. Integrated 3-parameter diagram for determining thermodynamic properties of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guochang; Deng, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Mingshan

    1987-04-01

    The importance of thermodynamic properties of fluids has motivated recent studies in developing methods of calculating thermodynamic properties. Among the various methods, the use of computational diagrams is a commonly used engineering method. Conventional diagrams do not take into consideration the internal relationships among the various thermodynamic properties. The internal relationships of various thermodynamic properties are considered. The Lee-Kessler three-parameter equations were used to construct an integrated three-parameter diagram for determining the thermodynamic properties of fluids; the curves were generated using an ai-M/6 microcomputer with an attached Sr 6602 plotter. The diagram is considered sufficiently accurate for engineering calculations.

  17. Determination of Joint Roughness Coefficients Using Roughness Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyun-Sic; Kang, Seong-Seung; Jang, Bo-An

    2014-11-01

    This study used precisely digitized standard roughness profiles to determine roughness parameters such as statistical and 2D discontinuity roughness, and fractal dimensions. Our methods were based on the relationship between the joint roughness coefficient (JRC) values and roughness parameters calculated using power law equations. Statistical and 2D roughness parameters, and fractal dimensions correlated well with JRC values, and had correlation coefficients of over 0.96. However, all of these relationships have a 4th profile (JRC 6-8) that deviates by more than ±5 % from the JRC values given in the standard roughness profiles. This indicates that this profile is statistically different than the others. We suggest that fractal dimensions should be measured within the entire range of the divider, instead of merely measuring values within a suitable range. Normalized intercept values also correlated with the JRC values, similarly to the fractal dimension values discussed above. The root mean square first derivative values, roughness profile indexes, 2D roughness parameter, and fractal dimension values decreased as the sampling interval increased. However, the structure function values increased very rapidly with increasing sampling intervals. This indicates that the roughness parameters are not independent of the sampling interval, and that the different relationships between the JRC values and these roughness parameters are dependent on the sampling interval.

  18. Determination of Solubility Parameters of Ibuprofen and Ibuprofen Lysinate.

    PubMed

    Kitak, Teja; Dumičić, Aleksandra; Planinšek, Odon; Šibanc, Rok; Srčič, Stanko

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in formulating solid dispersions, which purposes mainly include solubility enhancement, sustained drug release and taste masking. The most notable problem by these dispersions is drug-carrier (in)solubility. Here we focus on solubility parameters as a tool for predicting the solubility of a drug in certain carriers. Solubility parameters were determined in two different ways: solely by using calculation methods, and by experimental approaches. Six different calculation methods were applied in order to calculate the solubility parameters of the drug ibuprofen and several excipients. However, we were not able to do so in the case of ibuprofen lysinate, as calculation models for salts are still not defined. Therefore, the extended Hansen's approach and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) were used for evaluating of solubility parameters for ibuprofen lysinate. The obtained values of the total solubility parameter did not differ much between the two methods: by the extended Hansen's approach it was δt = 31.15 MPa(0.5) and with IGC it was δt = 35.17 MPa(0.5). However, the values of partial solubility parameters, i.e., δd, δp and δh, did differ from each other, what might be due to the complex behaviour of a salt in the presence of various solvents. PMID:26633347

  19. Analysis of hydration parameter for sugars determined from viscosity and its relationship with solution parameters.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukinori; Miyawaki, Osato

    2016-01-01

    The hydration parameter h was obtained from the viscosity B-coefficients and the partial molar volume of solute, V2, for various sugars and urea in aqueous solutions. The parameter h showed a good correlation with the parameter α, determined from the activity coefficient of water, representing the solute-solvent interaction. The parameter h also showed a good correlation with the number of equatorial-OH groups (e-OH) for sugars, suggesting that the sugar molecules with the higher e-OH fit more to the water-structure. From the temperature dependence of the parameter h (dh/dT), the negative dh/dT for sugars suggested their water-structure making activity while the positive dh/dT for urea corresponded to its structure breaking effect. From the Arrhenius plot, the activation energy for h, Ea, was determined to be as low as 10 kJ/mol for disaccharides suggesting the stable hydration structure. The Ea increased with a decrease in molecular weight for sugars. PMID:26213015

  20. The effect of patch potentials in Casimir force measurements determined by heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Joseph L.; Somers, David; Munday, Jeremy N.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of the electrostatic force between the surfaces. However, due to electrostatic patch potentials, the voltage required to minimize the total force may not be sufficient to completely nullify the electrostatic interaction. Thus, these surface potential variations cause an additional force, which can obscure the Casimir force signal. In this paper, we inspect the spatially varying surface potential of e-beamed, sputtered, sputtered and annealed, and template stripped gold surfaces with Heterodyne amplitude modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy (HAM-KPFM). It is demonstrated that HAM-KPFM improves the spatial resolution of surface potential measurements compared to amplitude modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy. We find that patch potentials vary depending on sample preparation, and that the calculated pressure can be similar to the pressure difference between Casimir force calculations employing the plasma and Drude models.

  1. The effect of patch potentials in Casimir force measurements determined by heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joseph L; Somers, David; Munday, Jeremy N

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of the electrostatic force between the surfaces. However, due to electrostatic patch potentials, the voltage required to minimize the total force may not be sufficient to completely nullify the electrostatic interaction. Thus, these surface potential variations cause an additional force, which can obscure the Casimir force signal. In this paper, we inspect the spatially varying surface potential of e-beamed, sputtered, sputtered and annealed, and template stripped gold surfaces with Heterodyne amplitude modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy (HAM-KPFM). It is demonstrated that HAM-KPFM improves the spatial resolution of surface potential measurements compared to amplitude modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy. We find that patch potentials vary depending on sample preparation, and that the calculated pressure can be similar to the pressure difference between Casimir force calculations employing the plasma and Drude models. PMID:25964997

  2. Forced unfolding of protein domains determines cytoskeletal rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, John

    2005-03-01

    Cells have recently been shown to have a power-law dynamic shear modulus over wide frequency range; the value of the exponent being non-universal, varying from 0.1-0.25 depending on cell type. This observation has been interpreted as evidence for the Soft Glassy Rheology (SGR) model, a trap-type glass model with an effective granular temperature. We propose a simple, alternative model of cytoskeletal mechanics based on the thermally activated, forced unfolding of domains in proteins cross-linking a stressed semi-flexible polymer gel. It directly relates a cell’s mechanical response to biophysical parameters of the cytoskeleton’s molecular constituents. Simulations indicate that unfolding events in a random network display a collective self-organization, giving rise to an exponential distribution of crosslink stress that can reproduce cell viscoelasticity. The model suggests natural explanations for the observed correlation between cell rheology and intracellular static stress, including those previously explained using the tensegrity concept. Moreover, our model provides insight into potential mechanisms of mechanotransduction as well as cell shape sensing and maintenance.

  3. Time Evolution of Force-Free Parameter and Free Magnetic Energy in Active Region NOAA 10365

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valori, G.; Romano, P.; Malanushenko, A.; Ermolli, I.; Giorgi, F.; Steed, K.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Zuccarello, F.; Malherbe, J.-M.

    2015-02-01

    We describe the variation of the accumulated coronal helicity derived from the magnetic helicity flux through the photosphere in active region (AR) NOAA 10365, where several large flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occurred. We used SOHO/MDI full-disk line-of-sight magnetograms to measure the helicity flux, and the integral of GOES X-ray flux as a proxy of the coronal energy variations due to flares or CMEs. Using the linear force-free field model, we transformed the accumulated helicity flux into a time sequence of the force-free parameter α accounting for flares or CMEs via the proxy derived from GOES observations. This method can be used to derive the value of α at different times during the AR evolution, and is a partial alternative to the commonly used match of field lines with EUV loops. By combining the accumulated helicity obtained from the observations with the linear force-free theory, we describe the main phases of the emergence process of the AR, and relate them temporally with the occurrence of flares or CMEs. Additionally, a comparison with the loop-matching method of fixing alpha at each time independently shows that the proposed method may be helpful in avoiding unrealistic or undetermined values of alpha that may originate from an insufficient quality of the image used to identify coronal loops at a given time. For the relative intensity of the considered events, the linear force-free field theory implies that there is a direct correlation between the released energy on the one hand and the product of the coronal helicity with the variation of α due to the event on the other. Therefore, the higher the value of the accumulated coronal helicity, the smaller the force-free parameter variation required to produce the same decrease in the free energy during the CMEs.

  4. Determining hydrodynamic forces in bursting bubbles using DNA nanotube mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hariadi, Rizal F.; Winfree, Erik; Yurke, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the mechanical forces produced by fluid flows within the ocean is critical to understanding the ocean’s environmental phenomena. Such forces may have been instrumental in the origin of life by driving a primitive form of self-replication through fragmentation. Among the intense sources of hydrodynamic shear encountered in the ocean are breaking waves and the bursting bubbles produced by such waves. On a microscopic scale, one expects the surface-tension–driven flows produced during bubble rupture to exhibit particularly high velocity gradients due to the small size scales and masses involved. However, little work has examined the strength of shear flow rates in commonly encountered ocean conditions. By using DNA nanotubes as a novel fluid flow sensor, we investigate the elongational rates generated in bursting films within aqueous bubble foams using both laboratory buffer and ocean water. To characterize the elongational rate distribution associated with a bursting bubble, we introduce the concept of a fragmentation volume and measure its form as a function of elongational flow rate. We find that substantial volumes experience surprisingly large flow rates: during the bursting of a bubble having an air volume of 10 mm3, elongational rates at least as large as ϵ˙=1.0×108 s−1 are generated in a fragmentation volume of ∼2×10−6 μL. The determination of the elongational strain rate distribution is essential for assessing how effectively fluid motion within bursting bubbles at the ocean surface can shear microscopic particles and microorganisms, and could have driven the self-replication of a protobiont. PMID:26504222

  5. Determining the alpha dynamo parameter in incompressible homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Lantz, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Alpha, an important parameter in dynamo theory, is proportional to either the kinetic, current, magnetic, or velocity helicity of the fluctuating magnetic field and fluctuating velocity field. The particular helicity to which alpha is proportional depends on the assumptions used in deriving the first order smoothed equations that describe the alpha effect. In two cases, when alpha is proportional to either the magnetic helicity or velocity helicity, alpha is determined experimentally from two point measurements of the fluctuating fields in incompressible, homogeneous turbulence having arbitrary symmetry. For the other two possibilities, alpha is determined if the turbulence is isotropic.

  6. Determination of human arterial wall parameters from clinical data.

    PubMed

    Stålhand, Jonas

    2009-04-01

    This study suggests a method to compute the material parameters for arteries in vivo from clinically registered pressure-radius signals. The artery is modelled as a hyperelastic, incompressible, thin-walled cylinder and the membrane stresses are computed using a strain energy. The material parameters are determined in a minimisation process by tuning the membrane stress to the stress obtained by enforcing global equilibrium. In addition to the mechanical model, the study also suggests a preconditioning of the pressure-radius signal. The preconditioning computes an average pressure-radius cycle from all consecutive cycles in the registration and removes, or reduces, undesirable disturbances. The effect is a robust parameter identification that gives a unique solution. The proposed method is tested on clinical data from three human abdominal aortas and the results show that the material parameters from the proposed method do not differ significantly (p < 0.01) from the corresponding parameters obtained by averaging the result from consecutive cycles. PMID:18347824

  7. The determination of the constitutive parameters of a medium with application to a reinforced concrete pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, A. J.; Burke, G. L.; Pennock, S. T.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the experimental and analytical efforts performed to determine the constitutive parameters of a reinforced concrete pad on which an aircraft (the NASA Boeing 757) was parked while its internal electromagnetic environment was measured. This concrete pad is part of the Large Electromagnetic System-Level Illuminator (LESLI) test facility at the Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. The relative dielectric constant, conductivity, index of refraction, and reflection coefficient have been determined over the frequency range of 0 to 300 MHz and are presented.

  8. The determination of the constitutive parameters of a medium with application to a reinforced concrete pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poggio, A. J.; Burke, G. L.; Pennock, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the experimental and analytical efforts performed to determine the constitutive parameters of a reinforced concrete pad on which an aircraft (the NASA Boeing 757) was parked while its internal electromagnetic environment was measured. This concrete pad is part of the Large Electromagnetic System-Level Illuminator (LESLI) test facility at the Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. The relative dielectric constant, conductivity, index of refraction, and reflection coefficient have been determined over the frequency range of 0 to 300 MHz and are presented.

  9. FAMA: An automatic code for stellar parameter and abundance determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Randich, Sofia; Friel, Eileen; Spina, Lorenzo; Jacobson, Heather; Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan; Donati, Paolo; Baglioni, Roberto; Maiorca, Enrico; Bragaglia, Angela; Sordo, Rosanna; Vallenari, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Context. The large amount of spectra obtained during the epoch of extensive spectroscopic surveys of Galactic stars needs the development of automatic procedures to derive their atmospheric parameters and individual element abundances. Aims: Starting from the widely-used code MOOG by C. Sneden, we have developed a new procedure to determine atmospheric parameters and abundances in a fully automatic way. The code FAMA (Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis) is presented describing its approach to derive atmospheric stellar parameters and element abundances. The code, freely distributed, is written in Perl and can be used on different platforms. Methods: The aim of FAMA is to render the computation of the atmospheric parameters and abundances of a large number of stars using measurements of equivalent widths (EWs) as automatic and as independent of any subjective approach as possible. It is based on the simultaneous search for three equilibria: excitation equilibrium, ionization balance, and the relationship between log n(Fe i) and the reduced EWs. FAMA also evaluates the statistical errors on individual element abundances and errors due to the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. The convergence criteria are not fixed "a priori" but are based on the quality of the spectra. Results: In this paper we present tests performed on the solar spectrum EWs that assess the method's dependency on the initial parameters and we analyze a sample of stars observed in Galactic open and globular clusters. The current version of FAMA is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/558/A38

  10. Determination of some electrical parameters for composite inorganic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Benavente, J.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Cabeza, A.

    1994-12-31

    Composite inorganic membranes were obtained by deposition of an inorganic precipitate layer (uranyl phosphonate: UO{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) or UPP) on a commercial porous alumina membrane (Anopore{trademark}, 0.2 {mu}m pore size). Salt diffusion and membrane potential for the whole membrane were measured for NaCl and other electrolytes containing the precipitate generating ions, and for concentration ranging between 10{sup -4}M and 210{sup -2}M. Dielectric parameters (resistance and capacitance) were obtained from impedance spectroscopy measurements, and the equivalent circuits associated to the membrane/electrolyte systems were also determined. From the experimental results, other parameters such as cation transport numbers and ionic permeabilities were obtained. Concentration dependence of all these parameters was also considered. Measurements were carried out with the composite inorganic membrane and the alumina porous support. A comparison of the results found for both membranes gives information about the value of all these parameters in the layer formed by the inorganic UPP precipitate.

  11. Bicycle ergometer instrumentation to determine muscle and bone forces during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    It is hypothesized that bone loss experienced by astronauts in zero gravity conditions may be curtailed by appropriate exercise. According to Wolf's law, bone regenerates when muscles produce stresses by pulling on the bone during daily activity and/or exercise on Earth. to use this theory to prevent or decrease bone loss, one needs to quantify musculoskeletal loads and relate them to bone density changes. In the context of the space program, it is desirable to determine musculoskeletal loads during exercise (using the bicycle ergometer in this case) so that one may make similar measurements on Earth and in space. In this manner, load measurements on Earth may be used as reference to generate similar loads during exercise in space. The work reported in this document entails a musculoskeletal load measurement system that, when complete, will provide forces at muscle insertion points and other contact points, on bone. This data will be used by Dr. Beth A. Todd, who is also a SSF working with Dr. Shackelford, as input to a finite element model of bone sections to determine stress distributions. A bicycle ergometer has been instrumented to measure parameters needed to determine musculoskeletal forces during exercise. A primary feature of the system is its compactness. It uses small/light sensors without line-of-sight requirements. The system developed includes sensors, signal processing, a data acquisition system, and software to collect the data. The sensors used include optical encoders to measure position and orientation of the pedal (foot), accelerometers to determine kinematic parameters of the shank and thigh, load cells to measure pedal forces on the sagittal plane, and EMG probes to measure muscle activity. The signals are processed using anti-aliasing filters and amplifiers. The sensors' output is digitized using 30 channels of a board mounted inside a 486 class PC. A program sets the data acquisition parameters and collects data during a time period specified

  12. [Parameter determination of algae growth based on ecological tank experiment].

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Ding, Ling; Gao, Guang

    2005-05-01

    A dynamic simulation experiment of algae in an ecological tank was performed at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research. During the experiment, water from Taihu Lake was infused into the ecological tank and samples were taken continually to observe algae growth under varying conditions, such as temperature, sunlight and nutrients. Based on the experiment, an algae growth model, considering nitrogen and phosphorus cycle, was developed by using the advanced PHREEQC model. After that, a detailed calibration and validation of parameters in the model were done on the basis of experimental results. The least square method was used to determine the optimal set of parameters. The calculated values of algae and nutrient concentrations show fairly satisfying fittness with measured data. PMID:16124474

  13. Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators

    SciTech Connect

    You-Hin Liau

    1982-12-01

    Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

  14. Sensitivity of the boundary layer energy fluxes to forcing parameters in a simple climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. S.; Dalu, G.; Lo, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Winter and summer surface temperatures and time-averaged boundary layer energy fluxes are calculated by utilizing the Saltzman-Ashe parameterization for boundary layer fluxes in a two-level static model. The results are found to agree with observed patterns. Within the framework of this simple model, sensitivity analyses of the time-averaged boundary layer energy fluxes are conducted. Based on these results some of the forcing parameters (such as the subsurface temperature, cloud cover, surface albedo, etc.) are arranged in a hierarchical order of importance. A generalized method of sensitivity analysis is also suggested.

  15. Global Cosmological Parameters Determined Using Classical Double Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Erick J.; Daly, Ruth A.; Wan, Lin

    2000-12-01

    A sample of 20 powerful extended radio galaxies with redshifts between zero and 2 were used to determine constraints on global cosmological parameters. Data for six radio sources were obtained from the VLA archive, analyzed, and combined with the sample of 14 radio galaxies used previously by Guerra & Daly to determine cosmological parameters. The new results are consistent with our previous results, and indicate that the current value of the mean mass density of the universe is significantly less than the critical value. A universe with Ωm of unity in matter is ruled out at 99.0% confidence, and the best-fitting values of Ωm in matter are 0.10+0.25-0.10 and -0.25+0.35-0.25 assuming zero space curvature and zero cosmological constant, respectively. Note that identical results obtain when the low-redshift bin, which includes Cygnus A, is excluded; these results are independent of whether the radio source Cygnus A is included. The method does not rely on a zero-redshift normalization. The radio properties of each source are also used to determine the density of the gas in the vicinity of the source, and the beam power of the source. The six new radio sources have physical characteristics similar to those found for the original 14 sources. The density of the gas around these radio sources is typical of gas in present-day clusters of galaxies. The beam powers are typically about 1045 ergs s-1.

  16. Interactive forces between lignin and cellulase as determined by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignin is a complex polymer which inhibits the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose in lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production. Cellulase enzymes irreversibly bind to lignin, deactivating the enzyme and lowering the overall activity of the hydrolyzing reaction solution. Within this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to compare the adhesion forces between cellulase and lignin with the forces between cellulase and cellulose, and to study the moiety groups involved in binding of cellulase to lignin. Results Trichoderma reesei, ATCC 26921, a commercial cellulase system, was immobilized onto silicon wafers and used as a substrate to measure forces involved in cellulase non-productive binding to lignin. Attraction forces between cellulase and lignin, and between cellulase and cellulose were compared using kraft lignin- and hydroxypropyl cellulose-coated tips with the immobilized cellulase substrate. The measured adhesion forces between kraft lignin and cellulase were on average 45% higher than forces between hydroxypropyl cellulose and cellulase. Specialized AFM tips with hydrophobic, -OH, and -COOH chemical characteristics were used with immobilized cellulase to represent hydrophobic, H-bonding, and charge-charge interactions, respectively. Forces between hydrophobic tips and cellulase were on average 43% and 13% higher than forces between cellulase with tips exhibiting OH and COOH groups, respectively. A strong attractive force during the AFM tip approach to the immobilized cellulase was observed with the hydrophobic tip. Conclusions This work shows that there is a greater overall attraction between kraft lignin and cellulase than between hydroxypropyl cellulose and cellulase, which may have implications during the enzymatic reaction process. Furthermore, hydrophobic interactions appear to be the dominating attraction force in cellulase binding to lignin, while a number of other interactions may establish the irreversible binding

  17. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  18. Semi-empirical determination of radiative parameters for Ag II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruczkowski, J.; Elantkowska, M.; Dembczyński, J.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the values of radiative parameters for Ag II by means of a semi-empirical method. The calculated values of oscillator strengths and lifetimes are, in majority of cases, in a very good agreement with accurate experimental data. Our calculation procedures allowed us to obtain the values of transition integrals and predict the values of oscillator strengths for the transitions in a wide spectral range and radiative lifetimes for excited levels. Moreover, the predicted values will be useful when the experimental values are not known.

  19. Behavior of temporal parameters of the ground reactive forces for the walking of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    DE Sousa, Adriana Leite; Calçadas Dias Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugênio; Faria, Aurélio Marques; Aragão, Florbela R; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the influence of body composition and menopause characteristics on certain temporal parameters of the behavior of vertical and anteroposterior components of ground reactive forces, as well as the vertical and anteroposterior rates on the walking of postmenopausal women. The sample consisted of 67 postmenopausal women, average age 59 years. Body composition was assessed by octapolar bioimpedance and ground reactive force by the Kistler force platform. Vertical loading rate correlated positively with age (r = 0.02) and negatively with weight (r = -0.33). The relationship between the rates of vertical loading and unloading associated positively with menopause time (r = 0.27) but negatively with weight (r = -0.27). Vertical unloading rate showed a negative association with abdominal visceral adiposity (r = -0.27). The relationship between the times of the intermediate and final phases of the support correlated significantly with abdominal visceral adiposity (r = 0.25) and fat mass (r = 0.24). The study suggests that fat mass and abdominal visceral adiposity affect the support time, and increased abdominal visceral adiposity implies a slower pre-suspension phase during the walking of postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapy was shown to be an enhancer of steeper vertical loading and anteroposterior unloading and longer time in the double support phase, indicating a greater stability of postmenopausal women when walking. PMID:26686563

  20. Laser correlation spectroscopy for determining biochemical parameters of whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Prigun, Natali P.

    1999-02-01

    Correlation spectroscopy methods are widely used to study dynamical, morphological and optical parameters of biological objects. This work makes an attempt to explore these methods (in particular, due to their expressively) for diagnosing whole blood under normal and pathological states (cardiovascular diseases). Not only morphological characteristics of blood elements are known to change under diseases, but also its biochemical composition does. However, the biochemical analysis of blood is rather time and labor consuming. The paper is directed to investigate the correlation between optical characteristics of light scattering by blood and its biochemical parameters. Samples of whole blood were in vitro investigated for ills with different diagnoses and extend of cardio-vascular diseases as well as for essentially healthy donors. Simultaneous with the above characteristics we have monitored volumetric concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocytes and hemoglobin. The analysis of obtained results has show that the width of spectrum is greater for samples from healthy persons then from ills. Comparison of measured data on frequency spectrum, diffuse reflectivity's, biochemical and morphological blood parameters of the studied samples has shown the high correlation between the spectrum halfwidth and concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocyte setting rate. Some poorer correlation with spectrum occurs for concentration of hemoglobin and cholesterol. Thus, these are revealed an opportunity to design on express non-invasive method for determining the possibility of atherosclerotic disease.

  1. Transferability and additivity of dihedral parameters in polarizable and nonpolarizable empirical force fields.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Rosnik, Andreana M; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles; Jurečka, Petr

    2015-09-30

    Recent advances in polarizable force fields have revealed that major reparameterization is necessary when the polarization energy is treated explicitly. This study is focused on the torsional parameters, which are crucial for the accurate description of conformational equilibria in biomolecules. In particular, attention is paid to the influence of polarization on the (i) transferability of dihedral terms between molecules, (ii) transferability between different environments, and (iii) additivity of dihedral energies. To this end, three polarizable force fields based on the induced point dipole model designed for use in AMBER are tested, including two recent ff02 reparameterizations. Attention is paid to the contributions due to short range interactions (1-2, 1-3, and 1-4) within the four atoms defining the dihedral angle. The results show that when short range 1-2 and 1-3 polarization interactions are omitted, as for instance in ff02, the 1-4 polarization contribution is rather small and unlikely to improve the description of the torsional energy. Conversely, when screened 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are included, the polarization contribution is sizeable and shows potential to improve the transferability of parameters between different molecules and environments as well as the additivity of dihedral terms. However, to reproduce intramolecular polarization effects accurately, further fine-tuning of the short range damping of polarization is necessary. PMID:26224547

  2. Estimating first-order geometric parameters and monitoring contact transitions during force-controlled compliant motion

    SciTech Connect

    Schutter, J. de; Bruyninckx, H.; Dutre, S.; Geeter, J. de; Katupitiya, J.; Demey, S.; Lefebvre, T.

    1999-12-01

    This paper uses (linearized) Kalman filters to estimate first-order geometric parameters (i.e., orientation of contact normals and location of contact points) that occur in force-controlled compliant motions. The time variance of these parameters is also estimated. In addition, transitions between contact situations can be monitored. The contact between the manipulated object and its environment is general, i.e., multiple contacts can occur at the same time, and both the topology and the geometry of each single contact are arbitrary. The two major theoretical contributions are (1) the integration of the general contact model, developed previously by the authors, into a state-space form suitable for recursive processing; and (2) the use of the reciprocity constraint between ideal contact forces and motion freedoms as the measurement equation of the Kalman filter. The theory is illustrated by full 3-D experiments. The approach of this paper allows a breakthrough in the state of the art dominated by the classical, orthogonal contact models of Mason that can only cope with a limited (albeit important) subset of all possible contact situations.

  3. Filter parameter tuning analysis for operational orbit determination support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J.; Cox, C.; Niklewski, D.; Mistretta, G.; Hart, R.

    1994-01-01

    The use of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for operational orbit determination support is being considered by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). To support that investigation, analysis was performed to determine how an EKF can be tuned for operational support of a set of earth-orbiting spacecraft. The objectives of this analysis were to design and test a general purpose scheme for filter tuning, evaluate the solution accuracies, and develop practical methods to test the consistency of the EKF solutions in an operational environment. The filter was found to be easily tuned to produce estimates that were consistent, agreed with results from batch estimation, and compared well among the common parameters estimated for several spacecraft. The analysis indicates that there is not a sharply defined 'best' tunable parameter set, especially when considering only the position estimates over the data arc. The comparison of the EKF estimates for the user spacecraft showed that the filter is capable of high-accuracy results and can easily meet the current accuracy requirements for the spacecraft included in the investigation. The conclusion is that the EKF is a viable option for FDD operational support.

  4. Analyzing a hydrocarbon reservoir by determining the response of that reservoir to tidal forces

    SciTech Connect

    Graebner, P.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a method for determining a component of the response of a hydrocarbons reservoir to tidal forces. It comprises measuring a variable responsive to tidal forces within the reservoir over a measurement time period; determining a theoretical earth-tide for the reservoir over the measurement time period; and determining the component of the response to tidal forces by comparing the variable measurements and the theoretical earth-tide determinations.

  5. A new Parameter to Determine Degree of Fragmentation of Rockslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordén Haug, Øystein; Rosenau, Matthias; Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno

    2015-04-01

    characterize a sample proneness to fragmentation by a parameter (Seff) consisting of the estimated peak tensile stress in a samples normalized by its bulk cohesion. The peak tensile stresses in the sample is estimated from elastic thin plate theory (Kirchhoff's theory) modified with a factor (h/l)2 due to the samples non-negligible thickness, where h is the thickness and l is the length of the sample in the direction of travel. Combining the experimental test results and the new parameter Seff, we determine thresholds of the parameter value which discriminate whether fragmentation occur, as well as between intermediate and high degree of fragmentation. Since Seff is determine solely from initial conditions, this new parameter can be used to predict the degree of fragmentation. To test the applicability of our new parameter, we calculate the value of Seff for the Seymareh rock avalanche and find that its value predicts it to be within the range of highly fragmented materials, as expected.

  6. Adhesion Forces between Lewis(X) Determinant Antigens as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tromas, C; Rojo, J; de la Fuente, J M; Barrientos, A G; García, R; Penadés, S

    2001-01-01

    The adhesion forces between individual molecules of Lewis(X) trisaccharide antigen (Le(X) ) have been measured in water and in calcium solution by using atomic force microscopy (AFM, see graph). These results demonstrate the self-recognition capability of this antigen, and reinforce the hypothesis that carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction could be considered as the first step in the cell-adhesion process in nature. PMID:12203646

  7. Determining the tube bundle streamlining critical parameters using the numerical experiment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplunov, S. M.; Val'es, N. G.; Samolysov, A. V.; Marchevskaya, O. A.

    2015-08-01

    The article is devoted to development and application of mathematical models describing the most dangerous mechanisms through which vibrations are excited in tube bundles and blunt cylindrically shaped structures, and to development of reliable calculation methods for describing these models, which would make it possible to obtain prompt data for designing and subsequent operation of the considered structural elements. For solving such problems, a comprehensive approach is required, which should be based on a combined use of numerical experiments on computers and experimental investigations on full-scale equipment. The authors have developed a procedure for numerically investigating the hydrodynamic forces arising during stalled streamlining and the tube bundle vibrations caused by these forces. The procedure is based on using the developed mathematical model describing fluid-elastic excitation of vibrations in a bundle of elastic tubes placed in external cross flow. The problem of studying fluid-elastic excitation is brought to stability analysis, which is carried out with the assumption about a linear behavior of destabilizing forces for undisturbed state of elastic tubes. A theoretical investigation of the developed mathematical model was carried out, from which the necessary and sufficient condition of system stability has been obtained in terms of system dimensionless parameters (mass, damping, and velocity). An algorithm for numerically determining the matrices of linear hydrodynamic coupling coefficients for particular tube bundles is developed. The validity of the algorithm and the computer programs developed on its basis are checked by comparing the results of test calculations with the bank of known experimental data. A procedure is proposed for determining the matrices of linear hydrodynamic coupling coefficients in bundles having a regular layout of their cross section and a large number of tubes through calculating these matrices for a relatively small

  8. An improved method to determine neuromuscular properties using force laws - From single muscle to applications in human movements.

    PubMed

    Siebert, T; Sust, M; Thaller, S; Tilp, M; Wagner, H

    2007-04-01

    We evaluate an improved method for individually determining neuromuscular properties in vivo. The method is based on Hill's equation used as a force law combined with Newton's equation of motion. To ensure the range of validity of Hill's equation, we first perform detailed investigations on in vitro single muscles. The force-velocity relation determined with the model coincides well with results obtained by standard methods (r=.99) above 20% of the isometric force. In addition, the model-predicted force curves during work loop contractions very well agree with measurements (mean difference: 2-3%). Subsequently, we deduce theoretically under which conditions it is possible to combine several muscles of the human body to model muscles. This leads to a model equation for human leg extension movements containing parameters for the muscle properties and for the activation. To numerically determine these invariant neuromuscular properties we devise an experimental method based on concentric and isometric leg extensions. With this method we determine individual muscle parameters from experiments such that the simulated curves agree well with experiments (r=.99). A reliability test with 12 participants revealed correlations r=.72-.91 for the neuromuscular parameters (p<.01). Predictions of similar movements under different conditions show mean errors of about 5%. In addition, we present applications in sports practise and theory. PMID:17343950

  9. Force-Time Parameters and Physical Growth of Boys Ages 6 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeple, J.; Massey, B.

    1976-01-01

    Results of research on the influence of body size and composition on peak force and maximal rate of static strength exertion as measured from force-time curves indicates that rate of force production is somewhat independent of peak force, yet influenced by body size and composition, as is peak force. (MB)

  10. Determination of the Fracture Parameters in a Stiffened Composite Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chung-Yi

    2000-01-01

    A modified J-integral, namely the equivalent domain integral, is derived for a three-dimensional anisotropic cracked solid to evaluate the stress intensity factor along the crack front using the finite element method. Based on the equivalent domain integral method with auxiliary fields, an interaction integral is also derived to extract the second fracture parameter, the T-stress, from the finite element results. The auxiliary fields are the two-dimensional plane strain solutions of monoclinic materials with the plane of symmetry at x(sub 3) = 0 under point loads applied at the crack tip. These solutions are expressed in a compact form based on the Stroh formalism. Both integrals can be implemented into a single numerical procedure to determine the distributions of stress intensity factor and T-stress components, T11, T13, and thus T33, along a three-dimensional crack front. The effects of plate thickness and crack length on the variation of the stress intensity factor and T-stresses through the thickness are investigated in detail for through-thickness center-cracked plates (isotropic and orthotropic) and orthotropic stiffened panels under pure mode-I loading conditions. For all the cases studied, T11 remains negative. For plates with the same dimensions, a larger size of crack yields larger magnitude of the normalized stress intensity factor and normalized T-stresses. The results in orthotropic stiffened panels exhibit an opposite trend in general. As expected, for the thicker panels, the fracture parameters evaluated through the thickness, except the region near the free surfaces, approach two-dimensional plane strain solutions. In summary, the numerical methods presented in this research demonstrate their high computational effectiveness and good numerical accuracy in extracting these fracture parameters from the finite element results in three-dimensional cracked solids.

  11. A novel criterion for determination of material model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Campos, A.; de-Carvalho, R.; Valente, R. A. F.

    2011-05-01

    Parameter identification problems have emerged due to the increasing demanding of precision in the numerical results obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM) software. High result precision can only be obtained with confident input data and robust numerical techniques. The determination of parameters should always be performed confronting numerical and experimental results leading to the minimum difference between them. However, the success of this task is dependent of the specification of the cost/objective function, defined as the difference between the experimental and the numerical results. Recently, various objective functions have been formulated to assess the errors between the experimental and computed data (Lin et al., 2002; Cao and Lin, 2008; among others). The objective functions should be able to efficiently lead the optimisation process. An ideal objective function should have the following properties: (i) all the experimental data points on the curve and all experimental curves should have equal opportunity to be optimised; and (ii) different units and/or the number of curves in each sub-objective should not affect the overall performance of the fitting. These two criteria should be achieved without manually choosing the weighting factors. However, for some non-analytical specific problems, this is very difficult in practice. Null values of experimental or numerical values also turns the task difficult. In this work, a novel objective function for constitutive model parameter identification is presented. It is a generalization of the work of Cao and Lin and it is suitable for all kinds of constitutive models and mechanical tests, including cyclic tests and Baushinger tests with null values.

  12. Probe-rotating atomic force microscopy for determining material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we propose a probe-rotating atomic force microscope that enables scan in an arbitrary direction in the contact imaging mode, which is difficult to achieve using a conventional atomic force microscope owing to the orientation-dependent probe and the inability to rotate the probe head. To enable rotation of the probe about its vertical axis, we employed a compact and light probe head, the sensor of which is made of an optical disk drive pickup unit. Our proposed mechanical configuration, operating principle, and control system enables axial and lateral scan in various directions.

  13. Effects of Multiple-Bond Ruptures on Kinetic Parameters Extracted from Force Spectroscopy Measurements: Revisiting Biotin-Streptavidin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Senli; Ray, Chad; Kirkpatrick, Andrea; Lad, Nimit; Akhremitchev, Boris B.

    2008-01-01

    Force spectroscopy measurements of the rupture of the molecular bond between biotin and streptavidin often results in a wide distribution of rupture forces. We attribute the long tail of high rupture forces to the nearly simultaneous rupture of more than one molecular bond. To decrease the number of possible bonds, we employed hydrophilic polymeric tethers to attach biotin molecules to the atomic force microscope probe. It is shown that the measured distributions of rupture forces still contain high forces that cannot be described by the forced dissociation from a deep potential well. We employed a recently developed analytical model of simultaneous rupture of two bonds connected by polymer tethers with uneven length to fit the measured distributions. The resulting kinetic parameters agree with the energy landscape predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. It is demonstrated that when more than one molecular bond might rupture during the pulling measurements there is a noise-limited range of probe velocities where the kinetic parameters measured by force spectroscopy correspond to the true energy landscape. Outside this range of velocities, the kinetic parameters extracted by using the standard most probable force approach might be interpreted as artificial energy barriers that are not present in the actual energy landscape. Factors that affect the range of useful velocities are discussed. PMID:18621812

  14. Determination of the Lambda parameter from full lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Goeckeler, M.; Horsley, R.; Irving, A.C.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Pleiter, D.; Schierholz, G.; Stueben, H.

    2006-01-01

    We present a determination of the QCD parameter {lambda} in the quenched approximation (n{sub f}=0) and for two flavors (n{sub f}=2) of light dynamical quarks. The calculations are performed on the lattice using O(a) improved Wilson fermions and include taking the continuum limit. We find {lambda}{sub n{sub f}=0}{sup MS}=259(1)(19) MeV and {lambda}{sub n{sub f}=2}{sup MS}=261(17)(26) MeV, using r{sub 0}=0.467 fm to set the scale. Extrapolating our results to five flavors, we obtain for the running coupling constant at the mass of the Z boson {alpha}{sub s}{sup MS}(m{sub Z})=0.112(1)(2)

  15. Complementary interference method for determining optical parameters of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowiorski, K.; Kędzierski, J.; Raszewski, Z.; Kojdecki, M. A.; Chojnowska, O.; Garbat, K.; Miszczyk, E.; Piecek, W.

    2016-04-01

    Wedge cells of small apex angle, filled with liquid crystals, were used to determining optical characteristics as functions of temperature for three liquid crystalline mixtures recently produced and a reference nematic. The interference fringes appearing in polarised monochromatic light (of sodium yellow line) normally incident on the cell were exploited to measure the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices in the reflection mode and birefringence in the transmission mode. The measurements were repeated using Abbe's refractometer for 6CHBT as the reference to verifying the precision. Additionally the order parameter was computed from birefringence as a function of temperature. The results confirm the usefulness of the method and provide the properties of two nematic liquid crystals of small and large birefringence and one smectic liquid crystal of medium birefringence, recently produced. The experimental systems served also to investigating phase transition between the liquid crystals and the isotropic liquid at near-clearing temperature.

  16. Evolutionary determination of experimental parameters for ptychographical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shenfield, Alex; Rodenburg, John M.

    2011-06-15

    The Ptychographical Iterative Engine (PIE) algorithm is a recently developed novel method of Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI) that uses multiple overlapping diffraction patterns to reconstruct an image. This method has successfully produced high quality reconstructions at both optical and X-ray wavelengths but the need for accurate knowledge of the probe positions is currently a limiting factor in the production of high resolution reconstructions at electron wavelengths. This paper examines the shape of the search landscape for producing optimal image reconstructions in the specific case of electron microscopy and then shows how evolutionary search methods can be used to reliably determine experimental parameters in the electron microscopy case (such as the spherical aberration in the probe and the probe positions).

  17. Numerical determination of the transmissibility characteristics of a squeeze film damped forced vibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Davis, P. K.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the governing equations of motion of a liquid squeeze film damped forced vibration system were carried out to examine the feasibility of using a liquid squeeze film to cushion and protect large structures, such as buildings, located in areas of high seismic activity. The mathematical model used was that for a single degree of freedom squeeze film damped spring mass system. The input disturbance was simulated by curve fitting actual seismic data with an eleventh order Lagranging polynomial technique. Only the normal component of the seismic input was considered. The nonlinear, nonhomogeneous governing differential equation of motion was solved numerically to determine the transmissibility over a wide range of physical parameters using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. It is determined that a liquid squeeze film used as a damping agent in a spring-mass system can significantly reduce the response amplitude for a seismic input disturbance.

  18. Experimental determination of optimum gutter brush parameters and road sweeping criteria for different types of waste.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Magd M; Wang, Chong; Vanegas-Useche, Libardo V; Parker, Graham A

    2011-06-01

    The removal ability of gutter brushes for road sweeping for various debris types and different sweeping parameters is studied through experimental tests. The brushing test rig used comprises two commercial gutter brushes, a concrete test bed, and an asphalt test road with a gutter of 0.25 cm width and 10° slope. The brush-surface contact area is determined by sweeping sand on the concrete test bed. Sweeping problems are identified and discussed, and sweeping criteria for the different debris types are suggested. Also, optimum sweeping parameters are proposed for each debris type. In addition, debris removal mechanisms are discussed and analysed. The results indicate that for large heavy debris such as stones and gravel, it is not difficult to achieve large removal forces, because the steel bristles are relatively stiff. Conversely, high removal forces are not needed for particles of millimetre or micron sizes, but bristle curvature has to be appropriate to remove particles from road concavities. Finally, it is found that mud, especially dry mud on a rough surface, is the hardest debris to sweep, requiring a brush with a large tilt angle and a very large penetration to produce large removal forces. PMID:21277186

  19. The Relationship Between Biomechanical-Anthropometrical Parameters and the Force Exerted on the Head When Heading Free Kicks in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Teymouri, Meghdad; Sadeghi, Heydar; Nabaei, Amir; Kasaeian, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Background: Soccer is a contact sport in which the players are frequently faced with the risk of injury. It has been shown that the force exerted on the head during heading can be as much as 500–1200 Newton (N). Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the force exerted on the head and several biomechanical and anthropometrical parameters related to heading free kicks. Patients and Methods: A total of 16 semi-professional soccer players with at least 5 years experience participated in this study. The mean age, height, and weight of the study participants were 21.36 ± 5.67, 178 ± 5.99 cm, and 70.55 ± 8.55 kg, respectively. To measure the force exerted on the heads of the players, a pressure gauge was installed on their foreheads. Each participant was asked to defend the ball using the heading technique three times. A camera with a sampling frequency of 150 frames per second was used to record the moment of impact between the ball and head during each heading event. For each participant and replicate, the ball and head velocity (m/s) as well as the angular body changes (degrees) were calculated using MATLAB and AutoCAD softwares, respectively. Descriptive statistics, including means and standard deviations were used to describe the data. Pearson correlation coefficient (alpha = 0.05) was used to examine potential relationships between the variables of interest. Results: Significant correlations existed between the force exerted on the head during heading, participant age, body mass, body fat percentage, and head perimeter (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The study revealed the significance of anthropometric variables related to heading, such as age and head perimeter. Therefore, it was concluded that these variables should be considered when teaching and practicing the heading technique with players of different ages and anthropometric sizes. PMID:24719842

  20. Determination of Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust using Combined TOMS and ERBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Weaver, Clark

    1999-01-01

    The direct radiative forcing of Saharan dust aerosols has been determined by combining aerosol information derived from Nimbus-7 TOMS with radiation measurements observed at the top of atmosphere (TOA) by NOAA-9 ERBE made during February-July 1985. Cloud parameters and precipitable water derived from the NOAA-9 HIRS2 instrument were used to aid in screening for clouds and water vapor in the analyses. Our results indicate that under "cloud-free" and "dry" conditions there is a good correlation between the ERBE TOA outgoing longwave fluxes and the TOMS aerosol index measurements over both land and ocean in areas under the influence of airborne Saharan dust. The ERBE TOA outgoing shortwave fluxes were also found to correlate well with the dust loading derived from TOMS over ocean. However, the calculated shortwave forcing of Saharan dust aerosols is very weak and noisy over land for the range of solar zenith angle viewed by the NOAA-9 ERBE in 1985. Sensitivity factors of the TOA outgoing fluxes to changes in aerosol index were estimated using a linear regression fit to the ERBE and TOMS measurements. The ratio of the shortwave-to-longwave response to changes in dust loading over the ocean is found to be roughly 2 to 3, but opposite in sign. The monthly averaged "clear-sky" TOA direct forcing of airborne Saharan dust was also calculated by multiplying these sensitivity factors by the TOMS monthly averaged "clear-sky" aerosol index. Both the observational and theoretical analyses indicate that the dust layer height, ambient moisture content as well as the presence of cloud all play an important role in determining the TOA direct radiative forcing due to mineral aerosols.

  1. Impact of parameter variation in fabrication of nanostructure by atomic force microscopy nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Dehzangi, Arash; Larki, Farhad; Hutagalung, Sabar D; Goodarz Naseri, Mahmood; Majlis, Burhanuddin Y; Navasery, Manizheh; Hamid, Norihan Abdul; Noor, Mimiwaty Mohd

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the fabrication of Silicon nanostructure patterned on lightly doped (10(15) cm(-3)) p-type silicon-on-insulator by atomic force microscope nanolithography technique. The local anodic oxidation followed by two wet etching steps, potassium hydroxide etching for silicon removal and hydrofluoric etching for oxide removal, are implemented to reach the structures. The impact of contributing parameters in oxidation such as tip materials, applying voltage on the tip, relative humidity and exposure time are studied. The effect of the etchant concentration (10% to 30% wt) of potassium hydroxide and its mixture with isopropyl alcohol (10%vol. IPA ) at different temperatures on silicon surface are expressed. For different KOH concentrations, the effect of etching with the IPA admixture and the effect of the immersing time in the etching process on the structure are investigated. The etching processes are accurately optimized by 30%wt. KOH +10%vol. IPA in appropriate time, temperature, and humidity. PMID:23776479

  2. Determinants of contractile forces generated in disorganized actomyosin bundles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoon

    2015-04-01

    Actomyosin machinery is a fundamental engine consisting mostly of actin filaments, molecular motors, and passive cross-linkers, generating mechanical forces required for biological processes of non-muscle cells such as cell migration, cytokinesis, and morphogenesis. Although the molecular and physical properties of key elements in the actomyosin machinery have been characterized well, it still remains unclear how macroscopic force buildup and dissipation in actomyosin networks and bundles depend on the microscopic properties of individual cytoskeletal components and their local interactions. To bridge such a gap between macroscopic and microscopic scales, we have developed a three-dimensional computational model of actomyosin bundles clamped to an elastic substrate with minimal components: actin filaments, passive cross-linkers, and active motors. Our model accounts for several key features neglected by previous studies despite their significance for force generation, such as realistic structure and kinetics of the motors. Using the model, we systematically investigated how net tension in actomyosin bundles is governed via interplay between motors and cross-linkers. We demonstrated motors can generate large tension on a bundle in the absence of cross-linkers in a very inefficient, unstable manner. Cross-linkers help motors to generate their maximum potential forces as well as enhance overall connectivity, leading to much higher efficiency and stability. We showed further that the cross-linkers behave as a molecular clutch with tunable friction which has quite distinct effects on net tension depending on their cross-linking angles. We also examined the source of symmetry breaking between tensile and compressive forces during tension generation process and discussed how the length and dynamics of actin filaments and the stiffness of the elastic substrate can affect the generated tension. PMID:25103419

  3. 40 CFR 86.229-94 - Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road load force, test weight, and... § 86.229-94 Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels, electrical forces, or other means of simulating test weight as shown in the table in this paragraph shall...

  4. 40 CFR 86.229-94 - Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road load force, test weight, and... § 86.229-94 Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels, electrical forces, or other means of simulating test weight as shown in the table in this paragraph shall...

  5. 40 CFR 86.229-94 - Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load force, test weight, and... § 86.229-94 Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels, electrical forces, or other means of simulating test weight as shown in the table in this paragraph shall...

  6. 40 CFR 86.229-94 - Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road load force, test weight, and... § 86.229-94 Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels, electrical forces, or other means of simulating test weight as shown in the table in this paragraph shall...

  7. Determination of the key parameters affecting historic communications satellite trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1984-01-01

    Data representing 13 series of commercial communications satellites procured between 1968 and 1982 were analyzed to determine the factors that have contributed to the general reduction over time of the per circuit cost of communications satellites. The model by which the data were analyzed was derived from a general telecommunications application and modified to be more directly applicable for communications satellites. In this model satellite mass, bandwidth-years, and technological change were the variable parameters. A linear, least squares, multiple regression routine was used to obtain the measure of significance of the model. Correlation was measured by coefficient of determination (R super 2) and t-statistic. The results showed that no correlation could be established with satellite mass. Bandwidth-year however, did show a significant correlation. Technological change in the bandwidth-year case was a significant factor in the model. This analysis and the conclusions derived are based on mature technologies, i.e., satellite designs that are evolutions of earlier designs rather than the first of a new generation. The findings, therefore, are appropriate to future satellites only if they are a continuation of design evolution.

  8. Determination of optical and microstructural parameters of ceria films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Sik; Tokpanov, Yury S.; Hao, Yong; Jung, WooChul; Haile, Sossina M.

    2012-11-01

    Light-matter interactions are of tremendous importance in a wide range of fields from solar energy conversion to photonics. Here the optical dispersion behavior of undoped and 20 mol. % Sm doped ceria thin films, both dense and porous, were evaluated by UV-Vis optical transmission measurements, with the objective of determining both intrinsic and microstructural properties of the films. Films, ranging from 14 to 2300 nm in thickness, were grown on single crystal YSZ(100) and MgO(100) using pulsed laser deposition (both dense and porous films) and chemical vapor deposition (porous films only). The transmittance spectra were analyzed using an in-house developed methodology combining full spectrum fitting and envelope treatment. The index of refraction of ceria was found to fall between 2.65 at a wavelength of 400 nm and 2.25 at 800 nm, typical of literature values, and was relatively unchanged by doping. Reliable determination of film thickness, porosity, and roughness was possible for films with thickness ranging from 500 to 2500 nm. Physically meaningful microstructural parameters were extracted even for films so thin as to show no interference fringes at all.

  9. Determining CME-driven shock parameters from remote sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpes, L.; Bothmer, V.

    2016-02-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large scale eruptions of magnetized plasma propagating from the Sun into interplanetary space with speeds varying from a few tens to more than 2500 km s-1. They cause large-scale turbulence in the heliosphere and are the major drivers of space weather. Fast CMEs drive strong shocks in the corona and interplanetary medium and generate plasma turbulence in the post-shock regions ahead of the CME bodies. In this work results from the detailed analysis of a strong CME and shock event on April 3, 2010 are summarized. For this event the solar source region is identified and the CME and shock kinematics are determined from time series of white light images obtained by the SECCHI suite on board the STEREO spacecrafts. The shock's standoff distance, compression ratio and Mach number are derived. A comparison of the derived values with the in-situ measurements shows good agreement. Further comparison of the shock MHD parameters determined from remote sensing observations with in-situ data, including the calculation of power-spectra, will help validating the results and provide new insights into CME generated turbulence. The study will be extended to further events identified in STEREO observations.

  10. Determination of fundamental asteroseismic parameters using the Hilbert transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, René; Schad, Ariane; Herzberg, Wiebke; Roth, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Context. Solar-like oscillations exhibit a regular pattern of frequencies. This pattern is dominated by the small and large frequency separations between modes. The accurate determination of these parameters is of great interest, because they give information about e.g. the evolutionary state and the mass of a star. Aims: We want to develop a robust method to determine the large and small frequency separations for time series with low signal-to-noise ratio. For this purpose, we analyse a time series of the Sun from the GOLF instrument aboard SOHO and a time series of the star KIC 5184732 from the NASA Kepler satellite by employing a combination of Fourier and Hilbert transform. Methods: We use the analytic signal of filtered stellar oscillation time series to compute the signal envelope. Spectral analysis of the signal envelope then reveals frequency differences of dominant modes in the periodogram of the stellar time series. Results: With the described method the large frequency separation Δν can be extracted from the envelope spectrum even for data of poor signal-to-noise ratio. A modification of the method allows for an overview of the regularities in the periodogram of the time series.

  11. Determination of plasma parameters in solar zebra radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlický, M.; Yasnov, L. V.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We present a new method for determining the magnetic field strength and plasma density in the solar zebra radio sources. Methods: Using the double plasma resonance (DPR) model of the zebra emission, we analytically derived the equations for computing the gyroharmonic number s of selected zebra lines and then solved these equations numerically. Results: The method was successfully tested on artificially generated zebras and then applied to observed ones. The magnetic field strength and plasma density in the radio sources were determined. Simultaneously, we evaluated the parameter Lnb = 2Lb/ (2Ln - Lb), where Ln and Lb are the characteristic scale-heights of the plasma density and magnetic field strength in the zebra source, respectively. Computations show that the maximum frequency of the low-polarized zebras is about 8 GHz, in very good agreement with observations. For the high-polarized zebras, this limit is about four times lower. Microwave zebras are preferentially generated in the regions with steep gradients of the plasma density, such as in the transition region. In models with smaller density gradients, such as those with a barometric density profile, the microwave zebras cannot be produced owing to the strong bremsstrahlung and cyclotron absorptions. We also show that our DPR model is able to explain the zebras with frequency-equidistant zebra lines.

  12. A method for the on-site determination of prestressing forces using long-gauge fiber optic strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Jaber, H.; Glisic, B.

    2014-07-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) consists of the continuous or periodic measurement of structural parameters and their analysis with the aim of deducing information about the performance and health condition of a structure. The significant increase in the construction of prestressed concrete bridges motivated this research on an SHM method for the on-site determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along prestressed concrete beam structures. The estimation of the distribution of forces is important as it can give information regarding the overall performance and structural integrity of the bridge. An inadequate transfer of the designed prestressing forces to the concrete cross-section can lead to a reduced capacity of the bridge and consequently malfunction or failure at lower loads than predicted by design. This paper researches a universal method for the determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along concrete beam structures at the time of transfer of the prestressing force (e.g., at the time of prestressing or post-tensioning). The method is based on the use of long-gauge fiber optic sensors, and the sensor network is similar (practically identical) to the one used for damage identification. The method encompasses the determination of prestressing forces at both healthy and cracked cross-sections, and for the latter it can yield information about the condition of the cracks. The method is validated on-site by comparison to design forces through the application to two structures: (1) a deck-stiffened arch and (2) a curved continuous girder. The uncertainty in the determination of prestressing forces was calculated and the comparison with the design forces has shown very good agreement in most of the structures’ cross-sections, but also helped identify some unusual behaviors. The method and its validation are presented in this paper.

  13. Determining the Pollution Parameters of Degirmendere Stream (Trabzon, NE TURKEY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnetci, M. O.; Hatipoglu, E.; Firat Ersoy, A.; Gultekin, F.

    2013-12-01

    The pollution parameters of Degirmendere Stream (Trabzon, TURKEY) are determined in this study. The study area is located between Maçka, 26 km to the south of Trabzon city, and the Black Sea. The area consists of Late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary rocks, dacite, and basalt, overlain by Eocene volcanic rocks. Quaternary alluvium overlay all geological units following Degirmendere Stream bed. In-situ physical parameter measurements, anion-cation analysis, and heavy and pollutant element analysis on water samples were carried out for four months at four different locations on the stream. The stream's water temperature values were between 4.7 and 9.7oC, pH values were between 6.01 and 7.98, dissolved oxygen (DO) values were between 7.03 and 12.38 mg/l, electrical conductivity (EC) values were between 86 and 254 μS/cm. According to the Piper diagram, the stream water is classified as Ca-HCO3 type water. In the Schoeller diagram, the lines combining mek/l values of the ions in stream water are parallel. Al concentration in the stream water varied from 0.06 to 0.22 mg/l, Mn concentration varied from 0.1 to 0.36 mg/l, and Fe concentration varied from 0.01 to 0.12 mg/l. The stream water is classified as first class in point of temperature, pH, DO, total dissolved solids (TDS), NO3-, P, Pb, Fe, and Al; first and second class in point of NH4+; second class in point of Cu; and third class in point of NO2-, according to the Water Pollution Control Regulation of the Turkish Republic's Criteria for Inland Surface Water Classification. Results indicate waters of the Degirmendere Stream is very good-good for irrigation use according to the Wilcox diagram.

  14. Summary of longitudinal stability and control parameters as determined from Space Shuttle Challenger flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longitudinal stability and control parameters for the space shuttle were determined by applying a maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique to Challenger flight test data. The parameters for pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub alpha), (at different angles of attack), pitching moment coefficient, C(m sub delta e), (at different elevator deflections) and the normal force coefficient, C(z sub alpha), (at different angles of attack) describe 90 percent of the response to longitudinal inputs during Space Shuttle Challenger flights with C(m sub delta e) being the dominant parameter. The values of C(z sub alpha) were found to be input dependent for these tests. However, when C(z sub alpha) was set at preflight predictions, the values determined for C(m sub delta e) changed less than 10 percent from the values obtained when C(z sub alpha) was estimated as well. The preflight predictions for C(z sub alpha) and C(m sub alpha) are acceptable values, while the values of C(z sub delta e) should be about 30 percent less negative than the preflight predictions near Mach 1, and 10 percent less negative, otherwise.

  15. Determining cosmological parameters with the latest observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun-Qing; Li, Hong; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zhang, Xinmin

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we combine the latest observational data, including the WMAP five-year data (WMAP5), BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, ACBAR, as well as the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and type Ia supernovae (SN) “union” compilation (307 sample), and use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine the cosmological parameters, such as the equation of state (EoS) of dark energy, the curvature of the universe, the total neutrino mass, and the parameters associated with the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations. In a flat universe, we obtain the tight limit on the constant EoS of dark energy as w=-0.977±0.056(stat)±0.057(sys). For the dynamical dark energy models with the time evolving EoS parametrized as wde(a)=w0+w1(1-a), we find that the best-fit values are w0=-1.08 and w1=0.368, while the ΛCDM model remains a good fit to the current data. For the curvature of the universe Ωk, our results give -0.012<Ωk<0.009 (95% C.L.) when fixing wde=-1. When considering the dynamics of dark energy, the flat universe is still a good fit to the current data, -0.015<Ωk<0.018 (95% C.L.). Regarding the neutrino mass limit, we obtain the upper limits, ∑mν<0.533eV (95% C.L.) within the framework of the flat ΛCDM model. When adding the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-α forest power spectrum data, the constraint on ∑mν can be significantly improved, ∑mν<0.161eV (95% C.L.). However, these limits can be weakened by a factor of 2 in the framework of dynamical dark energy models, due to the obvious degeneracy between neutrino mass and the EoS of the dark energy model. Assuming that the primordial fluctuations are adiabatic with a power law spectrum within the ΛCDM model, we find that the upper limit on the ratio of the tensor to scalar is r<0.200 (95% C.L.) and the inflationary models with the slope ns≥1 are excluded at more than 2σ confidence level. However, in the framework of dynamical dark energy models, the allowed region in the parameter space of (ns,r) is

  16. DETERMINING UNCERTAINTY IN PHYSICAL PARAMETER MEASUREMENTS BY MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical approach, often called Monte Carlo Simulation, has been used to examine propagation of error with measurement of several parameters important in predicting environmental transport of chemicals. These parameters are vapor pressure, water solubility, octanol-water par...

  17. U Geminorum: a Test Case for Orbital Parameters Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, Juan; de La Fuente, Eduardo; Costero, Rafael

    2007-08-01

    Due to its eclipsing nature and thorough observational studies, U Gem, in general, a good candidate for the analysis of standard and new methods in the determination of the orbital parameters in cataclysmic variables. Although in this interactive binary, these parameters are relatively well known, there are still discrepancies in the radial velocity semi-amplitude of the white dwarf, as obtained from the optical or the Ultraviolet data. Furthermore, the secondary star is not visible in the optical; consequently, its corresponding semi-amplitude has been derived from data obtained in the infrared region. For these reasons U Gem is an interesting case for testing new methods to derive orbital parameters based on optical observations only. High resolution spectroscopy of U Gem, covering the spectral region λ 5200-9100 Å, was obtained. The system was observed during quiescence, about 35 days after the onset of an outburst. We did not find a hot spot or gas stream around the outer boundaries of the accretion disk. Instead, we detected a strong narrow emission at the location of the secondary star. We measured the radial velocity curve from the wings of the double-peaked Hα emission line, and obtained a semi-amplitude value in excellent agreement with the ultraviolet results by Long & Gilliland (1999). We present also a new method to obtain K[2], based on the detection of the TiO band around λ 7050 Å. Our results are compared with published values derived from the near-infrared NaI line doublet. From a comparison of the TiO band with those of late type M stars, we find that a best fit is obtained for a M6 V star, contributing 5 percent of the total light at that spectral region. Assuming that the radial velocity semi-amplitudes reflect accurately the motion of the binary components, then from our results: K[em] = 108 km s-1 and K[abs] = 310 km s-1. For a revised inclination angle of i = 70o (Zhang et al. 1987) the system parameters become; M[wd] = 1.20 ± 0.05 M

  18. Thermodynamic properties of liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys determined from electromotive force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhongnan; Hindler, Michael; Yuan, Wenxia; Mikula, Adolf

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Au–Cu–Sn system were determined with the electromotive force (EMF) method using a liquid electrolyte. Three different cross-sections with constant Au:Cu ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 were applied to measure the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system in the temperature range between the liquidus temperature of the alloys and 1023 K. The partial free energies of Sn in liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys were obtained from EMF data. The integral Gibbs free energy and the integral enthalpy at 900 K were calculated by Gibbs–Duhem integration. The ternary interaction parameters were evaluated using the Redlich–Kister–Muggianu polynomial. PMID:22039311

  19. Determining charge state of graphene vacancy by noncontact atomic force microscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Weinert, M.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene vacancies are engineered for novel functionalities, however, the charge state of these defects, the key parameter that is vital to charge transfer during chemical reactions and carrier scattering, is generally unknown. Here, we carried out atomic resolution imaging of graphene vacancy defects created by Ar plasma using noncontact atomic force microscopy, and made the first determination of their charge state by local contact potential difference measurements. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we show that graphene vacancies are typically positively charged, with size-dependent charge states that are not necessarily integer-valued. These findings provide new insights into carrier scattering by vacancy defects in graphene, as well as its functionalization for chemical sensing and catalysis, and underline the tunability of these functions by controlling the size of vacancy defect.

  20. Determining important parameters related to cyanobacterial alkaloid toxin exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Love, A H

    2005-09-16

    Science-based decision making required robust and high-fidelity mechanistic data about the system dynamics and impacts of system changes. Alkaloid cyanotoxins have the characteristics to warrant consideration for their potential threat. Since insufficient information is available to construct a systems model for the alkaloid cyanotoxins, saxitoxins, anatoxins, and anatoxin-a(S), an accurate assessments of these toxins as a potential threat for use for intentional contamination is not possible. Alkaloid cyanotoxin research that contributed to such a model has numerous areas of overlap for natural and intentional health effects issues that generates dual improvements to the state of the science. The use of sensitivity analyses of systems models can identify parameters that, when determined, result in the greatest impact to the overall system and may help to direct the most efficient use of research funding. This type of modeling-assisted experimentation may allow rapid progress for overall system understanding compared to observational or disciplinary research agendas. Assessment and management of risk from intentional contamination can be performed with greater confidence when mechanisms are known and the relationships between different components are validated. This level of understanding allows high-fidelity assessments that do not hamper legitimate possession of these toxins for research purposes, while preventing intentional contamination that would affect public health. It also allows for appropriate response to an intentional contamination event, even if the specific contamination had not been previous considered. Development of science-based decision making tools will only improve our ability to address the new requirements addressing potential threats to our nation.

  1. Determination of parameters of a nuclear reactor through noise measurements

    DOEpatents

    Cohn, C.E.

    1975-07-15

    A method of measuring parameters of a nuclear reactor by noise measurements is described. Noise signals are developed by the detectors placed in the reactor core. The polarity coincidence between the noise signals is used to develop quantities from which various parameters of the reactor can be calculated. (auth)

  2. Mathematical modeling of drying of potato slices in a forced convective dryer based on important parameters.

    PubMed

    Naderinezhad, Samira; Etesami, Nasrin; Poormalek Najafabady, Arefe; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    The effect of air temperature, air velocity, and sample shapes (circle and square with the same cross-sectional area) on kinetic drying of potato slices in a tunnel dryer was investigated experimentally and a suitable drying model was developed. The experiments of drying of potato slices were conducted at an air temperature of 45-70°C with an air velocity 1.60 and 1.81 m sec(-1). Results showed that drying temperature was the most effective parameter in the drying rate. The influence of air velocity was more profound in low temperature. The time for drying square slices was lower compared to the circle ones. Furthermore, drying data were fitted to different empirical models. Among the models, Midilli-Kucuk was the best to explain the single layer drying of potato slices. The parameters of this model were determined as functions of air velocity and temperature by multiple regression analysis for circle and square slices. Various statistical parameters were examined for evaluating the model. PMID:26788317

  3. A test method for determining adhesion forces and Hamaker constants of cementitious materials using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang Kejin; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2011-11-15

    A method for determining Hamaker constant of cementitious materials is presented. The method involved sample preparation, measurement of adhesion force between the tested material and a silicon nitride probe using atomic force microscopy in dry air and in water, and calculating the Hamaker constant using appropriate contact mechanics models. The work of adhesion and Hamaker constant were computed from the pull-off forces using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts and Derjagin-Muller-Toropov models. Reference materials with known Hamaker constants (mica, silica, calcite) and commercially available cementitious materials (Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS)) were studied. The Hamaker constants of the reference materials obtained are consistent with those published by previous researchers. The results indicate that PC has a higher Hamaker constant than GGBFS. The Hamaker constant of PC in water is close to the previously predicted value C{sub 3}S, which is attributed to short hydration time ({<=} 45 min) used in this study.

  4. Plasma parameters and electromagnetic forces induced by the magneto hydro dynamic interaction in a hypersonic argon flow experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A.

    2012-08-01

    This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of H{sub {alpha}} and the H{sub {beta}} lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.

  5. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  6. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome. PMID:26797435

  7. Corruption of parameter behavior and regionalization by model and forcing data errors: A Bayesian example using the SNOW17 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Minxue; Hogue, Terri S.; Franz, Kristie J.; Margulis, Steven A.; Vrugt, Jasper A.

    2011-07-01

    The current study evaluates the impacts of various sources of uncertainty involved in hydrologic modeling on parameter behavior and regionalization utilizing different Bayesian likelihood functions and the Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm. The developed likelihood functions differ in their underlying assumptions and treatment of error sources. We apply the developed method to a snow accumulation and ablation model (National Weather Service SNOW17) and generate parameter ensembles to predict snow water equivalent (SWE). Observational data include precipitation and air temperature forcing along with SWE measurements from 24 sites with diverse hydroclimatic characteristics. A multiple linear regression model is used to construct regionalization relationships between model parameters and site characteristics. Results indicate that model structural uncertainty has the largest influence on SNOW17 parameter behavior. Precipitation uncertainty is the second largest source of uncertainty, showing greater impact at wetter sites. Measurement uncertainty in SWE tends to have little impact on the final model parameters and resulting SWE predictions. Considering all sources of uncertainty, parameters related to air temperature and snowfall fraction exhibit the strongest correlations to site characteristics. Parameters related to the length of the melting period also show high correlation to site characteristics. Finally, model structural uncertainty and precipitation uncertainty dramatically alter parameter regionalization relationships in comparison to cases where only uncertainty in model parameters or output measurements is considered. Our results demonstrate that accurate treatment of forcing, parameter, model structural, and calibration data errors is critical for deriving robust regionalization relationships.

  8. On the ability of molecular dynamics force fields to recapitulate NMR derived protein side chain order parameters.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Evan S; Wand, A Joshua; Sharp, Kim A

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become a central tool for investigating various biophysical questions with atomistic detail. While many different proxies are used to qualify MD force fields, most are based on largely structural parameters such as the root mean square deviation from experimental coordinates or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts and residual dipolar couplings. NMR derived Lipari-Szabo squared generalized order parameter (O(2) ) values of amide NH bond vectors of the polypeptide chain were also often employed for refinement and validation. However, with a few exceptions, side chain methyl symmetry axis order parameters have not been incorporated into experimental reference sets. Using a test set of five diverse proteins, the performance of several force fields implemented in the NAMDD simulation package was examined. It was found that simulations employing explicit water implemented using the TIP3 model generally performed significantly better than those using implicit water in reproducing experimental methyl symmetry axis O(2) values. Overall the CHARMM27 force field performs nominally better than two implementations of the Amber force field. It appeared that recent quantum mechanics modifications to side chain torsional angles of leucine and isoleucine in the Amber force field have significantly hindered proper motional modeling for these residues. There remained significant room for improvement as even the best correlations of experimental and simulated methyl group Lipari-Szabo generalized order parameters fall below an R(2) of 0.8. PMID:26990788

  9. Online Determination of Graphene Lattice Orientation Through Lateral Forces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Fanhua; Li, Guangyong; Liu, Lianqing; Liu, Guangjie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yuechao; Wejinya, Uchechukwu C; Xi, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Rapid progress in graphene engineering has called for a simple and effective method to determine the lattice orientation on graphene before tailoring graphene to the desired edge structures and shapes. In this work, a wavelet transform-based frequency identification method is developed to distinguish the lattice orientation of graphene. The lattice orientation is determined through the different distribution of the frequency power spectrum just from a single scan line. This method is proven both theoretically and experimentally to be useful and controllable. The results at the atomic scale show that the frequencies vary with the lattice orientation of graphene. Thus, an adjusted angle to the desired lattice orientation (zigzag or armchair) can easily be calculated based on the frequency obtained from the single scan line. Ultimately, these results will play a critical role in wafer-size graphene engineering and in the manufacturing of graphene-based nanodevices. PMID:27484859

  10. Online Determination of Graphene Lattice Orientation Through Lateral Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Fanhua; Li, Guangyong; Liu, Lianqing; Liu, Guangjie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yuechao; Wejinya, Uchechukwu C.; Xi, Ning

    2016-08-01

    Rapid progress in graphene engineering has called for a simple and effective method to determine the lattice orientation on graphene before tailoring graphene to the desired edge structures and shapes. In this work, a wavelet transform-based frequency identification method is developed to distinguish the lattice orientation of graphene. The lattice orientation is determined through the different distribution of the frequency power spectrum just from a single scan line. This method is proven both theoretically and experimentally to be useful and controllable. The results at the atomic scale show that the frequencies vary with the lattice orientation of graphene. Thus, an adjusted angle to the desired lattice orientation (zigzag or armchair) can easily be calculated based on the frequency obtained from the single scan line. Ultimately, these results will play a critical role in wafer-size graphene engineering and in the manufacturing of graphene-based nanodevices.

  11. Comparative analysis of methods for determining bite force in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Huber, Daniel Robert; Motta, Philip Jay

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have identified relationships between the forces generated by the cranial musculature during feeding and cranial design. Particularly important to understanding the diversity of cranial form amongst vertebrates is knowledge of the generated magnitudes of bite force because of its use as a measure of ecological performance. In order to determine an accurate morphological proxy for bite force in elasmobranchs, theoretical force generation by the quadratomandibularis muscle of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias was modeled using a variety of morphological techniques, and lever-ratio analyses were used to determine resultant bite forces. These measures were compared to in vivo bite force measurements obtained with a pressure transducer during tetanic stimulation experiments of the quadratomandibularis. Although no differences were found between the theoretical and in vivo bite forces measured, modeling analyses indicate that the quadratomandibularis muscle should be divided into its constituent divisions and digital images of the cross-sections of these divisions should be used to estimate cross-sectional area when calculating theoretical force production. From all analyses the maximum bite force measured was 19.57 N. This relatively low magnitude of bite force is discussed with respect to the ecomorphology of the feeding mechanism of S. acanthias to demonstrate the interdependence of morphology, ecology, and behavior in organismal design. PMID:14695686

  12. Characterization of marine boundary layer aerosol from North Atlantic and European sources: Physical and chemical properties and climate forcing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Ulrike

    This thesis focuses on aerosol properties measured in Southwestern Portugal during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Fundamental aerosol physical properties such as particle size distribution and hygroscopic properties are related to possible sources and aerosol transformation processes. From these fundamental properties we derive aerosol properties that are important for aerosol forcing of climate. First, a new method for calculating CCN spectra is proposed in this work and tested using sensitivity studies and comparisons to direct measurements. The measured and calculated CCN spectra differ on average by 30%, which at small supersaturations is similar to the measurement uncertainties. Second, aerosol number to volume ratios (R) are calculated and the fact that values of R are relatively constrained is explained based on observed correlations between size distribution parameters. Third, a simple parameterization of the humidity dependence of the submicron aerosol scattering coefficient has been derived, depending only on a volume weighted average diameter growth factor and the volume mean diameter of the dry size distribution. One set of empirical parameters can be used to parameterize all aerosol types characterized during the ACE-2 measurement period. Aerosol physical properties and climate forcing parameters in the North-East Atlantic Ocean were clearly affected by pollution outbreaks from Europe. The submicron particle volume increased by a factor of 5 in polluted conditions, the light scattering coefficient of dry particles increased on average by a factor of up to 10, CCN concentrations at supersaturations of 0.2% increased by a factor of 3--5. The aerosol fundamental properties vary often strongly with air mass history, but also show short-term variability that often has a characteristic diurnal scale. The number concentration of fine particles below 50nm and the particle hygroscopic growth factors are mostly dominated by diurnal processes

  13. Exploring the Parameter Space of the Coarse-Grained UNRES Force Field by Random Search: Selecting a Transferable Medium-Resolution Force Field

    PubMed Central

    HE, YI; XIAO, YI; LIWO, ADAM; SCHERAGA, HAROLD A.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the energy-parameter space of our coarse-grained UNRES force field for large-scale ab initio simulations of protein folding, to obtain good initial approximations for hierarchical optimization of the force field with new virtual-bond-angle bending and side-chain-rotamer potentials which we recently introduced to replace the statistical potentials. 100 sets of energy-term weights were generated randomly, and good sets were selected by carrying out replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations of two peptides with a minimal α-helical and a minimal β-hairpin fold, respectively: the tryptophan cage (PDB code: 1L2Y) and tryptophan zipper (PDB code: 1LE1). Eight sets of parameters produced native-like structures of these two peptides. These eight sets were tested on two larger proteins: the engrailed homeodomain (PDB code: 1ENH) and FBP WW domain (PDB code: 1E0L); two sets were found to produce native-like conformations of these proteins. These two sets were tested further on a larger set of nine proteins with α or α + β structure and found to locate native-like structures of most of them. These results demonstrate that, in addition to finding reasonable initial starting points for optimization, an extensive search of parameter space is a powerful method to produce a transferable force field. PMID:19242966

  14. Determining frequentist confidence limits using a directed parameter space search

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Schneider, Jeff

    2014-10-10

    We consider the problem of inferring constraints on a high-dimensional parameter space with a computationally expensive likelihood function. We propose a machine learning algorithm that maps out the Frequentist confidence limit on parameter space by intelligently targeting likelihood evaluations so as to quickly and accurately characterize the likelihood surface in both low- and high-likelihood regions. We compare our algorithm to Bayesian credible limits derived by the well-tested Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm using both multi-modal toy likelihood functions and the seven yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmic microwave background likelihood function. We find that our algorithm correctly identifies the location, general size, and general shape of high-likelihood regions in parameter space while being more robust against multi-modality than MCMC.

  15. Flexural Vibration Test of a Cantilever Beam with a Force Sensor: Fast Determination of Young's Modulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digilov, Rafael M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple and very inexpensive undergraduate laboratory experiment for fast determination of Young's modulus at moderate temperatures with the aid of a force sensor. A strip-shaped specimen rigidly bolted to the force sensor forms a clamped-free cantilever beam. Placed in a furnace, it is subjected to free-bending vibrations followed by…

  16. Simple method for determination of parameters of cemented doublet.

    PubMed

    Mikš, Antonín; Pokorný, Petr

    2016-07-10

    This paper proposes a simple noninvasive method that makes it possible to calculate the inner design parameters of the cemented doublet using measurements of its chosen paraxial optical and geometrical parameters without any damage to the system under testing (e.g., dismantling). Derived formulas are based on the knowledge of measured values of the lenses thicknesses, the radii of curvatures of the first and the last doublet's surfaces, the paraxial focal length, and positions of the object and the image focal point. Practical usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated on the real measurement of a known doublet. PMID:27409326

  17. Determining the Kinetic Parameters Characteristic of Microalgal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Sancho, Maria Eugenie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students obtain a growth curve for algae, identify the exponential and linear growth phases, and calculate the parameters which characterize both phases is described. The procedure, a list of required materials, experimental conditions, analytical technique, and a discussion of the interpretations of individual results are…

  18. Determination of quantum-noise parameters of realistic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. A.; Vogel, W.; Khanbekyan, M.; Welsch, D.-G.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure is developed which allows one to measure all the parameters occurring in a complete model [A. A. Semenov , Phys. Rev. A 74, 033803 (2006)] of realistic leaky cavities with unwanted noise. The method is based on the reflection of properly chosen test pulses by the cavity.

  19. Determining crystal growth kinetic parameters using optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerkamp, M.; Lamb, D. W.; Lye, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    The capability of an 'intrinsic exposed core optical fibre sensor' (IECOFS) as a monitoring device of scale formation has been evaluated. The IECOFS has been used to measure kinetics parameters of calcium carbonate heterogeneous crystal growth such as the activation energy, the crystal growth rate and the induction time. The IECOFS was able to evaluate crystal growth inhibition through the use of chemical inhibitors.

  20. Unsaturated hydraulic parameters determined from direct and indirect methods

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Hudson, David B.; Flint, Alan L.

    1997-10-22

    Hydraulic parameters are required for numerical simulations of unsaturated flow at Yucca Mountain, a vertically heterogeneous volcanic site for a potential high-level waste repository in the desert southwest. In this paper, direct measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using a centrifuge with a specialized rotor are compared to those estimated using a predictive conductivity equation and two methods of measuring moisture retention.

  1. Analysis of Muscle Force-Velocity Parameter Changes in Elderly Women Resulting from Physical Activity--In Continuous Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrzek, Anna; Stefanska, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate changes in muscle force-velocity parameters (F-v) in elderly women subjected to physical exercise. The examinations encompassed 20 women, aged 62-71, who were students at the University of the Third Age in Wroclaw. The evaluation of flexors and extensors of the knee joint, as well as flexors and extensors of…

  2. Attitude determination of a high altitude balloon system. Part 2: Development of the parameter determination process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nigro, N. J.; Elkouh, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    The attitude of the balloon system is determined as a function of time if: (a) a method for simulating the motion of the system is available, and (b) the initial state is known. The initial state is obtained by fitting the system motion (as measured by sensors) to the corresponding output predicted by the mathematical model. In the case of the LACATE experiment the sensors consisted of three orthogonally oriented rate gyros and a magnetometer all mounted on the research platform. The initial state was obtained by fitting the angular velocity components measured with the gyros to the corresponding values obtained from the solution of the math model. A block diagram illustrating the attitude determination process employed for the LACATE experiment is shown. The process consists of three essential parts; a process for simulating the balloon system, an instrumentation system for measuring the output, and a parameter estimation process for systematically and efficiently solving the initial state. Results are presented and discussed.

  3. Modal parameter determination of a lightweight aerospace panel using laser Doppler vibrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Kleverson C.; Domingues, Allan C.; Pereira, Pedro P. de S.; Carneiro, Sergio H.; de Morais, Marcus V. G.; Fabro, Adriano T.

    2016-06-01

    The experimental determination of modal parameters, i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratio, are key in characterizing the dynamic behaviour of structures. Typically, such parameters are obtained from dynamic measurements using one or a set of accelerometers, for response measurements, along with force transducers from an impact hammer or an electrodynamic actuator, i.e. a shaker. However, lightweight structures, commonly applied in the aerospace industry, can be significantly affected by the added mass from accelerometers. Therefore, non-contact measurement techniques, like Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), are a more suitable approach in determining the dynamic characteristics of such structures. In this article, the procedures and results of a modal test for a honeycomb sandwich panel for aerospace applications are presented and discussed. The main objectives of the test are the identification of natural frequencies and mode shapes in order to validate a numerical model, as well as the identification of the damping characteristics of the panel. A validated numerical model will be necessary for future detailed response analysis of the satellite, including vibroacoustic investigations to account for acoustic excitations encountered during launching. The numerical model using homogenised material properties is updated to fit the experimental results and very good agreement between experimental and numerically obtained natural frequencies and mode shapes.

  4. A system for the determination of planar force vectors from spontaneously active chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Andrew A; Cain, Blake W; Pakiraih, Joanna; Williams, James L

    2014-11-01

    Generally, a combination of kinematic, electromyographic (EMG), and force measurements are used to understand how an organism generates and controls movement. The chicken embryo has been a very useful model system for understanding the early stages of embryonic motility in vertebrates. Unfortunately, the size and delicate nature of embryos makes studies of motility during embryogenesis very challenging. Both kinematic and EMG recordings have been achieved in embryonic chickens, but two-dimensional force vector recordings have not. Here, we describe a dual-axis system for measuring force generated by the leg of embryonic chickens. The system employs two strain gauges to measure planar forces oriented with the plane of motion of the leg. This system responds to forces according to the principles of Pythagorean geometry, which allows a simple computational program to determine the force vector (magnitude and direction) generated during spontaneous motor activity. The system is able to determine force vectors for forces >0.5 mN accurately and allows for simultaneous kinematic and EMG recordings. This sensitivity is sufficient for force vector measurements encompassing most embryonic leg movements in midstage chicken embryos allowing for a more complete understanding of embryonic motility. Variations on this system are discussed to enable nonideal or alternative sensor arrangements and to allow for translation of this approach to other delicate model systems. PMID:25143544

  5. Instrument for the measurement and determination of chemical pulse column parameters

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, Norman J.; Morgan, John P.

    1990-01-01

    An instrument for monitoring and measuring pneumatic driving force pulse parameters applied to chemical separation pulse columns obtains real time pulse frequency and root mean square amplitude values, calculates column inch values and compares these values against preset limits to alert column operators to the variations of pulse column operational parameters beyond desired limits.

  6. Spectroscopic determination of kinetic parameters for frequency sweeping Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lesur, M.; Idomura, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Garbet, X.

    2010-12-15

    A method for analyzing fundamental kinetic plasma parameters, such as linear drive and external damping rate, based on experimental observations of chirping Alfven eigenmodes, is presented. The method, which relies on new semiempirical laws for nonlinear chirping characteristics, consists of fitting procedures between the so-called Berk-Breizman model and the experiment in a quasiperiodic chirping regime. This approach is applied to the toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) on JT-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [N. Oyama et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104007 (2009)], which yields an estimation of the kinetic parameters and suggests the existence of TAEs far from marginal stability. Two collision models are considered, and it is shown that dynamical friction and velocity-space diffusion are essential to reproduce nonlinear features observed in experiments. The results are validated by recovering measured growth and decay of perturbation amplitude and by estimating collision frequencies from experimental equilibrium data.

  7. Possibility of determination of the asymptotic level-density parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Kudyaev, G.A.; Ostapenko, Y.B.; Svirin, M.I.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1988-02-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the fissility of nuclei to the parameters of the density of excited levels and conclude that the nuclei in the region of Pb are most favorable for an experimental estimate of the asymptotic parameter a-italic-tilde = ..cap alpha..A. The mean value ..cap alpha.. = 0.086 +- 0.009 MeV/sup -1/ is found from analysis of the fission of seven nuclei from /sup 201/Tl to /sup 213/At. This value is in agreement with the phenomenological description of the energy dependence a(U) (..cap alpha.. = 0.093 MeV/sup -1/) and with the theoretical prediction ..cap alpha.. = 0.09 MeV/sup -1/ obtained for a Woods-Saxon potential.

  8. Interactions among thermal parameters determine offspring sex under temperature-dependent sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel A.; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    In many animals, temperatures experienced by developing embryos determine offspring sex (e.g. temperature-dependent sex determination, TSD), but most studies focus strictly on the effects of mean temperature, with little emphasis on the importance of thermal fluctuations. In the jacky dragon (Amphibolurus muricatus), an Australian lizard with TSD, data from nests in the field demonstrate that offspring sex ratios are predictable from thermal fluctuations but not from mean nest temperatures. To clarify this paradox, we incubated eggs in a factorial experiment with two levels of mean temperature and three levels of diel fluctuation. We show that offspring sex is determined by an interaction between these critical thermal parameters. Intriguingly, because these two thermal descriptors shift in opposing directions throughout the incubation season, this interactive effect inhibits seasonal shifts in sex ratio. Hence, our results suggest that TSD can yield offspring sex ratios that resemble those produced under genotypic sex-determining systems. These findings raise important considerations for understanding the diversity of TSD reaction norms, for designing experiments that evaluate the evolutionary significance of TSD, and for predicting sex ratios under past and future climate change scenarios. PMID:20685704

  9. Automated inference procedure for the determination of cell growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Harris, Edouard A; Koh, Eun Jee; Moffat, Jason; McMillen, David R

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and carrying capacity of a cell population are key to the characterization of the population's viability and to the quantification of its responses to perturbations such as drug treatments. Accurate estimation of these parameters necessitates careful analysis. Here, we present a rigorous mathematical approach for the robust analysis of cell count data, in which all the experimental stages of the cell counting process are investigated in detail with the machinery of Bayesian probability theory. We advance a flexible theoretical framework that permits accurate estimates of the growth parameters of cell populations and of the logical correlations between them. Moreover, our approach naturally produces an objective metric of avoidable experimental error, which may be tracked over time in a laboratory to detect instrumentation failures or lapses in protocol. We apply our method to the analysis of cell count data in the context of a logistic growth model by means of a user-friendly computer program that automates this analysis, and present some samples of its output. Finally, we note that a traditional least squares fit can provide misleading estimates of parameter values, because it ignores available information with regard to the way in which the data have actually been collected. PMID:26871096

  10. Automated inference procedure for the determination of cell growth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Edouard A.; Koh, Eun Jee; Moffat, Jason; McMillen, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and carrying capacity of a cell population are key to the characterization of the population's viability and to the quantification of its responses to perturbations such as drug treatments. Accurate estimation of these parameters necessitates careful analysis. Here, we present a rigorous mathematical approach for the robust analysis of cell count data, in which all the experimental stages of the cell counting process are investigated in detail with the machinery of Bayesian probability theory. We advance a flexible theoretical framework that permits accurate estimates of the growth parameters of cell populations and of the logical correlations between them. Moreover, our approach naturally produces an objective metric of avoidable experimental error, which may be tracked over time in a laboratory to detect instrumentation failures or lapses in protocol. We apply our method to the analysis of cell count data in the context of a logistic growth model by means of a user-friendly computer program that automates this analysis, and present some samples of its output. Finally, we note that a traditional least squares fit can provide misleading estimates of parameter values, because it ignores available information with regard to the way in which the data have actually been collected.

  11. Determination of combustion parameters using engine crankshaft speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taglialatela, F.; Lavorgna, M.; Mancaruso, E.; Vaglieco, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    Electronic engine controls based on real time diagnosis of combustion process can significantly help in complying with the stricter and stricter regulations on pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The most important parameter for the evaluation of combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the in-cylinder pressure, but its direct measurement is very expensive and involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder. Previous researches demonstrated the direct relationship existing between in-cylinder pressure and engine crankshaft speed and several authors tried to reconstruct the pressure cycle on the basis of the engine speed signal. In this paper we propose the use of a Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network to model the relationship between the engine crankshaft speed and some parameters derived from the in-cylinder pressure cycle. This allows to have a non-intrusive estimation of cylinder pressure and a real time evaluation of combustion quality. The structure of the model and the training procedure is outlined in the paper. A possible combustion controller using the information extracted from the crankshaft speed information is also proposed. The application of the neural network model is demonstrated on a single-cylinder spark ignition engine tested in a wide range of speeds and loads. Results confirm that a good estimation of some combustion pressure parameters can be obtained by means of a suitable processing of crankshaft speed signal.

  12. Contact inhibition of locomotion determines cell–cell and cell–substrate forces in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Juliane; Camley, Brian A.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Cells organized in tissues exert forces on their neighbors and their environment. Those cellular forces determine tissue homeostasis as well as reorganization during embryonic development and wound healing. To understand how cellular forces are generated and how they can influence the tissue state, we develop a particle-based simulation model for adhesive cell clusters and monolayers. Cells are contractile, exert forces on their substrate and on each other, and interact through contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL), meaning that cell–cell contacts suppress force transduction to the substrate and propulsion forces align away from neighbors. Our model captures the traction force patterns of small clusters of nonmotile cells and larger sheets of motile Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. In agreement with observations in a spreading MDCK colony, the cell density in the center increases as cells divide and the tissue grows. A feedback between cell density, CIL, and cell–cell adhesion gives rise to a linear relationship between cell density and intercellular tensile stress and forces the tissue into a nonmotile state characterized by a broad distribution of traction forces. Our model also captures the experimentally observed tissue flow around circular obstacles, and CIL accounts for traction forces at the edge. PMID:26903658

  13. Contact inhibition of locomotion determines cell-cell and cell-substrate forces in tissues.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Juliane; Camley, Brian A; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    Cells organized in tissues exert forces on their neighbors and their environment. Those cellular forces determine tissue homeostasis as well as reorganization during embryonic development and wound healing. To understand how cellular forces are generated and how they can influence the tissue state, we develop a particle-based simulation model for adhesive cell clusters and monolayers. Cells are contractile, exert forces on their substrate and on each other, and interact through contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL), meaning that cell-cell contacts suppress force transduction to the substrate and propulsion forces align away from neighbors. Our model captures the traction force patterns of small clusters of nonmotile cells and larger sheets of motile Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. In agreement with observations in a spreading MDCK colony, the cell density in the center increases as cells divide and the tissue grows. A feedback between cell density, CIL, and cell-cell adhesion gives rise to a linear relationship between cell density and intercellular tensile stress and forces the tissue into a nonmotile state characterized by a broad distribution of traction forces. Our model also captures the experimentally observed tissue flow around circular obstacles, and CIL accounts for traction forces at the edge. PMID:26903658

  14. Correlations between forced oscillation technique parameters and pulmonary densitovolumetry values in patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, G.B.; Carvalho, A.R.S.; Machado, D.C.; Mogami, R.; Kasuki, L.; Gadelha, M.R.; Melo, P.L.; Lopes, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and pulmonary densitovolumetry in acromegalic patients and to examine the correlations between these findings. In this cross-sectional study, 29 non-smoking acromegalic patients and 17 paired controls were subjected to the FOT and quantification of lung volume using multidetector computed tomography (Q-MDCT). Compared with the controls, the acromegalic patients had a higher value for resonance frequency [15.3 (10.9-19.7) vs 11.4 (9.05-17.6) Hz, P=0.023] and a lower value for mean reactance [0.32 (0.21-0.64) vs 0.49 (0.34-0.96) cm H2O/L/s2, P=0.005]. In inspiratory Q-MDCT, the acromegalic patients had higher percentages of total lung volume (TLV) for nonaerated and poorly aerated areas [0.42% (0.30-0.51%) vs 0.25% (0.20-0.32%), P=0.039 and 3.25% (2.48-3.46%) vs 1.70% (1.45-2.15%), P=0.001, respectively]. Furthermore, the acromegalic patients had higher values for total lung mass in both inspiratory and expiratory Q-MDCT [821 (635-923) vs 696 (599-769) g, P=0.021 and 844 (650-945) vs 637 (536-736) g, P=0.009, respectively]. In inspiratory Q-MDCT, TLV showed significant correlations with all FOT parameters. The TLV of hyperaerated areas showed significant correlations with intercept resistance (rs=−0.602, P<0.001) and mean resistance (rs=−0.580, P<0.001). These data showed that acromegalic patients have increased amounts of lung tissue as well as nonaerated and poorly aerated areas. Functionally, there was a loss of homogeneity of the respiratory system. Moreover, there were correlations between the structural and functional findings of the respiratory system, consistent with the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:26445330

  15. Correlations between forced oscillation technique parameters and pulmonary densitovolumetry values in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Camilo, G B; Carvalho, A R S; Machado, D C; Mogami, R; Kasuki, L; Gadelha, M R; Melo, P L; Lopes, A J

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and pulmonary densitovolumetry in acromegalic patients and to examine the correlations between these findings. In this cross-sectional study, 29 non-smoking acromegalic patients and 17 paired controls were subjected to the FOT and quantification of lung volume using multidetector computed tomography (Q-MDCT). Compared with the controls, the acromegalic patients had a higher value for resonance frequency [15.3 (10.9-19.7) vs 11.4 (9.05-17.6) Hz, P=0.023] and a lower value for mean reactance [0.32 (0.21-0.64) vs 0.49 (0.34-0.96) cm H2O/L/s2, P=0.005]. In inspiratory Q-MDCT, the acromegalic patients had higher percentages of total lung volume (TLV) for nonaerated and poorly aerated areas [0.42% (0.30-0.51%) vs 0.25% (0.20-0.32%), P=0.039 and 3.25% (2.48-3.46%) vs 1.70% (1.45-2.15%), P=0.001, respectively]. Furthermore, the acromegalic patients had higher values for total lung mass in both inspiratory and expiratory Q-MDCT [821 (635-923) vs 696 (599-769) g, P=0.021 and 844 (650-945) vs 637 (536-736) g, P=0.009, respectively]. In inspiratory Q-MDCT, TLV showed significant correlations with all FOT parameters. The TLV of hyperaerated areas showed significant correlations with intercept resistance (rs=-0.602, P<0.001) and mean resistance (rs=-0.580, P<0.001). These data showed that acromegalic patients have increased amounts of lung tissue as well as nonaerated and poorly aerated areas. Functionally, there was a loss of homogeneity of the respiratory system. Moreover, there were correlations between the structural and functional findings of the respiratory system, consistent with the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:26445330

  16. Relationship between foot posture measurements and force platform parameters during two balance tasks in older and younger subjects

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Carlos E.; da Silva, Rubens A.; Gil, André W.; Oliveira, Márcio R.; Nascimento, Juliana A.; Pires-Oliveira, Deise A. A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare age-related differences in balance and anthropometric posture measurements of the foot and to determine any relationship between them. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight older and 42 younger adults participated in this study. Foot posture was tested for four domains: 1) hallux flexion and extension range of motion using a goniometer, 2) navicular height and 3) length of the foot using a pachymeter, and 4) footprint (width of forefoot, arch index and hallux valgus). Balance was tested under two conditions on a force platform: bipodal in 60-s trials and unipodal in 30-s trials. The sway area of the center of pressure and velocity in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were computed. [Results] Older individuals showed significantly poorer balance compared with younger adults under in the unipodal condition (center of pressure area 9.97 vs. 7.72 cm2). Older people presented a significantly lower hallux mobility and higher values for width of the forefoot and transverse arch index than younger adults. The correlations between all foot posture and center of pressure parameters varied across groups, from weak to moderate (r −0.01 to −0.46). Low hallux mobility was significantly related to higher center of pressure values in older people. [Conclusion] These results have clinical implications for balance and foot posture assessments. PMID:25931713

  17. Mechanical parameters determining pharyngeal collapsibility in patients with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Oliven, Arie; Kaufman, Eran; Kaynan, Rotem; Oliven, Ron; Steinfeld, Uri; Tov, Nave; Odeh, Majed; Gaitini, Luis; Schwartz, Alan R; Kimmel, Eitan

    2010-10-01

    The relative impact of mechanical factors on pharyngeal patency in patients with obstructive sleep apnea is poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate parameters of the "tube law" on pharyngeal pressure-flow relationships and collapsibility in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. We developed a mathematical model that considered the collapsible segment of the pharynx to represent an orifice of varying diameter. The model enabled us to assess the effects of pharyngeal compliance (C), neutral cross-sectional area (A(o)), external peripharyngeal pressure (P(ex)), and the resistance proximal to the site of collapse on flow mechanics and pharyngeal collapsibility [critical pressure (P(crit))]. All parameters were measured in 15 patients with obstructive sleep apnea under propofol anesthesia, both at rest and during mandibular advancement and electrical stimulation of the genioglossus. The data was used both to confirm the validity of the model and to compare expected and actual relationships between the tube-law parameters and the pharyngeal pressure-flow relationship and collapsibility. We found a close correlation between predicted and measured P(crit) (R = 0.98), including changes observed during pharyngeal manipulations. C and A(o) were closely and directly interrelated (R = 0.93) and did not correlate with P(crit). A significant correlation was found between P(ex) and P(crit) (R = 0.77; P < 0.01). We conclude that the pharynx of patients with obstructive sleep apnea can be modeled as an orifice with varying diameter. Pharyngeal compliance and A(o) are closely interrelated. Pharyngeal collapsibility depends primarily on the surrounding pressure. PMID:20576847

  18. Determination of uncertainty in parameters extracted from single spectroscopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Sćepanović, Obrad R; Bechtel, Kate L; Haka, Abigail S; Shih, Wei-Chuan; Koo, Tae-Woong; Berger, Andrew J; Feld, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    The ability to quantify uncertainty in information extracted from spectroscopic measurements is important in numerous fields. The traditional approach of repetitive measurements may be impractical or impossible in some measurements scenarios, while chi-squared analysis does not provide insight into the sources of uncertainty. As such, a need exists for analytical expressions for estimating uncertainty and, by extension, minimum detectable concentrations or diagnostic parameters, that can be applied to a single noisy measurement. This work builds on established concepts from estimation theory, such as the Cramer-Rao lower bound on estimator covariance, to present an analytical formula for estimating uncertainty expressed as a simple function of measurement noise, signal strength, and spectral overlap. This formalism can be used to evaluate and improve instrument performance, particularly important for rapid-acquisition biomedical spectroscopy systems. We demonstrate the experimental utility of this expression in assessing concentration uncertainties from spectral measurements of aqueous solutions and diagnostic parameter uncertainties extracted from spectral measurements of human artery tissue. The measured uncertainty, calculated from many independent measurements, is found to be in good agreement with the analytical formula applied to a single spectrum. These results are intended to encourage the widespread use of uncertainty analysis in the biomedical optics community. PMID:18163828

  19. Determination of fluid viscosity and femto Newton forces of Leishmania amazonensis using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Giorgio, Selma; de Castro, Archimedes, Jr.; Neto, Vivaldo M.; de Y. Pozzo, Liliana; de Thomaz, Andre A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2005-08-01

    The displacements of a polystyrene microsphere trapped by an optical tweezers (OT) can be used as a force transducer for mechanical measurements in life sciences such as the measurement of forces of living microorganisms or the viscosity of local fluids. The technique we used allowed us to measure forces on the 200 femto Newtons to 4 pico Newtons range of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for a serious tropical disease. These observations can be used to understand the infection mechanism and chemotaxis of these parasites. The same technique was used to measure viscosities of few microliters sample with agreement with known samples better than 5%. To calibrate the force as a function of the microsphere displacement we first dragged the microsphere in a fluid at known velocity for a broad range of different optical and hydrodynamical parameters. The hydrodynamical model took into account the presence of two walls and the force depends on drag velocity, fluid viscosity and walls proximities, while the optical model in the geometric optics regime depends on the particle and fluid refractive indexes and laser power. To measure the high numerical (NA) aperture laser beam power after the objective we used an integration sphere to avoid the systematic errors of usual power meters for high NA beams. After this careful laser power measurement we obtained an almost 45 degrees straight line for the plot of the optical force (calculated by the particle horizontal displacement) versus hydrodynamic force (calculated by the drag velocity) under variation of all the parameters described below. This means that hydrodynamic models can be used to calibrate optical forces, as we have done for the parasite force measurement, or vice-versa, as we did for the viscosity measurements.

  20. Determination of nuclear tracks parameters on sequentially etched PADC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwacik, Tomasz; Bilski, Pawel; Koerner, Christine; Facius, Rainer; Berger, Thomas; Nowak, Tomasz; Reitz, Guenther; Olko, Pawel

    Polyallyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detectors find many applications in radiation protection. One of them is the cosmic radiation dosimetry, where PADC detectors measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles (from protons to heavy ions), supplementing TLD detectors in the role of passive dosemeter. Calibration exposures to ions of known LET are required to establish a relation between parameters of track observed on the detector and LET of particle creating this track. PADC TASTRAK nuclear track detectors were exposed to 12 C and 56 Fe ions of LET in H2 O between 10 and 544 keV/µm. The exposures took place at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan in the frame of the HIMAC research project "Space Radiation Dosimetry-Ground Based Verification of the MATROSHKA Facility" (20P-240). Detectors were etched in water solution of NaOH with three different temperatures and for various etching times to observe the appearance of etched tracks, the evolution of their parameters and the stability of the etching process. The applied etching times (and the solution's concentrations and temperatures) were: 48, 72, 96, 120 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 50 O C), 20, 40, 60, 80 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 60 O C) and 8, 12, 16, 20 hours (7N NaOH, 70 O C). The analysis of the detectors involved planimetric (2D) measurements of tracks' entrance ellipses and mechanical measurements of bulk layer thickness. Further track parameters, like angle of incidence, track length and etch rate ratio were then calculated. For certain tracks, results of planimetric measurements and calculations were also compared with results of optical track profile (3D) measurements, where not only the track's entrance ellipse but also the location of the track's tip could be directly measured. All these measurements have been performed with the 2D/3D measurement system at DLR. The collected data allow to create sets of V(LET in H2 O) calibration curves suitable for short, intermediate and

  1. Dynamic calibration of higher eigenmode parameters of a cantilever in atomic force microscopy by using tip–surface interactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Borysov, Stanislav S.; Forchheimer, Daniel; Haviland, David B.

    2014-10-29

    Here we present a theoretical framework for the dynamic calibration of the higher eigenmode parameters (stiffness and optical lever inverse responsivity) of a cantilever. The method is based on the tip–surface force reconstruction technique and does not require any prior knowledge of the eigenmode shape or the particular form of the tip–surface interaction. The calibration method proposed requires a single-point force measurement by using a multimodal drive and its accuracy is independent of the unknown physical amplitude of a higher eigenmode.

  2. Determination of structure parameters in molecular tunnelling ionisation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Ping; Zhao, Song-Feng; Zhang, Cai-Rong; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Xin

    2014-04-01

    We extracted the accurate structure parameters in a molecular tunnelling ionisation model (the so-called MO-ADK model) for 23 selected linear molecules including some inner orbitals. The molecular wave functions with the correct asymptotic behaviour are obtained by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with B-spline functions and molecular potentials numerically constructed using the modified Leeuwen-Baerends (LBα) model. We show that the orientation-dependent ionisation rate reflects the shape of the ionising orbitals in general. The influences of the Stark shifts of the energy levels on the orientation-dependent ionisation rates of the polar molecules are studied. We also examine the angle-dependent ionisation rates (or probabilities) based on the MO-ADK model by comparing with the molecular strong-field approximation calculations and with recent experimental measurements.

  3. Collision rates and the determination of atmospheric parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spielfiedel, A.; Feautrier, N.; Guitou, M.; Belyaev, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    Non-LTE modelisation of stellar atmospheres requires an accurate knowledge of collisional rate coefficients (mainly with H atoms) that compete with radiative rates to populate the atomic levels. In the framework of the SAM-GAIA project, we carry out, with colleagues from Uppsala, St. Petersburg and Nice, an interdisciplinary work combining quantum chemistry, collision physics and astrophysical modeling. Present studies concern collisional excitation of Mg and O by H-atoms. In the particular case of Mg, 15 electronic states of the MgH molecule as well as the associated couplings that mix the states during the collision were calculated. The resulting cross sections and rate coefficients point out the sensitivity of the results with the quantum chemistry data. Our detailed calculations show that the usual approximate formulae (Drawin, Kaulakys) lead to errors by factors up to 10^6. Consequences on atmospheric parameters are analyzed.

  4. Efficient Parameter Estimation of Generalizable Coarse-Grained Protein Force Fields Using Contrastive Divergence: A Maximum Likelihood Approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Maximum Likelihood (ML) optimization schemes are widely used for parameter inference. They maximize the likelihood of some experimentally observed data, with respect to the model parameters iteratively, following the gradient of the logarithm of the likelihood. Here, we employ a ML inference scheme to infer a generalizable, physics-based coarse-grained protein model (which includes Go̅-like biasing terms to stabilize secondary structure elements in room-temperature simulations), using native conformations of a training set of proteins as the observed data. Contrastive divergence, a novel statistical machine learning technique, is used to efficiently approximate the direction of the gradient ascent, which enables the use of a large training set of proteins. Unlike previous work, the generalizability of the protein model allows the folding of peptides and a protein (protein G) which are not part of the training set. We compare the same force field with different van der Waals (vdW) potential forms: a hard cutoff model, and a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential with vdW parameters inferred or adopted from the CHARMM or AMBER force fields. Simulations of peptides and protein G show that the LJ model with inferred parameters outperforms the hard cutoff potential, which is consistent with previous observations. Simulations using the LJ potential with inferred vdW parameters also outperforms the protein models with adopted vdW parameter values, demonstrating that model parameters generally cannot be used with force fields with different energy functions. The software is available at https://sites.google.com/site/crankite/. PMID:24683370

  5. Energetics of shortening muscles in twitches and tetanic contractions. II. Force-determined shortening heat.

    PubMed

    Homsher, E; Mommaerts, W F; Ricchiuti, N V

    1973-12-01

    The extra heat liberation accompanying muscular shortening, the force-determined shortening heat, is defined as the difference between the heat produced when shortening occurs and that produced in an isometric contraction developing the same amount of force and performing the same amount of internal work. Based on this definition, the initial energy production in twitches and tetanic contractions (E) is given by E = A + f (P, t) + alpha(F)x + W, where A is the activation heat, f(P, t), the tension-related heat (a heat production associated with the development and maintenance of tension), alpha(F)x, the force-determined shortening heat, and W, the external work. It is demonstrated that this equation accurately accounts for the time-course of heat evolution and the total initial energy production in both twitches and tetani at 0 degrees C. The force-determined shortening heat is liberated, during shortening, in direct proportion to (a) the distance shortened, and (b) the force against which shortening occurs. The normalized value of the force-determined shortening heat coefficient, alpha(F)/P(o), is the same in both the twitch and the tetanus. Finally, this formulation of the muscle's energy production also accounts for the total energy production in afterload isotonic twitches at 20 degrees C, where a Fenn effect is not demonstrable. PMID:4548714

  6. Crushable structure performance determined from reconstructed dynamic forces during impact tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    A force reconstruction technique has been used to assess the dynamic performance of a crushable structure (a bomb nose) in both the axial (90{degrees}) and slapdown (30{degrees}) impact conditions. The dynamic force characteristics for the nose design, determined from these test results, have been used to write a dynamic force specification for a new nose design that will replace the old nose. The dynamic forces are reconstructed from measured acceleration responses with the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT) developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Axial characterizations for the old nose are presented from tests at two SNL facilities: a rocket rail launcher facility and an 18-Inch horizontal actuator facility. The characterizations for the old nose are compared to the characterizations for two new nose designs. Slapdown characterizations for the old nose are presented. Incorporation of the test results into a dynamic force specification is discussed.

  7. Elastic Properties of Clay Minerals Determined by Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopycinska-Müller, M.; Prasad, M.; Rabe, U.; Arnold, W.

    Seismic wave propagation in geological formations is altered by the presence of clay minerals. Knowledge about the elastic properties of clay is therefore essential for the interpretation and modeling of the seismic response of clay-bearing formations. However, due to the layered structure of clay, it is very difficult to investigate its elastic properties. We measured elastic properties of clay using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM). The forces applied during the experiments were not higher than 50 nN. The adhesion forces were measured from the pull-off forces and included into our calculations by means of the Derjaguin-Mueller-Toporov model for contact mechanics. The obtained values of the elastic modulus for clay varied from 10 to 17 GPa depending on various parameters that describe the dynamics of a vibrating beam

  8. Method for experimental determination of flutter speed by parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1989-01-01

    A method for flight flutter testing is proposed which enables one to determine the flutter dynamic pressure from flights flown far below the flutter dynamic pressure. The method is based on the identification of the coefficients of the equations of motion at low dynamic pressures, followed by the solution of these equations to compute the flutter dynamic pressure. The initial results of simulated data reported in the present work indicate that the method can accurately predict the flutter dynamic pressure, as described. If no insurmountable difficulties arise in the implementation of this method, it may significantly improve the procedures for flight flutter testing.

  9. A method for determining stellar parameters from multicolor photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichevskij, S. G.

    2012-09-01

    Amethod for determining the most probable spectral types, color excesses E B- V , and distances of stars from multicolor photometry is described. The main idea of the method is modeling the photometric data using various models for the stellar spectra and the interstellar extinction law, and applying the maximum likelihood method. The reliability of the method is estimated using stars with known spectral types and WBVR photometry, based on the empirical library of stellar spectra of Pickles and the model for the interstellar extinction law developed by Fluks et al.

  10. Determination of the Performance Parameters of a Spectrophotometer: An Advanced Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Virgil W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment developed for the determination of the performance parameters of a spectrophotometer. Among the parameters are the baseline linearity with wavelength, wavelength accuracy and respectability, stray light, noise level and pen response time. (HM)

  11. Experimental Determination of Metal Fuel Point Defect Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M J; McCall, S

    2008-06-03

    Nuclear metallic fuels are one of many options for advanced nuclear fuel cycles because they provide dimensional stability, mechanical integrity, thermal efficiency, and irradiation resistance while the associated pyro-processing is technically relevant to concerns about proliferation and diversion of special nuclear materials. In this presentation we will discuss recent success that we have had in studying isochronal annealing of damage cascades in Pu and Pu(Ga) arising from the self-decay of Pu as well as the annealing characteristics of noninteracting point defect populations produced by ion accelerator irradiation. Comparisons of the annealing properties of these two populations of defects arising from very different source terms are enlightening and point to complex defect and mass transport properties in the plutonium specimens which we are only now starting to understand as a result of many follow-on studies. More importantly however, the success of these measurements points the way to obtaining important mass transport parameters for comparison with theoretical predictions or to use directly in existing and future materials modeling of radiation effects in nuclear metallic fuels. The way forward on such measurements and the requisite theory and modeling will be discussed.

  12. Micro-porous layer stochastic reconstruction and transport parameter determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hannach, Mohamed; Singh, Randhir; Djilali, Ned; Kjeang, Erik

    2015-05-01

    The Micro-Porous Layer (MPL) is a porous, thin layer commonly used in fuel cells at the interfaces between the catalyst layers and gas diffusion media. It is generally made from spherical carbon nanoparticles and PTFE acting as hydrophobic agent. The scale and brittle nature of the MPL structure makes it challenging to study experimentally. In the present work, a 3D stochastic model is developed to virtually reconstruct the MPL structure. The carbon nanoparticle and PTFE phases are fully distinguished by the algorithm. The model is shown to capture the actual structural morphology of the MPL and is validated by comparing the results to available experimental data. The model shows a good capability in generating a realistic MPL successfully using a set of parameters introduced to capture specific morphological features of the MPL. A numerical model that resolves diffusive transport at the pore scale is used to compute the effective transport properties of the reconstructed MPLs. A parametric study is conducted to illustrate the capability of the model as an MPL design tool that can be used to guide and optimize the functionality of the material.

  13. Ground Reaction Forces and Gait Parameters during Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Walking and Runing on the International Space Station Treadmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, Ronald Donald; Norcross, Jason; DeWitt, John; Lee, Stuart M.; McCleary, Frank; Edwards, W. Brent

    2006-01-01

    Both motorized (T-M) and non-motorized (T-NM) treadmill locomotion are used on the International Space Station (ISS) as countermeasures to the deleterious effects of prolonged weightlessness. However, the ground reaction forces (GRF) and gait parameters of these exercise modes have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in GRF and gait parameters exist while walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) on T-M and T-NM. Dissimilar GRF and gait parameters suggest that T-M and T-NM locomotion may elicit different physiologic effects. T-NM may result in a reduced stimulus to bone formation due to a lower LR, but an increased energy cost as a result of shorter, more frequent strides. Therefore, the usage of each mode should depend upon the desired training stimulus.

  14. Improved Force Field Parameters Lead to a Better Description of RNA Structure.

    PubMed

    Bergonzo, Christina; Cheatham, Thomas E

    2015-09-01

    We compare the performance of two different RNA force fields in four water models in simulating the conformational ensembles r(GACC) and r(CCCC). With the increased sampling facilitated by multidimensional replica exchange molecular dynamics (M-REMD), populations are compared to NMR data to evaluate force field reliability. The combination of AMBER ff12 with vdW(bb) modifications and the OPC water model produces results in quantitative agreement with the NMR ensemble that have eluded us to date. PMID:26575892

  15. Experimental determination of visibility modeling parameters for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Maurer, Tana; Murrill, Steven R.; Miller, Brian

    2010-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is presently engaged in research to quantify the visibility of aircraft under two important scenarios: aircraft observed directly by human operators in air traffic control towers (ATCT's), and aircraft observed by human operators through unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensors viewed through ground-based display systems. Previously, an ATCT visibility analysis software tool (FAA Vis) was developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) in collaboration with the U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the FAA. This tool predicts the probability of detection, recognition, and identification of various aircraft by human observers as a function of range and ATCT height. More recently, a baseline version of a UAV See-And- Avoid visibility analysis software tool was also developed by ARL, again in collaboration with NVESD and the FAA. Important to the calibration of these tools is the empirical determination of target discrimination difficulty criteria. Consequently, a set of human perception experiments were designed and conducted to empirically determine the target recognition and identification discrimination difficulty criteria for a representative set of aircraft. This paper will report on the results and analyses of those experiments.

  16. Determination of the Critical Parameters for Remote Microscope Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, R. C.; Herbach, B. A.; Johnston, J. C.; Bethea, M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a program to determine the capabilities of Telescience as applied to Microgravity Materials Science the need for a remotely controlled microscope was recognized. For this purpose we equipped a microscope with an X-Y-Z positioning device and motors on the zoom and focus controls. Computer control of these devices allowed remote operation. A standard TV camera was mounted to the computer controlled video board which could compress the image in resolution and grey scale. The operator control console was programmed to display three still video pictures as well as provide command access. A standard data transfer network was used to transmit the video data files and the command interaction was via a high speed phone modem. This system, with the microscope in the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at LeRC and the control at RPI, was used to determine the accuracy of setting, time required to achieve setting and the operator ease factor. It was found that the focus setting could be established well within the resolution limit of the TV system and that each motion took about 50 seconds and approximately 12 minutes was required to reach ?best? focus. These times could be reduced significantly with operator experience. The operators were provided with ancillary equipment which provided assistance in making the necessary decisions and they reported satisfaction with the control.

  17. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  18. Determination of Base Binding Strength and Base Stacking Interaction of DNA Duplex Using Atomic Force Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tian-biao; Zhang, Chang-lin; Dong, Zai-li; Guan, Yi-fu

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most crucial properties of DNA, the structural stability and the mechanical strength are attracting a great attention. Here, we take advantage of high force resolution and high special resolution of Atom Force Microscope and investigate the mechanical force of DNA duplexes. To evaluate the base pair hydrogen bond strength and base stacking force in DNA strands, we designed two modes (unzipping and stretching) for the measurement rupture forces. Employing k-means clustering algorithm, the ruptured force are clustered and the mean values are estimated. We assessed the influence of experimental parameters and performed the force evaluation for DNA duplexes of pure dG/dC and dA/dT base pairs. The base binding strength of single dG/dC and single dA/dT were estimated to be 20.0 ± 0.2 pN and 14.0 ± 0.3 pN, respectively, and the base stacking interaction was estimated to be 2.0 ± 0.1 pN. Our results provide valuable information about the quantitative evaluation of the mechanical properties of the DNA duplexes. PMID:25772017

  19. U Geminorum: A Test Case for Orbital Parameter Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, Juan; de la Fuente, Eduardo; Costero, Rafael

    2007-07-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of U Gem was obtained during quiescence. We did not find a hot spot or gas stream around the outer boundaries of the accretion disk. Instead, we detected a strong narrow emission region near the location of the secondary star. We measured the radial velocity curve from the wings of the double-peaked Hα emission line and obtained a semiamplitude value that is in excellent agreement with that obtained from observations in the ultraviolet spectral region by Sion et al. We also present a new method to obtain K2, which enhances the detection of absorption or emission features arising in the late-type companion. Our results are compared with published values derived from the near-infrared Na I line doublet. From a comparison of the TiO band with those of late-type M stars, we find that a best fit is obtained for an M6 V star, contributing 5% of the total light at that spectral region. Assuming that the radial velocity semiamplitudes accurately reflect the motion of the binary components, then from our results Kem=107+/-2 km s-1 and Kabs=310+/-5 km s-1 using the inclination angle given by Zhang & Robinson, i=69.7deg+/-0.7deg, the system parameters become MWD=1.20+/-0.05 Msolar, MRD=0.42+/-0.04 Msolar, and a=1.55+/-0.02 Rsolar. Based on the separation of the double emission peaks, we calculate an outer disk radius of Rout/a~0.61, close to the distance of the inner Lagrangian point L1/a~0.63. Therefore, we suggest that, at the time of observations, the accretion disk was filling the Roche lobe of the primary and the matter leaving the L1 point was colliding with the disk directly, producing the hot spot at this location.

  20. New laser technology to determine present weather parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, R. A.; Sandford, A. P.; Jones, G. E.; Richards, J.; Petzing, J.; Coupland, J. M.

    2006-07-01

    Present weather sensors are becoming increasingly important as a means to augment networks of automated weather stations and extend the capability of manned observations. The classification of hydrometeors is one of the principal tasks that is addressed by present weather sensors. In this paper, we discuss a new laser-based technology for this purpose. The system improves upon current precipitation monitors by using a derivative of phase Doppler anemometry techniques to accurately determine particle speed and size. The instrument is also capable of distinguishing between liquid droplets and solid polycrystalline hydrometeors and can be used to estimate visibility. The incorporation of this technology into a meteorological station with other sensors, such as temperature and relative humidity probes, leads to the accurate classification of particle type. The example data shown are taken from tests in Leicestershire, England and Utah, USA and show the differences between solid and liquid precipitation events.

  1. Gamete quality in fish: evaluation parameters and determining factors.

    PubMed

    Valdebenito, Iván I; Gallegos, Patricia C; Effer, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    The quality of fish gametes, both male and female, are determined by several factors (age, management, feeding, chemical and physical factors, water quality, etc.) that have an impact on the survivability of embryos, larvae and/or fry in the short or long term. One of the most important factors is gamete ageing, especially for those species that are unable to spawn naturally in hatcheries. The chemical and physical factors in hatcheries and the nutrition that they provide can significantly alter harvest quality, especially from females; as a rule, males are more tolerant of stress conditions produced by inadequate feeding, management and/or poor water conditions. The stress produced on broodstock by inadequate conditions in hatcheries can produce adverse effects on gamete quality, survival rates, and the embryonic eggs after hatching. PMID:24229714

  2. Investigation of multimodal waveguides to determine parameters of covering layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auguściuk, Elżbieta; Zieliński, Jarosław

    2006-02-01

    Investigation of liquid thin layers deposited on multimodal waveguide with gradient - index profile has been presented. Properties of the layers have been studied by the generalized m-line spectroscopy method. Deposited on the planar waveguide thin liquid layers have been investigated on the range refractive index 1.0002 - 1.5300. The profile of refractive index of waveguide has not been deformed because of depositing of the thin layer. Depositing of the thin layer on multimodal planar waveguide has caused the change of coupling angle to the waveguide but proportionately to successive modes of the waveguide structure. This study will be helpful to determine, for instance, illness changes of diabetic patients (sugar level in blood).

  3. Determining the shear angle, forces, and sizes of shearing elements during metal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovrizhnykh, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    A new solution for the shear angle is proposed which is a generalization of the solution Lee-Shaffer solution and allows the determination of the cutting force and the shearing-element size. Merchant’s experimental data are processed taking into account the resistance force at the cutting edge, and it is shown that accounting for this force leads to the need to increase the internal friction angle in the calculated dependences in order to match theory with experiment. It is shown that the obtained theoretical results agree well with experimental results.

  4. Cross-bridge dependent cooperativity determines the cardiac force-length relationship.

    PubMed

    Levy, Carmit; Landesberg, Amir

    2006-05-01

    Opinions vary as to whether the dominant cooperativity mechanism, modulating the cardiac force-length-calcium relationships, depends on sarcomere length (SL), force, or calcium. We hypothesize that separately characterizing the dependence of the delay in the force response to length oscillations on SL, force and calcium allows testing these hypotheses; Oscillations imposed at the same SL, utilizing various calcium concentrations, entail similar delay if the cooperativity is exclusively length dependent. Oscillations at constant tetanic force, utilizing various SLs and calcium levels, entail similar delay when the cooperativity is exclusively force dependent. Force responses to large (102 +/- 13 nm/sarcomere) oscillations, at different SLs, extracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](o)s) and force, were studied in intact tetanized trabeculae, dissected from rats' right ventricles (N = 11). Tetanii (3.5 s) were obtained by utilizing cyclopiazonic acid (K-H, 25 degrees C). SL was measured by laser diffraction. Force responses to length oscillations lagged behind the length oscillations at short SL and low [Ca(2+)](o), yielding counterclockwise hystereses in the force-length plane: the force was higher during shortening than during lengthening. The area within the counterclockwise hysteresis represents the external work that originates from XB recruitment, and it increases as the phase delay increases. The phase decreases by 25.7 +/- 17.0 degrees for 0.1 microm sarcomere lengthening, at constant [Ca(2+)](o) (e.g. 45 +/- 9 degrees and 22 +/- 13 degrees for SL=1.89 +/- 0.01 and 1.99 +/- 0.01 microm, respectively, [Ca(2+)](o) = 3 mM). The phase decrease by 15 +/- 5.7 degrees for an increase of 1.5 mM in [Ca(2+)](o), at constant SL. However, maintaining the same force with different pairs of [Ca(2+)](o) and SL yields identical phase. The direct dependence of the phase on force indicates that XB recruitment is determined directly by the force and only indirectly by SL

  5. A finite element technique for accurate determination of interfacial adhesion force in MEMS using electrostatic actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavezipur, M.; Li, G. H.; Laboriante, I.; Gou, W. J.; Carraro, C.; Maboudian, R.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on accurate analysis of adhesion force between polysilicon-polysilicon surfaces in micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS). The measurement is carried out using double-clamped beams. Electrostatic actuation and structural restoring force are exploited to respectively initiate and terminate the contact between the two surfaces under investigation. The adhesion force is obtained by balancing the electrostatic and mechanical forces acting on the beam just before the separation of the two surfaces. Different finite element models are developed to simulate the coupled-field multiphysics problem. The effects of fringing field in the electrostatic domain and geometric nonlinearity and residual stress in the structural domain are taken into consideration. Moreover, the beam stiffness is directly obtained for the case of combined loading (electrostatic and adhesion). Therefore, the overall electrostatic and structural forces used to extract the actual adhesion force from measured data are determined with high accuracy leading to accurate values for the adhesion force. The finite element simulations presented in this paper are not limited to adhesion force measurement and can be used to design or characterize electrostatically actuated devices such as MEM tunable capacitors and micromirrors, RF switches and M/NEM relays.

  6. Practical implementation of the corrected force analysis technique to identify the structural parameter and load distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, Quentin; Ablitzer, Frédéric; Pézerat, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The paper aims to combine two objectives of the Force Analysis Technique (FAT): vibration source identification and material characterization from the same set of measurement. Initially, the FAT was developed for external load location and identification. It consists in injecting measured vibration displacements in the discretized equation of motion. Two developments exist: FAT and CFAT (Corrected Force Analysis Technique) where two finite difference schemes are used. Recently, the FAT was adapted for the identification of elastic and damping properties in a structure. The principal interests are that the identification is local and allows mapping of material characteristics, the identification can be made at all frequencies, especially in medium and high frequency domains. The paper recalls the development of FAT and CFAT on beams and plates and how it can be possible to extract material characteristics in areas where no external loads are applied. Experimental validations are shown on an aluminum plate with arbitrary boundary conditions, excited by a point force and where a piece of foam is glued on a sub-surface of the plate. Contactless measurements were made using a scanning laser vibrometer. The results of FAT and CFAT are compared and discussed for material property identifications in the regions with and without foam. The excitation force identification is finally made by using the identified material properties. CFAT gives excellent results comparable to a direct measurement obtained by a piezoelectric sensor. The relevance of the corrected scheme is then underlined for both source identification and material characterization from the same measurements.

  7. Actomyosin Cortical Mechanical Properties in Nonadherent Cells Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Logue, Jeremy S; Waterman, Clare M; Chadwick, Richard S

    2016-06-01

    The organization of filamentous actin and myosin II molecular motor contractility is known to modify the mechanical properties of the cell cortical actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we describe a novel method, to our knowledge, for using force spectroscopy approach curves with tipless cantilevers to determine the actomyosin cortical tension, elastic modulus, and intracellular pressure of nonadherent cells. We validated the method by measuring the surface tension of water in oil microdrops deposited on a glass surface. We extracted an average tension of T ∼ 20.25 nN/μm, which agrees with macroscopic experimental methods. We then measured cortical mechanical properties in nonadherent human foreskin fibroblasts and THP-1 human monocytes before and after pharmacological perturbations of actomyosin activity. Our results show that myosin II activity and actin polymerization increase cortex tension and intracellular pressure, whereas branched actin networks decreased them. Interestingly, myosin II activity stiffens the cortex and branched actin networks soften it, but actin polymerization has no effect on cortex stiffness. Our method is capable of detecting changes in cell mechanical properties in response to perturbations of the cytoskeleton, allowing characterization with physically relevant parameters. Altogether, this simple method should be of broad application for deciphering the molecular regulation of cell cortical mechanical properties. PMID:27276270

  8. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

    2013-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with (137)Cs and (60)Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

  9. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    PubMed Central

    Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137Cs and 60Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

  10. STEP and STEPSPL: Computer programs for aerodynamic model structure determination and parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The successful parametric modeling of the aerodynamics for an airplane operating at high angles of attack or sideslip is performed in two phases. First the aerodynamic model structure must be determined and second the associated aerodynamic parameters (stability and control derivatives) must be estimated for that model. The purpose of this paper is to document two versions of a stepwise regression computer program which were developed for the determination of airplane aerodynamic model structure and to provide two examples of their use on computer generated data. References are provided for the application of the programs to real flight data. The two computer programs that are the subject of this report, STEP and STEPSPL, are written in FORTRAN IV (ANSI l966) compatible with a CDC FTN4 compiler. Both programs are adaptations of a standard forward stepwise regression algorithm. The purpose of the adaptation is to facilitate the selection of a adequate mathematical model of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of an airplane from flight test data. The major difference between STEP and STEPSPL is in the basis for the model. The basis for the model in STEP is the standard polynomial Taylor's series expansion of the aerodynamic function about some steady-state trim condition. Program STEPSPL utilizes a set of spline basis functions.

  11. The effectiveness of vane-aileron excitation in the experimental determination of flutter speed by parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, Eli

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of aerodynamic excitation is evaluated analytically in conjunction with the experimental determination of flutter dynamic pressure by parameter identification. Existing control surfaces were used, with an additional vane located at the wingtip. The equations leading to the identification of the equations of motion were reformulated to accommodate excitation forces of aerodynamic origin. The aerodynamic coefficients of the excitation forces do not need to be known since they are determined by the identification procedure. The 12 degree-of-freedom numerical example treated in this work revealed the best wingtip vane locations, and demonstrated the effectiveness of the aileron-vane excitation system. Results from simulated data gathered at much lower dynamic pressures (approximately half the value of flutter dynamic pressure) predicted flutter dynamic pressures with 2-percent errors.

  12. Determining the interparticle force laws in amorphous solids from a visual image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendelman, Oleg; Pollack, Yoav G.; Procaccia, Itamar

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of how to determine the force laws in an amorphous system of interacting particles. Given the positions of the centers of mass of the constituent particles we propose an algorithm to determine the interparticle force laws. Having n different types of constituents we determine the coefficients in the Laurent polynomials for the n (n +1 )/2 possibly different force laws. A visual providing the particle positions in addition to a measurement of the pressure is all that is required. The algorithm proposed includes a part that can correct for experimental errors in the positions of the particles. Such a correction of unavoidable measurement errors is expected to benefit many experiments in the field.

  13. A test of improved force field parameters for urea: molecular-dynamics simulations of urea crystals.

    PubMed

    Özpınar, Gül Altınbaş; Beierlein, Frank R; Peukert, Wolfgang; Zahn, Dirk; Clark, Timothy

    2012-08-01

    Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of urea crystals of different shapes (cubic, rectangular prismatic, and sheet) have been performed using our previously published force field for urea. This force field has been validated by calculating values for the cohesive energy, sublimation temperature, and melting point from the MD data. The cohesive energies computed from simulations of cubic and rectangular prismatic urea crystals in vacuo at 300 K agreed very well with the experimental sublimation enthalpies reported at 298 K. We also found very good agreement between the melting points as observed experimentally and from simulations. Annealing the crystals just below the melting point leads to reconstruction to form crystal faces that are consistent with experimental observations. The simulations reveal a melting mechanism that involves surface (corner/edge) melting well below the melting point, and rotational disordering of the urea molecules in the corner/edge regions of the crystal, which then facilitates the translational motion of these molecules. PMID:22281810

  14. Improved ReaxFF force field parameters for Au-S-C-H systems.

    PubMed

    Bae, Gyun-Tack; Aikens, Christine M

    2013-10-10

    Evaluation and reparameterization of previously reported ReaxFF parameters (Järvi, T. T.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2011, 115, 10315-10322) is carried out for Au-S-C-H systems. Changes in Au-S and Au-Au bond parameters and S-Au-S angle bending parameters yield improvements for bond bending potential energy surfaces. The new ReaxFF parameters lead to good agreement with density functional theory geometries of small clusters and gold-thiolate nanoparticles. The energies of Au38(SCH3)24 clusters are compared, and the new ReaxFF calculations are also in good agreement with PBE calculations for the isomer orderings. In addition, the relative energies of Au40(SCH3)24 nanoparticles and Au-thiolate SAMs are calculated using the updated parameters. These new ReaxFF parameters will enable the study of the geometries and reactivity of larger gold-thiolate nanoparticles. PMID:24041237

  15. Determination of external forces in alpine skiing using a differential global navigation satellite system.

    PubMed

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Chardonnens, Julien; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2013-01-01

    In alpine ski racing the relationships between skier kinetics and kinematics and their effect on performance and injury-related aspects are not well understood. There is currently no validated system to determine all external forces simultaneously acting on skiers, particularly under race conditions and throughout entire races. To address the problem, this study proposes and assesses a method for determining skier kinetics with a single lightweight differential global navigation satellite system (dGNSS). The dGNSS kinetic method was compared to a reference system for six skiers and two turns each. The pattern differences obtained between the measurement systems (offset ± SD) were -26 ± 152 N for the ground reaction force, 1 ± 96 N for ski friction and -6 ± 6 N for the air drag force. The differences between turn means were small. The error pattern within the dGNSS kinetic method was highly repeatable and precision was therefore good (SD within system: 63 N ground reaction force, 42 N friction force and 7 N air drag force) allowing instantaneous relative comparisons and identification of discriminative meaningful changes. The method is therefore highly valid in assessing relative differences between skiers in the same turn, as well as turn means between different turns. The system is suitable to measure large capture volumes under race conditions. PMID:23917257

  16. Determination of External Forces in Alpine Skiing Using a Differential Global Navigation Satellite System

    PubMed Central

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Chardonnens, Julien; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2013-01-01

    In alpine ski racing the relationships between skier kinetics and kinematics and their effect on performance and injury-related aspects are not well understood. There is currently no validated system to determine all external forces simultaneously acting on skiers, particularly under race conditions and throughout entire races. To address the problem, this study proposes and assesses a method for determining skier kinetics with a single lightweight differential global navigation satellite system (dGNSS). The dGNSS kinetic method was compared to a reference system for six skiers and two turns each. The pattern differences obtained between the measurement systems (offset ± SD) were −26 ± 152 N for the ground reaction force, 1 ± 96 N for ski friction and −6 ± 6 N for the air drag force. The differences between turn means were small. The error pattern within the dGNSS kinetic method was highly repeatable and precision was therefore good (SD within system: 63 N ground reaction force, 42 N friction force and 7 N air drag force) allowing instantaneous relative comparisons and identification of discriminative meaningful changes. The method is therefore highly valid in assessing relative differences between skiers in the same turn, as well as turn means between different turns. The system is suitable to measure large capture volumes under race conditions. PMID:23917257

  17. Reliability of spatiotemporal and kinetic gait parameters determined by a new instrumented treadmill system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the emerging use of treadmills integrated with pressure platforms as outcome tools in both clinical and research settings, published evidence regarding the measurement properties of these new systems is limited. This study evaluated the within– and between–day repeatability of spatial, temporal and vertical ground reaction force parameters measured by a treadmill system instrumented with a capacitance–based pressure platform. Methods Thirty three healthy adults (mean age, 21.5 ± 2.8 years; height, 168.4 ± 9.9 cm; and mass, 67.8 ± 18.6 kg), walked barefoot on a treadmill system (FDM–THM–S, Zebris Medical GmbH) on three separate occasions. For each testing session, participants set their preferred pace but were blinded to treadmill speed. Spatial (foot rotation, step width, stride and step length), temporal (stride and step times, duration of stance, swing and single and double support) and peak vertical ground reaction force variables were collected over a 30–second capture period, equating to an average of 52 ± 5 steps of steady–state walking. Testing was repeated one week following the initial trial and again, for a third time, 20 minutes later. Repeated measures ANOVAs within a generalized linear modelling framework were used to assess between–session differences in gait parameters. Agreement between gait parameters measured within the same day (session 2 and 3) and between days (session 1 and 2; 1 and 3) were evaluated using the 95% repeatability coefficient. Results There were statistically significant differences in the majority (14/16) of temporal, spatial and kinetic gait parameters over the three test sessions (P < .01). The minimum change that could be detected with 95% confidence ranged between 3% and 17% for temporal parameters, 14% and 33% for spatial parameters, and 4% and 20% for kinetic parameters between days. Within–day repeatability was similar to that observed between days. Temporal

  18. Use of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second quality criteria for determining a valid test

    PubMed Central

    Eschenbacher, Bill; Townsend, Mary; Stocks, Janet; Quanjer, Philip H.

    2014-01-01

    The 2005 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) spirometry guidelines define valid tests as having three acceptable blows and a repeatable forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The aim of this study was to determine how reviewer and computer-determined ATS/ERS quality could affect population reference values for FVC and FEV1. Spirometry results from 7777 normal subjects aged 8–80 years (NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III) were assigned quality grades A to F for FVC and FEV1 by a computer and one reviewer (reviewer 1). Results from a subgroup of 1466 Caucasian adults (aged 19–80 years) were reviewed by two additional reviewers. Mean deviations from NHANES III predicted for FVC and FEV1 were examined by quality grade (A to F). Reviewer 1 rejected (D and F grade) 5.2% of the 7777 test sessions and the computer rejected ∼16%, primarily due to end-of-test (EOT) failures. Within the subgroup, the computer rejected 11.5% of the results and the three reviewers rejected 3.7–5.9%. Average FEV1 and FVC were minimally influenced by grades A to C allocated by reviewer 1. Quality assessment of individual blows including EOT assessments should primarily be used as an aid to good quality during testing rather than for subsequently disregarding data. Reconsideration of EOT criteria and its application, and improved grading standards and training in over-reading are required. Present EOT criteria results in the exclusion of too many subjects while having minimal impact on predicted values. PMID:25537554

  19. Use of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second quality criteria for determining a valid test.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, John L; Eschenbacher, Bill; Townsend, Mary; Stocks, Janet; Quanjer, Philip H

    2015-05-01

    The 2005 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) spirometry guidelines define valid tests as having three acceptable blows and a repeatable forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The aim of this study was to determine how reviewer and computer-determined ATS/ERS quality could affect population reference values for FVC and FEV1. Spirometry results from 7777 normal subjects aged 8-80 years (NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III) were assigned quality grades A to F for FVC and FEV1 by a computer and one reviewer (reviewer 1). Results from a subgroup of 1466 Caucasian adults (aged 19-80 years ) were reviewed by two additional reviewers. Mean deviations from NHANES III predicted for FVC and FEV1 were examined by quality grade (A to F). Reviewer 1 rejected (D and F grade) 5.2% of the 7777 test sessions and the computer rejected ∼16%, primarily due to end-of-test (EOT) failures. Within the subgroup, the computer rejected 11.5% of the results and the three reviewers rejected 3.7-5.9%. Average FEV1 and FVC were minimally influenced by grades A to C allocated by reviewer 1. Quality assessment of individual blows including EOT assessments should primarily be used as an aid to good quality during testing rather than for subsequently disregarding data. Reconsideration of EOT criteria and its application, and improved grading standards and training in over-reading are required. Present EOT criteria results in the exclusion of too many subjects while having minimal impact on predicted values. PMID:25537554

  20. Engagement Control of Automotive Clutch by Mechatronic System Using Pre-determined Force Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, K.

    2014-04-01

    In automated manual clutch (AMC), the mechatronic system is required to generate appropriate clutch force trajectory to achieve good engagement quality. For this purpose, four generic force trajectories were analyzed and engagement quality was assessed, using four parameters—peak engine speed, clutch lockup time, vehicle lurch, and shuffle. Magnitudes of these parameters were obtained from results of simulation on a complete dynamic model of vehicle driveline. It was observed that parabolic trajectory gives satisfactory overall performance in terms of engagement quality, but results into higher lurch. However, it can be modified further to reduce lurch. A set of such trajectories may be obtained for different driving conditions, for use in mechatronic system, for control of AMC. This approach is an alternative to costlier and more difficult method of real-time control of force trajectory during clutch engagement. Schematic implementation of proposed mechatronic system, with driver interface, is also outlined in this work.

  1. Strike a Balance: Optimization of Backbone Torsion Parameters of AMBER Polarizable Force Field for Simulations of Proteins and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHI-XIANG; ZHANG, WEI; WU, CHUN; LEI, HONGXING; CIEPLAK, PIOTR; DUAN, YONG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the AMBER polarizable model (ff02), we have reoptimized the parameters related to the main-chain (Φ, Ψ) torsion angles by fitting to the Boltzmann-weighted average quantum mechanical (QM) energies of the important regions (i.e., β, PII, αR, and αL regions). Following the naming convention of the AMBER force field series, this release will be called ff02pol.rl The force field has been assessed both by energetic comparison against the QM data and by the replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of short alanine peptides in water. For Ace-Ala-Nme, the simulated populations in the β, PII and αR regions were approximately 30, 43, and 26%, respectively. For Ace-(Ala)7-Nme, the populations in these three regions were approximately 24, 49, and 26%. Both were in qualitative agreement with the NMR and CD experimental conclusions. In comparison with the previous force field, ff02pol.rl demonstrated good balance among these three important regions. The optimized torsion parameters, together with those in ff02, allow us to carry out simulations on proteins and peptides with the consideration of polarization. PMID:16526038

  2. Local force variations caused by isoelectric impurities: Method of determination from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunc, K.

    1983-02-01

    It is shown how the variation of lattice dynamical force constants caused by substitutional isoelectronic impurities can be evaluated ab initio. The approach, illustrated on the example of Al in GaAs, is based on local density functional and uses ionic pseudopotentials of Al, Ga, As as the only input; Hellmann-Feynman theorem is applied in order to extract from self-consistent electronic charge densities the forces acting on atoms in periodic patterns in which entire planes of impurities are displaced. The defect-induced variations of inter planar force constants are converted into the inter atomic ones, which can be compared with those determined by phenomenological models from the measured local mode frequencies. A method is presented which allows to account for the effect of relaxation without requiring an explicit determination of the latter. Particular problems resulting from dealing with entire plane of defects are discussed and an estimate for relaxation is given.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Flow and Determination of Aerodynamic Forces in the Balanced Control Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matas, R.; Straka, F.; Hoznedl, M.

    2013-04-01

    The contribution subscribes a numerical simulation of a steam flow through a balanced control valve. The influence of some parameters in simulations were tested, analyzed and discussed. As a result of the simulations a graph of aerodynamics forces for a specific turbine characteristic was obtained. The results from numerical simulations were compared with results from experiments. The experiment was performed with an air flow, but the final data were converted with a criterion to steam flow.

  4. Conservative force model performance for TOPEX/Poseidon precision orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. Andrew; Luthcke, Scott B.

    1993-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft was launched on August 10, 1992 to study the Earth's oceans. To achieve maximum benefit from the altimetric data collected, mission requirements dictate that TOPEX/Poseidon's orbit must be computed at an unprecedented level of accuracy. In order to satisfy these requirements, a model which accounts for the satellite's complex geometry, attitude, and surface properties has been developed. This `box-wing' representation treats the spacecraft as the combination of flat plates arranged in the shape of a box and a connecetd solar array. The nonconservative forces acting on each of the eight surfaces are computed independently, yielding vector accelerations which are summed to compute the total aggregate effect on the satellite center-of-mass. Parameters associated with each flat plate were derived from a finite element analysis of the spacecraft. Certain parameters can be inferred from tracking data and have been adjusted to obtain a better representation of the satellite acceleration history. Changes in the nominal mission profile and the presence of an `anomalistic' force have complicated this tuning process. Model performance, parameter sensitivities, and the `anomalistic' force will be discussed.

  5. Comparison between power-law rheological parameters of living cells in frequency and time domains measured by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu

    2016-08-01

    We investigated how stress relaxation mapping is quantified compared with the force modulation mapping of confluent epithelial cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using a multi-frequency AFM technique, we estimated the power-law rheological behaviors of cells simultaneously in time and frequency domains. When the power-law exponent α was low (<0.1), the α values were almost the same in time and frequency domains. On the other hand, we found that at the high values (α > 0.1), α in the time domain was underestimated relative to that in the frequency domain, and the difference increased with α, whereas the cell modulus was overestimated in the time domain. These results indicate that power-law rheological parameters estimated by stress relaxation are sensitive to lag time during initial indentation, which is inevitable in time-domain AFM experiments.

  6. Forces and shapes as determinants of micro-swimming: effect on synchronisation and the utilisation of drag.

    PubMed

    Pande, Jayant; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2015-03-28

    In this analytical study we demonstrate the richness of behaviour exhibited by bead-spring micro-swimmers, both in terms of known yet not fully explained effects such as synchronisation, and hitherto undiscovered phenomena such as the existence of two transport regimes where the swimmer shape has fundamentally different effects on the velocity. For this purpose we employ a micro-swimmer model composed of three arbitrarily-shaped rigid beads connected linearly by two springs. By analysing this swimmer in terms of the forces on the different beads, we determine the optimal kinematic parameters for sinusoidal driving, and also explain the pusher/puller nature of the swimmer. Moreover, we show that the phase difference between the swimmer's arms automatically attains values which maximise the swimming speed for a large region of the parameter space. Apart from this, we determine precisely the optimal bead shapes that maximise the velocity when the beads are constrained to be ellipsoids of a constant volume or surface area. On doing so, we discover the surprising existence of the aforementioned transport regimes in micro-swimming, where the motion is dominated by either a reduction of the drag force opposing the beads, or by the hydrodynamic interaction amongst them. Under some conditions, these regimes lead to counter-intuitive effects such as the most streamlined shapes forming locally the slowest swimmers. PMID:25675985

  7. Determination of ITM Key Parameters By the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, T. J.; England, S.; Mende, S. B.; Makela, J. J.; Harding, B. J.; Stephan, A. W.; Kamalabadi, F.; Heelis, R. A.; Englert, C. R.; Edelstein, J.; Forbes, J. M.; Maute, A. I.; Crowley, G.; Huba, J. D.; Harlander, J.; Swenson, G. R.; Frey, H. U.; Bust, G. S.; Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Hubert, B. A.; Rowland, D. E.; Hysell, D. L.; Saito, A.; Frey, S.; Bester, M.; Craig, W.

    2014-12-01

    Selected for development by NASA in 2013, ICON is a mission that will launch in 2017 to discover the source of strong day-to-day variability in Earth's space environment. Recent observations continue to raise questions about the effects and interaction of these in our geospace environment, and how these vary between extremes in solar activity. To address these, ICON will measure all key parameters of the atmosphere and ionosphere simultaneously and continuously with a combination of remote sensing and in-situ measurements. ICON will fly in a 27-degree inclination orbit with a payload designed to observe the processes of vertical wave coupling in the Ionosphere/Thermosphere/Mesosphere system, how these processes influence the state of the system itself, and how that state preconditions the system for modification by external influence (e.g. solar and solar wind forcing). ICON will remotely observe winds and temperatures in the 90-150 km region while measuring the highly variable electric field in the ionosphere on magnetically connected field lines. Simultaneous to these observations, ICON remotely observes the thermospheric composition and density, and ionospheric density in day and night. The retrievals involved and resultant precision in the determination of key parameters will be presented. The scientific return from ICON is enhanced by dynamic operational modes of the observatory that provide capabilities well beyond that afforded by a static space platform. Careful selection of these modes and the selective implementation of instrument redundancy provide the ability to operate with large technical margins that support the greatest return of science data.

  8. SMA actuators for vibration control and experimental determination of model parameters dependent on ambient airflow velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.

    2016-05-01

    This article demonstrates the practical applicability of a method of modelling shape memory alloys (SMAs) as actuators. For this study, a pair of SMA wires was installed in an antagonistic manner to form an actuator, and a linear differential equation that describes the behaviour of the actuator’s generated force relative to its input voltage was derived for the limited range below the austenite onset temperature. In this range, hysteresis need not be considered, and the proposed SMA actuator can therefore be practically applied in linear control systems, which is significant because large deformations accompanied by hysteresis do not necessarily occur in most vibration control cases. When specific values of the parameters used in the differential equation were identified experimentally, it became clear that one of the parameters was dependent on ambient airflow velocity. The values of this dependent parameter were obtained using an additional SMA wire as a sensor. In these experiments, while the airflow distribution around the SMA wires was varied by changing the rotational speed of the fans in the wind tunnels, an input voltage was conveyed to the SMA actuator circuit, and the generated force was measured. In this way, the parameter dependent on airflow velocity was estimated in real time, and it was validated that the calculated force was consistent with the measured one.

  9. Combining displacement field and grip force information to determine mechanical properties of planar tissue with complicated geometry.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Tina M; Hadi, Mohammad F; Claeson, Amy A; Nuckley, David J; Barocas, Victor H

    2014-11-01

    Performing planar biaxial testing and using nominal stress-strain curves for soft-tissue characterization is most suitable when (1) the test produces homogeneous strain fields, (2) fibers are aligned with the coordinate axes, and (3) strains are measured far from boundaries. Some tissue types [such as lamellae of the annulus fibrosus (AF)] may not allow for these conditions to be met due to their natural geometry and constitution. The objective of this work was to develop and test a method utilizing a surface displacement field, grip force-stretch data, and finite-element (FE) modeling to facilitate analysis of such complex samples. We evaluated the method by regressing a simple structural model to simulated and experimental data. Three different tissues with different characteristics were used: Superficial pectoralis major (SPM) (anisotropic, aligned with axes), facet capsular ligament (FCL) (anisotropic, aligned with axes, bone attached), and a lamella from the AF (anisotropic, aligned off-axis, bone attached). We found that the surface displacement field or the grip force-stretch data information alone is insufficient to determine a unique parameter set. Utilizing both data types provided tight confidence regions (CRs) of the regressed parameters and low parameter sensitivity to initial guess. This combined fitting approach provided robust characterization of tissues with varying fiber orientations and boundaries and is applicable to tissues that are poorly suited to standard biaxial testing. The structural model, a set of C++ finite-element routines, and a Matlab routine to do the fitting based on a set of force/displacement data is provided in the on-line supplementary material. PMID:25103887

  10. Valence state parameters of all transition metal atoms in metalloproteins--development of ABEEMσπ fluctuating charge force field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Jiang; Zhao, Dong-Xia

    2014-09-01

    To promote accuracy of the atom-bond electronegativity equalization method (ABEEMσπ) fluctuating charge polarizable force fields, and extend it to include all transition metal atoms, a new parameter, the reference charge is set up in the expression of the total energy potential function. We select over 700 model molecules most of which model metalloprotein molecules that come from Protein Data Bank. We set reference charges for different apparent valence states of transition metals and calibrate the parameters of reference charges, valence state electronegativities, and valence state hardnesses for ABEEMσπ through linear regression and least square method. These parameters can be used to calculate charge distributions of metalloproteins containing transition metal atoms (Sc-Zn, Y-Cd, and Lu-Hg). Compared the results of ABEEMσπ charge distributions with those obtained by ab initio method, the quite good linear correlations of the two kinds of charge distributions are shown. The reason why the STO-3G basis set in Mulliken population analysis for the parameter calibration is specially explained in detail. Furthermore, ABEEMσπ method can also quickly and quite accurately calculate dipole moments of molecules. Molecular dynamics optimizations of five metalloproteins as the examples show that their structures obtained by ABEEMσπ fluctuating charge polarizable force field are very close to the structures optimized by the ab initio MP2/6–311G method. This means that the ABEEMσπ/MM can now be applied to molecular dynamics simulations of systems that contain metalloproteins with good accuracy. PMID:25042901

  11. Cell Shapes and Traction Forces Determine Stress in Motile Confluent Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Bi, Dapeng; Czajkowski, Michael; Manning, Lisa; Marchetti, Cristina

    Collective cell migration is a highly regulated process involved in wound healing, cancer metastasis and morphogenesis. The understanding of the regulatory mechanism requires the study of mechanical interactions among cells that coordinate their active motion. To this end, we develop a method that determines cellular forces and tissue stresses from experimentally accessible cell shapes and traction forces. This approach allows us for the first time to calculate membrane tensions and hydrostatic pressures at a cellular level in collective migrating cell layers out of equilibrium. It helps us understand the mechanical origin of tissue stresses as previous inferred using Traction Force Microscopy (TFM). We test this approach on a new model of motile confluent tissue, which we term Self-propelled Voronoi Model (SPV) that incorporates cell elasticity, Contractility and motility. With the model, we explore the mechanical properties of confluent motile tissue as a function of cell activities and cell shapes in various geometries.

  12. A Study of Parameters Affecting Fibroblast Morphology in Response to an Applied Mechanical Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grymes, Rosalind A.; Sawyer, Christine

    1994-01-01

    A precisely controlled stretch/relaxation regimen (20% elongation at 6.6 cycles/min) was applied to normal human fetal, neonatal and aged dermal fibroblasts cultured on flexible membranes. Culture conditions included poly (NH2) or collagen type I coated substrate membranes; control cultures were grown on the same pliable material in the absence of applied stretch. Direct observation and immunofluorescence analyses revealed a progressive change in cell body orientation limited to the stretched dermal fibroblast cultures. Monolayers gradually (over 4 days) acquired a symmetric, radial distribution equivalent to the biaxial array of the applied force. At high seeding density, alignment was inhibited in the fetal cell cultures. This cell strain required collagen type I coating for optimal attachment to the flexible membrane, preferring growth in three-dimensional cell 'balls' on the poly(NH2) coated substrate. Neonatal cells also required the collagen type I coating, but both neonatal and aged dermal fibroblasts aligned efficiently at all seeding densities examined. The randomly oriented neonatal cells on the unstretched control membranes spontaneously detached at confluence, as a single cell sheet. Their aligned counterparts did not detach until the applied stretch stimulus was removed. Low concentrations of cytochalasin D (62.5 ng/ml) disrupted the stretch-related alignment response. Rhodamine phalloidin staining visualized fewer actin stress fibers in stretched, aligned cells than in controls. Both intercellular interactions and cytoskeletal integrity mediate the response to mechanical strain. Normal rabbit corneal stroma fibroblasts (NRC) were also analyzed, and failed to orient under these conditions. This cell type may require a different regimen, or a longer time period, to demonstrate alignment behavior. Supported by NASA Space Biology RTOP 199-40-22 and the NASA-ARC Director's Discretionary Fund.

  13. Use of first derivative of displacement vs. force profiles to determine deformation behavior of compressed powders.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Shadi F; Aburub, Aktham

    2013-03-01

    Displacement (D) vs. force (F) profiles obtained during compaction of powders have been reported by several researchers. These profiles are usually used to obtain mechanical energies associated with the compaction of powders. In this work, we obtained displacement-force data associated with the compression of six powders; Avicel PH101, Avicel PH301, pregelatinized corn starch, anhydrous lactose, dicalcium phosphate, and mannitol. The first three powders are known to deform predominantly by plastic behavior while the later ones are known to deform predominantly by brittle fracture. Displacement-force data was utilized to perform in-die Heckel analysis and to calculate the first derivative (dD/dF) of displacement-force plots. First derivative results were then plotted against mean force (F') at each point and against 1/F' at compression forces between 1 and 20 kN. Results of the in-die Heckle analysis are in very good agreement with the known deformation behavior of the compressed materials. First derivative plots show that materials that deform predominantly by plastic behavior have first derivative values (0.0006-0.0016 mm/ N) larger than those of brittle materials (0.0004 mm/N). Moreover, when dD/dF is plotted against 1/F' for each powder, a linear correlation can be obtained (R2=>0.98). The slopes of the dD/dF vs. 1/F' plots for plastically deforming materials are relatively larger than those for materials that deform by brittle behavior. It is concluded that first derivative plots of displacement-force profiles can be used to determine deformation behavior of powders. PMID:23341076

  14. Determination of Entrapment Victim Extrication Forces with and without Use of a Grain Rescue Tube.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M J; Field, W E; Maier, D E; Stroshine, R L

    2015-04-01

    The forces required to extricate a test mannequin from a grain mass when buried at different depths with and without a grain restraint system were determined. When there was no grain restraint system in place, the vertical force required to pull the mannequin from the grain when it was buried waist deep and to the underarms was 1259 and 1766 N (283 and 397 lb(f)), respectively. It increased to 1584 N (356 lb(f)) (+26%) and 2153 N (484 lb(f)) (+22%), respectively, with the restraint in place due to the changes in grain properties brought about by the insertion of the rescue tube. It was concluded that the use of a grain restraint during extrication of a victim does not reduce the forces required and that forcefully pulling an entrapped victim, especially with mechanical assistance, with or without a grain restraint system could result in severe injuries and possible death due to the forces exerted on the victim. The authors recommend that these findings be incorporated into current grain extrication training for emergency first responders. PMID:26204783

  15. Toward Determining ATPase Mechanism in ABC Transporters: Development of the Reaction Path–Force Matching QM/MM Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y.; Ojeda-May, P.; Nagaraju, M.; Pu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous ATP-dependent membrane proteins involved in translocations of a wide variety of substrates across cellular membranes. To understand the chemomechanical coupling mechanism as well as functional asymmetry in these systems, a quantitative description of how ABC transporters hydrolyze ATP is needed. Complementary to experimental approaches, computer simulations based on combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potentials have provided new insights into the catalytic mechanism in ABC transporters. Quantitatively reliable determination of the free energy requirement for enzymatic ATP hydrolysis, however, requires substantial statistical sampling on QM/MM potential. A case study shows that brute force sampling of ab initio QM/MM (AI/MM) potential energy surfaces is computationally impractical for enzyme simulations of ABC transporters. On the other hand, existing semiempirical QM/MM (SE/MM) methods, although affordable for free energy sampling, are unreliable for studying ATP hydrolysis. To close this gap, a multiscale QM/MM approach named reaction path–force matching (RP–FM) has been developed. In RP–FM, specific reaction parameters for a selected SE method are optimized against AI reference data along reaction paths by employing the force matching technique. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for a proton transfer reaction in the gas phase and in solution. The RP–FM method may offer a general tool for simulating complex enzyme systems such as ABC transporters. PMID:27498639

  16. Toward Determining ATPase Mechanism in ABC Transporters: Development of the Reaction Path-Force Matching QM/MM Method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Ojeda-May, P; Nagaraju, M; Pu, J

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous ATP-dependent membrane proteins involved in translocations of a wide variety of substrates across cellular membranes. To understand the chemomechanical coupling mechanism as well as functional asymmetry in these systems, a quantitative description of how ABC transporters hydrolyze ATP is needed. Complementary to experimental approaches, computer simulations based on combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potentials have provided new insights into the catalytic mechanism in ABC transporters. Quantitatively reliable determination of the free energy requirement for enzymatic ATP hydrolysis, however, requires substantial statistical sampling on QM/MM potential. A case study shows that brute force sampling of ab initio QM/MM (AI/MM) potential energy surfaces is computationally impractical for enzyme simulations of ABC transporters. On the other hand, existing semiempirical QM/MM (SE/MM) methods, although affordable for free energy sampling, are unreliable for studying ATP hydrolysis. To close this gap, a multiscale QM/MM approach named reaction path-force matching (RP-FM) has been developed. In RP-FM, specific reaction parameters for a selected SE method are optimized against AI reference data along reaction paths by employing the force matching technique. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for a proton transfer reaction in the gas phase and in solution. The RP-FM method may offer a general tool for simulating complex enzyme systems such as ABC transporters. PMID:27498639

  17. Invariance of Hypersonic Normal Force Coefficients with Reynolds Number and Determination of Inviscid Wave Drag from Laminar Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Richard; Penland, Jim A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations have been made and reported that the experimental normal force coefficients at a constant angle of attack were constant with a variation of more than 2 orders of magnitude of Reynolds number at a free-stream Mach number M(sub infinity) of 8.00 and more than 1 order of magnitude variation at M(sub infinity) = 6.00 on the same body-wing hypersonic cruise configuration. These data were recorded under laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer conditions with both hot-wall and cold-wall models. This report presents experimental data on 25 configurations of 17 models of both simple and complex geometry taken at M(sub infinity) = 6.00, 6.86, and 8.00 in 4 different hypersonic facilities. Aerodynamic calculations were made by computational fluid dynamics (CID) and engineering methods to analyze these data. The conclusions were that the normal force coefficients at a given altitude are constant with Reynolds numbers at hypersonic speeds and that the axial force coefficients recorded under laminar boundary-layer conditions at several Reynolds numbers may be plotted against the laminar parameter (the reciprocal of the Reynolds number to the one-half power) and extrapolated to the ordinate axis to determine the inviscid-wave-drag coefficient at the intercept.

  18. Method for determining formation permeability by comparing measured tube waves with formation and borehole parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Hornby, B.E.

    1989-01-10

    A method is described for determining the permeability of an earth formation traversed by a borehole, using a tool adapted for movement in the borehole, comprising: transmitting acoustic energy from a first location on the tool; measuring the acoustic wave forms of the transmitted energy at varying distances from the first location; filtering each of the wave forms to obtain a tube wave component; determining a measured slowness parameter of the tube wave component; generating a value of the computed slowness parameter for the borehole under the conditions of an elastic nonpermeable medium; determining the difference between the measured slowness parameter and the computed value; determining the permeability of the formation in response to the difference between the measured slowness parameter and the computed value.

  19. Determining parameters and mechanisms of colloid retention and release in porous media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A framework is presented to determine fundamental parameters and mechanisms controlling colloid (including microbes and nanoparticles) retention and release on hypothetical porous medium surfaces that exhibit distributions of nanoscale chemical heterogeneity, nano- to microscale roughness, and spati...

  20. Determination of stability and control parameters of a general aviation airplane from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasy, I.

    1983-01-01

    Values for the stability and control parameters for a general aviation airplane were determined from flight data. Lateral and longitudinal transient maneuvers were analyzed by the equation error and output error methods. There was a good agreement between the parameters extracted from flight data and those predicted by wind tunnel.

  1. Determination of the Johnson-Cook Constitutive Model Parameters of Materials by Cluster Global Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhipeng; Gao, Lihong; Wang, Yangwei; Wang, Fuchi

    2016-06-01

    The Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive model is widely used in the finite element simulation, as this model shows the relationship between stress and strain in a simple way. In this paper, a cluster global optimization algorithm is proposed to determine the J-C constitutive model parameters of materials. A set of assumed parameters is used for the accuracy verification of the procedure. The parameters of two materials (401 steel and 823 steel) are determined. Results show that the procedure is reliable and effective. The relative error between the optimized and assumed parameters is no more than 4.02%, and the relative error between the optimized and assumed stress is 0.2% × 10-5. The J-C constitutive parameters can be determined more precisely and quickly than the traditional manual procedure. Furthermore, all the parameters can be simultaneously determined using several curves under different experimental conditions. A strategy is also proposed to accurately determine the constitutive parameters.

  2. Normal values of total respiratory resistance and reactance determined by forced oscillations: influence of smoking.

    PubMed

    Làndsér, F J; Clément, J; Van de Woestijne, K P

    1982-05-01

    In 407 healthy male subjects, smokers and nonsmokers, the resistance and reactance of the respiratory system were determined between 4 and 24 Hz, using a forced oscillation technique. The values are significantly correlated with age, weight, height, FEV1, and vital capacity. After standardization of the data for the latter variables, there are no differences between smokers and nonsmokers. The technique thus lacks sensitivity for the detection of the effects of smoking. PMID:7075278

  3. Psychophysically determined forces of dynamic pushing for female industrial workers: Comparison of two apparatuses.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, Vincent M; Maikala, Rammohan V; Dempsey, Patrick G; O'Brien, Niall V

    2010-01-01

    Using psychophysics, the maximum acceptable forces for pushing have been previously developed using a magnetic particle brake (MPB) treadmill at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces while performing a pushing task at a frequency of 1min(-1) both on a MPB treadmill and on a high-inertia pushcart. This is important because our pushing guidelines are used extensively as a ergonomic redesign strategy and we would like the information to be as applicable as possible to cart pushing. On two separate days, nineteen female industrial workers performed a 40-min MPB treadmill pushing task and a 2-hr pushcart task, in the context of a larger experiment. During pushing, the subjects were asked to select a workload they could sustain for 8h without "straining themselves or without becoming unusually tired, weakened, overheated or out of breath." The results demonstrated that maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces of pushing determined on the high inertia pushcart were 0.8% and 2.5% lower than the MPB treadmill. The results also show that the maximum acceptable sustained force of the MPB treadmill task was 0.5% higher than the maximum acceptable sustained force of Snook and Ciriello (1991). Overall, the findings confirm that the existing pushing data developed by the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety still provides an accurate estimate of maximal acceptable forces for the selected combination of distance and frequency of push for female industrial workers. PMID:19628201

  4. Native topology determines force-induced unfolding pathways in globular proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, D. K.; Thirumalai, D.

    2000-06-01

    Single-molecule manipulation techniques reveal that stretching unravels individually folded domains in the muscle protein titin and the extracellular matrix protein tenascin. These elastic proteins contain tandem repeats of folded domains with -sandwich architecture. Herein, we propose by stretching two model sequences (S1 and S2) with four-stranded -barrel topology that unfolding forces and pathways in folded domains can be predicted by using only the structure of the native state. Thermal refolding of S1 and S2 in the absence of force proceeds in an all-or-none fashion. In contrast, phase diagrams in the force-temperature (f,T) plane and steered Langevin dynamics studies of these sequences, which differ in the native registry of the strands, show that S1 unfolds in an allor-none fashion, whereas unfolding of S2 occurs via an obligatory intermediate. Force-induced unfolding is determined by the native topology. After proving that the simulation results for S1 and S2 can be calculated by using native topology alone, we predict the order of unfolding events in Ig domain (Ig27) and two fibronectin III type domains (9FnIII and 10FnIII). The calculated unfolding pathways for these proteins, the location of the transition states, and the pulling speed dependence of the unfolding forces reflect the differences in the way the strands are arranged in the native states. We also predict the mechanisms of force-induced unfolding of the coiled-coil spectrin (a three-helix bundle protein) for all 20 structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Our approach suggests a natural way to measure the phase diagram in the (f,C) plane, where C is the concentration of denaturants.

  5. New Combined Parameter of Liver and Splenic Stiffness as Determined by Elastography in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kassym, Laura; Nounou, Mohammed A.; Zhumadilova, Zauresh; Dajani, Asad I.; Barkibayeva, Nurgul; Myssayev, Ayan; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Abuhammour, Adnan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of chronic liver disease (CLD) leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension had witnessed dramatic changes after the introduction of noninvasive figure accessible tools over the past few years. Imaging techniques that are based on evaluation of the liver stiffness was particularly useful in this respect. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) emerged as an interesting figure tool with reliable repute and high precision. Aims: To evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and splenic stiffness measurement (SSM) in healthy volunteers as concluded by the ARFI technique and to out a numeric calculated ratio that may reflect their correlation in the otherwise healthy liver. Patients and Methods: A ratio (splenic stiffness/liver stiffness in kPa) was determined in 207 consenting healthy subjects and was investigated with respect to age, gender, ethnic origin, body mass index (BMI), liver and spleen sizes healthy volunteers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), platelet count (PLT), APRI, and FIB-4 scores. Results: Data from this work led to computing an index of 4.72 (3.42–7.33) in healthy persons on an average. Females had a higher index than males 6.37 vs 4.92, P=0.002. There was not any significant difference of the ratio in different age groups; ethnic origins; any correlation between SSM/LSM ratio and BMI; liver and spleen sizes; or ALT, AST, PLT, APRI, and FIB-4 scores. Conclusions: A quantifiable numeric relationship between splenic and liver stiffness in the healthy subjects could be computed to a parameter expressed as SSM/LSM ratio. We believe that this ratio can be a useful reference tool for further researches in CLD. PMID:27488328

  6. Determination of third-order elastic moduli via parameters of bulk strain solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuzov, F. E.; Samsonov, A. M.; Semenov, A. A.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    A method is proposed aimed for determination of the third-order elastic moduli (Murnaghan moduli) based on the estimation of measured parameters of bulk strain solitons in the three main waveguide configurations, a rod, a plate, and a shell. Formulas connecting the third-order moduli of the waveguide material and the parameters of a solitary strain wave (amplitude, velocity, full width at half-maximum) are derived. If the soliton parameters measured in three waveguide types manufactured from the same material are available, determination of the third-order elastic moduli is reduced to the solution of a system of three algebraic equations with a nondegenerate matrix.

  7. A simplified method for determining reactive rate parameters for reaction ignition and growth in explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.J.

    1996-07-01

    A simplified method for determining the reactive rate parameters for the ignition and growth model is presented. This simplified ignition and growth (SIG) method consists of only two adjustable parameters, the ignition (I) and growth (G) rate constants. The parameters are determined by iterating these variables in DYNA2D hydrocode simulations of the failure diameter and the gap test sensitivity until the experimental values are reproduced. Examples of four widely different explosives were evaluated using the SIG model. The observed embedded gauge stress-time profiles for these explosives are compared to those calculated by the SIG equation and the results are described.

  8. Determination of the force transmitted by an ion thruster plasma plume to an orbital object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpatov, A.; Cichocki, F.; Fokov, A.; Khoroshylov, S.; Merino, M.; Zakrzhevskii, A.

    2016-02-01

    An approach to determine the force transmitted by the plasma plume of an ion thruster to an orbital object immersed in it using its central projection on a selected plane is proposed. A photo camera is used to obtain the image of the object central projection. The algorithms for the calculation of the transmission of momentum by the impacting ion beam are developed including the determination of the object contour and the correction of the error due to a camera offset from the ion beam axis, and the computation of the fraction of the ion beam that impinges on the object surface.

  9. Determination of Critical Parameters Based on the Intensity of Transmitted Light Around Gas-Liquid Interface: Critical Parameters of CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Masaki; Katano, Hiroaki; Sato, Haruki

    2014-05-01

    A precise determination of the critical temperature and density for technically important fluids would be possible on the basis of the digital image for the visual observation of the phase boundary in the vicinity of the critical point since the sensitivity and resolution are higher than those of naked eyes. In addition, the digital image can avoid the personal uncertainty of an observer. A strong density gradient occurs in a sample cell at the critical point due to gravity. It was carefully assessed to determine the critical density, where the density profile in the sample cell can be observed from the luminance profile of a digital image. The density-gradient profile becomes symmetric at the critical point. One of the best fluids, whose thermodynamic properties have been measured with the highest reliability among technically important fluids, would be carbon dioxide. In order to confirm the reliability of the proposed method, the critical temperature and density of carbon dioxide were determined using the digital image. The critical temperature and density values of carbon dioxide are ( and ( kg m, respectively. The critical temperature and density values agree with the existing best values within estimated uncertainties. The reliability of the method was confirmed. The critical pressure, 7.3795 MPa, corresponding to the determined critical temperature of 304.143 K is also proposed. A new set of parameters for the vapor-pressure equation is also provided.

  10. Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic planar metamaterials in the terahertz region.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xufeng; Xia, Rui; Wang, Weimin; Tian, Ying; Hong, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    We propose analytical expressions to determine the effective constitutive parameters of a planar bianisotropic metamaterial from scattering parameters in the terahertz region. In our retrieval method, the transmission and reflection coefficients in only one wave propagation direction are applied. Considering the nonsymmetry of planar metamaterials in the wave propagation direction, the effective refractive index and the impedance should be obtained by a modified S parameters retrieval process. The effective parameters of the permittivity, permeability, and magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of planar bianisotropic metamaterials can be retrieved by derived equations. Specifically, the constitutive parameters for different planar metamaterials, among which two are isotropic and the other two are bianisotropic metamaterials, are determined. The intrinsic differences between the normal planar metamaterials and the bianisotropic metamaterials are evidently illustrated. The phenomenon including electric coupling to magnetic resonance and only electric response in the transmission spectrum is confirmed by retrieval effective permittivity and permeability. PMID:27140893

  11. Experimental and numerical determination of cellular traction force on polymeric hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Soon Seng; Li, Chuan; Chan, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cells such as smooth muscle cells (SMCs) rely on the transmission of actomyosin-generated traction forces to adhere and migrate on the extracellular matrix. The cellular traction forces exerted by SMCs on substrate can be measured from the deformation of substrate with embedded fluorescent markers. With the synchronous use of phase-contrast and fluorescent microscopy, the deformation of polyacrylamide (PAM) gel substrate can be quantitatively determined using particle image velocimetry. This displacement map is then input as boundary conditions for the stress analysis on PAM gel by the finite-element method. In addition to optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy was also used to characterize the PAM substrate using the contact mode, from which the elasticity of PAM can be quantified using Hertzian theory. This provides baseline information for the stress analysis of PAM gel deformation. The material model introduced for the computational part is the Mooney–Rivlin constitutive law because of its long proven usefulness in predicting polymers' mechanical behaviour. Numerical results showed that adhesive stresses are high around the cell edges, which is in accordance with the general phenomena of cellular focal adhesion. Further calculations on the total traction forces indicate a slightly contact-dominated regime for a broad range of Mooney–Rivlin stiffnesses. PMID:23050082

  12. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine... Czechoslovakia or Poland under 38 U.S.C. 109(c) is service connected. This determination will be made using...

  13. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine... Czechoslovakia or Poland under 38 U.S.C. 109(c) is service connected. This determination will be made using...

  14. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine... Czechoslovakia or Poland under 38 U.S.C. 109(c) is service connected. This determination will be made using...

  15. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine... Czechoslovakia or Poland under 38 U.S.C. 109(c) is service connected. This determination will be made using...

  16. 38 CFR 3.359 - Determination of service connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. 3.359 Section 3.359 Pensions... connection for former members of the Armed Forces of Czechoslovakia or Poland. Rating boards will determine... Czechoslovakia or Poland under 38 U.S.C. 109(c) is service connected. This determination will be made using...

  17. New method of determination of the photoresist Dill parameters using reflectivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, Patrick; Bach, Stephane

    1998-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a new methodology for the determination of Dill parameters based on reflectivity measurements. In opposition to previous methods, samples are produced using the usual process steps. Silicon wafers and standard photoresist coating procedures are used. Moreover, reflectivity measurements can be performed on any reflectometer, a piece of equipment universally present in an industrial environment. A fitting procedure is performed on the reflectivity data in order to extract the ABC parameters. The delicate steps of the methods are described in the paper. Comparison with other exposure parameter extraction methods on I line resist shows good agreement. Dependence between exposure parameters and development parameter extraction is also discussed. It is shown that several empirical parameter sets can be equivalent, at least from the simulation point of view.

  18. Determination of ankle muscle power in normal gait using an EMG-to-force processing approach.

    PubMed

    Bogey, R A; Gitter, A J; Barnes, L A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of individual ankle muscles to the net ankle power and to examine each muscle's role in propulsion or support of the body during normal, self-selected-speed walking. An EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model was developed which scaled muscle tendon unit force output to gait EMG, with that muscle's power output being the product of muscle force and contraction velocity. Net EFP power was determined by summing individual ankle muscle power. Net ankle power was also calculated for these subjects via inverse dynamics. Closeness of fit of the power curves of the two methods was used to validate the model. The curves were highly correlated (r(2)=.91), thus the model was deconstructed to analyze the power contribution and role of each ankle muscle during normal gait. Key findings were that the plantar flexors control tibial rotation in single support, and act to propel the entire limb into swing phase. The dorsiflexors provide positive power for swing phase foot clearance, negative power to control early stance phase foot placement, and a second positive power burst to actively advance the tibia in the transition from double to single support. Co-contraction of agonists and antagonists was limited to only a small percentage of the gait cycle. PMID:19201619

  19. Determination of the axial force on stay cables accounting for their bending stiffness and rotational end restraints by free vibration tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Marcelo A.; Prato, Carlos A.

    2008-10-01

    Determination of the axial force in terms of its natural frequencies may be significantly influenced by the bending stiffness of the cable and the rotational elastic restraints at the ends, depending on the geometrical and mechanical parameters of the cable and its supports and restraints, particularly in cement-grouted parallel-bundle wire cables. The paper presents an explicit analytical expression for the natural frequencies taking into account both the bending stiffness of the cable and the rotational restraint at the ends that may be used to determine the axial force. While the bending stiffness of the cable and the axial force are selected as variables to attain an optimal match between analytical and experimental data, the rotational stiffness at the ends is treated as a known parameter in that process. The degree of rotational restraint at the ends cannot be accurately inferred from the sequence of the experimentally determined natural frequencies, since this parameter does not appreciably affect the progression of their values. Techniques are discussed that allow approximate determination of the rotational stiffness at the ends for the most common arrangements of anchors and cables with, and without, intermediate supports provided by deviators located near the ends. The axial force and the bending stiffness of the cable are both simultaneously adjusted by matching the natural frequencies of the analytical model with the experimental values. The proposed approach leads to a reduction of the error in the estimation of the axial force for short cables with relatively high bending stiffness such as those typical of cement-grouted parallel-bundle wire cables often used as cable stays for bridges until the early 1990s.

  20. Magnetic measurement based methods in determination of plasma equilibrium parameters in Damavand tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, E.; Sadeghi, Y.; Mehdian, H.

    2016-06-01

    Determination of plasma equilibrium parameters such as poloidal beta (βp) with half of plasma internal inductance (li) known as Shafranov parameter (asymmetry factor) (βp+𝔡li2) and edge safety factor plays very important role in primary equilibrium and stability analysis and control of tokamak plasma. In this study, the well known Shafranov semi-empirical model, based on external magnetic measurements is used to extract Shafranov parameter and effective edge safety factor in low-β operating regime of Damavand tokamak. The well known integral representation of βp+𝔡li2 was modified for non-circular tokamaks with ellipse-like cross section. After calibration of magnetic pick-up coils, Shafranov parameter was estimated with respect to the first and second Fourier harmonic of radial and poloidal components of magnetic field. The results were compared with approximate, semi-analytical determination of Shafranov parameter which is based on analytical solution of Grad-Shafranov equation (GSE). Founding evolution of Shafranov parameter, effective edge safety factor was obtained in terms of Shafranov parameter and compared with semi-empirical description. It was found that between the ramp-up and ramp-down domain of the plasma current, the result from Shafranov model is approximately in good agreement with the semi-analytical and semi-empirical benchmarks and the integral model provides more reliable trace of the Shafranov parameter in out of ramp domains of the discharge.

  1. Parameter estimation and determinability analysis applied to Drosophila gap gene circuits

    PubMed Central

    Ashyraliyev, Maksat; Jaeger, Johannes; Blom, Joke G

    2008-01-01

    Background Mathematical modeling of real-life processes often requires the estimation of unknown parameters. Once the parameters are found by means of optimization, it is important to assess the quality of the parameter estimates, especially if parameter values are used to draw biological conclusions from the model. Results In this paper we describe how the quality of parameter estimates can be analyzed. We apply our methodology to assess parameter determinability for gene circuit models of the gap gene network in early Drosophila embryos. Conclusion Our analysis shows that none of the parameters of the considered model can be determined individually with reasonable accuracy due to correlations between parameters. Therefore, the model cannot be used as a tool to infer quantitative regulatory weights. On the other hand, our results show that it is still possible to draw reliable qualitative conclusions on the regulatory topology of the gene network. Moreover, it improves previous analyses of the same model by allowing us to identify those interactions for which qualitative conclusions are reliable, and those for which they are ambiguous. PMID:18817540

  2. Snow surface temperature, radiative forcing and snow depth as determinants of snow density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, P. B.; Painter, T. H.; Skiles, M.; Deems, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed scale observations of snow water equivalence (SWE) are becoming increasingly important globally as the quantity and timing of snowmelt has become less predictable. In the Colorado River watershed, where dust deposition can hasten snowmelt by several weeks, the need for these observations is critical. While advances in measuring snow depth and albedo from the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory have greatly improved our ability to constrain snow depth and radiative forcing, we have yet to develop a method for remotely observing snow density, which is required for calculating SWE. We evaluate measured and modeled variables of snow- infrared surface temperature, radiative forcing and snow depth as predictors of snow density. We use 10 seasons of in situ measured snow surface temperature, cumulative modeled dust in snow radiative forcing, snow depth and manually measured snow density from locations in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Colorado. We also use measured snow depth and SWE from the 2013 and 2014 water years, from 23-35 locations stratified by modeled downwelling short wave radiation, and evaluate them as predictors of snow density. Our analysis shows that daily mean snow surface temperature (R2 0.61, p = <0.001) and cumulative radiative forcing (R2 0.54, p = <0.001) individually have significant coefficients of determination whereas snow depth alone was not significant. Multiple regression with all three variables (R2 0.84, p = <0.001) was the best predictor of density. Furthermore, when snowpack conditions were isothermal at 0° C, the diurnal coefficient of variation, of measured hourly surface temperature, exhibited consistently high variance. In 2013 we found significant correlations between spatially distributed measurements of snow density (R2 0.33, p = <0.001) and modeled downwelling short wave radiation. However, in 2014 the correlation was very low, supporting our hypothesis that seasonal differences in dust driven radiative forcing are also

  3. Parameter-space screening: a powerful tool for high-throughput crystal structure determination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jie; Lin, Dawei; Tempel, Wolfram; Praissman, Jeremy L; Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng

    2005-05-01

    The determination of protein structures on a genomic scale requires both computing capacity and efficiency increases at many stages along the complex process. By combining bioinformatics workflow-management techniques, cluster-based computing and popular crystallographic structure-determination software packages, an efficient and powerful new tool for structural biology/genomics has been developed. Using the workflow manager and a simple web interface, the researcher can, in a few easy steps, set up hundreds of structure-determination jobs, each using a slightly different set of program input parameters, thus efficiently screening parameter space for the optimal input-parameter combination, i.e. a set of parameters that leads to a successful structure determination. Upon completion, results from the programs are harvested, analyzed, sorted based on success and presented to the user via the web interface. This approach has been applied with success in more than 30 cases. Examples of successful structure determinations based on single-wavelength scattering (SAS) are described and include cases where the 'rational' crystallographer-based selection of input parameters values had failed. PMID:15858261

  4. CHARMM Force-Fields with Modified Polyphosphate Parameters Allow Stable Simulation of the ATP-Bound Structure of Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Komuro, Yasuaki; Re, Suyong; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Muneyuki, Eiro; Sugita, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indispensable energy source in cells. In a wide variety of biological phenomena like glycolysis, muscle contraction/relaxation, and active ion transport, chemical energy released from ATP hydrolysis is converted to mechanical forces to bring about large-scale conformational changes in proteins. Investigation of structure-function relationships in these proteins by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations requires modeling of ATP in solution and ATP bound to proteins with accurate force-field parameters. In this study, we derived new force-field parameters for the triphosphate moiety of ATP based on the high-precision quantum calculations of methyl triphosphate. We tested our new parameters on membrane-embedded sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and four soluble proteins. The ATP-bound structure of Ca(2+)-ATPase remains stable during MD simulations, contrary to the outcome in shorter simulations using original parameters. Similar results were obtained with the four ATP-bound soluble proteins. The new force-field parameters were also tested by investigating the range of conformations sampled during replica-exchange MD simulations of ATP in explicit water. Modified parameters allowed a much wider range of conformational sampling compared with the bias toward extended forms with original parameters. A diverse range of structures agrees with the broad distribution of ATP conformations in proteins deposited in the Protein Data Bank. These simulations suggest that the modified parameters will be useful in studies of ATP in solution and of the many ATP-utilizing proteins. PMID:26588553

  5. Effects of wing modification on an aircraft's aerodynamic parameters as determined from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the effects of four wing-leading-edge modifications on a general aviation aircraft's stability and control parameters is presented. Flight data from the basic aircraft configuration and configurations with wing modifications are analyzed to determine each wing geometry's stability and control parameters. The parameter estimates and aerodynamic model forms are obtained using the stepwise regression and maximum likelihood techniques. The resulting parameter estimates and aerodynamic models are verified using vortex-lattice theory and by analysis of each model's ability to predict aircraft behavior. Comparisons of the stability and control derivative estimates from the basic wing and the four leading-edge modifications are accomplished so that the effects of each modification on aircraft stability and control derivatives can be determined.

  6. Theoretical determination of design parameters for an arrayed heat sink with vertical plate fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiang-Jiun; Chen, Yi-Jin

    2016-05-01

    This paper employs theoretical approach to determine the adequate design parameters of an arrayed plate-fins heat sink based on maximizing heat flow. According to analyzed results, increasing the dimensions of configurative parameters does not always yield the significant increase in the heat flow. As the fin length and fin space increases until a critical value, the heat flow will significantly reduce the increment or decay, respectively.

  7. Determining Reliability Parameters for a Closed-Cycle Small Combined Heat and Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysokomorny, Vladimir S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Piskunov, Maxim V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper provides numerical values of the reliability parameters for independent power sources within the ambient temperature and output power range corresponding to the operation under the climatic conditions of Eastern Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation. We have determined the optimal values of the parameters necessary for the reliable operation of small CHP plants (combined heat and power plants) providing electricity for isolated facilities.

  8. Determination of Structural Parameters of Thin-Film Photocatalytic Materials by BDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korte, Dorota; Franko, Mladen

    2015-09-01

    A method for determination of structural parameters of some thin-film photocatalytic materials is presented. The analysis was based on the material's thermal parameter dependences on its surface structure or porosity and was thus performed by the use of beam deflection spectroscopy (BDS) supported by theoretical analysis made in the framework of complex geometrical optics. The results obtained by BDS were than compared with those received on the basis of AFM and SEM measurements and found to be in good agreement.

  9. Use of a Force Sensor in Archimedes' Principle Experiment, Determination of Buoyant Force and Acceleration Due To Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok

    2013-04-01

    In introductory physics, students verify Archimedes' principle by immersing an object in water in a container, with a side-spout to collect the displaced water, resulting in a large uncertainty, due to surface tension. A modified procedure was introduced, in which a plastic bucket is suspended from a force sensor, and an object hangs underneath the bucket. The object is immersed in water in a glass beaker (without any side spout), and the weight loss is measured with a computer-controlled force sensor. Instead of collecting the water displaced by the object, tap water was added to the bucket to compensate for the weight loss, and the Archimedes' principle was verified within less than a percent. With this apparatus, buoyant force was easily studied as a function of volume of displaced water; as well as a function of density of saline solution. By graphing buoyant force as a function of volume (or density of liquid), value of g was obtained from slope. Apparatus and sources of error will be discussed.

  10. Thermal parameters determination of battery cells by local heat flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashko, K. A.; Mityakov, A. V.; Pyrhönen, J.; Mityakov, V. Y.; Sapozhnikov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    A new approach to define of the thermal parameters, such as heat capacity and through-plane thermal conductivity, of pouch-type cells is introduced. Application of local heat flux measurement with a gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS) allows determination of the cell thermal parameters in different surface points of the cell. The suggested method is not cell destructive as it does not require deep discharge of the cell or application of any charge/discharge cycles during the measurements of the thermal parameters of the cell. The complete procedure is demonstrated on a high-power lithium-ion (Li-ion) pouch cell, and it is verified on a sample with well-known thermal parameters. A comparison of the experimental results with conventional thermal characterization methods shows an acceptably low error. The dependence of the cell thermal parameters on the state of charge (SoC) and measurement points on the surface was studied by the proposed measurement approach.

  11. Determination of α and f parameters at the 14-MW TRIGA reactor at Pitesti, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bărbos, D.; Păunoiu, C.; Roth, C.

    2010-10-01

    For experimental α determination the two-monitor method has been applied to determine α parameter in the irradiation channels at TRIGA 14 MW reactor (SCN Pitesti). The modified two-monitor method by using Cd ratio measurements eliminates the introducing of systematic errors due to the inaccuracy of absolute nuclear data. This characterization of the epithermal neutron spectrum is used in the k0-method of NAA, implemented at the SCN Pitesti. Neutron spectrum parameters were determined in the inner irradiation channel XC-1 and for outer irradiation channels: Beryllium J-6, Beryllium J-7, and Beryllium K-11. For α and f parameter verification a standard reference material denominated ECRM379-1 was analyzed using k0 standardization.

  12. Techniques for determining propulsion system forces for accurate high speed vehicle drag measurements in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaiz, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to evaluate current methods of predicting the performance of large, supersonic airplanes, the drag of the XB-70 airplane was measured accurately in flight at Mach numbers from 0.75 to 2.5. This paper describes the techniques used to determine engine net thrust and the drag forces charged to the propulsion system that were required for the in-flight drag measurements. The accuracy of the measurements and the application of the measurement techniques to aircraft with different propulsion systems are discussed. Examples of results obtained for the XB-70 airplane are presented.

  13. Determination of ferroelectric contributions to electromechanical response by frequency dependent piezoresponse force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Seol, Daehee; Park, Seongjae; Varenyk, Olexandr V; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lee, Ho Nyung; Morozovska, Anna N; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-01-01

    Hysteresis loop analysis via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is typically performed to probe the existence of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale. However, such an approach is rather complex in accurately determining the pure contribution of ferroelectricity to the PFM. Here, we suggest a facile method to discriminate the ferroelectric effect from the electromechanical (EM) response through the use of frequency dependent ac amplitude sweep with combination of hysteresis loops in PFM. Our combined study through experimental and theoretical approaches verifies that this method can be used as a new tool to differentiate the ferroelectric effect from the other factors that contribute to the EM response. PMID:27466086

  14. Determination of ferroelectric contributions to electromechanical response by frequency dependent piezoresponse force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Daehee; Park, Seongjae; Varenyk, Olexandr V.; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lee, Ho Nyung; Morozovska, Anna N.; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-07-01

    Hysteresis loop analysis via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is typically performed to probe the existence of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale. However, such an approach is rather complex in accurately determining the pure contribution of ferroelectricity to the PFM. Here, we suggest a facile method to discriminate the ferroelectric effect from the electromechanical (EM) response through the use of frequency dependent ac amplitude sweep with combination of hysteresis loops in PFM. Our combined study through experimental and theoretical approaches verifies that this method can be used as a new tool to differentiate the ferroelectric effect from the other factors that contribute to the EM response.

  15. Determination of ferroelectric contributions to electromechanical response by frequency dependent piezoresponse force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Daehee; Park, Seongjae; Varenyk, Olexandr V.; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lee, Ho Nyung; Morozovska, Anna N.; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-01-01

    Hysteresis loop analysis via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is typically performed to probe the existence of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale. However, such an approach is rather complex in accurately determining the pure contribution of ferroelectricity to the PFM. Here, we suggest a facile method to discriminate the ferroelectric effect from the electromechanical (EM) response through the use of frequency dependent ac amplitude sweep with combination of hysteresis loops in PFM. Our combined study through experimental and theoretical approaches verifies that this method can be used as a new tool to differentiate the ferroelectric effect from the other factors that contribute to the EM response. PMID:27466086

  16. Fittino, a program for determining MSSM parameters from collider observables using an iterative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtle, P.; Desch, K.; Wienemann, P.

    2006-01-01

    Provided that Supersymmetry (SUSY) is realized, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the future International Linear Collider (ILC) may provide a wealth of precise data from SUSY processes. An important task will be to extract the Lagrangian parameters. On this basis the goal is to uncover the underlying symmetry breaking mechanism from the measured observables. In order to determine the SUSY parameters, the program Fittino has been developed. It uses an iterative fitting technique and a Simulated Annealing algorithm to determine the SUSY parameters directly from the observables without any a priori knowledge of the parameters, using all available loop-corrections to masses and couplings. Simulated Annealing is implemented as a stable and efficient method for finding the optimal parameter values. The theoretical predictions can be provided from any program with SUSY Les Houches Accord interface. As fit result, a set of parameters including the full error matrix and two-dimensional uncertainty contours are obtained. Pull distributions can automatically be created and allow an independent cross-check of the fit results and possible systematic shifts in the parameter determination. A determination of the importance of the individual observables for the measurement of each parameter can be performed after the fit. A flexible user interface is implemented, allowing a wide range of different types of observables and a wide range of parameters to be used. Program summaryProgram title: Fittino Catalogue identifier: ADWN Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWN Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License Programming language:C++ Computer: any computer Operating system: Linux and other Unix flavors RAM: ca. 22 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 111 962 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 006 727 Distribution format: tar.gz Number of processors used: 1 External routines: The ROOT data analysis

  17. Determination of Elevator and Rudder Hinge Forces on the Learjet Model 55 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroughs, R. R.; Padmanabhan, V.

    1983-01-01

    The empennage structure on the Learjet 55 aircraft was quite similar to the empennage structure on earlier Learjet models. However, due to an important structural change in the vertical fin along with the new loads environment on the 50 series aircraft, a structural test was required on the vertical fin, but the horizontal tail was substantiated by a comparative analysis with previous tests. NASTRAN analysis was used to investigate empennage deflections, stress levels, and control surface hinge forces. The hinge force calculations were made with the control surfaces in the deflected as well as undeflected configurations. A skin panel buckling analysis was also performed, and the non-linear effects of buckling were simulated in the NASTRAN model to more accurately define internal loads and stress levels. Comparisons were then made between the Model 55 and the Model 35/36 stresses and internal forces to determine which components were qualified by previous tests. Some of the methods and techniques used in this analysis are described.

  18. Experimental determination of Cm measurement related hardware parameters of the patch-clamp amplifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xiong, Jun; Luo, Jie; Qu, Anlian

    2009-01-30

    Accurate Cm measurements rely on accurate determination of specific parameters of a patch-clamp amplifier (PCA). Hardware-related parameters, such as the resistance Rf and the stray capacitance Cf of the feedback resistor, the input capacitance Ci, the injection capacitance Cj, and the extra capacitances introduced by the BNC connector, are of significance in the sense of obtaining absolute estimates of cell parameters. In the present paper, a frequency-domain method, or the f-method for simplicity, is put forward to experimentally determine the actual values of basic circuit elements for our self-developed PCA. The f-method makes use of sine waves and amplitude/phase measurements instead of the square-wave responses to determine the above parameters of a PCA, and thereby calibrates the PAC for capacitance measurements. Experimental results prove that the f-method is excellent in determining hardware-related parameters, with 3-5% error of the impedance of the "10 MOmega setting", and about 2% error of the impedance of the "model cell" of the model circuit for our PCA. The f-method enables us not only to picture components of fast capacitances, but also to guarantee complete fast capacitance compensation; it may be applicable for other PCAs. PMID:18789969

  19. Single-step electrical field strength screening to determine electroporation induced transmembrane transport parameters.

    PubMed

    Blumrosen, Gadi; Abazari, Alireza; Golberg, Alexander; Yarmush, Martin L; Toner, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    The design of effective electroporation protocols for molecular delivery applications requires the determination of transport parameters including diffusion coefficient, membrane resealing, and critical electric field strength for electroporation. The use of existing technologies to determine these parameters is time-consuming and labor-intensive, and often results in large inconsistencies in parameter estimation due to variations in the protocols and setups. In this work, we suggest using a set of concentric electrodes to screen a full range of electric field strengths in a single test to determine the electroporation-induced transmembrane transport parameters. Using Calcein as a fluorescent probe, we developed analytical methodology to determine the transport parameters based on the electroporation-induced pattern of fluorescence loss from cells. A monolayer of normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells were pre-loaded with Calcein and electroporated with an applied voltage of 750V with 10 and 50 square pulses with 50μs duration. Using our analytical model, the critical electric field strength for electroporation was found for the 10 and 50 pulses experiments. An inverse correlation between the field strength and the molecular transport time decay constant, and a direct correlation between field strength and the membrane permeability were observed. The results of this work can simplify the development of electroporation-assisted technologies for research and therapies. PMID:27263825

  20. The application of virtual prototyping methods to determine the dynamic parameters of mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurc, Krzysztof; Szybicki, Dariusz; Burghardt, Andrzej; Muszyńska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents methods used to determine the parameters necessary to build a mathematical model of an underwater robot with a crawler drive. The parameters present in the dynamics equation will be determined by means of advanced mechatronic design tools, including: CAD/CAE software andMES modules. The virtual prototyping process is described as well as the various possible uses (design adaptability) depending on the optional accessories added to the vehicle. A mathematical model is presented to show the kinematics and dynamics of the underwater crawler robot, essential for the design stage.

  1. Topologies, structures and parameter files for lipid simulations in GROMACS with the OPLS-aa force field: DPPC, POPC, DOPC, PEPC, and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Waldemar; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Róg, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    In this data article we provide topologies and force field parameters files for molecular dynamics simulations of lipids in the OPLS-aa force field using the GROMACS package. This is the first systematic parameterization of lipid molecules in this force field. Topologies are provided for four phosphatidylcholines: saturated DPPC, mono-cis unsaturated POPC and DOPC, and mono-trans unsaturated PEPC. Parameterization of the phosphatidylcholines was achieved in two steps: first, we supplemented the OPLS force field parameters for DPPC with new parameters for torsion angles and van der Waals parameters for the carbon and hydrogen atoms in the acyl chains, as well as new partial atomic charges and parameters for torsion angles in the phosphatidylcholine and glycerol moieties [1]. Next, we derived parameters for the cis and trans double bonds and the neighboring them single bonds [2]. Additionally, we provide GROMACS input files with parameters describing simulation conditions (md.mdp), which are strongly recommended to be used with these lipids models. The data are associated with the research article "Cis and trans unsaturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers: a molecular dynamics simulation study" [2] and provided as supporting materials. PMID:26568975

  2. Determination of solubility parameters of ionic liquids and ionic liquid/solvent mixtures from intrinsic viscosity.

    PubMed

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Wong, Yuewen; Lim, Kok Hwa; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-11-10

    The total and partial solubility parameters (dispersion, polar and hydrogen-bonding solubility parameters) of ten ionic liquids were determined. Intrinsic viscosity approaches were used that encompassed a one-dimensional method (1D-Method), and two different three-dimensional methods (3D-Method1 and 3D-Method2). The effect of solvent type, the dimethylacetamide (DMA) fraction in the ionic liquid, and dissolution temperature on solubility parameters were also investigated. For all types of effect, both the 1D-Method and 3D-Method2 present the same trend in the total solubility parameter. The partial solubility parameters are influenced by the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. Considering the effect on partial solubility parameters of the solvent type in the ionic liquid, it was observed that in both 3D methods, the dispersion and polar parameters of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/solvent (60:40 vol %) mixture tend to increase as the total solubility parameter of the solvent increases. PMID:25145759

  3. Calibration of parallel kinematic devices using sequential determination of kinematic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    JOKIEL JR.,BERNHARD; BIEG,LOTHAR F.; ZIEGERT,JOHN C.

    2000-04-06

    In PKM Machines, the Cartesian position and orientation of the tool point carried on the platform is obtained from a kinematic model of the particular machine. Accurate positioning of these machines relies on the accurate knowledge of the parameters of the kinematic model unique to the particular machine. The parameters in the kinematic model include the spatial locations of the joint centers on the machine base and moving platform, the initial strut lengths, and the strut displacements. The strut displacements are readily obtained from sensors on the machine. However, the remaining kinematic parameters (joint center locations, and initial strut lengths) are difficult to determine when these machines are in their fully assembled state. The size and complexity of these machines generally makes it difficult and somewhat undesirable to determine the remaining kinematic parameters by direct inspection such as in a coordinate measuring machine. In order for PKMs to be useful for precision positioning applications, techniques must be developed to quickly calibrate the machine by determining the kinematic parameters without disassembly of the machine. A number of authors have reported techniques for calibration of PKMs (Soons, Masory, Zhuang et. al., Ropponen). In two other papers, the authors have reported on work recently completed by the University of Florida and Sandia National Laboratories on calibration of PKMs, which describes a new technique to sequentially determine the kinematic parameters of an assembled parallel kinematic device. The technique described is intended to be used with a spatial coordinate measuring device such as a portable articulated CMM measuring arm (Romer, Faro, etc.), a Laser Ball Bar (LBB), or a laser tracker (SMX< API, etc.). The material to be presented is as follows: (1) methods to identify the kinematic parameters of 6--6 variant Stewart platform manipulators including joint center locations relative to the workable and spindle nose

  4. Simulations of Mississippi river basin streamflows by the land surface model ORCHIDEE. Sensitivity to the forcing resolution and parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimberteau, M.; Laval, K.; Perrier, A.; Polcher, J.

    2009-04-01

    . However, the correlation between the streamflow simulated and the observations is very bad. Secondly, the main result points out the high sensitivity of the streamflow seasonality to the spatial resolution (the temporal resolution has not an impact with this hydrological model). With the NCC resolution, the peak of streamflow reaches the period in agreement with the observations whereas it is hugely shifted with the high resolution. We explain this difference by the time constants of routing reservoirs in ORCHIDEE which were only calibrated with the NCC resolution. With a high resolution, we have to put a lower value of time constant for the stream reservoir which should represent a water amount routed more quickly. When we divided by a factor 10 the time constant of this reservoir and the routing time step, the seasonality of the streamflow at Vicksburg is found back and similar to NCC. Furthermore, with this calibration, we show that streamflows are correctly represented over many stations over the basin during the three years, with both forcings. We also compare ORCHIDEE to four other models which have performed the same simulation with NLDAS (Lohmann & al., 2004). For the five stations of the Mississippi river basin studied in this paper, we compare their measured streamflow variations to the simulated ones. We notice a large difference between five models. ORCHIDEE and NOAH are the most similar and able to represent the peaks accurately. Finally, we point out the good ability of the model ORCHIDEE to simulate streamflow but also the incertitude in its seasonality due to calibrated parameters such as time constant and routing time step. Overall, this study shows the necessity to find a general law to switch over spatio-temporal scale to another in a same LSM.

  5. Non-specific binding of Na+ and Mg2+ to RNA determined by force spectroscopy methods.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, C V; Alemany, A; Ritort, F

    2012-08-01

    RNA duplex stability depends strongly on ionic conditions, and inside cells RNAs are exposed to both monovalent and multivalent ions. Despite recent advances, we do not have general methods to quantitatively account for the effects of monovalent and multivalent ions on RNA stability, and the thermodynamic parameters for secondary structure prediction have only been derived at 1M [Na(+)]. Here, by mechanically unfolding and folding a 20 bp RNA hairpin using optical tweezers, we study the RNA thermodynamics and kinetics at different monovalent and mixed monovalent/Mg(2+) salt conditions. We measure the unfolding and folding rupture forces and apply Kramers theory to extract accurate information about the hairpin free energy landscape under tension at a wide range of ionic conditions. We obtain non-specific corrections for the free energy of formation of the RNA hairpin and measure how the distance of the transition state to the folded state changes with force and ionic strength. We experimentally validate the Tightly Bound Ion model and obtain values for the persistence length of ssRNA. Finally, we test the approximate rule by which the non-specific binding affinity of divalent cations at a given concentration is equivalent to that of monovalent cations taken at 100-fold concentration for small molecular constructs. PMID:22492710

  6. A new trend to determine biochemical parameters by quantitative FRET assays

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jia-yu; Song, Yang; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been widely used in biological and biomedical research because it can determine molecule or particle interactions within a range of 1–10 nm. The sensitivity and efficiency of FRET strongly depend on the distance between the FRET donor and acceptor. Historically, FRET assays have been used to quantitatively deduce molecular distances. However, another major potential application of the FRET assay has not been fully exploited, that is, the use of FRET signals to quantitatively describe molecular interactive events. In this review, we discuss the use of quantitative FRET assays for the determination of biochemical parameters, such as the protein interaction dissociation constant (Kd), enzymatic velocity (kcat) and Km. We also describe fluorescent microscopy-based quantitative FRET assays for protein interaction affinity determination in cells as well as fluorimeter-based quantitative FRET assays for protein interaction and enzymatic parameter determination in solution. PMID:26567729

  7. Determining Structure Distribution In Inhomogenous Samples On The Nanometer Scale By Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranchida, Davide; Piccarolo, Stefano

    2007-04-01

    A nanoindentation technique using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was applied to characterize the mechanical behaviour of several polymeric samples. Samples with well-defined morphologies, spanning from amorphous to rubbery and semi-crystalline ones, were studied for identifying experimental conditions determining contact mechanics within the elastic range such that Young's moduli could be drawn by the Sneddon's elastic contact model. Structure homogeneity, up to the scale of macroscopic samples used to evaluate the elastic moduli, allowed a successful comparison of these values with those determined by macroscopic tension test on full size samples (a few mm), provided that comparable "overall" deformation rates are used (approx. 10∧-5 m/s). Therefore, it is possible to scale down the measurement of mechanical properties by AFM to the typical resolution of nanoindentations. With this method the distribution of mechanical properties on systems with a spatial distribution of morphology (injection moulded samples) is presented..

  8. A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie from comparison of Earth orientation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M. H.; Folkner, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides, or 'frame tie,' can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) station coordinate and earth orientation parameter estimates. A frame tie result is presented with an accuracy of 25 nrad.

  9. A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie from comparison of Earth orientation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark Harold; Folkner, William M.

    1992-01-01

    The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides, or 'frame tie,' can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) station coordinate and Earth orientation parameter estimates. A frame tie result is presented with an accuracy of 25 nrad.

  10. Variability Analysis of the Mechanical Parameters in order to Determine the Forming Limit Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraianu, Liana; Bichis, Ioana; Banabic, Dorel

    2011-05-01

    The variability of the so called noise factors greatly influences the results of any forming process (deep-drawing, stretching, etc.). By taking into account this variability, the number of the rejected parts and the manufacturing costs will decrease. The aim of this work is to evaluate the variability of the mechanical parameters of a DC04 steel sheet (0.85 mm thickness). The experimental data needed for evaluating the variability of the mechanical parameters has been obtained from uniaxial tensile tests. A total number of 113 experiments have been made using samples cut at 0°, 45° and 90° with respect to the rolling direction. In this way, the yield stress and the plastic anisotropy coefficient have been determined for each of the orientations mentioned above. The power hardening law offers the possibility to study the variability of the following parameters: yield stress, strength coefficient and strain-hardening exponent. Based on the dispersion of the stress-strain curves, the mechanical coefficients of the Swift hardening law have been determined using a new method. The input parameters exhibiting the most important influence on the scattering of the forming limit diagram have been also established. Finally, in order to determine the Forming Limit Band (FLB), a Monte-Carlo analysis (MCA) has been performed using values and correlations between the mechanical parameters.

  11. Determining Relative Importance and Effective Settings for Genetic Algorithm Control Parameters.

    PubMed

    Mills, K L; Filliben, J J; Haines, A L

    2015-01-01

    Setting the control parameters of a genetic algorithm to obtain good results is a long-standing problem. We define an experiment design and analysis method to determine relative importance and effective settings for control parameters of any evolutionary algorithm, and we apply this method to a classic binary-encoded genetic algorithm (GA). Subsequently, as reported elsewhere, we applied the GA, with the control parameter settings determined here, to steer a population of cloud-computing simulators toward behaviors that reveal degraded performance and system collapse. GA-steered simulators could serve as a design tool, empowering system engineers to identify and mitigate low-probability, costly failure scenarios. In the existing GA literature, we uncovered conflicting opinions and evidence regarding key GA control parameters and effective settings to adopt. Consequently, we designed and executed an experiment to determine relative importance and effective settings for seven GA control parameters, when applied across a set of numerical optimization problems drawn from the literature. This paper describes our experiment design, analysis, and results. We found that crossover most significantly influenced GA success, followed by mutation rate and population size and then by rerandomization point and elite selection. Selection method and the precision used within the chromosome to represent numerical values had least influence. Our findings are robust over 60 numerical optimization problems. PMID:25254350

  12. Fast determination of beef quality parameters with time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fabíola Manhas Verbi; Bertelli Pflanzer, Sérgio; Gomig, Thaísa; Lugnani Gomes, Carolina; de Felício, Pedro Eduardo; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2013-04-15

    The noteworthy of this study is to predict seven quality parameters for beef samples using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) relaxometry data and multivariate models. Samples from 61 Bonsmara heifers were separated into five groups based on genetic (breeding composition) and feed system (grain and grass feed). Seven sample parameters were analyzed by reference methods; among them, three sensorial parameters, flavor, juiciness and tenderness and four physicochemical parameters, cooking loss, fat and moisture content and instrumental tenderness using Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The raw beef samples of the same animals were analyzed by TD-NMR relaxometry using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) and Continuous Wave-Free Precession (CWFP) sequences. Regression models computed by partial least squares (PLS) chemometric technique using CPMG and CWFP data and the results of the classical analysis were constructed. The results allowed for the prediction of aforementioned seven properties. The predictive ability of the method was evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) for the calibration (RMSEC) and validation (RMSEP) data sets. The reference and predicted values showed no significant differences at a 95% confidence level. PMID:23601874

  13. Fast Determination of the Planar Body Segment Inertial Parameters Using Affordable Sensors.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Vincent; Venture, Gentiane

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed at developing and evaluating a new method for the fast and reliable identification of body segment inertial parameters with a planar model using affordable sensors. A Kinect sensor, with a new marker-based tracking system, and a Wii balance board were used as an affordable and portable motion capture system. A set of optimal exciting motions was used in a biofeedback interface to identify the body segment parameters. The method was validated with 12 subjects performing various standardized motions. The same dynamometric quantities estimated both with the proposed system and, as a reference, with a laboratory grade force-plate were compared. The results showed that the proposed method could successfully estimate the resultant moment and the vertical ground reaction force (rms errors less than 8 Nm and 12 N, respectively). Finally, when local segment values were artificially varied, the proposed method was able to detect and estimate the additional masses accurately and with an error of less than 0.5 Kg, contrary to values generated with commonly used anthropometric tables. PMID:25751867

  14. Determination of Microstructural Parameters of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Mechanical Alloying Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughehdoust, Sedigheh; Manafi, Sahebali

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues. HA can support bone ingrowth and osseointegration when used in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications. In this research, HA nanostructure was synthesized by mechanical alloying method. Phase development, particle size and morphology of HA were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, zetasizer instrument, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. XRD pattern has been used to determination of the microstructural parameters (crystallite size, lattice parameters and crystallinity percent) by Williamson-Hall equation, Nelson-Riley method and calculating the areas under the peaks, respectively. The crystallite size and particle size of HA powders were in nanometric scales. SEM images showed that some parts of HA particles have agglomerates. The ratio of lattice parameters of synthetic hydroxyapatite (c/a = 0.73) was determined in this study is the same as natural hydroxyapatite structure.

  15. Relationships between the pulmonary densitometry values obtained by CT and the forced oscillation technique parameters in patients with silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Mogami, R; Camilo, G B; Machado, D C; Melo, P L; Carvalho, A R S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlations between pulmonary densitometry values and forced oscillation technique (FOT) parameters in patients with silicosis. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 36 non-smoker patients with silicosis and 20 matched control subjects who were submitted to FOT and multidetector CT (MDCT). Results: Compared with the control subjects, the MDCT evaluation demonstrated that patients with silicosis exhibited greater total lung mass. These patients also had larger non-aerated and poorly aerated compartments, which included nodules and scarring. Compared with the control subjects, FOT evaluation demonstrated that patients with silicosis exhibited changes in both reactive and resistive properties of the respiratory system. In these patients, there was a greater heterogeneity of the respiratory system and increased work of breathing. Significant correlations between non-aerated compartment size and FOT parameters that reflect the non-homogeneity of the respiratory system were observed. The dynamic compliance of the respiratory system was negatively correlated with non-aerated compartment size, while the impedance at 4 Hz was positively correlated with non-aerated compartment size. Conclusion: Patients with silicosis have heavier lungs. In these patients, a larger non-aerated compartment is associated with a worsening of lung function. A more significant pulmonary involvement is associated with a loss of homogeneity and increased mechanical load of the respiratory system. Advances in knowledge The findings provided by both pulmonary densitometry and FOT may add valuable information to the subjective analysis of silicosis; however, more studies are necessary to evaluate the potential use of these methods for assessing disease progression. PMID:25747897

  16. A System for Determining Parameters of a Particle by Radiant Energy Scattering Techniques, Patent Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The system for determining parameters of a particle described in this document is a government-owned invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the system together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A collector contains a hole and annular apertures for transmitting…

  17. Cefaclor pharmacokinetic parameters: serum concentrations determined by a new high-performance liquid chromatographic technique.

    PubMed

    Rotschafer, J C; Crossley, K B; Lesar, T S; Zaske, D; Miller, K

    1982-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of cefaclor were studied in eight patients after an oral dose of 250 mg. Serum samples were obtained before and on 19 occasions after oral administration. Cefaclor serum concentrations were determined by a new high-performance liquid chromatographic technique. PMID:7081972

  18. Determination of modeling parameters for power IGBTs under pulsed power conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E; Van Gordon, Jim A; Kovaleski, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    While the power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGRT) is used in many applications, it is not well characterized under pulsed power conditions. This makes the IGBT difficult to model for solid state pulsed power applications. The Oziemkiewicz implementation of the Hefner model is utilized to simulate IGBTs in some circuit simulation software packages. However, the seventeen parameters necessary for the Oziemkiewicz implementation must be known for the conditions under which the device will be operating. Using both experimental and simulated data with a least squares curve fitting technique, the parameters necessary to model a given IGBT can be determined. This paper presents two sets of these seventeen parameters that correspond to two different models of power IGBTs. Specifically, these parameters correspond to voltages up to 3.5 kV, currents up to 750 A, and pulse widths up to 10 {micro}s. Additionally, comparisons of the experimental and simulated data will be presented.

  19. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H⁻ ion source.

    PubMed

    Briefi, S; Fink, D; Mattei, S; Lettry, J; Fantz, U

    2016-02-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T(e) ≈ 1.2 eV, n(e) ≈ 1 × 10(19) m(-3), and n(H/)n(H2) ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal "hockey-stick" rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients. PMID:26931986

  20. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briefi, S.; Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.; Fantz, U.

    2016-02-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (Te ≈ 1.2 eV, ne ≈ 1 × 1019 m-3, and nH/nH2 ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal "hockey-stick" rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients.

  1. Modeling of Non-Gravitational Forces for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Stefan; Gisinger, Christoph; Steigenberger, Peter; Balss, Ulrich; Montenbruck, Oliver; Eineder, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The precise reconstruction of the satellite's trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) onboard the spacecraft. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. An analysis of the orbit quality by means of internal and external validation methods on long and short timescales shows systematics, which reflect deficits in the employed force models. Following the proper analysis of this deficits, possible solution strategies are highlighted in the presentation. The employed Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). The satellite TerraSAR-X flies on a dusk-dawn orbit with an altitude of approximately 510 km above ground. Due to this constellation, the Sun almost constantly illuminates the satellite, which causes strong across-track accelerations on the plane rectangular to the solar rays. The indirect effect of the solar radiation is called Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). This force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface (visible spectra) and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed. The scope of

  2. New method for on-orbit-determination of parameters for guidance, navigation and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemen, Carsten

    2002-07-01

    For most scientific satellite missions it is required that the attitude control system works with the greatest possible accuracy to achieve the missions objectives. Therefore it is necessary to know the non-linear system "satellite" with its different parameters e.g. the moments of inertia, the thruster parameters, mass, etc. as exactly as possible. But in most cases these parameters cannot be determined on earth so it has to be done on-orbit. For that reason an applicable estimation method must be found which is robust against all kinds of disturbances acting on the satellite: disturbing torques, noise and offset of the satellites sensors and actuators. Another condition is that only the measurements of the satellite sensors (attitude and angular velocity) can be used for determination. Because of these constraints and the complex non-linear behaviour of the satellite linear and conventional non-linear methods cannot be used for the estimation. A new method must be used. The idea is to compare the sensor measurements which are influenced by the just mentioned disturbances and the results of a computer-aided simulation of the non-disturbed satellite. With the difference between the measured and simulated sensor informations a cost function is determined. In an iteration loop the parameter values are estimated by varying them until this function reaches its minimum. This is performed with the simplex-method by NELDER and MEAD. Here the applicability and accuracy of this method is proved exemplarily by estimating the parameters of a satellites thruster system. This method delivers the parameters sufficiently exact independent from initialized errors in the simulation and disturbances on the real satellite. This method is also applicable to other parameters like for example the moments of inertia or the solar pressure torque, etc.

  3. 40 CFR 86.529-98 - Road load force and inertia weight determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road load force and inertia weight... Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.529-98 Road load force and... of this section. Velocity V is in km/h and force (F) is in newtons. The forces given by the...

  4. 40 CFR 86.529-98 - Road load force and inertia weight determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road load force and inertia weight... Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.529-98 Road load force and... of this section. Velocity V is in km/h and force (F) is in newtons. The forces given by the...

  5. 40 CFR 86.529-98 - Road load force and inertia weight determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Road load force and inertia weight... Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.529-98 Road load force and... of this section. Velocity V is in km/h and force (F) is in newtons. The forces given by the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.529-98 - Road load force and inertia weight determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load force and inertia weight... Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.529-98 Road load force and... of this section. Velocity V is in km/h and force (F) is in newtons. The forces given by the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.529-98 - Road load force and inertia weight determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road load force and inertia weight... Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.529-98 Road load force and... of this section. Velocity V is in km/h and force (F) is in newtons. The forces given by the...

  8. Sensitivity of predicted muscle forces to parameters of the optimization-based human leg model revealed by analytical and numerical analyses.

    PubMed

    Raikova, R T; Prilutsky, B I

    2001-10-01

    There are different opinions in the literature on whether the cost functions: the sum of muscle stresses squared and the sum of muscle stresses cubed, can reasonably predict muscle forces in humans. One potential reason for the discrepancy in the results could be that different authors use different sets of model parameters which could substantially affect forces predicted by optimization-based models. In this study, the sensitivity of the optimal solution obtained by minimizing the above cost functions for a planar three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) model of the leg with nine muscles was investigated analytically for the quadratic function and numerically for the cubic function. Analytical results revealed that, generally, the non-zero optimal force of each muscle depends in a very complex non-linear way on moments at all three joints and moment arms and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) of all muscles. Deviations of the model parameters (moment arms and PCSAs) from their nominal values within a physiologically feasible range affected not only the magnitude of the forces predicted by both criteria, but also the number of non-zero forces in the optimal solution and the combination of muscles with non-zero predicted forces. Muscle force magnitudes calculated by both criteria were similar. They could change several times as model parameters changed, whereas patterns of muscle forces were typically not as sensitive. It is concluded that different opinions in the literature about the behavior of optimization-based models can be potentially explained by differences in employed model parameters. PMID:11522304

  9. Kinetic modeling of molecular motors: pause model and parameter determination from single-molecule experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, José A.; Ibarra, Borja; Cao, Francisco J.

    2016-05-01

    Single-molecule manipulation experiments of molecular motors provide essential information about the rate and conformational changes of the steps of the reaction located along the manipulation coordinate. This information is not always sufficient to define a particular kinetic cycle. Recent single-molecule experiments with optical tweezers showed that the DNA unwinding activity of a Phi29 DNA polymerase mutant presents a complex pause behavior, which includes short and long pauses. Here we show that different kinetic models, considering different connections between the active and the pause states, can explain the experimental pause behavior. Both the two independent pause model and the two connected pause model are able to describe the pause behavior of a mutated Phi29 DNA polymerase observed in an optical tweezers single-molecule experiment. For the two independent pause model all parameters are fixed by the observed data, while for the more general two connected pause model there is a range of values of the parameters compatible with the observed data (which can be expressed in terms of two of the rates and their force dependencies). This general model includes models with indirect entry and exit to the long-pause state, and also models with cycling in both directions. Additionally, assuming that detailed balance is verified, which forbids cycling, this reduces the ranges of the values of the parameters (which can then be expressed in terms of one rate and its force dependency). The resulting model interpolates between the independent pause model and the indirect entry and exit to the long-pause state model

  10. Determination of forced convective heat transfer coefficients for subsonic flows over heated asymmetric NANA 4412 airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dag, Yusuf

    Forced convection over traditional surfaces such as flat plate, cylinder and sphere have been well researched and documented. Data on forced convection over airfoil surfaces, however, remain very scanty in literature. High altitude vehicles that employ airfoils as lifting surfaces often suffer leading edge ice accretions which have tremendous negative consequences on the lifting capabilities and stability of the vehicle. One of the ways of mitigating the effect of ice accretion involves judicious leading edge convective cooling technique which in turn depends on the accuracy of convective heat transfer coefficient used in the analysis. In this study empirical investigation of convective heat transfer measurements on asymmetric airfoil is presented at different angle of attacks ranging from 0° to 20° under subsonic flow regime. The top and bottom surface temperatures are measured at given points using Senflex hot film sensors (Tao System Inc.) and used to determine heat transfer characteristics of the airfoils. The model surfaces are subjected to constant heat fluxes using KP Kapton flexible heating pads. The monitored temperature data are then utilized to determine the heat convection coefficients modelled empirically as the Nusselt Number on the surface of the airfoil. The experimental work is conducted in an open circuit-Eiffel type wind tunnel, powered by a 37 kW electrical motor that is able to generate subsonic air velocities up to around 41 m/s in the 24 square-inch test section. The heat transfer experiments have been carried out under constant heat flux supply to the asymmetric airfoil. The convective heat transfer coefficients are determined from measured surface temperature and free stream temperature and investigated in the form of Nusselt number. The variation of Nusselt number is shown with Reynolds number at various angles of attacks. It is concluded that Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number and increase in angle of attack from 0

  11. Determination of enzyme thermal parameters for rational enzyme engineering and environmental/evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Monk, Colin R; Daniel, Roy M

    2013-01-01

    Of the two independent processes by which enzymes lose activity with increasing temperature, irreversible thermal inactivation and rapid reversible equilibration with an inactive form, the latter is only describable by the Equilibrium Model. Any investigation of the effect of temperature upon enzymes, a mandatory step in rational enzyme engineering and study of enzyme temperature adaptation, thus requires determining the enzymes' thermodynamic parameters as defined by the Equilibrium Model. The necessary data for this procedure can be collected by carrying out multiple isothermal enzyme assays at 3-5°C intervals over a suitable temperature range. If the collected data meet requirements for V max determination (i.e., if the enzyme kinetics are "ideal"), then the enzyme's Equilibrium Model parameters (ΔH eq, T eq, ΔG (‡) cat, and ΔG (‡) inact) can be determined using a freely available iterative model-fitting software package designed for this purpose.Although "ideal" enzyme reactions are required for determination of all four Equilibrium Model parameters, ΔH eq, T eq, and ΔG (‡) cat can be determined from initial (zero-time) rates for most nonideal enzyme reactions, with substrate saturation being the only requirement. PMID:23504427

  12. Determination of Kinetic Parameters within a Single Nonisothermal On-Flow Experiment by Nanoliter NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M Victoria; Rodriguez, Antonio M; de la Hoz, Antonio; Jimenez-Marquez, Francisco; Fratila, Raluca M; Barneveld, Peter A; Velders, Aldrik H

    2015-10-20

    Conventional methods to determine the kinetic parameters for a certain reaction require multiple, separate isothermal experiments, resulting in time- and material-consuming processes. Here, an approach to determine the kinetic information within a single nonisothermal on-flow experiment is presented, consuming less than 10 μmol of reagents and having a total measuring time of typically 10 min. This approach makes use of a microfluidic NMR chip hyphenated to a continuous-flow microreactor and is based on the capabilities of the NMR chip to analyze subnanomole quantities of material in the 25 nL detection volume. Importantly, useful data are acquired from the microreactor platform in specific isothermal and nonisothermal frames. A model fitting the experimental data enables rapid determination of kinetic parameters, as demonstrated for a library of isoxazole and pyrazole derivatives. PMID:26383715

  13. Endocardial endothelium is a key determinant of force-frequency relationship in rat ventricular myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoxu; Tan, Zhen; Zhong, Xin; Tian, Ye; Wang, Xian; Yu, Bo; Ramirez-Correa, Genaro; Murphy, Anne; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Paolocci, Nazareno

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that removing endocardial endothelium (EE) negatively impacts the force-frequency relationship (FFR) of ventricular myocardium and dissected the signaling that underlies this phenomenon. EE of rat trabeculae was selectively damaged by brief (<1 s) exposure to 0.1% Triton X-100. Force, intracellular Ca2+ transient (iCa2+), and activity of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) were determined. In control muscles, force and iCa2+ increased as the stimulation frequency increased in steps of 0.5 Hz up to 3.0 Hz. However, EE-denuded (EED) muscles exhibited a markedly blunted FFR. Neither isoproterenol (ISO; 0.1–5 nmol/l) nor endothelin-1 (ET-1; 10–100 nmol/l) alone restored the slope of FFR in EED muscles. Intriguingly, however, a positive FFR was restored in EED preparations by combining low concentrations of ISO (0.1 nmol/l) and ET-1 (20 nmol/l). In intact muscles, PKA and PKC activity increased proportionally with the increase in frequency. This effect was completely lost in EED muscles. Again, combining ISO and ET-1 fully restored the frequency-dependent rise in PKA and PKC activity in EED muscles. In conclusion, selective damage of EE leads to significantly blunted FFR. A combination of low concentrations of ISO and ET-1 successfully restores FFR in EED muscles. The interdependence of ISO and ET-1 in this process indicates cross-talk between the β1-PKA and ET-1-PKC pathways for a normal (positive) FFR. The results also imply that dysfunction of EE and/or EE-myocyte coupling may contribute to flat (or even negative) FFR in heart failure. PMID:23703113

  14. Sick Leave and Its Determinants in Professional Soldiers of the Slovenian Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Selič, Polona; Petek, Davorina; Serec, Maša; Rus, Maja; Makovec

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess whether demographic characteristics, self-rated health status, coping behaviors, satisfaction with important interpersonal relationships, financial situation, and current overall quality of life are determinants of sick leave duration in professional soldiers of the Slovenian Armed Forces. Methods In 2008, 448 military personnel on active duty in the Slovenian Armed Forces were invited to participate in the study and 390 returned the completed questionnaires (response rate 87%). The questionnaires used were the self-rated health scale, sick leave scale, life satisfaction scale, Folkman-Lazarus' Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a demographic data questionnaire. To partition the variance across a wide variety of indicators of participants’ experiences, ordinal modeling procedures were used. Results A multivariate ordinal regression model, explaining 24% of sick leave variance, showed that the following variables significantly predicted longer sick leave duration: female sex (estimate, 1.185; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.579-1.791), poorer self-rated health (estimate, 3.243; 95% CI, 1.755-4.731), lower satisfaction with relationships with coworkers (estimate, 1.333; 95% CI, 0.399-2.267), and lower education (estimate, 1.577; 95% CI, 0.717-2.436). The impact of age and coping mechanisms was not significant. Conclusion Longer sick leave duration was found in women and respondents less satisfied with their relationships with coworkers, and these are the groups to which special attention should be awarded when planning supervision, work procedures, and gender equality policy of the Armed Forces. A good way of increasing the quality of interpersonal relationships at work would be to teach such skills in teaching programs for commanding officers. PMID:21162167

  15. Inverse parameter determination in the development of an optimized lithium iron phosphate - Graphite battery discharge model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Arpit; Dumitrescu, Mihaela Aneta; Destro, Matteo; Santarelli, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Battery models are riddled with incongruous values of parameters considered for validation. In this work, thermally coupled electrochemical model of the pouch is developed and discharge tests on a LiFePO4 pouch cell at different discharge rates are used to optimize the LiFePO4 battery model by determining parameters for which there is no consensus in literature. A discussion on parameter determination, selection and comparison with literature values has been made. The electrochemical model is a P2D model, while the thermal model considers heat transfer in 3D. It is seen that even with no phase change considered for LiFePO4 electrode, the model is able to simulate the discharge curves over a wide range of discharge rates with a single set of parameters provided a dependency of the radius of the LiFePO4 electrode on discharge rate. The approach of using a current dependent radius is shown to be equivalent to using a current dependent diffusion coefficient. Both these modelling approaches are a representation of the particle size distribution in the electrode. Additionally, the model has been thermally validated, which increases the confidence level in the selection of values of parameters.

  16. Using Maximal Isometric Force to Determine the Optimal Load for Measuring Dynamic Muscle Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason R.; Nash, Roxanne E.; Sinka, Joseph; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2009-01-01

    Maximal power output occurs when subjects perform ballistic exercises using loads of 30-50% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM). However, performing 1-RM testing prior to power measurement requires considerable time, especially when testing involves multiple exercises. Maximal isometric force (MIF), which requires substantially less time to measure than 1-RM, might be an acceptable alternative for determining the optimal load for power testing. PURPOSE: To determine the optimal load based on MIF for maximizing dynamic power output during leg press and bench press exercises. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (12 men and 8 women; mean +/- SD age: 31+/-6 y; body mass: 72 +/- 15 kg) performed isometric leg press and bench press movements, during which MIF was measured using force plates. Subsequently, subjects performed ballistic leg press and bench press exercises using loads corresponding to 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of MIF presented in randomized order. Maximal instantaneous power was calculated during the ballistic exercise tests using force plates and position transducers. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher LSD post hoc tests were used to determine the load(s) that elicited maximal power output. RESULTS: For the leg press power test, six subjects were unable to be tested at 20% and 30% MIF because these loads were less than the lightest possible load (i.e., the weight of the unloaded leg press sled assembly [31.4 kg]). For the bench press power test, five subjects were unable to be tested at 20% MIF because these loads were less than the weight of the unloaded aluminum bar (i.e., 11.4 kg). Therefore, these loads were excluded from analysis. A trend (p = 0.07) for a main effect of load existed for the leg press exercise, indicating that the 40% MIF load tended to elicit greater power output than the 60% MIF load (effect size = 0.38). A significant (p . 0.05) main effect of load existed for the bench press exercise; post hoc analysis indicated that the effect of

  17. Determination of hydraulic fracture parameters using a non-stationary fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valov, A. V.; Golovin, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, one provides a theoretical justification of the possibility of hydraulic fracture parameters determination by using a non-stationary fluid injection. It is assumed that the fluid is pumped into the fractured well with the time-periodic flow rate. It is shown that there is a phase shift between waves of fluid pressure and velocity. For the modelling purposes, the length and width of the fracture are assumed to be fixed. In the case of infinite fracture, one constructs an exact solution that ensures analytical determination of the phase shift in terms of the physical parameters of the problem. In the numerical calculation, the phase shift between pressure and velocity waves is found for a finite fracture. It is shown that the value of the phase shift depends on the physical parameters and on the fracture geometry. This makes it possible to determine parameters of hydraulic fracture, in particular its length, by the experimental measurement of the time shift and comparison with the numerical solution.

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of turbid optical parameters without using an integrating sphere.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaohui; Li, Meihua; Lu, Jun Q; Huang, Chuanwei; Feng, Yuanming; Sa, Yu; Ding, Junhua; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2016-03-10

    Spectrophotometric quantification of turbidity by multiple optical parameters has wide-ranging applications in material analysis and life sciences. A robust system design needs to combine hardware for precise measurement of light signals with software to accurately model measurement configuration and rapidly solve a sequence of challenging inverse problems. We have developed and validated a design approach and performed system validation based on radiative transfer theory for determination of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor without using an integrating sphere. Accurate and rapid determination of parameters and spectra is achieved for microsphere suspension samples by combining photodiode-based measurement of four signals with the Monte Carlo simulation and perturbation-based inverse calculations. The three parameters of microsphere suspension samples have been determined from the measured signals as functions of wavelength from 400 to 800 nm and agree with calculated results based on the Mie theory. It has been shown that the inverse problems in the cases of microsphere suspension samples are well posed with convex cost functions to yield unique solutions, and it takes about 1 min to obtain the three parameters per wavelength. PMID:26974805

  19. Determination of scatter factor parameters and electron disequilibrium for monoenergetic photon beams.

    PubMed

    McDonough, J; Bloch, P; Bjärngard, B E

    1999-02-01

    The tissue-phantom-ratio (TPR) is expressed as the product of the phantom scatter factor (SF), an electron disequilibrium factor, and an attenuation factor, equal to the zero-area TPR. The scatter factor, as a function of depth d and field size s, has been described by two parameters a and w, SF(d,s) = 1 + asd/(ws + d). We have determined the parameters a and w for 20 monoenergetic photon beams between 1 and 20 MeV. Pencil-beam energy-deposition kernels were obtained using Monte Carlo simulations. The kernels were used to calculate broad-beam depth-dose data, which were converted to TPR and fitted to the equation above using an iterative search over a-w space. The parameter a is nearly equal to the attenuation coefficient for all energies while the parameter w increases with energy. The resulting a and w compare favorably to values determined for clinical photon beams, as a function of the measured attenuation coefficient. With the scatter factor determined, we isolated the electron disequilibrium factor for each monoenergetic beam. It can be characterized as a quadratic function of the depth. The coefficients of the quadratic function can be related to the range of the most energetic secondary electron produced. PMID:10076974

  20. A simple neural network model for the determination of aquifer parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, N.; Gohari-Moghadam, M.; Safavi, A. A.

    2007-06-01

    SummaryA simple artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for the determination of non-leaky confined aquifer parameters by normalizing and applying the principal component analysis (PCA) on adopted training data pattern from Lin and Chen [Lin, G.F., Chen, G.R., 2006. An improved neural network approach to the determination of aquifer parameters. Journal of Hydrology 316 (1-4), 281-289]. The proposed network uses faster Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm instead of gradient descent. The application of PCA highly reduced the network topology so that it has only one neuron in the input layer and eight neurons in the hidden layer regardless of the number of drawdown records in the pumping test data. The network trained with 10,205 training sets and tested with 2000 sets of synthetic data. The network generates the coordinates of the match point for any individual pumping test case study and then the aquifer parameters are calculated using Theis' equation. The simple ANN trains faster and determines the coordinate of the match point more accurately because of the simplified topology and LM training algorithm. The accuracy, generalization ability and reliability of the proposed network is verified by two sets of real-time field data and the results are compared with that of Lin and Chen as well as graphical methods of aquifer parameters estimation. The proposed ANN appears to be a simpler and more accurate alternative to the type curve-matching techniques and previous ANN methods.

  1. Direct determination of the local Hamaker constant of inorganic surfaces based on scanning force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krajina, Brad A.; Kocherlakota, Lakshmi S.; Overney, René M.

    2014-10-28

    The energetics involved in the bonding fluctuations between nanometer-sized silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) probes and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) could be quantified directly and locally on the submicron scale via a time-temperature superposition analysis of the lateral forces between scanning force microscopy silicon dioxide probes and inorganic sample surfaces. The so-called “intrinsic friction analysis” (IFA) provided direct access to the Hamaker constants for HOPG and MoS{sub 2}, as well as the control sample, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The use of scanning probe enables nanoscopic analysis of bonding fluctuations, thereby overcoming challenges associated with larger scale inhomogeneity and surface roughness common to conventional techniques used to determine surface free energies and dielectric properties. A complementary numerical analysis based on optical and electron energy loss spectroscopy and the Lifshitz quantum electrodynamic theory of van der Waals interactions is provided and confirms quantitatively the IFA results.

  2. Determination of the elastic properties of tomato fruit cells with an atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Zdunek, Artur; Kurenda, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Since the mechanical properties of single cells together with the intercellular adhesive properties determine the macro-mechanical properties of plants, a method for evaluation of the cell elastic properties is needed to help explanation of the behavior of fruits and vegetables in handling and food processing. For this purpose, indentation of tomato mesocarp cells with an atomic force microscope was used. The Young's modulus of a cell using the Hertz and Sneddon models, and stiffness were calculated from force-indentation curves. Use of two probes of distinct radius of curvature (20 nm and 10,000 nm) showed that the measured elastic properties were significantly affected by tip geometry. The Young's modulus was about 100 kPa ± 35 kPa and 20 kPa ± 14 kPa for the sharper tip and a bead tip, respectively. Moreover, large variability regarding elastic properties (>100%) among cells sampled from the same region in the fruit was observed. We showed that AFM provides the possibility of combining nano-mechanical properties with topography imaging, which could be very useful for the study of structure-related properties of fruits and vegetables at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. PMID:24030683

  3. A comprehensive study of the parameter determination and depth of investigation for MRS models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozmand, A.; Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the parameter determination of magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) models in a joint MRS and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data analysis scheme. We assessed model parameter determination by calculating the model parameter uncertainties, based on the a-posterior model covariance matrix. Doing this, we include the full system transfer function, including data noise and system parameters, which are crucial in order to obtain reliable uncertainty estimates. The analyses are computed for conductive layered half-spaces. The entire MRS data set, dependent on pulse moment and time gate values, together with TEM data, was used for all analyses and realistic noise levels were assigned to the data. The sensitivity analyses were studied for the determination of water content as a key parameter estimated during inversion of MRS data. We show the results for different suites of (three-layer) models, in which we investigated the effect of resistivity, water content, relaxation time, loop side length, number of pulse moments, and measurement dead time on the determination of water content in a water-bearing layer. For all suites of models the effect of a top conductive and a top resistive layer were compared. Moreover, we analyzed all models for measurement dead times of both 40 ms (typically used with Numis Poly/Plus equipment, IRIS Instruments) and 10 ms (relevant to GMR equipment, Vista Clara Inc.), and for different noise levels. We conclude that, in general, the resistivity of the water-bearing layer (layer of interest, LOI) does not affect the determination of water content in the LOI, but resistivity of the top layer increases depth resolution; the water content of the LOI does not influence its determination considerably in cases where the signal has a relatively long relaxation time in the LOI; determination of the water content in the LOI is improved by increasing the relaxation time of the signal in the LOI; short measurement dead

  4. Determination of Geometric and Kinematical Parameters of Coronal Mass Ejections Using STEREO Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fainshtein, V. G.; Tsivileva, D. M.; Kashapova, L. K.

    2010-03-25

    We present a new, relatively simple and fast method to determine true geometric and kinematical CME parameters from simultaneous STEREO A, B observations of CMEs. These parameters are the three-dimensional direction of CME propagation, velocity and acceleration of CME front, CME angular sizes and front position depending on time. The method is based on the assumption that CME shape may be described by a modification of so-called ice-cream cone models. The method has been tested for several CMEs.

  5. Determination of Geometric and Kinematical Parameters of Coronal Mass Ejections Using STEREO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainshtein, V. G.; Tsivileva, D. M.; Kashapova, L. K.

    2010-03-01

    We present a new, relatively simple and fast method to determine true geometric and kinematical CME parameters from simultaneous STEREO A, B observations of CMEs. These parameters are the three-dimensional direction of CME propagation, velocity and acceleration of CME front, CME angular sizes and front position depending on time. The method is based on the assumption that CME shape may be described by a modification of so-called ice-cream cone models. The method has been tested for several CMEs.

  6. [Determination of kinetic parameters lymphocyte populations in cows with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V A; Feofanova, T V; Busol, V A; Nikolaeva, N V

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed changes in the number of lymphocytes in the blood of cows with chronic lymphoid leukemia using the Gomperts equation of population dynamics. The parameters of this equation were determined. Coefficients beta and gamma proved to be the most variable. The former reflects the delay and the latter characterizes the maximum rate of growth of the lymphocyte population. According to these parameters, three groups of animals were distinguished with different kinetics of leucosis and different correlations between immuno-hematological indices. PMID:7670356

  7. Determination of crack morphology parameters from service failures for leak-rate analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D.

    1997-04-01

    In leak-rate analyses described in the literature, the crack morphology parameters are typically not well agreed upon by different investigators. This paper presents results on a review of crack morphology parameters determined from examination of service induced cracks. Service induced cracks were found to have a much more tortuous flow path than laboratory induced cracks due to crack branching associated with the service induced cracks. Several new parameters such as local and global surface roughnesses, as well as local and global number of turns were identified. The effect of each of these parameters are dependent on the crack-opening displacement. Additionally, the crack path is typically assumed to be straight through the pipe thickness, but the service data show that the flow path can be longer due to the crack following a fusion line, and/or the number of turns, where the number of turns in the past were included as a pressure drop term due to the turns, but not the longer flow path length. These parameters were statistically evaluated for fatigue cracks in air, corrosion-fatigue, IGSCC, and thermal fatigue cracks. A refined version of the SQUIRT leak-rate code was developed to account for these variables. Sample calculations are provided in this paper that show how the crack size can vary for a given leak rate and the statistical variation of the crack morphology parameters.

  8. Determining the accuracy of maximum likelihood parameter estimates with colored residuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav

    1994-01-01

    An important part of building high fidelity mathematical models based on measured data is calculating the accuracy associated with statistical estimates of the model parameters. Indeed, without some idea of the accuracy of parameter estimates, the estimates themselves have limited value. In this work, an expression based on theoretical analysis was developed to properly compute parameter accuracy measures for maximum likelihood estimates with colored residuals. This result is important because experience from the analysis of measured data reveals that the residuals from maximum likelihood estimation are almost always colored. The calculations involved can be appended to conventional maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Simulated data runs were used to show that the parameter accuracy measures computed with this technique accurately reflect the quality of the parameter estimates from maximum likelihood estimation without the need for analysis of the output residuals in the frequency domain or heuristically determined multiplication factors. The result is general, although the application studied here is maximum likelihood estimation of aerodynamic model parameters from flight test data.

  9. [Determination of solubility parameters for asymmetrical dicationic ionic liquids by inverse gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Xuzhao; Wu, Jinchao; Song, Hao; Zou, Wenyuan

    2015-12-01

    Inverse gas chromatographic (IGC) technology was used to determine the solubility parameters of three asymmetrical dicationic ionic liquids ([ PyC5Pi] [ NTf2]2, [MpC5Pi] [NTf2]2 and [PyC6Pi] [NTf2]2) at 343.15-363.15 K. Five alkanes were applied as test probes including octane (n-C8) , decane (n-C10), dodecane (n-C12), tetradecane (n-C14), hexadecane (n-C16). Some thermodynamic parameters were obtained by IGC data analysis, such as the specific retention volumes of the solvents (V0(g)), the molar enthalpies of sorption (ΔHs(1)), the partial molar enthalpies of mixing at infinite dilution (ΔH∞91)), the molar enthalpies of vaporization (ΔH)v)), the activity coefficients at infinite dilution (Ω∞(1)), and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ∞(12)) between ionic liquids and probes. The solubility parameters (δ2) of the three dicationic ionic liquids at room temperature (298.15 K) were 28.52-32.66 (J x cm(-3)) ½. The solubility parameters (δ2) of cationic structure with 4-methyl morpholine are bigger than those of the cationic structure with pyridine. The bigger the solubility parameter (δ2) is, the more the carbon numbers of linking group of the ionic liquids are. The results are of great importance to the study of the solution behavior and the applications of ionic liquid. PMID:27097464

  10. Determination of Eros Physical Parameters for Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Orbit Phase Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. J.; Georgini, J.; Owen, W. M.; Williams, B. G.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1995-01-01

    Navigation of the orbit phase of the Near Earth steroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission will re,quire determination of certain physical parameters describing the size, shape, gravity field, attitude and inertial properties of Eros. Prior to launch, little was known about Eros except for its orbit which could be determined with high precision from ground based telescope observations. Radar bounce and light curve data provided a rough estimate of Eros shape and a fairly good estimate of the pole, prime meridian and spin rate. However, the determination of the NEAR spacecraft orbit requires a high precision model of Eros's physical parameters and the ground based data provides only marginal a priori information. Eros is the principal source of perturbations of the spacecraft's trajectory and the principal source of data for determining the orbit. The initial orbit determination strategy is therefore concerned with developing a precise model of Eros. The original plan for Eros orbital operations was to execute a series of rendezvous burns beginning on December 20,1998 and insert into a close Eros orbit in January 1999. As a result of an unplanned termination of the rendezvous burn on December 20, 1998, the NEAR spacecraft continued on its high velocity approach trajectory and passed within 3900 km of Eros on December 23, 1998. The planned rendezvous burn was delayed until January 3, 1999 which resulted in the spacecraft being placed on a trajectory that slowly returns to Eros with a subsequent delay of close Eros orbital operations until February 2001. The flyby of Eros provided a brief glimpse and allowed for a crude estimate of the pole, prime meridian and mass of Eros. More importantly for navigation, orbit determination software was executed in the landmark tracking mode to determine the spacecraft orbit and a preliminary shape and landmark data base has been obtained. The flyby also provided an opportunity to test orbit determination operational procedures that will be

  11. The influence of instrumental parameters on the adhesion force in a flat-on-flat contact geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Arzu; Wormeester, Herbert; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2014-07-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to measure the adhesion force between a flat Si(0 0 1) wafer and a micrometer sized flat silicon AFM tip. Force-distance curves have been recorded at different setpoints in order to elucidate their individual effect on the derived adhesion force. No dependence of the derived adhesion force on the applied load has been detected, making sure that no plastic changes in the morphology of either tip and/or sample occur. Other setpoints as the residence time of the tip at the substrate, the relative humidity, the size of the tip and the retraction velocity of the tip have been varied systematically. We have found that the adhesion force depends strongly on the velocity of the z-piezo and the tip size while, at least within the 0.5-41 s time window, the residence time does not have any measurable effect on the adhesion force. The time scale of the retraction varies between 0.2 and 25 s. The increase of the adhesion force with increasing retraction speed is ascribed to the viscous force. Finally, the adhesion force increases with increasing relative humidity.

  12. Determination of the actuator sensitivity of electromechanical polypropylene films by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltonen, Jouko; Paajanen, Mika; Lekkala, Jukka

    2000-10-01

    The actuator functionality of electromechanical polypropylene films was studied using atomic force microscopy. The film carries a permanent electric charge and includes microbubbles as a result of two-dimensional stretching of the film. The thickness change of various film structures covered with electrodes was measured as a function of external voltage. The dependence was found to be nonlinear, the thickness change in the range 0.001%-0.1% of the total film thickness and affected by the internal charge density of the film. Applying a capacitor model including an air gap within the polymer layer enabled the determination of the Young's modulus, the interfacial charge density and the actuator sensitivity of the studied structures.

  13. DETERMINATION OF LUNG VOLUME BY RESPIRATION OF OXYGEN WITHOUT FORCED BREATHING.

    PubMed

    Sendroy, J; Hiller, A; Van Slyke, D D

    1932-02-29

    A method is described for estimating the volume of air in the lungs by the familiar principle of mixing this air with a measured volume of oxygen, and determining the extent to which the nitrogen of the pulmonary air is diluted. By employing a scrubber to remove carbon dioxide, and by measuring the volume of gas in the extrapulmonary part of the system at the end instead of the beginning of the respiratory period, it is possible to prolong the period to as many minutes as are necessary for complete mixture of the gases, and thereby to carry out the estimation without forced breathing. The determination can be carried out with the Roth-Benedict or Krogh spirometer, or, more economically, with the simple spirometer, shown in Fig. 1, assembled from ordinary laboratory equipment. The method gives the same results as the hydrogen method of Van Slyke and Binger (3), and obviates the use and analysis of hydrogen. The relative advantages of the two methods are discussed above. Dr. Ronald V. Christie has informed us that he has encountered considerable differences in the N(2) content of the pulmonary air of different individuals. A gain in accuracy would therefore be made if this value were determined for each subject, and substituted for 79.1 in the calculation formulae. PMID:19869996

  14. Numerical evaluation of apparent transport parameters from forced-gradient tracer tests in statistically anisotropic heterogeneous formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, D.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; Bolster, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Benson, D.

    2012-04-01

    For risk assessment and adequate decision making regarding remediation strategies in contaminated aquifers, solute fate in the subsurface must be modeled correctly. In practical situations, hydrodynamic transport parameters are obtained by fitting procedures, that aim to mathematically reproduce solute breakthrough (BTC) observed in the field during tracer tests. In recent years, several methods have been proposed (curve-types, moments, nonlocal formulations) but none of them combine the two main characteristic effects of convergent flow tracer tests (which are the most used tests in the practice): the intrinsic non-stationarity of the convergent flow to a well and the ubiquitous multiscale hydraulic heterogeneity of geological formations. These two effects separately have been accounted for by a lot of methods that appear to work well. Here, we investigate both effects at the same time via numerical analysis. We focus on the influence that measurable statistical properties of the aquifers (such as the variance and the statistical geometry of correlation scales) have on the shape of BTCs measured at the pumping well during convergent flow tracer tests. We built synthetic multigaussian 3D fields of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields with variable statistics. A well is located in the center of the domain to reproduce a forced gradient towards it. Constant-head values are imposed on the boundaries of the domains, which have 251x251x100 cells. Injections of solutes take place by releasing particles at different distances from the well and using a random walk particle tracking scheme with constant local coefficient of dispersivity. The results show that BTCs partially display the typical anomalous behavior that has been commonly referred to as the effect of heterogeneity and connectivity (early and late arrival times of solute differ from the one predicted by local formulations). Among the most salient features, the behaviors of BTCs after the peak (the slope

  15. A GROMOS-Compatible Force Field for Small Organic Molecules in the Condensed Phase: The 2016H66 Parameter Set.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bruno A C; Merz, Pascal T; Fuchs, Patrick F J; Dolenc, Jozica; Riniker, Sereina; Hünenberger, Philippe H

    2016-08-01

    This article reports on the calibration and validation of a new GROMOS-compatible parameter set 2016H66 for small organic molecules in the condensed phase. The calibration is based on 62 organic molecules spanning the chemical functions alcohol, ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, amine, amide, thiol, sulfide, and disulfide, as well as aromatic compounds and nucleic-acid bases. For 57 organic compounds, the calibration targets are the experimental pure-liquid density ρliq and the vaporization enthalpy ΔHvap, as well as the hydration free energy ΔGwat and the solvation free energy ΔGche in cyclohexane, at atmospheric pressure and at (or close to) room temperature. The final root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) for these four quantities over the set of compounds are 32.4 kg m(-3), 3.5 kJ mol(-1), 4.1 kJ mol(-1), and 2.1 kJ mol(-1), respectively, and the corresponding average deviations (AVED) are 1.0 kg m(-3), 0.2 kJ mol(-1), 2.6 kJ mol(-1), and 1.0 kJ mol(-1), respectively. For the five nucleic-acid bases, the parametrization is performed by transferring the final 2016H66 parameters from analogous organic compounds followed by a slight readjustment of the charges to reproduce the experimental water-to-chloroform transfer free energies ΔGtrn. The final RMSD for this quantity over the five bases is 1.7 kJ mol(-1), and the corresponding AVED is 0.8 kJ mol(-1). As an initial validation of the 2016H66 set, seven additional thermodynamic, transport, and dielectric properties are calculated for the 57 organic compounds in the liquid phase. The agreement with experiment in terms of these additional properties is found to be reasonable, with significant deviations typically affecting either a specific chemical function or a specific molecule. This suggests that in most cases, a classical force-field description along with a careful parametrization against ρliq, ΔHvap, ΔGwat, and ΔGche results in a model that appropriately describes the liquid in terms of

  16. Determining hypocentral parameters for local earthquakes under ill conditions using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woohan; Hahm, In-Kyeong; Kim, Won-Young; Lee, Jung Mo

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate that GA-MHYPO determines accurate hypocentral parameters for local earthquakes under ill conditions, such as limited number of stations (phase data), large azimuthal gap, and noisy data. The genetic algorithm (GA) in GA-MHYPO searches for the optimal 1-D velocity structure which provides the minimum traveltime differences between observed (true) and calculated P and S arrivals within prescribed ranges. GA-MHYPO is able to determine hypocentral parameters more accurately in many circumstances than conventional methods which rely on an a priori (and possibly incorrect) 1-D velocity model. In our synthetic tests, the accuracy of hypocentral parameters obtained by GA-MHYPO given ill conditions is improved by more than a factor of 20 for error-free data, and by a factor of five for data with errors, compared to that obtained by conventional methods such as HYPOINVERSE. In the case of error-free data, GA-MHYPO yields less than 0.1 km errors in focal depths and hypocenters without strong dependence on azimuthal coverage up to 45°. Errors are less than 1 km for data with errors of a 0.1-s standard deviation. To test the performance using real data, a well-recorded earthquake in the New Madrid seismic zone and earthquakes recorded under ill conditions in the High Himalaya are relocated by GA-MHYPO. The hypocentral parameters determined by GA-MHYPO under both good and ill conditions show similar computational results, which suggest that GA-MHYPO is robust and yields more reliable hypocentral parameters than standard methods under ill conditions for natural earthquakes.

  17. Accuracy of atmospheric parameters of FGK dwarfs determined by spectrum fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.; Pakhomov, Yu.; Tsymbal, V.; Titarenko, A.; Sitnova, T.; Alexeeva, S.; Fossati, L.; Mashonkina, L.

    2016-02-01

    We performed extensive tests of the accuracy of atmospheric parameter determination for FGK stars based on the spectrum fitting procedure Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME). Our stellar sample consists of 13 objects, including the Sun, in the temperature range 5000-6600 K and metallicity range -1.4-+0.4. The analysed stars have the advantage of having parameters derived by interferometry. For each star, we use spectra obtained with different spectrographs and different signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For the fitting, we adopted three different sets of constraints and test how the derived parameters depend upon the spectral regions (masks) used in SME. We developed and implemented in SME a new method for estimating uncertainties in the resulting parameters based on fitting residuals, partial derivatives, and data uncertainties. For stars in the 5700-6600 K range, the best agreement with the effective temperatures derived by interferometry is achieved when spectrum fitting includes the H α and H β lines, while for cooler stars the choice of the mask does not affect the results. The derived atmospheric parameters do not strongly depend on spectral resolution and S/N of the observations, while the uncertainties in temperature and surface gravity increase with increasing effective temperature, with minima at 50 K in Teff and 0.1 dex in log g, for spectra with S/N=150-200. A non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) analysis of the Ti I/Ti II and Fe I/Fe II ionization equilibria and abundances determined from the atomic C I (NLTE) and molecular CH species supports the parameters we derived with SME by fitting the observed spectra including the hydrogen lines.

  18. Online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes of a human body

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M

    2013-07-31

    We have developed a method for online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes (MMs) of a human body (transport scattering coefficient, scattering anisotropy factor, haemoglobin concentration, degrees of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries with blood) from measurements of spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection. The method is based on regression relationships between linearly independent components of the measured light signals and the unknown parameters of MMs, obtained by simulation of the radiation transfer in the MM under conditions of its general variability. We have proposed and justified the calibration-free fibre-optic method for determining the concentration of haemoglobin in MMs by measuring the light signals diffusely reflected by the tissue in four spectral regions at two different distances from the illumination spot. We have selected the optimal wavelengths of optical probing for the implementation of the method. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  19. Note: A calibration method to determine the lumped-circuit parameters of a magnetic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fuming; Chen, Zhipeng; Zhu, Lizhi; Liu, Hai; Wang, Zhijiang; Zhuang, Ge

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a novel method to determine the lumped-circuit parameters of a magnetic inductive probe for calibration by using Helmholtz coils with high frequency power supply (frequency range: 10 kHz-400 kHz). The whole calibration circuit system can be separated into two parts: "generator" circuit and "receiver" circuit. By implementing the Fourier transform, two analytical lumped-circuit models, with respect to these separated circuits, are constructed to obtain the transfer function between each other. Herein, the precise lumped-circuit parameters (including the resistance, inductance, and capacitance) of the magnetic probe can be determined by fitting the experimental data to the transfer function. Regarding the fitting results, the finite impedance of magnetic probe can be used to analyze the transmission of a high-frequency signal between magnetic probes, cables, and acquisition system.

  20. Determination of the elasticity parameters of brain tissue with combined simulation and registration.

    PubMed

    Soza, G; Grosso, R; Nimsky, C; Hastreiter, P; Fahlbusch, R; Greiner, G

    2005-09-01

    Reliable elasticity parameters describing the behavior of a given material are an important issue in the context of physically-based simulation. In this paper we introduce a method for the determination of the mechanical properties of brain tissue. Elasticity parameters Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio nu are estimated in an iterative framework coupling a finite element simulation with image registration. Within this framework, the outcome of the simulation is parameterized with both elasticity moduli that are automatically varied until optimal image correspondence between the simulated and the intraoperative data is achieved. We calculated optimal mechanical properties of brain tissue in six cases. The statistical analysis of the obtained values showed a good correlation of the results, thus proving the value of the method. An approach combining simulation and registration for the determination of the mechanical brain tissue properties is presented. This contributes to performing reliable physically-based simulation of soft tissue movement. PMID:17518395

  1. Processing/formulation parameters determining dispersity of chitosan particles: an ANNs study.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh-Gharehdaghi, Elina; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Amini, Mohammad Ali; Moazeni, Esmaeil; Amani, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Although a great number of studies may be found in literature about the parameters affecting the size of chitosan nanoparticles, no systematic work so far has detailed the factors affecting the polydispersity of chitosan as an important factor determining the quality of many preparations. Herein, using artificial neural networks (ANNs), four independent variables, namely, pH and concentration of chitosan solution as well as time and amplitude of sonication of the solution were studied to determine their influence on the polydispersity of solution. We found that in an ultrasound prepared nanodispersion of chitosan, all the four input parameters have reverse but non-linear relation with the polydispersity of the nanoparticles. PMID:23795904

  2. Determination of Resonance Parameters and their Covariances from Neutron Induced Reaction Cross Section Data

    SciTech Connect

    Schillebeeckx, P.; Becker, B.; Danon, Y.; Guber, K.; Harada, H.; Heyse, J.; Junghans, A.R.; Kopecky, S.; Massimi, C.; Moxon, M.C.; Otuka, N.; Sirakov, I.; Volev, K.

    2012-12-15

    Cross section data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region are represented by nuclear reaction formalisms using parameters which are determined by fitting them to experimental data. Therefore, the quality of evaluated cross sections in the resonance region strongly depends on the experimental data used in the adjustment process and an assessment of the experimental covariance data is of primary importance in determining the accuracy of evaluated cross section data. In this contribution, uncertainty components of experimental observables resulting from total and reaction cross section experiments are quantified by identifying the metrological parameters involved in the measurement, data reduction and analysis process. In addition, different methods that can be applied to propagate the covariance of the experimental observables (i.e. transmission and reaction yields) to the covariance of the resonance parameters are discussed and compared. The methods being discussed are: conventional uncertainty propagation, Monte Carlo sampling and marginalization. It is demonstrated that the final covariance matrix of the resonance parameters not only strongly depends on the type of experimental observables used in the adjustment process, the experimental conditions and the characteristics of the resonance structure, but also on the method that is used to propagate the covariances. Finally, a special data reduction concept and format is presented, which offers the possibility to store the full covariance information of experimental data in the EXFOR library and provides the information required to perform a full covariance evaluation.

  3. Exclusive SUSY measurements and determination of SUSY parameters from LHC data

    SciTech Connect

    Wienemann, Peter

    2008-11-23

    A selection of exclusive SUSY measurements is presented which can be performed provided SUSY will be discovered at the LHC. Such measurements allow to determine the properties of supersymmetry and thus help to pin down the underlying theoretical model. It is described on an mSUGRA example point how sparticle masses can be reconstructed from endpoints in mass spectra using early LHC data. Finally it is shown how well mSUGRA model parameters can be derived from these measurements.

  4. Experimental Methodology for Determining Optimum Process Parameters for Production of Hydrous Metal Oxides by Internal Gelation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-10-28

    The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.

  5. Determination of the kinetic parameters of BeO using isothermal decay method.

    PubMed

    Azorin Nieto, Juan; Vega, Claudia Azorin; Montalvo, Teodoro Rivera; Cabrera, Eugenio Torijano

    2016-02-01

    Most of the existing methods for obtaining the frequency factors make use of the trap depth (activation energy) making some assumptions about the order of the kinetics. This causes inconsistencies in the reported values of trapping parameters due that the values of the activation energy obtained by different methods differ appreciably among them. Then, it is necessary to use a method independent of the trap depth making use of the isothermal luminescence decay (ILD) method. The trapping parameters associated with the prominent glow peak of BeO (280°C) are reported using ILD method. As a check, the trap parameters are also calculated by glow curve shape (Chen's) method after isolating the prominent glow peak by thermal cleaning technique. Our results show a very good agreement between the trapping parameters calculated by the two methods. ILD method was used for determining the trapping parameters of BeO. Results obtained applying this method are in good agreement with those obtained using other methods, except in the value of the frequency factor. PMID:26656428

  6. Determining the bistability parameter ranges of artificially induced lac operon using the root locus method.

    PubMed

    Avcu, N; Alyürük, H; Demir, G K; Pekergin, F; Cavas, L; Güzeliş, C

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs the root locus method to conduct a detailed investigation of the parameter regions that ensure bistability in a well-studied gene regulatory network namely, lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In contrast to previous works, the parametric bistability conditions observed in this study constitute a complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions. These conditions were derived by applying the root locus method to the polynomial equilibrium equation of the lac operon model to determine the parameter values yielding the multiple real roots necessary for bistability. The lac operon model used was defined as an ordinary differential equation system in a state equation form with a rational right hand side, and it was compatible with the Hill and Michaelis-Menten approaches of enzyme kinetics used to describe biochemical reactions that govern lactose metabolism. The developed root locus method can be used to study the steady-state behavior of any type of convergent biological system model based on mass action kinetics. This method provides a solution to the problem of analyzing gene regulatory networks under parameter uncertainties because the root locus method considers the model parameters as variable, rather than fixed. The obtained bistability ranges for the lac operon model parameters have the potential to elucidate the appearance of bistability for E. coli cells in in vivo experiments, and they could also be used to design robust hysteretic switches in synthetic biology. PMID:25864166

  7. Determination of fundamental supersymmetry parameters from chargino production at CERN LEP II

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.L.; Strassler, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    If accessible at CERN LEP II, chargino production is likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. We consider the prospects for the determination of fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. We propose a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. Working in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, we find that chargino production by itself is a fairly sensitive probe of the supersymmetry-breaking sector. For significant regions of parameter space, it is possible to test the gaugino mass unification hypothesis and to measure the gaugino contents of the chargionos and neutralinos, thereby testing the predictions of grand unification and the viability of the lightest supersymmetric particle as a dark matter candidate. For much of the parameter space, it is also possible to set limits on the mass of the electron sneutrino, which provide a valuable guide for future particle searches.

  8. Determining Reliability of Existing Gravitational Waveforms in Parameter Estimation for Binary Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, Cesar; Sandeen, Ben; Chennakesavalu, Shriram; Littenberg, Tyson; Farr, Ben; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational Waves (GWs) were predicted by Einstein's Theory of General Relativity as ripples in space-time that propagate outward from a source. Strong GW sources consist of compact binary systems such as Binary Neutron Stars (BNS) or Binary Black Holes (BBHs) that experience orbital shrinkage (inspiral) and eventual merger. Indirect evidence for the existence of GWs has been obtained through radio pulsar studies in BNS systems. A study of BBHs and other compact objects has limitations in the electromagnetic spectrum, therefore direct detections of GWs will open a new window into their nature. The effort targeting direct GWs detection is anchored on the development of a detector known as Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observation). Although detecting GW sources represents an anticipated breakthrough in physics, making GW astrophysics a reality critically relies on our ability to determine and measure the physical parameters associated with GW sources. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations on high-performance computing clusters for parameter estimation on high dimensional spaces (GW sources - 15 parameters). The quality of GW parameter estimation greatly depends on having the best possible knowledge of the expected waveform. Unfortunately, BBH GW production is very complex and our best waveforms are not valid across the full parameter space. With large-scale simulations we examine quantitatively the limitations of these waveforms in terms of extracting the astrophysical properties of BBH GW sources. We find that current waveforms are inadequate for BBH of unequal masses and demonstrate that improved waveforms are critically needed.

  9. Determination of MSSM Parameters from LHC and ILCObservables in a Global Fit

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtle, Philip; Desch, Klaus; Porod, Werner; Wienemann, Peter; /Freiburg U.

    2005-12-02

    We present the results of a realistic global fit of the Lagrangian parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model assuming universality for the first and second generation and real parameters. No assumptions on the SUSY breaking mechanism are made. The fit is performed using the precision of future mass measurements of superpartners at the LHC and mass and polarized topological cross-section measurements at the ILC. Higher order radiative corrections are accounted for wherever possible to date. Results are obtained for a modified SPS1a MSSM benchmark scenario but they were checked not to depend critically on this assumption. Exploiting a simulated annealing algorithm, a stable result is obtained without any a priori assumptions on the values of the fit parameters. Most of the Lagrangian parameters can be extracted at the percent level or better if theoretical uncertainties are neglected. Neither LHC nor ILC measurements alone will be sufficient to obtain a stable result. The effects of theoretical uncertainties arising from unknown higher-order corrections and parametric uncertainties are examined qualitatively. They appear to be relevant and the result motivates further precision calculations. The obtained parameters at the electroweak scale are used for a fit of the parameters at high energy scales within the bottom-up approach. In this way regularities at these scales are explored and the underlying model can be determined with hardly any theoretical bias. Fits of high-scale parameters to combined LHC+ILC measurements within the mSUGRA framework reveal that even tiny distortions in the low-energy mass spectrum already lead to unacceptable {chi}{sup 2} values. This does not hold for ''LHC only'' inputs.

  10. SDSS-II: Determination of shape and color parameter coefficients for SALT-II fit model

    SciTech Connect

    Dojcsak, L.; Marriner, J.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    In this study we look at the SALT-II model of Type IA supernova analysis, which determines the distance moduli based on the known absolute standard candle magnitude of the Type IA supernovae. We take a look at the determination of the shape and color parameter coefficients, {alpha} and {beta} respectively, in the SALT-II model with the intrinsic error that is determined from the data. Using the SNANA software package provided for the analysis of Type IA supernovae, we use a standard Monte Carlo simulation to generate data with known parameters to use as a tool for analyzing the trends in the model based on certain assumptions about the intrinsic error. In order to find the best standard candle model, we try to minimize the residuals on the Hubble diagram by calculating the correct shape and color parameter coefficients. We can estimate the magnitude of the intrinsic errors required to obtain results with {chi}{sup 2}/degree of freedom = 1. We can use the simulation to estimate the amount of color smearing as indicated by the data for our model. We find that the color smearing model works as a general estimate of the color smearing, and that we are able to use the RMS distribution in the variables as one method of estimating the correct intrinsic errors needed by the data to obtain the correct results for {alpha} and {beta}. We then apply the resultant intrinsic error matrix to the real data and show our results.

  11. Determination of the Michel parameters ξ and δ in leptonic τ decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Mankel, R.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reßing, D.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kapitza, H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Eckstein, P.; Frankl, C.; Graf, J.; Schmidtler, M.; Schramm, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Waldi, R.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Kuipers, H.; Mai, O.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Krieger, P.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; Van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; schneider, M.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Barsuk, S.; Belyaev, I.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Gershtein, L.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Korolko, I.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.

    1995-02-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II, we have determined the Michel parameters ξ and δ of τ ∓ → l ∓ν ν- decays. With an integrated luminosity of 445 pb -1 around s= 10 GeV, we have produced approximately 415000 τ-pairs. From this data sample, 3262 events were selected with e +e - → τ +τ - → (l ±ν ν-) (π ∓π +π -ν) . The semihadronic decay was used as analyser of the τ-spin and made possible - owing to the spin correlations - the determination of the parity-violating Michel parameters ξ and δ in the decay τ ∓ → l ∓ν ν-. Simultaneously to the determination of the Michel parameters, a measurement of the τ-neutrino helicity hντ in the decay τ∓ → π∓π+π-ν was obtained. We observed hντ = -0.85 -0.17+0.15 ± 0.05, ϱ = 0.721 ± 0.040 ± 0.021, ξ = 1.26 -0.26+0.30 ± 0.09, and ξδ = 0.77 -0.16+0.18 ± 0.05. In addition, the combined ARGUS result on hντ, ϱ, ξ, and ξδ are reported using this work and previous measurements.

  12. Determination of a silane intermolecular force field potential model from an ab initio calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Arvin Huang-Te; Chao, Sheng D.; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2010-12-15

    Intermolecular interaction potentials of the silane dimer in 12 orientations have been calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) self-consistent theory and the second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. We employed basis sets from Pople's medium-size basis sets [up to 6-311++G(3df, 3pd)] and Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets (up to the triply augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple-zeta basis set). We found that the minimum energy orientations were the G and H conformers. We have suggested that the Si-H attractions, the central silicon atom size, and electronegativity play essential roles in weakly binding of a silane dimer. The calculated MP2 potential data were employed to parametrize a five-site force field for molecular simulations. The Si-Si, Si-H, and H-H interaction parameters in a pairwise-additive, site-site potential model for silane molecules were regressed from the ab initio energies.

  13. Numerical determination of statistical energy analysis parameters of directly coupled composite plates using a modal-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seçgin, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Statistical energy analysis (SEA) parameters such as average modal spacing, coupling loss factor and input power are numerically determined for point connected, directly coupled symmetrically laminated composite plates using a modal-based approach. The approach is an enhancement of classical wave transmission formula. Unlike most of the existing numerical or experimental techniques, the approach uses uncoupled plate modal information and treats substructure by means of averaged modal impedances. The procedure introduced here is verified using analytical definitions of infinite orthotropic plates which physically resemble to laminated plates for (under) specific conditions, and is tested by performing experimental power injection method (PIM) for an actual, right-angled composite structure. In the development process, force and moment transmissions are individually considered in order to be consistent with analytical formulations. Modal information of composite plates is statistically evaluated by the discrete singular convolution method with random boundary conditions. Proposed methodology not only provides an efficient use of SEA method in high frequency vibration analysis of composite structures, but also enhances SEA accuracy in mid frequency region in which conventional SEA fails. Furthermore, the effect of orientation angles of laminations on SEA parameters are also discussed in mid and high frequency regions.

  14. On detection of black hole quasinormal ringdowns: Detection efficiency and waveform parameter determination in matched filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ando, Masaki; Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka

    2005-05-15

    Gravitational radiation from a slightly distorted black hole with ringdown waveform is well understood in general relativity. It provides a probe for direct observation of black holes and determination of their physical parameters, masses and angular momenta (Kerr parameters). For ringdown searches using data of gravitational wave detectors, matched filtering technique is useful. In this paper, we describe studies on problems in matched filtering analysis in realistic gravitational wave searches using observational data. Above all, we focus on template constructions, matches or signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), detection probabilities for Galactic events, and accuracies in evaluation of waveform parameters or black hole hairs. In template design for matched filtering, search parameter ranges and template separations are determined by requirements from acceptable maximum loss of SNRs, detection efficiencies, and computational costs. In realistic searches using observational data, however, effects of nonstationary noises cause decreases of SNRs, and increases of errors in waveform parameter determinations. These problems will potentially arise in any matched filtering searches for any kind of waveforms. To investigate them, we have performed matched filtering analysis for artificial ringdown signals which are generated with Monte-Carlo technique and injected into the TAMA300 observational data. We employed an efficient method to construct a bank of ringdown filters recently proposed by Nakano et al., and use a template bank generated from a criterion such that losses of SNRs of any signals do not exceed 2%. We found that this criterion is fulfilled in ringdown searches using TAMA300 data, by examining distribution of SNRs of simulated signals. It is also shown that with TAMA300 sensitivity, the detection probability for Galactic ringdown events is about 50% for black holes of masses greater than 20M{sub {center_dot}} with SNR>10. The accuracies in waveform parameter

  15. Determining the Molecular Packing Arrangements on Protein Crystal Faces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Huayu; Perozzo, Mary A.; Konnert, John H.; Nadarajan, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    Periodic Bond Chain (PBC) analysis of the packing of tetragonal lysozyme crystals have revealed that there are two possible molecular packing arrangements for the crystal faces. The analysis also predicted that only one of these, involving the formation of helices about the 4(sub 3) axes, would prevail during crystal growth. In this study high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to verify these predictions for the (110) crystal face. A computer program was developed which constructs the expected AFM image for a given tip shape for each possible molecular packing arrangement. By comparing the actual AFM image with the predicted images the correct packing arrangement was determined. The prediction of an arrangement involving 4(sub 3) helices was confirmed in this manner,"while the alternate arrangement was not observed. The investigation also showed the protein molecules were packed slightly closer about the 4(sub 3) axes than in the crystallographic arrangement of the crystal interior. This study demonstrates a new approach for determining the molecular packing arrangements on protein crystal faces. It also shows the power of combining a theoretical PBC analysis with experimental high resolution AFM techniques in probing protein crystal growth processes at the molecular level.

  16. The determinants and patterns of married women's labor force participation in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chin, S H

    1995-07-01

    The present study investigates the determinants and patterns of married women's labor force participation in Korea. Married women's employment in Korea is largely determined by age, urban residence, household characteristics of the husband's socioeconomic status, family income, fertility, and the lagged effect of work. Older age, rural residence, inferior household economic condition, and recent work experience are the major positive causes of married women's participation in the market work. On the other hand, younger women with preschool children, who currently reside in urban areas, enjoying better household economic conditions (due to higher socioeconomic status of husbands and/or higher family income) are the groups of women with the smallest probability of working in the market. Married women's employment pattern in Korea shows a pattern typical of less-developed and low-income countries in two aspects: married women working and characterized by a low level of education; the difference between urban and rural areas in terms of work participation pattern is remarkable. Although Korea belongs to the advanced group of currently industrializing countries, she lags behind with other developing countries in terms of married women's employment. Moreover, it is difficult to predict in advance that Korea would have similar experiences as those of contemporary advanced countries. PMID:12290730

  17. Motion Parameters Determination of the SC and Phobos in the Project Phobos-Grunt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akim, E. L.; Stepanyants, V. A.; Tuchin, A. G.; Shishov, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    The SC "Phobos-Grunt" flight is planned to 2009 in Russia with the purpose to deliver to the Earth the soil samples of the Mars satellite Phobos. The mission will pass under the following scheme [1-4]: the SC flight from the Earth to the Mars, the SC transit on the Mars satellite orbit, the motion round the Mars on the observation orbit and on the quasi-synchronous one [5], landing on Phobos, taking of a ground and start in the direction to the Earth. The implementation of complicated dynamical operations in the Phobos vicinity is foreseen by the project. The SC will be in a disturbance sphere of gravitational fields from the Sun, the Mars and the Phobos. The SC orbit determination is carried out on a totality of trajectory measurements executed from ground tracking stations and measurements of autonomous systems onboard space vehicle relatively the Phobos. As ground measurements the radio engineering measurements of range and range rate are used. There are possible as onboard optical observations of the Phobos by a television system and ranges from the SC up to the Phobos surface by laser locator. As soon as the Phobos orbit accuracy is insufficient for a solution of a problem of landing its orbit determination will be carried out together with determination of the SC orbit. Therefore the algorithms for joint improving of initial conditions of the SC and the Phobos are necessary to determine parameters of the SC relative the Phobos motion within a single dynamical motion model. After putting on the martial satellite orbit, on the Phobos observation orbit, on the quasi-synchronous orbit in the Phobos vicinity the equipment guidance and the following process of the SC orbit determination relatively Phobos requires a priori knowledge of the Phobos orbit parameters with sufficiently high precision. These parameters should be obtained beforehand using both all modern observations and historical ones.

  18. "In vivo" determination of hip joint separation and the forces generated due to impact loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Dennis, D A; Komistek, R D; Northcut, E J; Ochoa, J A; Ritchie, A

    2001-05-01

    Numerous supporting structures assist in the retention of the femoral head within the acetabulum of the normal hip joint including the capsule, labrum, and ligament of the femoral head (LHF). During total hip arthroplasty (THA), the LHF is often disrupted or degenerative and is surgically removed. In addition, a portion of the remaining supporting structures is transected or resected to facilitate surgical exposure. The present study analyzes the effects of LHF absence and surgical dissection in THA patients. Twenty subjects (5 normal hip joints, 10 nonconstrained THA, and 5 constrained THA) were evaluated using fluoroscopy while performing active hip abduction. All THA subjects were considered clinically successful. Fluoroscopic videos of the normal hips were analyzed using digitization, while those with THA were assessed using a computerized interactive model-fitting technique. The distance between the femoral head and acetabulum was measured to determine if femoral head separation occurred. Error analysis revealed measurements to be accurate within 0.75mm. No separation was observed in normal hips or those subjects implanted with constrained THA, while all 10 (100%) with unconstrained THA demonstrated femoral head separation, averaging 3.3mm (range 1.9-5.2mm). This study has shown that separation of the prosthetic femoral head from the acetabular component can occur. The normal hip joint has surrounding capsuloligamentous structures and a ligament attaching the femoral head to the acetabulum. We hypothesize that these soft tissue supports create a passive, resistant force at the hip, preventing femoral head separation. The absence of these supporting structures after THA may allow increased hip joint forces, which may play a role in premature polyethylene wear or prosthetic loosening. PMID:11311703

  19. Determination of HCME 3-D parameters using a full ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Harim

    2016-05-01

    It is very essential to determine three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for space weather forecast. Several cone models (e.g., an elliptical cone model, an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model) have been examined to estimate these parameters. In this study, we investigate which cone type is close to a halo CME morphology using 26 CMEs: halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From cone shape parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone type CMEs are much closer to observations than shallow ice-cream cone type CMEs. Thus we develop a new cone model in which a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3-D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (a geometrical triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model) based on multi-spacecraft data. We are developing a general ice-cream cone model whose front shape is a free parameter determined by observations.

  20. Shallow seismic source parameter determination using intermediate-period surface wave amplitude spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Benjamin D.; Selby, Neil D.; Heyburn, Ross; Woodhouse, John H.

    2012-09-01

    Estimating reliable depths for shallow seismic sources is important in both seismo-tectonic studies and in seismic discrimination studies. Surface wave excitation is sensitive to source depth, especially at intermediate and short-periods, owing to the approximate exponential decay of surface wave displacements with depth. A new method is presented here to retrieve earthquake source parameters from regional and teleseismic intermediate period (100-15 s) fundamental-mode surface wave recordings. This method makes use of advances in mapping global dispersion to allow higher frequency surface wave recordings at regional and teleseismic distances to be used with more confidence than in previous studies and hence improve the resolution of depth estimates. Synthetic amplitude spectra are generated using surface wave theory combined with a great circle path approximation, and a grid of double-couple sources are compared with the data. Source parameters producing the best-fitting amplitude spectra are identified by minimizing the least-squares misfit in logarithmic amplitude space. The F-test is used to search the solution space for statistically acceptable parameters and the ranges of these variables are used to place constraints on the best-fitting source. Estimates of focal mechanism, depth and scalar seismic moment are determined for 20 small to moderate sized (4.3 ≤Mw≤ 6.4) earthquakes. These earthquakes are situated across a wide range of geographic and tectonic locations and describe a range of faulting styles over the depth range 4-29 km. For the larger earthquakes, comparisons with other studies are favourable, however existing source determination procedures, such as the CMT technique, cannot be performed for the smaller events. By reducing the magnitude threshold at which robust source parameters can be determined, the accuracy, especially at shallow depths, of seismo-tectonic studies, seismic hazard assessments, and seismic discrimination investigations can

  1. Determination of parameters for successful spray coating of silicon microneedle arrays.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Marie G; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Oliveira, Jorge C; Moore, Anne C; Crean, Abina M

    2011-08-30

    Coated microneedle patches have demonstrated potential for effective, minimally invasive, drug and vaccine delivery. To facilitate cost-effective, industrial-scale production of coated microneedle patches, a continuous coating method which utilises conventional pharmaceutical processes is an attractive prospect. Here, the potential of spray-coating silicon microneedle patches using a conventional film-coating process was evaluated and the key process parameters which impact on coating coalescence and weight were identified by employing a fractional factorial design to coat flat silicon patches. Processing parameters analysed included concentration of coating material, liquid input rate, duration of spraying, atomisation air pressure, gun-to-surface distance and air cap setting. Two film-coating materials were investigated; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). HPMC readily formed a film-coat on silicon when suitable spray coating parameter settings were determined. CMC films required the inclusion of a surfactant (1%, w/w Tween 80) to facilitate coalescence of the sprayed droplets on the silicon surface. Spray coating parameters identified by experimental design, successfully coated 280μm silicon microneedle arrays, producing an intact film-coat, which follows the contours of the microneedle array without occlusion of the microneedle shape. This study demonstrates a novel method of coating microneedle arrays with biocompatible polymers using a conventional film-coating process. It is the first study to indicate the thickness and roughness of coatings applied to microneedle arrays. The study also highlights the importance of identifying suitable processing parameters when film coating substrates of micron dimensions. The ability of a fractional factorial design to identify these critical parameters is also demonstrated. The polymer coatings applied in this study can potentially be drug loaded for intradermal drug and vaccine delivery

  2. Determination of remodeling parameters for a strain-adaptive finite element model of the distal ulna.

    PubMed

    Neuert, Mark A C; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2013-09-01

    Strain energy-based adaptive material models are used to predict bone resorption resulting from stress shielding induced by prosthetic joint implants. Generally, such models are governed by two key parameters: a homeostatic strain-energy state (K) and a threshold deviation from this state required to initiate bone reformation (s). A refinement procedure has been performed to estimate these parameters in the femur and glenoid; this study investigates the specific influences of these parameters on resulting density distributions in the distal ulna. A finite element model of a human ulna was created using micro-computed tomography (µCT) data, initialized to a homogeneous density distribution, and subjected to approximate in vivo loading. Values for K and s were tested, and the resulting steady-state density distribution compared with values derived from µCT images. The sensitivity of these parameters to initial conditions was examined by altering the initial homogeneous density value. The refined model parameters selected were then applied to six additional human ulnae to determine their performance across individuals. Model accuracy using the refined parameters was found to be comparable with that found in previous studies of the glenoid and femur, and gross bone structures, such as the cortical shell and medullary canal, were reproduced. The model was found to be insensitive to initial conditions; however, a fair degree of variation was observed between the six specimens. This work represents an important contribution to the study of changes in load transfer in the distal ulna following the implementation of commercial orthopedic implants. PMID:23804949

  3. Determination of the viscous acoustic field for liquid drop positioning/forcing in an acoustic levitation chamber in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyell, Margaret J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of acoustic levitation systems has provided a technology with which to undertake droplet studies as well as do containerless processing experiments in a microgravity environment. Acoustic levitation chambers utilize radiation pressure forces to position/manipulate the drop. Oscillations can be induced via frequency modulation of the acoustic wave, with the modulated acoustic radiation vector acting as the driving force. To account for tangential as well as radial forcing, it is necessary that the viscous effects be included in the acoustic field. The method of composite expansions is employed in the determination of the acoustic field with viscous effects.

  4. Gas chromatographic analysis of petroleum associated condensate oil with simultaneous determination of some characteristic physical parameters.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, N E

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed for the analysis of associated condensate by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with simultaneous determination of its major physical characteristic parameters. The method aims at the qualitative and quantitative determination of C(2)-C(36) alkanes, methylcyclopentane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. This composition is according to the petroleum companies demand. The method is used for the simultaneous determination of the condensate average molecular weight, density, carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, and boiling range. The data obtained by the method has a good agreement with those obtained by other methods. The literature methods cited later used a simulated distillation method to obtain the hydrocarbon distribution spectrum of the given condensate sample. The obtained results revealed that the GC capillary method used is most rapid and accurate for achieving the demanded analytical report. PMID:18492346

  5. Modelling of slaughterhouse solid waste anaerobic digestion: determination of parameters and continuous reactor simulation.

    PubMed

    López, Iván; Borzacconi, Liliana

    2010-10-01

    A model based on the work of Angelidaki et al. (1993) was applied to simulate the anaerobic biodegradation of ruminal contents. In this study, two fractions of solids with different biodegradation rates were considered. A first-order kinetic was used for the easily biodegradable fraction and a kinetic expression that is function of the extracellular enzyme concentration was used for the slowly biodegradable fraction. Batch experiments were performed to obtain an accumulated methane curve that was then used to obtain the model parameters. For this determination, a methodology derived from the "multiple-shooting" method was successfully used. Monte Carlo simulations allowed a confidence range to be obtained for each parameter. Simulations of a continuous reactor were performed using the optimal set of model parameters. The final steady-states were determined as functions of the operational conditions (solids load and residence time). The simulations showed that methane flow peaked at a flow rate of 0.5-0.8 Nm(3)/d/m(reactor)(3) at a residence time of 10-20 days. Simulations allow the adequate selection of operating conditions of a continuous reactor. PMID:20303732

  6. Determining Experimental Parameters for Thermal-Mechanical Forming Simulation considering Martensite Formation in Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Philipp; Liewald, Mathias

    2011-08-01

    The forming behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steel is mainly dominated by the temperature-dependent TRIP effect (transformation induced plasticity). Of course, the high dependency of material properties on the temperature level during forming means the temperature must be considered during the FE analysis. The strain-induced formation of α'-martensite from austenite can be represented by using finite element programs utilizing suitable models such as the Haensel-model. This paper discusses the determination of parameters for a completely thermal-mechanical forming simulation in LS-DYNA based on the material model of Haensel. The measurement of the martensite evolution in non-isothermal tensile tests was performed with metastable austenitic stainless steel EN 1.4301 at different rolling directions between 0° and 90 °. This allows an estimation of the influence of the rolling direction to the martensite formation. Of specific importance is the accuracy of the martensite content measured by magnetic induction methods (Feritscope). The observation of different factors, such as stress dependence of the magnetisation, blank thickness and numerous calibration curves discloses a substantial important influence on the parameter determination for the material models. The parameters obtained for use of Haensel model and temperature-dependent friction coefficients are used to simulate forming process of a real component and to validate its implementation in the commercial code LS-DYNA.

  7. New method for determination of the photoresist Dill parameters using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Defranoux, Christophe; Piel, Jean-Philippe; Stehle, Jean-Louis P.

    1999-06-01

    In this paper a new method to determine photoresist DIll parameters is presented. Based on spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements, this new method is more precise than standard techniques based on transmittance measurements. Indeed, compared to photometry, SE technique is a self calibrated technique which provide directly two independent parameters Tan (Psi) and Cos (Delta) which can be used to extract directly thickness but also optical indices of a layer inside a multilayer structure. Moreover, the wavelength dependence introduces more restrictions for the data analysis since thickness and optical indices can be deduced directly in many cases. We apply this technique to different kinds of photoresist designed for 365nm and 248nm. At each wavelength ellipsometric parameters are simulate directly versus the exposure dose without any assumption on the thickness and on the index of refraction evolution. On 365nm photoresist this new method provides Dill parameters in good agreement with the standard method. On 248nm photoresist we show that the influence of the exposure is more important on the refractive index and on the thickness of the layer than on its absorption.

  8. New method for determination of the photoresist Dill parameters using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Defranoux, Christophe; Piel, Jean-Philippe; Stehle, Jean-Louis P.

    1999-04-01

    In this paper a new method to determine photoresist Dill parameters is presented. Based on spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements, this new method is more precise than standard techniques based on transmittance measurements. Indeed, compared to photometry, SE technique is a self calibrated technique which provide directly two independent parameters Tan (Psi) and Cos (Delta) which can be used to extract directly thickness but also optical indices of a layer inside a multilayer structure. Moreover, the wavelength dependence introduces more restrictions for the data analysis since thickness and optical indices can be deduced directly in many cases. We apply this technique to different kinds of photoresist designed for 365nm and 248nm. At each wavelength ellipsometric parameters are simulated directly versus the exposure dose without any assumption on the thickness and on the index of refraction evolution. On 365nm photoresist this new method provides Dill parameters in good agreement with the standard method. On 248nm photoresist we show that the influence of the exposure is more important on the refractive index and on the thickness of the layer than on its absorption.

  9. Assessing the Uncertainties on Seismic Source Parameters: Towards Realistic Estimates of Moment Tensor Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoni, F.; Scognamiglio, L.; Tinti, E.; Casarotti, E.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic moment tensor is one of the most important source parameters defining the earthquake dimension and style of the activated fault. Moment tensor catalogues are ordinarily used by geoscientists, however, few attempts have been done to assess possible impacts of moment magnitude uncertainties upon their own analysis. The 2012 May 20 Emilia mainshock is a representative event since it is defined in literature with a moment magnitude value (Mw) spanning between 5.63 and 6.12. An uncertainty of ~0.5 units in magnitude leads to a controversial knowledge of the real size of the event. The possible uncertainty associated to this estimate could be critical for the inference of other seismological parameters, suggesting caution for seismic hazard assessment, coulomb stress transfer determination and other analyses where self-consistency is important. In this work, we focus on the variability of the moment tensor solution, highlighting the effect of four different velocity models, different types and ranges of filtering, and two different methodologies. Using a larger dataset, to better quantify the source parameter uncertainty, we also analyze the variability of the moment tensor solutions depending on the number, the epicentral distance and the azimuth of used stations. We endorse that the estimate of seismic moment from moment tensor solutions, as well as the estimate of the other kinematic source parameters, cannot be considered an absolute value and requires to come out with the related uncertainties and in a reproducible framework characterized by disclosed assumptions and explicit processing workflows.

  10. Computational methodology to determine fluid related parameters of non regular three-dimensional scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Acosta Santamaría, Víctor Andrés; Malvè, M; Duizabo, A; Mena Tobar, A; Gallego Ferrer, G; García Aznar, J M; Doblaré, M; Ochoa, I

    2013-11-01

    The application of three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials to facilitate the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of cells has been widely studied for tissue engineering purposes. The fabrication methods used to improve the mechanical response of the scaffold produce complex and non regular structures. Apart from the mechanical aspect, the fluid behavior in the inner part of the scaffold should also be considered. Parameters such as permeability (k) or wall shear stress (WSS) are important aspects in the provision of nutrients, the removal of metabolic waste products or the mechanically-induced differentiation of cells attached in the trabecular network of the scaffolds. Experimental measurements of these parameters are not available in all labs. However, fluid parameters should be known prior to other types of experiments. The present work compares an experimental study with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology to determine the related fluid parameters (k and WSS) of complex non regular poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds based only on the treatment of microphotographic images obtained with a microCT (μCT). The CFD analysis shows similar tendencies and results with low relative difference compared to those of the experimental study, for high flow rates. For low flow rates the accuracy of this prediction reduces. The correlation between the computational and experimental results validates the robustness of the proposed methodology. PMID:23807712

  11. Acoustical determination of the parameters governing thermal dissipation in porous media.

    PubMed

    Olny, Xavier; Panneton, Raymond

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the question of the acoustical determination of macroscopic thermal parameters used to describe heat exchanges in rigid open-cell porous media subjected to acoustical excitations is addressed. The proposed method is based on the measurement of the dynamic bulk modulus of the material, and analytical inverse solutions derived from different semiphenomenological models governing the thermal dissipation of acoustic waves in the material. Three models are considered: (1) Champoux-Allard model [J. Appl. Phys. 20, 1975-1979 (1991)] requiring knowledge of the porosity and thermal characteristic length, (2) Lafarge et al. model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 1995-2006 (1997)] using the same parameters and the thermal permeability, and (3) Wilson model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1136-1145 (1993)] that requires two adjusted parameters. Except for the porosity that is obtained from direct measurement, all the other thermal parameters are derived from the analytical inversion of the models. The method is applied to three porous materials-a foam, a glass wool, and a rock wool-with very different thermal properties. It is shown that the method can be used to assess the validity of the descriptive models for a given material. PMID:18247886

  12. Image parameters for maturity determination of a composted material containing sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawa, S.; Nowakowski, K.; Tomczak, R. J.; Boniecki, P.; Dach, J.

    2013-07-01

    Composting is one of the best methods for management of sewage sludge. In a reasonably conducted composting process it is important to early identify the moment in which a material reaches the young compost stage. The objective of this study was to determine parameters contained in images of composted material's samples that can be used for evaluation of the degree of compost maturity. The study focused on two types of compost: containing sewage sludge with corn straw and sewage sludge with rapeseed straw. The photographing of the samples was carried out on a prepared stand for the image acquisition using VIS, UV-A and mixed (VIS + UV-A) light. In the case of UV-A light, three values of the exposure time were assumed. The values of 46 parameters were estimated for each of the images extracted from the photographs of the composted material's samples. Exemplary averaged values of selected parameters obtained from the images of the composted material in the following sampling days were presented. All of the parameters obtained from the composted material's images are the basis for preparation of training, validation and test data sets necessary in development of neural models for classification of the young compost stage.

  13. Post-processing of seismic parameter data based on valid seismic event determination

    DOEpatents

    McEvilly, Thomas V.

    1985-01-01

    An automated seismic processing system and method are disclosed, including an array of CMOS microprocessors for unattended battery-powered processing of a multi-station network. According to a characterizing feature of the invention, each channel of the network is independently operable to automatically detect, measure times and amplitudes, and compute and fit Fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) for both P- and S- waves on analog seismic data after it has been sampled at a given rate. The measured parameter data from each channel are then reviewed for event validity by a central controlling microprocessor and if determined by preset criteria to constitute a valid event, the parameter data are passed to an analysis computer for calculation of hypocenter location, running b-values, source parameters, event count, P- wave polarities, moment-tensor inversion, and Vp/Vs ratios. The in-field real-time analysis of data maximizes the efficiency of microearthquake surveys allowing flexibility in experimental procedures, with a minimum of traditional labor-intensive postprocessing. A unique consequence of the system is that none of the original data (i.e., the sensor analog output signals) are necessarily saved after computation, but rather, the numerical parameters generated by the automatic analysis are the sole output of the automated seismic processor.

  14. Monte Carlo method for determining earthquake recurrence parameters from short paleoseismic catalogs: Example calculations for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2008-01-01

    Paleoearthquake observations often lack enough events at a given site to directly define a probability density function (PDF) for earthquake recurrence. Sites with fewer than 10-15 intervals do not provide enough information to reliably determine the shape of the PDF using standard maximum-likelihood techniques (e.g., Ellsworth et al., 1999). In this paper I present a method that attempts to fit wide ranges of distribution parameters to short paleoseismic series. From repeated Monte Carlo draws, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate most likely recurrence PDF parameters, and a ranked distribution of parameters is returned that can be used to assess uncertainties in hazard calculations. In tests on short synthetic earthquake series, the method gives results that cluster around the mean of the input distribution, whereas maximum likelihood methods return the sample means (e.g., NIST/SEMATECH, 2006). For short series (fewer than 10 intervals), sample means tend to reflect the median of an asymmetric recurrence distribution, possibly leading to an overestimate of the hazard should they be used in probability calculations. Therefore a Monte Carlo approach may be useful for assessing recurrence from limited paleoearthquake records. Further, the degree of functional dependence among parameters like mean recurrence interval and coefficient of variation can be established. The method is described for use with time-independent and time-dependent PDFs, and results from 19 paleoseismic sequences on strike-slip faults throughout the state of California are given.

  15. Monte Carlo Method for Determining Earthquake Recurrence Parameters from Short Paleoseismic Catalogs: Example Calculations for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Paleoearthquake observations often lack enough events at a given site to directly define a probability density function (PDF) for earthquake recurrence. Sites with fewer than 10-15 intervals do not provide enough information to reliably determine the shape of the PDF using standard maximum-likelihood techniques [e.g., Ellsworth et al., 1999]. In this paper I present a method that attempts to fit wide ranges of distribution parameters to short paleoseismic series. From repeated Monte Carlo draws, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate most likely recurrence PDF parameters, and a ranked distribution of parameters is returned that can be used to assess uncertainties in hazard calculations. In tests on short synthetic earthquake series, the method gives results that cluster around the mean of the input distribution, whereas maximum likelihood methods return the sample means [e.g., NIST/SEMATECH, 2006]. For short series (fewer than 10 intervals), sample means tend to reflect the median of an asymmetric recurrence distribution, possibly leading to an overestimate of the hazard should they be used in probability calculations. Therefore a Monte Carlo approach may be useful for assessing recurrence from limited paleoearthquake records. Further, the degree of functional dependence among parameters like mean recurrence interval and coefficient of variation can be established. The method is described for use with time-independent and time-dependent PDF?s, and results from 19 paleoseismic sequences on strike-slip faults throughout the state of California are given.

  16. Monte Carlo method for determining earthquake recurrence parameters from short paleoseismic catalogs: Example calculations for California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom

    2008-03-01

    Paleoearthquake observations often lack enough events at a given site to directly define a probability density function (PDF) for earthquake recurrence. Sites with fewer than 10-15 intervals do not provide enough information to reliably determine the shape of the PDF using standard maximum-likelihood techniques (e.g., Ellsworth et al., 1999). In this paper I present a method that attempts to fit wide ranges of distribution parameters to short paleoseismic series. From repeated Monte Carlo draws, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate most likely recurrence PDF parameters, and a ranked distribution of parameters is returned that can be used to assess uncertainties in hazard calculations. In tests on short synthetic earthquake series, the method gives results that cluster around the mean of the input distribution, whereas maximum likelihood methods return the sample means (e.g., NIST/SEMATECH, 2006). For short series (fewer than 10 intervals), sample means tend to reflect the median of an asymmetric recurrence distribution, possibly leading to an overestimate of the hazard should they be used in probability calculations. Therefore a Monte Carlo approach may be useful for assessing recurrence from limited paleoearthquake records. Further, the degree of functional dependence among parameters like mean recurrence interval and coefficient of variation can be established. The method is described for use with time-independent and time-dependent PDFs, and results from 19 paleoseismic sequences on strike-slip faults throughout the state of California are given.

  17. Accurate Calculation of Hydration Free Energies using Pair-Specific Lennard-Jones Parameters in the CHARMM Drude Polarizable Force Field

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher M.; Lopes, Pedro E. M.; Zhu, Xiao; Roux, Benoît; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2010-01-01

    Lennard-Jones (LJ) parameters for a variety of model compounds have previously been optimized within the CHARMM Drude polarizable force field to reproduce accurately pure liquid phase thermodynamic properties as well as additional target data. While the polarizable force field resulting from this optimization procedure has been shown to satisfactorily reproduce a wide range of experimental reference data across numerous series of small molecules, a slight but systematic overestimate of the hydration free energies has also been noted. Here, the reproduction of experimental hydration free energies is greatly improved by the introduction of pair-specific LJ parameters between solute heavy atoms and water oxygen atoms that override the standard LJ parameters obtained from combining rules. The changes are small and a systematic protocol is developed for the optimization of pair-specific LJ parameters and applied to the development of pair-specific LJ parameters for alkanes, alcohols and ethers. The resulting parameters not only yield hydration free energies in good agreement with experimental values, but also provide a framework upon which other pair-specific LJ parameters can be added as new compounds are parametrized within the CHARMM Drude polarizable force field. Detailed analysis of the contributions to the hydration free energies reveals that the dispersion interaction is the main source of the systematic errors in the hydration free energies. This information suggests that the systematic error may result from problems with the LJ combining rules and is combined with analysis of the pair-specific LJ parameters obtained in this work to identify a preliminary improved combining rule. PMID:20401166

  18. Methods to Determine the Bd - bar {B}d Mixing Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, G. V.; Sarma, K. V. L.

    The phenomenology of Bd - bar {B}d mixing involves four parameters: average width Γ, mixing ratio |q|p|, mass difference proportional to x, and width difference proportional to y. We point out the types of experimental inputs that are eventually needed in order to determine the four parameters completely and in a model-independent way. For the sign of y we suggest the measurement (at ϒ(4S) factories) of a certain time-asymmetry when one of the neutral B mesons is tagged and the other decays to a CP-eigenstate. For the sign of x we propose similar time-asymmetries when one of the B mesons undergoes the chain decay: B→KJ/ψ, and the neutral kaon→πlν or π+π-.

  19. Hartmann-Shack wave front measurements for real time determination of laser beam propagation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.; Luebbecke, M.; Mann, K.

    2006-05-15

    The suitability of the Hartmann-Shack technique for the determination of the propagation parameters of a laser beam is faced against the well known caustic approach according to the ISO 11146 standard. A He-Ne laser (543 nm) was chosen as test beam, both in its fundamental mode as well as after intentional distortion, introducing a moderate amount of spherical aberration. Results are given for the most important beam parameters M{sup 2}, divergence, and beam widths, indicating an agreement of better than 10% and for adapted beam diameter <5%. Furthermore, the theoretical background, pros and cons, as well as some features of the software implementation for the Hartmann-Shack sensor are briefly reviewed.

  20. Determination of orientational order parameters from 2H NMR spectra of magnetically partially oriented lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, H; Mädler, B; Sternin, E

    1998-01-01

    The partial orientation of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) in high magnetic fields is known to affect the shape of 2H NMR spectra. There are numerical methods for extracting either the orientational order parameters of lipid molecules for a random distribution of domain orientations in the sample, or the distribution of orientations for a known set of spectral anisotropies. A first attempt at determining the orientational order parameters in the presence of an unknown nonrandom distribution of orientations is presented. The numerical method is based on the Tikhonov regularization algorithm. It is tested using simulated partially oriented spectra. An experimental spectrum of a phospholipid-ether mixture in water is analyzed as an example. The experimental spectrum is consistent with an ellipsoidal shape of MLVs with a ratio of semiaxes of approximately 3.4. PMID:9533713

  1. Automated and Rapid Determinations of Earthquake Source Parameters in Indonesia: Comparisons with Global CMT Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, M.; Yamashina, T.; Kumagai, H.; Inoue, H.; S.; F.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid determinations of the earthquake source parameters are important for early disaster response and tsunami warning issue. After the devastation of the 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, a nationwide broadband seismograph network in Indonesia has been developed by international cooperations among Meteorological and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (BMG), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany (GFZ), the China Earthquake Administration (CEA), and the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Japan (NIED). This seismic network is intended to improve the capabilities for monitoring seismic activity and tsunami generation in Indonesia, and is a part of the Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS). We developed an automated system for rapid determinations of the earthquake source parameters called SWIFT (Source parameter determinations based on Waveform Inversion of Fourier Transformed seismograms) using data from the seismic network in Indonesia. This paper describes the SWIFT system and its performance. We also compare the obtained source parameters with those obtained by the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) project (http://www.globalcmt.org/). The SWIFT system is based on the waveform inversion method of Nakano et al. (2008, GJI, 173, 1000-1011). In this method, waveform inversion is carried out in the frequency domain to rapidly and routinely estimate both the focal mechanism and moment function. A pure double-couple focal mechanism from a point source is assumed in order to stabilize the inversion using data from a small number of seismic stations. The fault and slip orientation angles are estimated by a grid search with respect to the dip, strike, and rake angles. The source centroid location is determined by a spatial grid search, in which we adopt adaptive grid spacings for an efficient search. The moment function is reconstructed from its bandpassed form obtained from the inversion. This system is triggered by

  2. An Intensive Research of Satellite Orbit Theory and Application in Orbit Determination, Forecast and Parameter Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. S.

    2011-03-01

    It has been over half a century since the launch of the first artificial satellite Sputnik in 1957, which marks the beginning of the Space Age. During the past 50 years, with the development and innovations in various fields and technologies, satellite application has grown more and more intensive and extensive. This thesis is based on three major research projects which the author joined in. These representative projects cover main aspects of satellite orbit theory and application of precise orbit determination (POD), and also show major research methods and important applications in orbit dynamics. Chapter 1 is an in-depth research on analytical theory of satellite orbits. This research utilizes general transformation theory to acquire high-order analytical solutions when mean-element method is not applicable. These solutions can be used in guidance and control or rapid orbit forecast within the accuracy of 10-6. We also discuss other major perturbations, each of which is considered with improved models, in pursuit of both convenience and accuracy especially when old models are hardly applicable. Chapter 2 is POD research based on observations. Assuming a priori force model and estimation algorithm have reached their accuracy limits, we introduce empirical forces to Shenzhou-type orbit in order to compensate possible unmodeled or mismodeled perturbations. Residuals are analyzed first and only empirical force models with actual physical background are considered. This not only enhances a posteriori POD accuracy, but also considerably improves the accuracy of orbit forecast. This chapter also contains theoretical discussions on modeling of empirical forces, computation of partial derivatives and propagation of various errors. Error propagation helps to better evaluate orbital accuracy in future missions. Chapter 3 is an application of POD in space geodesy. GRACE satellites are used to obtain Antarctic temporal gravity field between 2004 and 2007. Various changes

  3. Direct determination of geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners.

    PubMed

    Mennessier, C; Clackdoyle, R; Noo, F

    2009-03-21

    This paper describes a comprehensive method for determining the geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners (often called calibrating the scanners or performing geometric calibration). The method is applicable to x-ray scanners using area detectors, or to SPECT systems using pinholes or cone-beam converging collimators. Images of an alignment test object (calibration phantom) fixed in the field of view of the scanner are processed to determine the nine geometric parameters for each view. The parameter values are found directly using formulae applied to the projected positions of the test object marker points onto the detector. Each view is treated independently, and no restrictions are made on the position of the cone vertex, or on the position or orientation of the detector. The proposed test object consists of 14 small point-like objects arranged with four points on each of three orthogonal lines, and two points on a diagonal line. This test object is shown to provide unique solutions for all possible scanner geometries, even when partial measurement information is lost by points superimposing in the calibration scan. For the many situations where the cone vertex stays reasonably close to a central plane (for circular, planar, or near-planar trajectories), a simpler version of the test object is appropriate. The simpler object consists of six points, two per orthogonal line, but with some restrictions on the positioning of the test object. This paper focuses on the principles and mathematical justifications for the method. Numerical simulations of the calibration process and reconstructions using estimated parameters are also presented to validate the method and to provide evidence of the robustness of the technique. PMID:19242049

  4. Direct determination of geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners

    PubMed Central

    Mennessier, C; Clackdoyle, R; Noo, F

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive method for determining the geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners (often called calibrating the scanners or performing geometric calibration). The method is applicable to x-ray scanners using area detectors, or to SPECT systems using pinholes or cone-beam converging collimators. Images of an alignment test object (calibration phantom) fixed in the field of view of the scanner are processed to determine the nine geometric parameters for each view. The parameter values are found directly using formulae applied to the projected positions of the test object marker points onto the detector. Each view is treated independently, and no restrictions are made on the position of the cone vertex, or on the position or orientation of the detector. The proposed test object consists of 14 small point-like objects arranged with four points on each of three orthogonal lines, and two points on a diagonal line. This test object is shown to provide unique solutions for all possible scanner geometries, even when partial measurement information is lost by points superimposing in the calibration scan. For the many situations where the cone vertex stays reasonably close to a central plane (for circular, planar, or near-planar trajectories), a simpler version of the test object is appropriate. The simpler object consists of six points, two per orthogonal line, but with some restrictions on the positioning of the test object. This paper focuses on the principles and mathematical justifications for the method. Numerical simulations of the calibration process and reconstructions using estimated parameters are also presented to validate the method and to provide evidence of the robustness of the technique. PMID:19242049

  5. Label-Free Determination of Hemodynamic Parameters in the Microcirculaton with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dietzel, Steffen; Pircher, Joachim; Nekolla, A. Katharina; Gull, Mazhar; Brändli, André W.; Pohl, Ulrich; Rehberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Determination of blood flow velocity and related hemodynamic parameters is an important aspect of physiological studies which in many settings requires fluorescent labeling. Here we show that Third Harmonic Generation (THG) microscopy is a suitable tool for label-free intravital investigations of the microcirculation in widely-used physiological model systems. THG microscopy is a non-fluorescent multi-photon scanning technique combining the advantages of label-free imaging with restriction of signal generation to a focal spot. Blood flow was visualized and its velocity was measured in adult mouse cremaster muscle vessels, non-invasively in mouse ear vessels and in Xenopus tadpoles. In arterioles, THG line scanning allowed determination of the flow pulse velocity curve and hence the heart rate. By relocating the scan line we obtained velocity profiles through vessel diameters, allowing shear rate calculations. The cell free layer containing the glycocalyx was also visualized. Comparison of the current microscopic resolution with theoretical, diffraction limited resolution let us conclude that an about sixty-fold THG signal intensity increase may be possible with future improved optics, optimized for 1200–1300 nm excitation. THG microscopy is compatible with simultaneous two-photon excited fluorescence detection. It thus also provides the opportunity to determine important hemodynamic parameters in parallel to common fluorescent observations without additional label. PMID:24933027

  6. Development of quantitative radioactive methodologies on paper to determine important lateral-flow immunoassay parameters.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Garrett L; Nguyen, Phuong; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2016-08-01

    The lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) is a well-established diagnostic technology that has recently seen significant advancements due in part to the rapidly expanding fields of paper diagnostics and paper-fluidics. As LFA-based diagnostics become more complex, it becomes increasingly important to quantitatively determine important parameters during the design and evaluation process. However, current experimental methods for determining these parameters have certain limitations when applied to LFA systems. In this work, we describe our novel methods of combining paper and radioactive measurements to determine nanoprobe molarity, the number of antibodies per nanoprobe, and the forward and reverse rate constants for nanoprobe binding to immobilized target on the LFA test line. Using a model LFA system that detects for the presence of the protein transferrin (Tf), we demonstrate the application of our methods, which involve quantitative experimentation and mathematical modeling. We also compare the results of our rate constant experiments with traditional experiments to demonstrate how our methods more appropriately capture the influence of the LFA environment on the binding interaction. Our novel experimental approaches can therefore more efficiently guide the research process for LFA design, leading to more rapid advancement of the field of paper-based diagnostics. PMID:27364421

  7. Albedo of the South Pole on Mars Determined by Topographic Forcing of Atmosphere Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, Anthony; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Haberle, Robert M.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kleffer, Hugh H.; Titus, Timothy N.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of the martian south polar cap has remained enigmatic since the first spacecraft observations. In particular, the presence of a perennial carbon dioxide ice cap, the formation of a vast area of black slab ice known as the Cryptic region and the asymmetric springtime retreat of the cap have eluded explanation. Here we present observations and climate modelling that indicate the south pole of Mars is characterized by two distinct regional climates that are the result of dynamical forcing by the largest southern impact basins, Argyre and Hellas. The style of surface frost deposition is controlled by these regional climates. In the cold and stormy conditions that exist poleward of 60 degrees S and extend 180 degrees in longitude west from the Mountains of Mitchel (about 30 degrees W), surface frost accumulation is dominated by precipitation. In the opposite hemisphere, the polar atmosphere is relatively warm and clear and frost accumulation is dominated by direct vapour deposition. It is the differences in these deposition styles that determine the cap albedo.

  8. Albedo of the south pole on Mars determined by topographic forcing of atmosphere dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colaprete, A.; Barnes, J.R.; Haberle, R.M.; Hollingsworth, J.L.; Kieffer, H.H.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of the martian south polar cap has remained enigmatic since the first spacecraft observations. In particular, the presence of a perennial carbon dioxide ice cap, the formation of a vast area of black 'slab ice' known as the Cryptic region and the asymmetric springtime retreat of the cap have eluded explanation. Here we present observations and climate modelling that indicate the south pole of Mars is characterized by two distinct regional climates that are the result of dynamical forcing by the largest southern impact basins, Argyre and Hellas. The style of surface frost deposition is controlled by these regional climates. In the cold and stormy conditions that exist poleward of 60?? S and extend 180?? in longitude west from the Mountains of Mitchel (???30?? W), surface frost accumulation is dominated by precipitation. In the opposite hemisphere, the polar atmosphere is relatively warm and clear and frost accumulation is dominated by direct vapour deposition. It is the differences in these deposition styles that determine the cap albedo.

  9. Determination of Groundwater Velocity and Dispersion Parameters by Borehole Wall Multielectrode Geoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    A single well technique to determine groundwater flow values and transport parameters is presented. Multielectrode arrays are placed at the filtered casing depth by an inflatable packer or are installed on the borehole wall behind the casing.Tracer water with a higher or lower specific electrical conductivity (salinity) which is injected between the electrodes. This tracer plume then moves into the natural groundwater flow field. The observation of this movement by geoelectric logging enables the determination of the groundwater velocity and salinity. The transport parameters "effective porosity" and "dispersion length" can also be derived. The geoelectric logging uses n borehole electrodes and two grounding electrodes. Thus, either n independent two point measurements or n*(n-1)/2 pole-to-pole measurements can be conducted to obtain a full set of geoelectric measurements. This set is used to derive all electrode combinations by applying the law of superposition and reciprocity. The tracer distribution around the borehole during and after injection depends on the hydraulic and transport parameters of the aquifer and the filter sand. The transport parameter "porosity" plus the total injected tracer volume determines the tracer distribution around the borehole. The transport parameter "dispersivity" determines the abruptness of the tracer front. The method was tested by undertaking measurements in a lab aquifer filled with sand. The results are discussed and the limitations of the method are shown. Multielectrode installations behind casing were tested in situ in the two scientific boreholes CAT-LUD-1 and CAT- LUD-1A drilled in the northern part of Germany. A multielectrode packer system was designed, built and tested in these boreholes. The results are compared with colloid observations in the borehole and hydraulic triangulation in surrounded observation wells. Here, the interpretation of these in situ measurements is mainly restricted to two point geoelectric

  10. Methodology for Determining Optimal Exposure Parameters of a Hyperspectral Scanning Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczykowski, P.; Siok, K.; Jenerowicz, A.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the presented research was to establish a methodology that would allow the registration of hyperspectral images with a defined spatial resolution on a horizontal plane. The results obtained within this research could then be used to establish the optimum sensor and flight parameters for collecting aerial imagery data using an UAV or other aerial system. The methodology is based on an user-selected optimal camera exposure parameters (i.e. time, gain value) and flight parameters (i.e. altitude, velocity). A push-broom hyperspectral imager- the Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR was used to conduct this research. The measurement station consisted of the following equipment: a hyperspectral camera MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR, a personal computer with HyperSpec III software, a slider system which guaranteed the stable motion of the sensor system, a white reference panel and a Siemens star, which was used to evaluate the spatial resolution. Hyperspectral images were recorded at different distances between the sensor and the target- from 5m to 100m. During the registration process of each acquired image, many exposure parameters were changed, such as: the aperture value, exposure time and speed of the camera's movement on the slider. Based on all of the registered hyperspectral images, some dependencies between chosen parameters had been developed: - the Ground Sampling Distance - GSD and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the speed of the camera and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the exposure time and the gain value, - the Density Number and the gain value. The developed methodology allowed us to determine the speed and the altitude of an unmanned aerial vehicle on which the sensor would be mounted, ensuring that the registered hyperspectral images have the required spatial resolution.

  11. Can Establishment Success Be Determined through Demographic Parameters? A Case Study on Five Introduced Bird Species

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Anadón, José D.; Edelaar, Pim; Carrete, Martina; Tella, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    The dominant criterion to determine when an introduced species is established relies on the maintenance of a self-sustaining population in the area of introduction, i.e. on the viability of the population from a demographic perspective. There is however a paucity of demographic studies on introduced species, and establishment success is thus generally determined by expert opinion without undertaking population viability analyses (PVAs). By means of an intensive five year capture-recapture monitoring program (involving >12,000 marked individuals) we studied the demography of five introduced passerine bird species in southern Spain which are established and have undergone a fast expansion over the last decades. We obtained useful estimates of demographic parameters (survival and reproduction) for one colonial species (Ploceus melanocephalus), confirming the long-term viability of its local population through PVAs. However, extremely low recapture rates prevented the estimation of survival parameters and population growth rates for widely distributed species with low local densities (Estrilda troglodytes and Amandava amandava) but also for highly abundant yet non-colonial species (Estrilda astrild and Euplectes afer). Therefore, determining the establishment success of introduced passerine species by demographic criteria alone may often be troublesome even when devoting much effort to field-work. Alternative quantitative methodologies such as the analysis of spatio-temporal species distributions complemented with expert opinion deserve thus their role in the assessment of establishment success of introduced species when estimates of demographic parameters are difficult to obtain, as is generally the case for non-colonial, highly mobile passerines. PMID:25333743

  12. Branching and capping determine the force-velocity relationships of branching actin networks.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel B; Liu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    A branching actin network is the major engine that drives cell motility. A measure of the effectiveness of an engine is the velocity the engine is able to produce at a given resistance-the force-velocity relationship. Concave force-velocity relationships consist of a force-insensitive region, indicative of an adaptive response. In contrast, convex force-velocity relationships would reflect a passive response. Even in in vitro experiments, branching actin networks can exhibit both concave and convex force-velocity curves. However, the exact mechanism that can explain both force-velocity curves is not yet known. We carried out an agent-based stochastic simulation to explore such a mechanism. We discovered an emergent behavior of a branching actin network: Upon resistance, it remodels itself by increasing the number of filaments growing in contact with the load. The remodeling is favored by branching events and limited by capping. The force-velocity relationship hinges on the relative time-scale between the intrinsic kinetics of the branching actin network and the loading. Shortly after encountering resistance (∼seconds), the force-velocity relationship of the actin network is always convex, as it does not have enough time to remodel itself. A concave force-velocity relationship requires network remodeling at longer time-scales (∼tens of seconds to minutes) and the faster branching event relative to capping. Furthermore, our model explains the observed hysteresis in the force-velocity relationship of actin networks. Our model thus establishes a unified mechanism that can account for both convex and concave force-velocity relationships observed in branching actin networks. PMID:23358606

  13. Determination of spectrometer-detector parameters from calibration spectra and the use of the parameters in spectrometer calibrations.

    PubMed

    Holy, John A

    2004-10-01

    The grating equation is used to generate quadratic calibration equations for multichannel detectors with perpendicular and tilted focal planes. The quadratic coefficients are not independent and contain terms that are used to solve for spectrometer-detector parameters. The parameters can be calculated from a quadratic fit at one spectrometer position, but more accurate values can be obtained from quadratic fits at two spectrometer positions. The calculations show that the detector focal plane is tilted by about two degrees. Once values for the spectrometer-detector parameters are obtained from calibrations using at least three lines at one or two spectrometer positions, only one calibration line at any spectrometer position is required to obtain accuracies on the order of 0.1 cm(-1) over a several thousand wavenumber range. The main cause of spectrometer drift is a change in the diffraction angle and/or the spectrometer included angle. This drift is almost totally compensated by the one-line calibration, which adjusts the diffraction angle. A neon pen lamp is used to generate the calibration spectra. Using standard air wavelengths compared to true wavelengths can produce calibration errors of 0.1 to 0.6 cm(-1); the magnitude depends on local conditions and how the laser wavelength is treated. PMID:18070401

  14. Fragmentation cross-section of relativistic oxygen ions and determination of overlap parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. D.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of total fragmentation cross sections of relativistic O-16 ions in CsI crystals, which were performed using a monochromatic bevatron ion beam at energies of 0.5 and 2.1 GeV/nucleon. The total fragmentation cross section at each energy is determined on the basis of detected changes in the charge of the incident ions, and the values obtained at both energies are found to be the same to within the experimental errors. Values of the O-16 nucleon radius and overlap parameter are derived simultaneously from the measured cross sections.

  15. k-Cone analysis: determining all candidate values for kinetic parameters on a network scale.

    PubMed

    Famili, Iman; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2005-03-01

    The absence of comprehensive measured kinetic values and the observed inconsistency in the available in vitro kinetic data has hindered the formulation of network-scale kinetic models of biochemical reaction networks. To meet this challenge we present an approach to construct a convex space, termed the k-cone, which contains all the allowable numerical values of the kinetic constants in large-scale biochemical networks. The definition of the k-cone relies on the incorporation of in vivo concentration data and a simplified approach to represent enzyme kinetics within an established constraint-based modeling approach. The k-cone approach was implemented to define the allowable combination of numerical values for a full kinetic model of human red blood cell metabolism and to study its correlated kinetic parameters. The k-cone approach can be used to determine consistency between in vitro measured kinetic values and in vivo concentration and flux measurements when used in a network-scale kinetic model. k-Cone analysis was successful in determining whether in vitro measured kinetic values used in the reconstruction of a kinetic-based model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae central metabolism could reproduce in vivo measurements. Further, the k-cone can be used to determine which numerical values of in vitro measured parameters are required to be changed in a kinetic model if in vivo measured values are not reproduced. k-Cone analysis could identify what minimum number of in vitro determined kinetic parameters needed to be adjusted in the S. cerevisiae model to be consistent with the in vivo data. Applying the k-cone analysis a priori to kinetic model development may reduce the time and effort involved in model building and parameter adjustment. With the recent developments in high-throughput profiling of metabolite concentrations at a whole-cell scale and advances in metabolomics technologies, the k-cone approach presented here may hold the promise for kinetic

  16. k-Cone Analysis: Determining All Candidate Values for Kinetic Parameters on a Network Scale

    PubMed Central

    Famili, Iman; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2005-01-01

    The absence of comprehensive measured kinetic values and the observed inconsistency in the available in vitro kinetic data has hindered the formulation of network-scale kinetic models of biochemical reaction networks. To meet this challenge we present an approach to construct a convex space, termed the k-cone, which contains all the allowable numerical values of the kinetic constants in large-scale biochemical networks. The definition of the k-cone relies on the incorporation of in vivo concentration data and a simplified approach to represent enzyme kinetics within an established constraint-based modeling approach. The k-cone approach was implemented to define the allowable combination of numerical values for a full kinetic model of human red blood cell metabolism and to study its correlated kinetic parameters. The k-cone approach can be used to determine consistency between in vitro measured kinetic values and in vivo concentration and flux measurements when used in a network-scale kinetic model. k-Cone analysis was successful in determining whether in vitro measured kinetic values used in the reconstruction of a kinetic-based model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae central metabolism could reproduce in vivo measurements. Further, the k-cone can be used to determine which numerical values of in vitro measured parameters are required to be changed in a kinetic model if in vivo measured values are not reproduced. k-Cone analysis could identify what minimum number of in vitro determined kinetic parameters needed to be adjusted in the S. cerevisiae model to be consistent with the in vivo data. Applying the k-cone analysis a priori to kinetic model development may reduce the time and effort involved in model building and parameter adjustment. With the recent developments in high-throughput profiling of metabolite concentrations at a whole-cell scale and advances in metabolomics technologies, the k-cone approach presented here may hold the promise for kinetic

  17. Experimental determination of solvent-water partition coefficients and Abraham parameters for munition constituents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuzhen; Kuo, Dave T F; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2016-10-01

    There is concern about the environmental fate and effects of munition constituents (MCs). Polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) that employ Abraham solute parameters can aid in evaluating the risk of MCs to the environment. However, poor predictions using pp-LFERs and ABSOLV estimated Abraham solute parameters are found for some key physico-chemical properties. In this work, the Abraham solute parameters are determined using experimental partition coefficients in various solvent-water systems. The compounds investigated include hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX), hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5- nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and 4-nitroanisole. The solvents in the solvent-water systems are hexane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, octanol, and toluene. The only available reported solvent-water partition coefficients are for octanol-water for some of the investigated compounds and they are in good agreement with the experimental measurements from this study. Solvent-water partition coefficients fitted using experimentally derived solute parameters from this study have significantly smaller root mean square errors (RMSE = 0.38) than predictions using ABSOLV estimated solute parameters (RMSE = 3.56) for the investigated compounds. Additionally, the predictions for various physico-chemical properties using the experimentally derived solute parameters agree with available literature reported values with prediction errors within 0.79 log units except for water solubility of RDX and HMX with errors of 1.48 and 2.16 log units respectively. However, predictions using ABSOLV estimated solute parameters have larger prediction errors of up to 7.68 log units. This large discrepancy is probably due to the missing R2NNO2

  18. Direct determination of the driving forces for taurocholate uptake into rat liver plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Duffy, M C; Blitzer, B L; Boyer, J L

    1983-10-01

    To determine directly the driving forces for bile acid entry into the hepatocyte, the uptake of [3H]taurocholic acid into rat liver plasma membrane vesicles was studied. The membrane preparation contained predominantly right-side-out vesicles, and was highly enriched in plasma membrane marker enzymes. The uptake of taurocholate at equilibrium was inversely related to medium osmolarity, indicating transport into an osmotically sensitive space. In the presence of an inwardly directed sodium gradient (NaCl or sodium gluconate), the initial rate of uptake was rapid and taurocholate was transiently accumulated at a concentration twice that at equilibrium (overshoot). Other inwardly directed cation gradients (K+, Li+, choline+) or the presence of sodium in the absence of a gradient (Na+ equilibrated) resulted in a slower initial uptake rate and did not sustain an overshoot. Bile acids inhibited sodium-dependent taurocholate uptake, whereas bromsulphthalein inhibited both sodium-dependent and sodium-independent uptake and D-glucose had no effect on uptake. Uptake was temperature dependent, with maximal overshoots occurring at 25 degrees C. Imposition of a proton gradient across the vesicle (pHo less than pHi) in the absence of a sodium gradient failed to enhance taurocholate uptake, indicating that double ion exchange (Na+-H+, OH- -anion) is unlikely. Creation of a negative intravesicular potential by altering accompanying anions or by valinomycin-induced K+-diffusion potentials did not enhance taurocholate uptake, suggesting an electroneutral transport mechanism. The kinetics of taurocholate uptake demonstrated saturability with a Michaelis constant at 52 microM and maximum velocity of 4.5 nmol X mg-1 X protein X min-1. These studies provide definitive evidence for a sodium gradient-dependent, carrier-mediated, electrically neutral transport mechanism for hepatic taurocholate uptake. These findings are consistent with a model for bile secretion in which the basolateral

  19. Direct determination of the driving forces for taurocholate uptake into rat liver plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, M C; Blitzer, B L; Boyer, J L

    1983-01-01

    To determine directly the driving forces for bile acid entry into the hepatocyte, the uptake of [3H]taurocholic acid into rat liver plasma membrane vesicles was studied. The membrane preparation contained predominantly right-side-out vesicles, and was highly enriched in plasma membrane marker enzymes. The uptake of taurocholate at equilibrium was inversely related to medium osmolarity, indicating transport into an osmotically sensitive space. In the presence of an inwardly directed sodium gradient (NaCl or sodium gluconate), the initial rate of uptake was rapid and taurocholate was transiently accumulated at a concentration twice that at equilibrium (overshoot). Other inwardly directed cation gradients (K+, Li+, choline+) or the presence of sodium in the absence of a gradient (Na+ equilibrated) resulted in a slower initial uptake rate and did not sustain an overshoot. Bile acids inhibited sodium-dependent taurocholate uptake, whereas bromsulphthalein inhibited both sodium-dependent and sodium-independent uptake and D-glucose had no effect on uptake. Uptake was temperature dependent, with maximal overshoots occurring at 25 degrees C. Imposition of a proton gradient across the vesicle (pHo less than pHi) in the absence of a sodium gradient failed to enhance taurocholate uptake, indicating that double ion exchange (Na+-H+, OH- -anion) is unlikely. Creation of a negative intravesicular potential by altering accompanying anions or by valinomycin-induced K+-diffusion potentials did not enhance taurocholate uptake, suggesting an electroneutral transport mechanism. The kinetics of taurocholate uptake demonstrated saturability with a Michaelis constant at 52 microM and maximum velocity of 4.5 nmol X mg-1 X protein X min-1. These studies provide definitive evidence for a sodium gradient-dependent, carrier-mediated, electrically neutral transport mechanism for hepatic taurocholate uptake. These findings are consistent with a model for bile secretion in which the basolateral

  20. Determining the range parameters of observation thermal cameras on the basis of laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareła, Jarosław; Kastek, Mariusz; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Range parameters are main factors in assessing the performance of observation devices. They can be determined on the basis of computer simulations, field or laboratory measurements, with the latter method being the most reliable and practical. The paper presents the methods used for the determination of detection, recognition and identification ranges based on well-known Johnson criteria and recently emerged TTP model. Theoretical background for both approaches are given, and the laboratory test stand is described together with brief methodology adopted for the measurements of selected, necessary characteristics of a tested observation system. The measurement results are presented and the calculated ranges for a selected set of IR cameras are given, obtained on the basis of both Johnson criteria and TTP model. Finally the results are discussed and the final thoughts on the TTP model application are presented.

  1. Determination of Spectral Line Parameters in Selected Portions of the Infrared Spectrum of Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Karen Keppler

    1999-01-01

    Pressure broadening and pressure-induced shift coefficients due to water and nitrogen have been determined for water vapor transitions in the CO2 region of interest to Project HALOE. The temperature dependences of the widths and shifts have also been determined for selected transitions in this region. Results have been compared with values available in the literature. The line parameters have been obtained from the analysis of room temperature recordings of the spectrum of pure water and recordings of the spectra of heated water/nitrogen mixtures. The recordings of the water vapor spectrum were obtained with Fourier Transform Spectrometers at Kitt Peak and at the Justus-Liebig-Universitat Giessen. Up to eighteen spectra have been fitted simultaneously with a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique developed by Dr. D. Chris Benner and colleagues.

  2. Percolation threshold determination of sputtered silver films using Stokes parameters and in situ conductance measurements.

    PubMed

    Hafezian, Soroush; Baloukas, Bill; Martinu, Ludvik

    2014-08-20

    This work presents a straightforward approach to determine the percolation threshold of silver thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering on various oxide layers at room temperature. The proposed method is based on the observation of the coupling of p-polarized light with local surface plasmons. By measuring the first Stokes parameter in real time, one can determine the moment at which the nano-islands of silver begin to coalesce into a continuous film. We confirm the results by in situ and ex situ conductance measurements. The method is then used to assess the percolation threshold on different oxide seed layers such as ZnSnO, ZnO, TiO2, and SiO2. PMID:25321107

  3. Parameter-free determination of the exchange constant in thin films using magnonic patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, M.; Wagner, K.; Sebastian, T.; Hübner, R.; Grenzer, J.; Wang, Yutian; Kubota, T.; Schneider, T.; Stienen, S.; Lenz, K.; Schultheiß, H.; Lindner, J.; Takanashi, K.; Arias, R. E.; Fassbender, J.

    2016-03-01

    An all-electrical method is presented to determine the exchange constant of magnetic thin films using ferromagnetic resonance. For films of 20 nm thickness and below, the determination of the exchange constant A, a fundamental magnetic quantity, is anything but straightforward. Among others, the most common methods are based on the characterization of perpendicular standing spin-waves. These approaches are however challenging, due to (i) very high energies and (ii) rather small intensities in this thickness regime. In the presented approach, surface patterning is applied to a permalloy (Ni80Fe20) film and a Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si Heusler compound. Acting as a magnonic crystal, such structures enable the coupling of backward volume spin-waves to the uniform mode. Subsequent ferromagnetic resonance measurements give access to the spin-wave spectra free of unquantifiable parameters and, thus, to the exchange constant A with high accuracy.

  4. BINARY CONTAMINATION IN THE SEGUE SAMPLE: EFFECTS ON SSPP DETERMINATIONS OF STELLAR ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Masseron, Thomas; Gaudi, B. Scott; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Yanny, Brian; Rockosi, Constance M.

    2010-08-20

    We examine the effects that unresolved binaries have on the determination of various stellar atmospheric parameters for targets from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) using numerical modeling, a grid of synthetic spectra, and the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). The SEGUE survey, a component of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) project focusing on Galactic structure, provides medium resolution spectroscopy for over 200,000 stars of various spectral types over a large area on the sky. To model undetected binaries that may be in this sample, we use a variety of mass distributions for the primary and secondary stars in conjunction with empirically determined relationships for orbital parameters to determine the fraction of G - K dwarf stars, defined by SDSS color cuts as having 0.48 {<=} (g - r){sub 0} {<=} 0.75, that will be blended with a secondary companion. We focus on the G-K dwarf sample in SEGUE as it records the history of chemical enrichment in our galaxy. To determine the effect of the secondary on the spectroscopic parameters, specifically effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and [{alpha}/Fe], we synthesize a grid of model spectra from 3275 to 7850 K and [Fe/H] = -0.5 to -2.5 from MARCS model atmospheres using TurboSpectrum. These temperature and metallicity ranges roughly correspond to a stellar mass range of 0.1-1.0 M{sub sun}. We assume that both stars in the pair have the same metallicity. We analyze both 'infinite' signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) models and degraded versions of the spectra, at median S/N of 50, 25, and 10. By running individual and combined spectra (representing the binaries) through the SSPP, we determine that {approx}10% of the blended G - K dwarf pairs with S/N {>=} 25 will have their atmospheric parameter determinations, in particular temperature and metallicity, noticeably affected by the presence of an undetected secondary; namely, they will be shifted beyond the

  5. Determination of needed parameters for measuring temperature fields in air by thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešek, Martin; Pavelek, Milan

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this article is the parameters determination of equipment for measuring temperature fields in air using an infrared camera. This method is based on the visualization of temperature fields in an auxiliary material, which is inserted into the non-isothermal air flow. The accuracy of air temperature measurement (or of surface temperature of supplies) by this method depends especially on (except for parameters of infrared camera) the determination of the static and the dynamic qualities of auxiliary material. The emissivity of support material is the static quality and the dynamic quality is time constant. Support materials with a high emissivity and a low time constant are suitable for the measurement. The high value of emissivity results in a higher measurement sensitivity and the radiation temperature independence. In this article the emissivity of examined kinds of auxiliary materials (papers and textiles) is determined by temperature measuring of heated samples by a calibrated thermocouple and by thermography, with the emissivity setting on the camera to 1 and with the homogeneous radiation temperature. Time constants are determined by a step change of air temperature in the surrounding of auxiliary material. The time constant depends mainly on heat transfer by the convection from the air into the auxiliary material. That is why the effect of air temperature is examined in this article (or a temperature difference towards the environmental temperature) and the flow velocity on the time constant with various types of auxiliary materials. The obtained results allow to define the conditions for using the method of measurement of temperature fields in air during various heating and air conditioning applications.

  6. The Determination of Forces and Moments on a Gimballed SRM Nozzle Using a Cold Flow Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Bacchus, David L.; Hengel, John E.

    1994-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Facility (SAF) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was used to characterize the flow in the critical aft end and nozzle of a solid propellant rocket motor (SRM) as part of the design phase of development. The SAF is a high pressure, blowdown facility which supplies a controlled flow of air to a subscale model of the internal port and nozzle of a SRM to enable measurement and evaluation of the flow field and surface pressure distributions. The ASRM Aft Section/Nozzle Model is an 8 percent scale model of the 19 second burn time aft port geometry and nozzle of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, the now canceled new generation space Shuttle Booster. It has the capability to simulate fixed nozzle gimbal angles of 0, 4, and 8 degrees. The model was tested at full scale motor Reynolds Numbers with extensive surface pressure instrumentation to enable detailed mapping of the surface pressure distributions over the nozzle interior surface, the exterior surface of the nozzle nose and the surface of the simulated propellant grain in the aft motor port. A mathematical analysis and associated numerical procedure were developed to integrate the measured surface pressure distributions to determine the lateral and axial forces on the moveable section of the nozzle, the effective model thrust and the effective aerodynamic thrust vector (as opposed to the geometric nozzle gimbal angle). The nozzle lateral and axial aerodynamic loads and moments about the pivot point are required for design purposes and require complex, three dimensional flow analyses. The alignment of the thrust vector with the nozzle geometric centerline is also a design requirement requiring three dimensional analyses which were supported by this experimental program. The model was tested with all three gimbal angles at three pressure levels to determine Reynolds number effects and reproducibility. This program was successful in demonstrating that a measured surface pressure

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for on-line determination of quality parameters in intact olives.

    PubMed

    Salguero-Chaparro, Lourdes; Baeten, Vincent; Fernández-Pierna, Juan A; Peña-Rodríguez, Francisco

    2013-08-15

    The acidity, moisture and fat content in intact olive fruits were determined on-line using a NIR diode array instrument, operating on a conveyor belt. Four sets of calibrations models were obtained by means of different combinations from samples collected during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, using full-cross and external validation. Several preprocessing treatments such as derivatives and scatter correction were investigated by using the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and prediction (RMSEP), as control parameters. The results obtained showed RMSECV values of 2.54-3.26 for moisture, 2.35-2.71 for fat content and 2.50-3.26 for acidity parameters, depending on the calibration model developed. Calibrations for moisture, fat content and acidity gave residual predictive deviation (RPD) values of 2.76, 2.37 and 1.60, respectively. Although, it is concluded that the on-line NIRS prediction results were acceptable for the three parameters measured in intact olive samples in movement, the models developed must be improved in order to increase their accuracy before final NIRS implementation at mills. PMID:23561217

  8. The determination of the acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks from compressional velocity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.

    1969-01-01

    A statistical analysis was made of the relationship of various acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks to compressional wave velocities for data obtained in a volcanic region in Nevada. Some additional samples, chiefly granitic rocks, were also included in the study to extend the range of parameters and the variety of siliceous rock types sampled. Laboratory acoustic measurements obtained on 62 dry core samples were grouped with similar measurements obtained from geophysical logging devices at several depth intervals in a hole from which 15 of the core samples had been obtained. The effects of lithostatic and hydrostatic load on changing the rock acoustic parameters measured in the hole were noticeable when compared with the laboratory measurements on the same core. The results of the analyses determined by grouping all of the data, however, indicate that dynamic Young's, shear and bulk modulus, shear velocity, shear and compressional characteristic impedance, as well as amplitude and energy reflection coefficients may be reliably estimated on the basis of the compressional wave velocities of the rocks investigated. Less precise estimates can be made of density based on the rock compressional velocity. The possible extension of these relationships to include many siliceous rocks is suggested. ?? 1969.

  9. Determining stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of FGK stars with iSpec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Heiter, U.; Jofré, P.

    2014-09-01

    Context. An increasing number of high-resolution stellar spectra is available today thanks to many past and ongoing extensive spectroscopic surveys. Consequently, the scientific community needs automatic procedures to derive atmospheric parameters and individual element abundances. Aims: Based on the widely known SPECTRUM code by R.O. Gray, we developed an integrated spectroscopic software framework suitable for the determination of atmospheric parameters (i.e., effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity) and individual chemical abundances. The code, named iSpec and freely distributed, is written mainly in Python and can be used on different platforms. Methods: iSpec can derive atmospheric parameters by using the synthetic spectral fitting technique and the equivalent width method. We validated the performance of both approaches by developing two different pipelines and analyzing the Gaia FGK benchmark stars spectral library. The analysis was complemented with several tests designed to assess other aspects, such as the interpolation of model atmospheres and the performance with lower quality spectra. Results: We provide a code ready to perform automatic stellar spectral analysis. We successfully assessed the results obtained for FGK stars with high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. The code is available via http://www.blancocuaresma.com/s/

  10. [Determination of the solubility parameter of organosolv lignin by inverse gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yachen; Li, Kunlan; Ma, Yingchong; Wei, Ligang

    2013-02-01

    An inverse gas chromatographic (IGC) method has been used to measure the solubility parameters (delta2) of organosolv lignin at the absolute temperatures from 333.15 K to 373.15 K. The test probe solvents were n-octane (n-C8), n-decane (n-C10), n-dodecane (n-C12), and n-tetradecane (n-C14). The specific retention volumes of the solvents (Vg0), the molar enthalpy of sorption (deltaH1S), the partial molar enthalpy of mixing at infinite dilution (deltaH1infinity), the molar enthalpy of vaporization (deltaHv), the activity coefficients at infinite dilution (Omega1- infinity), and Flory-Huggins inter action parameters (chi12infinity) between organosolv lignin and probe solvents were obtained. The results showed that the above four probes are poor solvents for organosolv lignin; at the same temperature, the chi12infinity reduced with the increase of the carbon number of probe solvents. The average solubility parameter of organosolv lignin was determined as 19.03 (J x cm(-3))1/2. PMID:23697179

  11. Determination of spatially dependent diffusion parameters in bovine bone using Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Abdallah; Ståhle, Per; Svensson, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    Although many studies have been made for homogenous constant diffusion, bone is an inhomogeneous material. It has been suggested that bone porosity decreases from the inner boundaries to the outer boundaries of the long bones. The diffusivity of substances in the bone matrix is believed to increase as the bone porosity increases. In this study, an experimental set up is used where bovine bone samples, saturated with potassium chloride (KCl), were put into distilled water and the conductivity of the water was followed. Chloride ions in the bone samples escaped out in the water through diffusion and the increase of the conductivity was measured. A one-dimensional, spatially dependent mathematical model describing the diffusion process is used. The diffusion parameters in the model are determined using a Kalman filter technique. The parameters for spatially dependent at endosteal and periosteal surfaces are found to be (12.8 ± 4.7) × 10(-11) and (5 ± 3.5) × 10(-11)m(2)/s respectively. The mathematical model function using the obtained diffusion parameters fits very well with the experimental data with mean square error varies from 0.06 × 10(-6) to 0.183 × 10(-6) (μS/m)(2). PMID:26275499

  12. Determination of the force constant of a single-beam gradient trap by measurement of backscattered light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, M. E. J.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Heckenberg, N. R.; Dearden, E. W.

    1996-12-01

    A single-beam gradient trap could potentially be used to hold a stylus for scanning force microscopy. With a view to development of this technique, we modeled the optical trap as a harmonic oscillator and therefore characterized it by its force constant. We measured force constants and resonant frequencies for 1 4- m-diameter polystyrene spheres in a single-beam gradient trap using measurements of backscattered light. Force constants were determined with both Gaussian and doughnut laser modes, with powers of 3 and 1 mW, respectively. Typical values for spring constants were measured to be between 10 6 and 4 10 6 N m. The resonant frequencies of trapped particles were measured to be between 1 and 10 kHz, and the rms amplitudes of oscillations were estimated to be around 40 nm. Our results confirm that the use of the doughnut mode for single-beam trapping is more efficient in the axial direction.

  13. 40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification and...; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification and... may approve the application and select a test fleet in accordance with § 86.094-24. (b) Disapproval...

  14. Determining appropriate imaging parameters for kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring: an experimental phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, D.; Ng, J. A.; Keall, P. J.; O'Brien, R. T.; Poulsen, P. R.; Juneja, P.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-06-01

    Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) utilises the kV imager during treatment for real-time tracking of prostate fiducial markers. However, its effectiveness relies on sufficient image quality for the fiducial tracking task. To guide the performance characterisation of KIM under different clinically relevant conditions, the effect of different kV parameters and patient size on image quality, and quantification of MV scatter from the patient to the kV detector panel were investigated in this study. Image quality was determined for a range of kV acquisition frame rates, kV exposure, MV dose rates and patient sizes. Two methods were used to determine image quality; the ratio of kV signal through the patient to the MV scatter from the patient incident on the kilovoltage detector, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The effect of patient size and frame rate on MV scatter was evaluated in a homogeneous CIRS pelvis phantom and marker segmentation was determined utilising the Rando phantom with embedded markers. MV scatter incident on the detector was shown to be dependent on patient thickness and frame rate. The segmentation code was shown to be successful for all frame rates above 3 Hz for the Rando phantom corresponding to a kV to MV ratio of 0.16 and an SNR of 1.67. For a maximum patient dimension less than 36.4 cm the conservative kV parameters of 5 Hz at 1 mAs can be used to reduce dose while retaining image quality, where the current baseline kV parameters of 10 Hz at 1 mAs is shown to be adequate for marker segmentation up to a patient dimension of 40 cm. In conclusion, the MV scatter component of image quality noise for KIM has been quantified. For most prostate patients, use of KIM with 10 Hz imaging at 1 mAs is adequate however image quality can be maintained and imaging dose reduced by altering existing acquisition parameters.

  15. Determining appropriate imaging parameters for kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring: an experimental phantom study.

    PubMed

    Wallace, D; Ng, J A; Keall, P J; O'Brien, R T; Poulsen, P R; Juneja, P; Booth, J T

    2015-06-21

    Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) utilises the kV imager during treatment for real-time tracking of prostate fiducial markers. However, its effectiveness relies on sufficient image quality for the fiducial tracking task. To guide the performance characterisation of KIM under different clinically relevant conditions, the effect of different kV parameters and patient size on image quality, and quantification of MV scatter from the patient to the kV detector panel were investigated in this study. Image quality was determined for a range of kV acquisition frame rates, kV exposure, MV dose rates and patient sizes. Two methods were used to determine image quality; the ratio of kV signal through the patient to the MV scatter from the patient incident on the kilovoltage detector, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The effect of patient size and frame rate on MV scatter was evaluated in a homogeneous CIRS pelvis phantom and marker segmentation was determined utilising the Rando phantom with embedded markers. MV scatter incident on the detector was shown to be dependent on patient thickness and frame rate. The segmentation code was shown to be successful for all frame rates above 3 Hz for the Rando phantom corresponding to a kV to MV ratio of 0.16 and an SNR of 1.67. For a maximum patient dimension less than 36.4 cm the conservative kV parameters of 5 Hz at 1 mAs can be used to reduce dose while retaining image quality, where the current baseline kV parameters of 10 Hz at 1 mAs is shown to be adequate for marker segmentation up to a patient dimension of 40 cm. In conclusion, the MV scatter component of image quality noise for KIM has been quantified. For most prostate patients, use of KIM with 10 Hz imaging at 1 mAs is adequate however image quality can be maintained and imaging dose reduced by altering existing acquisition parameters. PMID:26057776

  16. Determination of Strength Parameters of Soil Samples Recovered from Eastern Nankai Trough for Seafloor Stability Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, S.; Ogisako, E.; Denda, A.; Mitachi, T.; Hirakawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    In Japan, the interest in methane hydrate is increasing rapidly owing to increasing recognition of its potential as a next-generation energy resource that can replace conventional fossil fuels. To produce methane gas safely and minimize the associated environmental damage, we need to address many wide-ranging environmental issues. One such issue entails assessing seafloor stability during methane gas production. Methane hydrate binds the sand grains that make up the strata under the seafloor. It has been suggested that methane production may lead to seafloor deformation because the strata become unstable following the removal of methane hydrate. The geotechnical properties of ground have significant effects on its deformation behavior, but deep seafloors have not been thoroughly investigated yet. The world's first offshore test gas production from methane hydrate was conducted in the eastern Nankai Trough. We present geotechnical properties of the samples recovered from the gas production site; these properties were determined by means of laboratory tests. Soil index tests, consolidation tests, K0 consolidated undrained triaxial compression/extension tests and direct box shear tests were conducted for obtaining the geotechnical parameters necessary for deep seafloor stability analysis. The strength parameters corresponding to peak and residual states were determined by the reversal direct box shear tests. This study is supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan. We wish to express our appreciation to the MH21 Research Consortium and Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation for their permission to use the laboratory test data.

  17. A new methodology to determine kinetic parameters for one- and two-step chemical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantel, T.; Egolfopoulos, F. N.; Bowman, C. T.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a new methodology to determine kinetic parameters for simple chemical models and simple transport properties classically used in DNS of premixed combustion is presented. First, a one-dimensional code is utilized to performed steady unstrained laminar methane-air flame in order to verify intrinsic features of laminar flames such as burning velocity and temperature and concentration profiles. Second, the flame response to steady and unsteady strain in the opposed jet configuration is numerically investigated. It appears that for a well determined set of parameters, one- and two-step mechanisms reproduce the extinction limit of a laminar flame submitted to a steady strain. Computations with the GRI-mech mechanism (177 reactions, 39 species) and multicomponent transport properties are used to validate these simplified models. A sensitivity analysis of the preferential diffusion of heat and reactants when the Lewis number is close to unity indicates that the response of the flame to an oscillating strain is very sensitive to this number. As an application of this methodology, the interaction between a two-dimensional vortex pair and a premixed laminar flame is performed by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) using the one- and two-step mechanisms. Comparison with the experimental results of Samaniego et al. (1994) shows a significant improvement in the description of the interaction when the two-step model is used.

  18. Determination of impact parameters and efficiency of 6.8/15 caliber captive bolt guns.

    PubMed

    Dörfler, Katharina; Troeger, Klaus; Lücker, Ernst; Schönekeß, Holger; Frank, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    While the morphological appearance of injuries due to powder-actuated captive bolt stunners has been extensively investigated, medicolegal literature contains, except for one work by Nadjem and Pollak (Arch Kriminol 203:91-102), no further investigations into the physical impact characteristics of these sharp-edged circular punching tools. However, basic physical parameters, such as bolt velocity, momentum, kinetic energy, and energy density, play a crucial role in the medicolegal and traumatological assessment of captive bolt stunners and the related injuries. And also, regulatory bodies demand a reliable and repeatable measurement test set-up for the determination of captive bolt stunners' impact characteristics. Therefore, it is the aim of this work to design and describe a test set-up based on one single photoelectric light barrier and to determine the impact parameters for a series of newly developed cal. 6.8/15 stunning devices. We found that bolt velocity ranges from v = 42 to 54 m/s, while momentum ranges from p = 11 to 14 Ns, and kinetic energy reaches values from E = 224 to 369 J. The efficiency of the captive bolt stunner, defined as the ratio of the kinetic energy of the stunner's bolt to the potential energy of industrial blank cartridges, also described in this work for the first time, was found to vary between 36 and 46 %. PMID:24398979

  19. Membrane permeability parameters for freezing of stallion sperm as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Friedel, Katharina; Sieme, Harald; Glasmacher, Birgit; Wolkers, Willem F

    2010-08-01

    Cellular membranes are one of the primary sites of injury during freezing and thawing for cryopreservation of cells. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to monitor membrane phase behavior and ice formation during freezing of stallion sperm. At high subzero ice nucleation temperatures which result in cellular dehydration, membranes undergo a profound transition to a highly ordered gel phase. By contrast, low subzero nucleation temperatures, that are likely to result in intracellular ice formation, leave membrane lipids in a relatively hydrated fluid state. The extent of freezing-induced membrane dehydration was found to be dependent on the ice nucleation temperature, and showed Arrhenius behavior. The presence of glycerol did not prevent the freezing-induced membrane phase transition, but membrane dehydration occurred more gradual and over a wider temperature range. We describe a method to determine membrane hydraulic permeability parameters (E(Lp), Lpg) at subzero temperatures from membrane phase behavior data. In order to do this, it was assumed that the measured freezing-induced shift in wavenumber position of the symmetric CH(2) stretching band arising from the lipid acyl chains is proportional to cellular dehydration. Membrane permeability parameters were also determined by analyzing the H(2)O-bending and -libration combination band, which yielded higher values for both E(Lp) and Lpg as compared to lipid band analysis. These differences likely reflect differences between transport of free and membrane-bound water. FTIR allows for direct assessment of membrane properties at subzero temperatures in intact cells. The derived biophysical membrane parameters are dependent on intrinsic cell properties as well as freezing extender composition. PMID:20553897

  20. The determination of the constitutive parameters of a medium with application to a reinforced concrete pad

    SciTech Connect

    Poggio, A.J.; Burke, G.J.; Pennock, S.T.

    1995-01-15

    This report describes the experimental and analytical program performed to determine the constitutive parameters of the reinforced concrete pad in the test facility used during the Low Power On-the-Ground portion of the NASA Boeing 757 HIRF Tests. These tests were conducted during the period September 20 to October 21, 1994 in the LESLI facility at the Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM. The on-the-ground tests were designed to meet several objectives including support of a flight test series and the generation of data for the validation of codes and models that could be used to predict the electromagnetic environment in transport aircraft. To satisfy these objectives, tests were to be executed in a known environment and the data compared to modeling results. A critical feature of this testing was the ``known environment`` which implies knowledge of the parameters which are critical to an effective modeling activity and which could include, among many other things, definitions of the airplane and its physical and electrical configuration, the ground upon which it sits when stationary, the fields impinging on the aircraft, and the radiating or bounding structure in the simulator. The authors would want to specify the electromagnetic characteristics of the entire space that would likely enter into a mathematical modeling effort so that the model can be made as ``close`` to physical reality as desired prior to exercising computational algorithms which might introduce their own uncertainties. Since the authors are evaluating codes used for determination of the electromagnetic environment in aircraft and since the on-the-ground test involved an airplane parked on a pad in the simulator facility, they would require a definition of the constitutive parameters of the pad.

  1. A new multi-wavelength model-based method for determination of enzyme kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Sorouraddin, Mohammad-Hossein; Amini, Kaveh; Naseri, Abdolhossein; Vallipour, Javad; Hanaee, Jalal; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2010-09-01

    Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis is the most widely used method to determine enzyme kinetic parameters. In the spectrophotometric determination of enzyme activity using the Lineweaver-Burk plot, it is necessary to find a wavelength at which only the substrate or the product has absorbance without any spectroscopic interference of the other reaction components. Moreover, in this method, different initial concentrations of the substrate should be used to obtain the initial velocities required for Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. In the present work, a multi-wavelength model-based method has been developed and validated to determine Michaelis-Menten constants for some enzyme reactions. In this method, a selective wavelength region and several experiments with different initial concentrations of the substrate are not required. The absorbance data of the kinetic assays are fitted by non-linear regression coupled to the numeric integration of the related differential equation. To indicate the applicability of the proposed method, the Michaelis-Menten constants for the oxidation of phenanthridine, 6-deoxypenciclovir and xanthine by molybdenum hydroxylases were determined using only a single initial concentration of the substrate, regardless of any spectral overlap. PMID:20826949

  2. Accuracy of the atmospheric parameters determination in FGK stars based on spectral fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila

    2015-08-01

    We perform an extensive testing of the accuracy of atmospheric parameters determination in FGK stars based on the spectral fitting procedure SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy). Our set of stars consists of 13 objects, including the Sun, in temperature range 5000-6600 K and metallicity range -1.4 to +0.4. For these stars the parameters derived by means of interferometry are known. For each star we use spectra obtained with different echelle spectrographs (42000 <= R <= 110000) and different signal-to-noise ratios. We also test how the values of the derived parameters depend on the spectral regions used in the fitting procedure. We tested three different constraints on the spectral masks; four regions of 100 A, each, 4485-4590, 5100-5200, 5600-5700, and 6100-6200 A, the same regions plus Halpha and Hbeta, and the mask employed by Valenti & Fischer (2005). We propose a new method for estimating the uncertainties of the free parameters in SME, based on the fit residuals, partial derivatives and data uncertainties. To construct the distribution for a given free parameter (Teff, log g, etc.) we estimate the change required to match the observations in every pixel involved in the fit. The main difficulty in estimating uncertainties is a non-Gaussian shape of the resulting distribution. This difficulty is alleviated by constructing a cumulative distribution. For stars in the 5700-6600 K temperature range the closest agreement with the effective temperatures derived by interferometry is achieved when the spectral fitting includes the Halpha and Hbeta lines, while for cooler stars the choice of the mask does not effect the results. The derived values of atmospheric parameters do not strongly depend on the spectral resolution and S/N ratio, while the uncertainty both in temperature and surface gravity grows with the effective temperature never being smaller than 50 K in Teff and 0.1 in log g, for typical S/N = 150-200. Better accuracy Delta Teff = 20-30 K and Delta log g = 0

  3. Habitat disturbance and hydrological parameters determine the body size and reproductive strategy of alluvial ground beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gerisch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Environmental variability is the main driver for the variation of biological characteristics (life-history traits) of species. Therefore, life-history traits are particularly suited to identify mechanistic linkages between environmental variability and species occurrence and can help in explaining ecological patterns. For ground beetles, few studies directly related species traits to environmental variables. This study aims to analyse how life-history traits of alluvial ground beetles are controlled by environmental factors. I expected that the occurrence of species and the occurrence of specific traits are closely related to hydrological and disturbance parameters. Furthermore I expected most of the trait-variation to be explained by a combination of environmental variables, rather than by their isolated effects. Ground beetles were sampled in the year 2005 in floodplain grassland along the Elbe River in Germany. I used redundancy analysis to quantify the effects of hydrological, sediment, and disturbance related parameters on both species occurrence and species traits. I applied variation partitioning to analyse which environmental compartments explain most of the trait variation. Species occurrence and trait variation were both mainly controlled by hydrological and flood disturbance parameters. I could clearly identify reproductive traits and body size as key traits for floodplain ground beetles to cope with the environmental variability. Furthermore, combinations of hydrological, habitat disturbance, habitat type, and species diversity parameters, rather than their isolated effects, explained large parts of ground beetle trait variation. Thus, a main conclusion of this study is that ground beetle occurrence is mainly determined by complex, multi-scale interactions between environmental variability and their life-history traits. PMID:21738421

  4. Effects of isopropanol/ammonia extraction on soil water repellency as determined by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shuying; Doerr, Stefan H.; Bryant, Rob; Wright, Chris J.

    2010-05-01

    Extraction of soil with solvents is commonly used to isolate fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) thought to cause soil water repellency. Previous studies have assessed the efficiency of extraction procedures by determining sample water repellency and SOM content, before and after extraction, and the ability of extracts to render wettable materials repellent. Here we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the direct, high-resolution examination of the effects of the most commonly used solvent (isopropanol/ammonia) on physico-chemical properties of soil particle surfaces. Particles, from three pairs of wettable and water repellent sandy soils, were examined before and after Soxhlet extraction and following extract application to extracted soil material. Complementary evidence was provided by comparison with the effects of exposing clean sand to organic compounds of known composition. The extraction rendered all soils wettable and resulted in a reduction in particle surface area covered by SOM. Subsequent exposure of these wettable particles to extracts (i) re-introduced some level of water repellency despite achieving only a minimal increase in SOM; (ii) led to a more uniform scatter of soft regions, indicative of SOM; but (iii) did not consistently re-create original surface features. The outcomes suggest that (a) although isopropanol/ammonia extraction may be able to isolate key compounds involved in causing water repellency, these compounds appear to be obtained in a form with little affinity for clean mineral surfaces; (b) the extent and distribution of SOM on soil particle surfaces appears to be a critical factor in the expression of water repellency.

  5. Labor Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  6. Reciprocity-based experimental determination of dynamic forces and moments: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ver, Istvan L.; Howe, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    BBN Systems and Technologies has been tasked by the Georgia Tech Research Center to carry Task Assignment No. 7 for the NASA Langley Research Center to explore the feasibility of 'In-Situ Experimental Evaluation of the Source Strength of Complex Vibration Sources Utilizing Reciprocity.' The task was carried out under NASA Contract No. NAS1-19061. In flight it is not feasible to connect the vibration sources to their mounting points on the fuselage through force gauges to measure dynamic forces and moments directly. However, it is possible to measure the interior sound field or vibration response caused by these structureborne sound sources at many locations and invoke principle of reciprocity to predict the dynamic forces and moments. The work carried out in the framework of Task 7 was directed to explore the feasibility of reciprocity-based measurements of vibration forces and moments.

  7. Determination of F2 Chapman key parameters from GPS based measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limberger, M.; Liang, W.; Schmidt, M. G.; Dettmering, D.; Hugentobler, U.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the physical processes within the ionosphere is a key requirement to improve and extend existing ionosphere modeling approaches. The steadily increasing number of appropriate measurements as well as the availability of different observation techniques with individual sensitivities allow nowadays for estimating physically driven ionosphere parameters with high spatio-temporal resolution and accuracy. Common geodetic ionosphere models describe the vertical total electron content (VTEC) subjected to the restriction of a single layer model which does not allow for the description of the vertical electron density distribution. Instead, a F2 Chapman layer can be used to approximate the height dependency. It includes three descriptive key parameters, namely the maximum electron density NmF2, the corresponding peak height hmF2 and the scale height HF2. Each of these parameters can be modeled by series expansions in terms of tensor products of three one-dimensional end-point interpolating polynomial B-splines referring to longitude, latitude and time with initially unknown series coefficients. The use of multiple observation techniques to determine the B-spline series coefficients leads to an improved data distribution and stabilization of the adjustment system. In this presentation, we combine terrestrial GPS data and electron density profiles derived from GPS radio occultation measurements on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites to yield the exploitation of advantages from both systems. Profiles provide a detailed description of the vertical electron density structure but are only available with a weak spatial and temporal resolution. Terrestrial GPS on the other hand provide total electron content (TEC) measurements given as integral values which are rather weakly sensitive in the radial direction but are available with a high resolution in longitude and latitude. In order to bridge the occurrence of data gaps initial series coefficients with respect to each

  8. 76 FR 61131 - Determination and Certification Related to Colombian Armed Forces Under Section 7046(b) of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Related to Colombian Armed Forces Under Section 7046(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of State, including...

  9. 75 FR 57826 - Determination and Certification Related to Colombian Armed Forces Under Section 7046(B) of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Related to Colombian Armed Forces Under Section 7046(B) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Pub. L. 111- 117) Pursuant to the authority vested in...

  10. Determination of Specific Forces and Tool Deflections in Micro-milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using Finite Element Simulations and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Simone; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Thepsonti, Thanongsak; Oezel, Tugrul

    2011-05-04

    Titanium alloys offer superb properties in strength, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility and are commonly utilized in medical devices and implants. Micro-end milling process is a direct and rapid fabrication method for manufacturing medical devices and implants in titanium alloys. Process performance and quality depend upon an understanding of the relationship between cutting parameters and forces and resultant tool deflections to avoid tool breakage. For this purpose, FE simulations of chip formation during micro-end milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with an ultra-fine grain solid carbide two-flute micro-end mill are investigated using DEFORM software.At first, specific forces in tangential and radial directions of cutting during micro-end milling for varying feed advance and rotational speeds have been determined using designed FE simulations for chip formation process. Later, these forces are applied to the micro-end mill geometry along the axial depth of cut in 3D analysis of ABAQUS. Consequently, 3D distributions for tool deflections and von Misses stress are determined. These analyses will yield in establishing integrated multi-physics process models for high performance micro-end milling and a leap-forward to process improvements.

  11. Peeling single-stranded DNA from graphite surface to determine oligonucleotide binding energy by force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Suresh; Mantz, Amber R; Bancroft, Kevin E; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Jagota, Anand; Vezenov, Dmitri V

    2008-12-01

    We measured the force required to peel single-stranded DNA molecules from single-crystal graphite using chemical force microscopy. Force traces during retraction of a tip chemically modified with oligonucleotides displayed characteristic plateaus with abrupt force jumps, which we interpreted as a steady state peeling process punctuated by complete detachment of one or more molecules. We were able to differentiate between bases in pyrimidine homopolymers; peeling forces were 85.3 - 4.7 pN for polythymine and 60.8 +/- 5.5 pN for polycytosine, substantially independent of salt concentration and the rate of detachment. We developed a model for peeling a freely jointed chain from the graphite surface and estimated the average binding energy per monomer to be 11.5 +/- 0.6 k(B)T and 8.3 +/- 0.7 k(B)T in the cases of thymine and cytosine nucleotides, respectively. The equilibrium free-energy profile simulated using molecular dynamics had a potential well of 18.9 k(B)T for thymidine, showing that nonelectrostatic interactions dominate the binding. The discrepancy between the experiment and theory indicates that not all bases are adsorbed on the surface or that there is a population of conformations in which they adsorb. Force spectroscopy using oligonucleotides covalently linked to AFM tips provides a flexible and unambiguous means to quantify the strength of interactions between DNA and a number of substrates, potentially including nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:19368004

  12. Determination of forces in a magnetic bearing actuator - Numerical computation with comparison to experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. D.; Xia, Z.; Mccaul, E.; Hacker, H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations of the forces exerted on a journal by a magnetic bearing actuator are presented, along with comparisons to experimentally measured forces. The calculations are based on two-dimensional solutions for the flux distribution in the metal parts and free space, using finite but constant permeability in the metals. Above a relative permeability of 10,000 the effects of changes in permeability are negligible, but below 10,000 decreases in permeability cause significant decreases in the force. The calculated forces are shown to depend on the metal permeability more strongly when the journal is displaced from its centered position. The predicted forces in the principal attractive direction are in good agreement with experiment when a relatively low value of permeability is chosen. The forces measured normal to the axis of symmetry when the journal is displaced from that axis, however, are significantly higher than predicted by theory, even with a value of relative permeability larger than 5000. These results indicate a need for further work including nonlinear permeability distributions.

  13. Mechanical analysis and force chain determination in granular materials using digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fanxiu; Zhuang, Qi; Zhang, Huixin

    2016-06-20

    The mechanical behaviors of granular materials are governed by the grain properties and microstructure of the materials. We conducted experiments to study the force transmission in granular materials using plane strain tests. The large amount of nearly continuous displacement data provided by the advanced noncontact experimental technique of digital image correlation (DIC) has provided a means to quantify local displacements and strains at the particle level. The average strain of each particle could be calculated based on the DIC method, and the average stress could be obtained using Hooke's law. The relationship between the stress and particle force could be obtained based on basic Newtonian mechanics and the balance of linear momentum at the particle level. This methodology is introduced and validated. In the testing procedure, the system is tested in real 2D particle cases, and the contact forces and force chain are obtained and analyzed. The system has great potential for analyzing a real granular system and measuring the contact forces and force chain. PMID:27409099

  14. Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, N. N.; Xing, T.; Wang, P.; Xie, C.; Xu, X. L.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH (pHi) and ultimate pH (pHu) and significantly reduced L* (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers’ welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport. PMID:26580445

  15. Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, N N; Xing, T; Wang, P; Xie, C; Xu, X L

    2015-12-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH (pHi) and ultimate pH (pHu) and significantly reduced L* (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers' welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport. PMID:26580445

  16. Determining fate and transport parameters for nitroglycerine, 2,4-dinitrotoluine, and nitroguanidine in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosch, D. L.; Dontsova, K.; Chorover, J.; Ferré, T.; Taylor, S.

    2010-12-01

    During military operations, a small fraction of propellant mass is not consumed during firing and is deposited onto the ground surface (Jenkins et al., 2006). Soluble propellant constituents can be released from particulate residues into the environment. Propellant constituents of interest for this study are nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluine (2,6-DNT), and nitroguanidine (NQ). The goal of this work is to determine fate and transport parameters for these constituents in three soils that represent a range of geographic locations and soil properties. This supports a companion study that looks at dissolution of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ from fired and unfired solid propellant formulations and their transport in soils. The three soils selected for the study are Catlin silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, superactive Oxyaquic Argiudoll), Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult). Two of these soils, Plymouth sandy loam and Sassafras loam, were collected on military installations. Linear adsorption coefficients and transformation rates of propellant constituents were determined in batch kinetic experiments. Soils were mixed with propellant constituent solutions (2 mg L-1) at 4:1 solution/soil mass ratio and equilibrated for 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 120 hr at which time samples were centrifuged and supernatant solutions were analyzed for target compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using U.S. EPA Method 8330b for NG, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT, and Walsh (1989) method for NQ. Adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents were determined from the decrease in solution concentration of these compounds. It was determined that all studied compounds were subjected to sorption by the solid phase and degradation. Catlin soil, with finer texture and high organic matter content, influenced solution concentration of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT

  17. Determination of fiber-matrix interface failure parameters from off-axis tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Rajiv A.; Crews, John H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Critical fiber-matrix (FM) interface strength parameters were determined using a micromechanics-based approach together with failure data from off-axis tension (OAT) tests. The ply stresses at failure for a range of off-axis angles were used as input to a micromechanics analysis that was performed using the personal computer-based MICSTRAN code. FM interface stresses at the failure loads were calculated for both the square and the diamond array models. A simple procedure was developed to determine which array had the more severe FM interface stresses and the location of these critical stresses on the interface. For the cases analyzed, critical FM interface stresses were found to occur with the square array model and were located at a point where adjacent fibers were closest together. The critical FM interface stresses were used together with the Tsai-Wu failure theory to determine a failure criterion for the FM interface. This criterion was then used to predict the onset of ply cracking in angle-ply laminates for a range of laminate angles. Predictions for the onset of ply cracking in angle-ply laminates agreed with the test data trends.

  18. Effect of atomic parameters on determination of aluminium abundance in atmospheres of late-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzhevitski, V. S.; Shimanskaya, N. N.; Shimansky, V. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.

    2014-04-01

    We study the effect of the photoionization cross sections for the ground state of Al I on the inferred aluminium abundance in stellar atmospheres. We match the theoretical and observed line profiles of the resonance λλ 3944.01, 3961.52 Å and subordinate λλ 6696.03, 6698.68 Å doublets in high-resolution spectra of the metal-poor solar-type stars HD22879 and HD201889. We determine the parameters of these stars from their photometric and spectroscopic data. Our computations show that the profiles can be matched and a single aluminium abundance inferred simultaneously from both groups of spectral lines only with low photoionization cross sections (about 10-12 Mb). Larger cross sections (about 58-65 Mb) make such fits impossible. We therefore conclude that small photoionization cross sections should be preferred for the determination of aluminium abundances in metal-poor stars. We redetermine the aluminium abundances in the atmospheres of halo stars. The resulting abundances prove to be lower by 0.1-0.15 dex than our earlier determinations which does not affect the conclusions based on our earlier estimates. In particular, the NLTE [Al/Fe]-[Fe/H] dependence, on the whole, agrees only qualitatively with the results of theoretical predictions. Therefore further refinement of the theory of nuclear synthesis of aluminium in the process of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy remains a task of current importance.

  19. A feasibility study for experimentally determining dynamic force distribution in a lap joint.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Randall Lee

    2013-11-01

    Developing constitutive models of the physics in mechanical joints is currently stymied by inability to measure forces and displacements within the joint. The current state of the art estimates whole joint stiffness and energy loss per cycle from external measured force input and one or two acceleration responses. To validate constitutive models beyond this state requires a measurement of the distributed forces and displacements at the joint interface. Unfortunately, introducing measurement devices at the interface completely disrupts the desired physics. A feasibility study is presented for a non-intrusive method of solving for the interface dynamic forces from an inverse problem using full field measured responses. The responses come from the viewable surface of a beam. The noise levels associated with digital image correlation and continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry are evaluated from typical beam experiments. Two inverse problems are simulated. One utilizes the extended Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). The second is a new approach dubbed the method of truncated orthogonal forces. These methods are much more robust if the contact patch geometry is well identified. Various approaches to identifying the contact patch are investigated, including ion marker tracking, Prussian blue and ultrasonic measurements. A typical experiment is conceived for a beam which has a lap joint at one end with a single bolt connecting it to another identical beam. In a virtual test using the beam finite element analysis, it appears that the SWAT inverse method requires evaluation of too many coefficients to adequately identify the force distribution to be viable. However, the method of truncated orthogonal forces appears viable with current digital image correlation (and probably other) imaging techniques.

  20. Determination of Preferential Flow Parameters by Means of Inverse Simulation of Tension Disc Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, D.; Snehota, M.; Nemcova, R.; Cislerova, M.

    2008-12-01

    The field tension and ponded infiltration experiments were conducted to estimate the soil hydraulic properties of the soils with preferential pathways (Distric Cambisol, Sumava). Zones of preferential flow were determined through analyses of photographs taken during laboratory dye tracer infiltration experiments performed on undisturbed soil samples. Connectivity, volumetric ratio and spatial development of preferential pathways were evaluated as the necessary information for numerical simulations of flow using dual-permeability approach. The field infiltration experiment was carried out in a shallow pit for a period of one day. The upper boundary condition was controlled by the tension disk infiltrometer, the propagation of a water front was monitored by two tensiometers installed in two depths below the infiltration disk. 2D axisymetric numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate the results of the experiment. Two different approaches were used: 1. Single-domain approach based on Richards' equation. 2. Dual-permeability approach based on two interacting water flow domains (matrix and preferential domains), each governed by one Richards' equation. In the first simulation, the reference parameters derived from retention curves obtained by standard pressure extractor method were taken as properties of the soil matrix. The input hydraulic parameters were subsequently inversely optimized. In the second approach, the saturated hydraulic conductivities of the preferential flow domain were optimized to fit rapid response of the tensiometers after the start of ponded infiltration. Objective function consisted of infiltration fluxes and suction pressure head data. The parameter estimator PEST coupled with the simulation code S2D_DUAL (Vogel et al.,2000) were used. Concerning the existence of preferential flow on investigated soil, the dual-permeability model gives a better picture of the flow regime. The research has been carried out within the projects VZ03 CEZ MSM

  1. Physical parameter determinations of young Ms. Taking advantage of the Virtual Observatory to compare methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayo, A.; Rodrigo, C.; Barrado, D.; Allard, F.

    One of the very first steps astronomers working in stellar physics perform to advance in their studies, is to determine the most common/relevant physical parameters of the objects of study (effective temperature, bolometric luminosity, surface gravity, etc.). Different methodologies exist depending on the nature of the data, intrinsic properties of the objects, etc. One common approach is to compare the observational data with theoretical models passed through some simulator that will leave in the synthetic data the same imprint than the observational data carries, and see what set of parameters reproduce the observations best. Even in this case, depending on the kind of data the astronomer has, the methodology changes slightly. After parameters are published, the community tend to quote, praise and criticize them, sometimes paying little attention on whether the possible discrepancies come from the theoretical models, the data themselves or just the methodology used in the analysis. In this work we perform the simple, yet interesting, exercise of comparing the effective temperatures obtained via SED and more detailed spectral fittings (to the same grid of models), of a sample of well known and characterized young M-type objects members to different star forming regions and show how differences in temperature of up to 350 K can be expected just from the difference in methodology/data used. On the other hand we show how these differences are smaller for colder objects even when the complexity of the fit increases like for example introducing differential extinction. To perform this exercise we benefit greatly from the framework offered by the Virtual Observaotry.

  2. Decomposing the electromagnetic response of magnetic dipoles to determine the geometric parameters of a dipole conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmarais, Jacques K.; Smith, Richard S.

    2016-03-01

    A novel automatic data interpretation algorithm is presented for modelling airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data acquired over resistive environments, using a single-component (vertical) transmitter, where the position and orientation of a dipole conductor is allowed to vary in three dimensions. The algorithm assumes that the magnetic fields produced from compact vortex currents are expressed as a linear combinations of the fields arising from dipoles in the subsurface oriented parallel to the [1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], and [0, 0, 1], unit vectors. In this manner, AEM responses can be represented as 12 terms. The relative size of each term in the decomposition can be used to determine geometrical information about the orientation of the subsurface conductivity structure. The geometrical parameters of the dipole (location, depth, dip, strike) are estimated using a combination of a look-up table and a matrix inverted in a least-squares sense. Tests on 703 synthetic models show that the algorithm is capable of extracting most of the correct geometrical parameters of a dipole conductor when three-component receiver data is included in the interpretation procedure. The algorithm is unstable when the target is perfectly horizontal, as the strike is undefined. Ambiguities may occur in predicting the orientation of the dipole conductor if y-component data is excluded from the analysis. Application of our approach to an anomaly on line 15 of the Reid Mahaffy test site yields geometrical parameters in reasonable agreement with previous authors. However, our algorithm provides additional information on the strike and offset from the traverse line of the conductor. Disparities in the values of predicted dip and depth are within the range of numerical precision. The index of fit was better when strike and offset were included in the interpretation procedure. Tests on the data from line 15701 of the Chibougamau MEGATEM survey shows that the algorithm is applicable to situations where

  3. Automatic determination of recrystallization parameters in metals by electron backscatter pattern line scans

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Axel W.; Jensen, Dorte Juul

    2003-11-15

    In this paper, a new automatic procedure for determining critical recrystallization parameters, which are important when studying recrystallization kinetics, is presented. The method is based on electron backscatter patterns (EBSP) line scans using a scanning electron microscope, where three parallel lines are scanned. The concepts of equivalence and connectivity are used to group the data points into those originating in recrystallized grains and those originating in the deformed matrix. The computer program implementing the automatic procedure is tested in three different ways: three short scans are performed, where the calculations are also done by hand; the results of two long scans are compared to the direct observation of the microstructure seen in orientation image maps (OIMs) [Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 166 (1993) 59], and the results of scans from a series of samples are compared to statistical results obtained manually. A good correlation was achieved in all three cases.

  4. Characterization of DuPont photopolymer: determination of kinetic parameters in a diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Vincent; Renotte, Yvon; Lion, Yves

    2002-06-01

    We investigate the recording dynamics of Omnidex photopolymer film from DuPont. We use a reviewed version of the diffusion model proposed by Zhao and Mouroulis [J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1929 (1994)] in order to describe the recording response that combined photopolymerization and free-monomer diffusion process. Two different experiments are detailed that lead to the determination of material kinetic parameters. These values are introduced in the numerical model to provide quantitative simulations of a grating formation under various holographic exposures. Theoretical results are experimentally checked as a validation of the model. We extend its applications to several secondary investigations, such as volume-shrinkage influence on refractive-index distribution and spectral selectivity of reflection gratings. This study improves the understanding of the recording process and consequently allows to build more accurate holographic components in this material to be built.

  5. Application of expert systems for determination of machining parameters in milling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolouei-Rad, M.; Bidhendi, Essie

    1995-08-01

    An expert system has been developed which is capable of selecting appropriate cutting tools and determining required machining parameters for milling operations. One feature of this system which distinguishes it from conventional applications of expert systems is that it uses information stored in database files. This causes the existence of a limited umber of expertise rules stored in the knowledge base; bringing up the advantage of shorter running time for the system. Another advantage of this system is its ability to retrieve required information from computer-aided design (CAD) systems through an input file, run the program, and restore the resulting information in an output file without any user interaction. These advantages make it an ideal system to be used in computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems.

  6. Determination of Physical Parameter Estimates for Metal-Poor Stars from the HK and HES Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Y.; Placco, V.; Carollo, D.; Christlieb, N.; Fiorenza, S.

    2013-06-01

    Over the past quarter century, well over ten thousand metal-poor star candidates selected during the course of the HK survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman and the Hamburg/ESO survey of Christlieb and collaborators have had medium-resolution (R ~ 2500-3000) spectroscopy obtained, using a host of telescopes and spectrographs. During that time, we have refined the analysis tools at our disposal, and collected broadband photometry for many of these stars. Here we report on an application of the recently refined non-SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (n-SSPP) to obtain estimates of effective temperatures (Teff), surface gravities (log g), and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for many of these stars. In the case of some of the follow-up spectra, the wavelength coverage and S/N ratios also permit the determination of [C/Fe] and [alpha/Fe] ratios. Ongoing detailed analyses of the chemistry and kinematics of these stars will be described.

  7. Hybrid algorithm for NARX network parameters' determination using differential evolution and genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salami, M. J. E.; Tijani, I. B.; Abdullateef, A. I.; Aibinu, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    A hybrid optimization algorithm using Differential Evolution (DE) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed in this study to address the problem of network parameters determination associated with the Nonlinear Autoregressive with eXogenous inputs Network (NARX-network). The proposed algorithm involves a two level optimization scheme to search for both optimal network architecture and weights. The DE at the upper level is formulated as combinatorial optimization to search for the network architecture while the associated network weights that minimize the prediction error is provided by the GA at the lower level. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on identification of a laboratory rotary motion system. The system identification results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for nonparametric model development.

  8. The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Smalley, R.C.; Flood, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design.

  9. Rotation Period and H-G Parameters Determination for 248 Lameia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilcher, Frederick; Benishek, Vladimir; Hills, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    For 248 Lameia, which has a rotation period nearly commensurate with an Earth day, lightcurves from three observers at widely different longitudes are needed for full phase coverage. These were obtained and provide a good fit to a lightcurve phased to 11.912 ± 0.001 hours with an amplitude of 0.17 ± 0.01 mag. A color index V-R = 0.40 ± 0.03 was found. The R- and V-band absolute magnitudes HR and HV were determined to be 9.91 ± 0.02 and 10.31 ± 0.04 mag, respectively. The slope parameter of G = 0.05 ± 0.03 was found. These led to an estimated size of D = 47 ± 3 km.

  10. Enhanced orbit determination filter: Inclusion of ground system errors as filter parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, W. C.; Scheeres, D. J.; Thurman, S. W.

    1994-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of an orbit determination filter that incorporates ground-system error sources as model parameters for use in interplanetary navigation are presented in this article. This filter, which is derived from sequential filtering theory, allows a systematic treatment of errors in calibrations of transmission media, station locations, and earth orientation models associated with ground-based radio metric data, in addition to the modeling of the spacecraft dynamics. The discussion includes a mathematical description of the filter and an analytical comparison of its characteristics with more traditional filtering techniques used in this application. The analysis in this article shows that this filter has the potential to generate navigation products of substantially greater accuracy than more traditional filtering procedures.

  11. Determination of Kamlet-Taft parameters for selected solvate ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Eyckens, Daniel J; Demir, Baris; Walsh, Tiffany R; Welton, Tom; Henderson, Luke C

    2016-05-11

    The normalised polarity E and Kamlet-Taft parameters of recently described solvate ionic liquids, composed of lithium bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in tri- () or tetraglyme () have been determined and compared to the parent glyme ( and ). We show that these solvate ionic liquids have a high polarity (, (E) = 1.03; , (E) = 1.03) and display very high electron pair accepting characteristics (, α = 1.32; , α = 1.35). Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the chelated lithium cation is responsible for this observation. The relatively small hydrogen bond acceptor (β) values for these systems (, β = 0.41; , β = 0.37) are thought to be due primarily to the TFSI anion, which is supplemented slightly by the glyme oxygen atom. In addition, these solvate ionic liquids are found to have a high polarisability (, π* = 0.94; , π* = 0.90). PMID:27122349

  12. Listening to Chemical Materials: Determination of the Photophysical Parameters by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Liu, X. J.

    2012-11-01

    Recently, photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy has emerged as a valuable tool for the study of various kinds of materials. Herein, we present the results of PA spectral studies of chemical materials. First, the PA study on luminescent materials in condensed states is reported. Combining with the luminescence technique, the energy transfer efficiency and the intrinsic luminescence quantum yield are determined for a europium (III) complex in the glassy state, smectic A phase, and the isotropic liquid. Second, neodymium (III) compounds with l-glycine, l-phenylalanine, and l-tryptophan are synthesized and their PA spectra are reported. The nephelauxetic ratio and Sinha parameter are calculated based on the PA spectra. The environmental effect on the f-f transitions of the neodymium(III) ion is also studied.

  13. Determinants of physical health parameters in individuals with intellectual disability who use long-term antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    de Kuijper, Gerda; Mulder, Hans; Evenhuis, Heleen; Scholte, Frans; Visser, Frank; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2013-09-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability frequently use antipsychotics for many years. This may have detrimental health effects, including neurological symptoms and metabolic and hormonal dysregulation, the latter possibly affecting bone metabolism. There is large variability in the degree in which antipsychotic agents lead to these health problems. In the current study we investigated potential determinants of physical symptoms and biological parameters known to be associated with use of antipsychotics in a convenience sample of 99 individuals with intellectual disability who had used antipsychotics for more than one year for behavioural symptoms. We focused on extrapyramidal symptoms; on overweight and presence of components of the metabolic syndrome; and on elevated plasma prolactin and bone turnover parameters. As predictor variables, we used patient (sex, age, genetic polymorphisms, and severity of intellectual disability) and medication use (type and dosage) characteristics. We found extrapyramidal symptoms to be present in 53%, overweight or obesity in 46%, and the metabolic syndrome in 11% of participants. Hyperprolactineaemia and one or more elevated bone turnover markers were present in 17% and 25%, respectively. Higher age and more severe intellectual disability were associated with dyskinesia and a higher dosage of the antipsychotic drug was associated with parkinsonism. Less severe intellectual disability was related to higher Body Mass Index. Use of atypical antipsychotics was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure and elevated fasting glucose. Clinicians who prescribe antipsychotics in individuals with intellectual disability should carefully balance the potential benefits of prolonged treatment against the risk of health hazards associated with the use of antipsychotics. PMID:23792429

  14. Determination of some dominant parameters of the global dynamic sea surface topography from GEOS-3 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Rizos, C.; Masters, E. G.; Hirsch, B.

    1978-01-01

    The 1977 altimetry data bank is analyzed for the geometrical shape of the sea surface expressed as surface spherical harmonics after referral to the higher reference model defined by GEM 9. The resulting determination is expressed as quasi-stationary dynamic SST. Solutions are obtained from different sets of long arcs in the GEOS-3 altimeter data bank as well as from sub-sets related to the September 1975 and March 1976 equinoxes assembled with a view to minimizing seasonal effects. The results are compared with equivalent parameters obtained from the hydrostatic analysis of sporadic temperature, pressure and salinity measurements of the oceans and the known major steady state current systems with comparable wavelengths. The most clearly defined parameter (the zonal harmonic of degree 2) is obtained with an uncertainty of + or - 6 cm. The preferred numerical value is smaller than the oceanographic value due to the effect of the correction for the permanent earth tide. Similar precision is achieved for the zonal harmonic of degree 3. The precision obtained for the fourth degree zonal harmonic reflects more closely the accuracy expected from the level of noise in the orbital solutions.

  15. Determining optimization of the initial parameters in Monte Carlo simulation for linear accelerator radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kwo-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Shiau, An-Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) method is a well known calculation algorithm which can accurately assess the dose distribution for radiotherapy. The present study investigated all the possible regions of the depth-dose or lateral profiles which may affect the fitting of the initial parameters (mean energy and the radial intensity (full width at half maximum, FWHM) of the incident electron). EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc codes were used to generate the phase space files (SSD=100 cm, FS=40×40 cm2) for the linac (linear accelerator, Varian 21EX, 6 MV photon mode) and EGSnrc-based DOSXYZnrc code was used to calculate the dose in the region of interest. Interpolation of depth dose curves of pre-set energies was proposed as a preliminary step for optimal energy fit. A good approach for determination of the optimal mean energy is the difference comparison of the PDD curves excluding buildup region, and using D(10) as a normalization method. For FWHM fitting, due to electron disequilibrium and the larger statistical uncertainty, using horn or/and penumbra regions will give inconsistent outcomes at various depths. Difference comparisons should be performed in the flat regions of the off-axis dose profiles at various depths to optimize the FWHM parameter.

  16. Dynamical parameter determinations in Pluto's system. Expected constraints from the New Horizons mission to Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvalet, L.; Lainey, V.; Arlot, J.-E.; Binzel, R. P.

    2012-04-01

    Pluto is the multiple system that has been observed the longest. Yet, the masses of its smallest satellites, Nix and Hydra, which were discovered in 2005, are still imprecisely known, because of the short time span and number of available observations. We present a numerical model that takes into account the second order gravity fields and Pluto's orbital motion in the solar system. We investigated the dynamical parameters that may be reliably determined today. We also assessed the possible improvements on the parameter uncertainties with the future increase of observations, including the New Horizons mission. Fitting our model to simulated data, we show that the precision of observations prevents the quantification of the polar oblateness J2 and equatorial bulge c22 of Pluto and Charon. Similarly, we show that the masses are on the detection limit. In particular, unless 25 observations are made every year, the mass of Nix may be constrained with confidence only with New Horizons data. Hydra's mass will only be constrained by the probe. The recent discovery of P4 might change this situation, but our knowledge of this object is still too vague to draw any conclusion. Tables 4 and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Fetal kidney length as a useful adjunct parameter for better determination of gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mete G.; Mustafa, Aynur; Ozcan, Huseyin C.; Tepe, Neslihan B.; Kurt, Huseyin; Akcil, Emre; Gunduz, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the validity of fetal kidney length and amniotic fluid index (AFI) in labor dating. Methods: This prospective study included 180 pregnant women followed up in the outpatient clinic at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. The gestational age (GA) was estimated by early fetal ultrasound measures and last menstrual period. Routine fetal biometric parameters, fetal kidney length, and amniotic fluid index were measured. We studied the correlation between fetal kidney length, amniotic fluid index, and gestational age. Result: The mean gestational age depending on last menstrual period and early ultrasound was 31.98±4.29 (24-39 weeks). The mean kidney length was 35.66±6.61 (19-49 mm). There was a significant correlation between gestational age and fetal kidney length (r=0.947, p=0.001). However, there was a moderate negative correlation between GA and AFI. Adding fetal kidney length to the routine biometrics improved the effectiveness of the model used to estimate GA (R2=0.965 to R2=0.987). Conclusion: Gestational age can be better predicted by adding fetal kidney length to other routine parameters. PMID:27146616

  18. Reactive decontamination of absorbing thin film polymer coatings: model development and parameter determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varady, Mark; Mantooth, Brent; Pearl, Thomas; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    A continuum model of reactive decontamination in absorbing polymeric thin film substrates exposed to the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (known as VX) was developed to assess the performance of various decontaminants. Experiments were performed in conjunction with an inverse analysis method to obtain the necessary model parameters. The experiments involved contaminating a substrate with a fixed VX exposure, applying a decontaminant, followed by a time-resolved, liquid phase extraction of the absorbing substrate to measure the residual contaminant by chromatography. Decontamination model parameters were uniquely determined using the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares fitting technique to best fit the experimental time evolution of extracted mass. The model was implemented numerically in both a 2D axisymmetric finite element program and a 1D finite difference code, and it was found that the more computationally efficient 1D implementation was sufficiently accurate. The resulting decontamination model provides an accurate quantification of contaminant concentration profile in the material, which is necessary to assess exposure hazards.

  19. Determination of the Landau Lifshitz damping parameter by means of complex susceptibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannin, P. C.; Marin, C. N.

    2006-04-01

    A new experimental method for the determination of the Landau-Lifshitz damping parameter, α, based on measurements of the frequency and field dependence of the complex magnetic susceptibility, χ(ω,H)=χ'(ω,H)-iχ″(ω,H), is proposed. The method centres on evaluating the ratio of fmax/ fres, where fres is the resonance frequency and fmax is the maximum absorption frequency at resonance, of the sample susceptibility spectra, measured in strong polarizing fields. We have investigated three magnetic fluid samples, namely sample 1, sample 2 and sample 3. Sample 1 consisted of particles of Mn 0.6Fe 0.4Fe 2O 4 dispersed in kerosene, sample 2 consisted of magnetite particles dispersed in Isopar M and sample 3 was composed of particles of Mn 0.66Zn 0.34Fe 2O 4 dispersed in Isopar M. The results obtained for the mean damping parameter of particles within the magnetic fluid samples are as follows: <α(MnFeFeO)>=0.057 with the corresponding standard deviation SD=0.0104; <α(FeO)>=0.1105 with the corresponding standard deviation, SD=0.034 and <α(MnZnFeO)>=0.096 with the corresponding standard deviation, SD=0.037.

  20. USE OF SPATIOTEMPORAL GAIT PARAMETERS TO DETERMINE RETURN TO SPORTS AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    LEPORACE, GUSTAVO; METSAVAHT, LEONARDO; ZEITOUNE, GABRIEL; MARINHO, THIAGO; OLIVEIRA, TAINÁ; PEREIRA, GLAUBER RIBEIRO; OLIVEIRA, LISZT PALMEIRA DE; BATISTA, LUIZ ALBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To compare gait spatiotemporal parameters of healthy and ACL reconstructed subjects in order to classify the status of gait normality. Methods : Fourteen healthy subjects and eight patients submitted to ACL reconstruction walked along a walkway while the lower limbs movement was captured by an infrared camera system. The frames where the initial contact and toe-off took place were determined and the following dependent variables, which were compared between groups through the Mann-Whitney test (a=0.05) were calculated: percentage of time in initial double stance, percentage of time in single stance, percentage of time in terminal double stance, stride length and gait velocity. Initially, all variables were compared between groups using a Mann-Whitney test. A logistic regression was applied, including all dependent variables, to create a model that could differentiate healthy and ACL reconstructed subjects. Results : ACL reconstructed group showed no differences in any spatiotemporal parameter of gait (p > 0.05) in relation to the control group, although the angular kinematic differences of the knee remained altered, as evidenced in a study with a similar sample. Conclusion : The regression classified all subjects as healthy, including the ACL reconstructed group, suggesting the spatiotemporal variables should not be used as the sole criterion of return to sports activities at the same level as prior to injury. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study. PMID:26981039