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Sample records for forebrain cholinergic system

  1. Lesions of the Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System in Mice Disrupt Idiothetic Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Adam S.; Windels, Francois; Boskovic, Zoran; Sah, Pankaj; Coulson, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of integrity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a consistent feature of Alzheimer’s disease, and measurement of basal forebrain degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as a sensitive diagnostic marker for prodromal disease. It is also known that Alzheimer’s disease patients perform poorly on both real space and computerized cued (allothetic) or uncued (idiothetic) recall navigation tasks. Although the hippocampus is required for allothetic navigation, lesions of this region only mildly affect idiothetic navigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the cholinergic medial septo-hippocampal circuit is important for idiothetic navigation. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were selectively lesioned in mice using the toxin saporin conjugated to a basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker, the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Control animals were able to learn and remember spatial information when tested on a modified version of the passive place avoidance test where all extramaze cues were removed, and animals had to rely on idiothetic signals. However, the exploratory behaviour of mice with cholinergic basal forebrain lesions was highly disorganized during this test. By contrast, the lesioned animals performed no differently from controls in tasks involving contextual fear conditioning and spatial working memory (Y maze), and displayed no deficits in potentially confounding behaviours such as motor performance, anxiety, or disturbed sleep/wake cycles. These data suggest that the basal forebrain cholinergic system plays a specific role in idiothetic navigation, a modality that is impaired early in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23320088

  2. Pharmacological modulation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein levels in the CSF of rats with forebrain cholinergic system lesions.

    PubMed

    Haroutunian, V; Greig, N; Pei, X F; Utsuki, T; Gluck, R; Acevedo, L D; Davis, K L; Wallace, W C

    1997-06-01

    Abnormal deposition and accumulation of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein (A beta) and degeneration of forebrain cholinergic neurons are among the principal features of Alzheimer's disease. Studies in rat model systems have shown that forebrain cholinergic deficits are accompanied by induction of cortical beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) mRNAs and increased levels of secreted beta-APP in the CSF. The studies reported here determined whether the CSF levels of secreted beta-APP could be altered pharmacologically. In different experiments, rats with lesions of the forebrain cholinergic system received injections of vehicle, a muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, or one of two cholinesterase inhibitors - diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) or phenserine. Scopolamine was administered to determine whether the levels of beta-APP in the CSF could be increased by anticholinergic agents. The cholinesterase inhibitors were administered to determine whether the forebrain cholinergic system lesion-induced increases in CSF beta-APP could be reduced by cholinergic augmentation. Scopolamine administration led to a significant increase in the CSF levels of secreted beta-APP in sham-lesioned rats. Phenserine, a novel, reversible acetyl-selective cholinesterase inhibitor, significantly decreased the levels of secreted beta-APP in the CSF of forebrain cholinergic system-lesioned rats whereas DFP, a relatively non-specific cholinesterase inhibitor, failed to affect CSF levels of secreted beta-APP. These results suggest that the levels of secreted beta-APP in the CSF can be pharmacologically modulated but that this modulation is dependent upon the status of the forebrain cholinergic system and the pharmacological properties of the drugs used to influence it. PMID:9191090

  3. Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors and forebrain cholinergic system: receptor expression in identified cell populations.

    PubMed

    Peñas-Cazorla, Raúl; Vilaró, M Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors has pro-cognitive effects on memory performance. The proposed underlying neurochemical mechanism is the enhancement of acetylcholine release in frontal cortex and hippocampus elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. Although 5-HT4 receptors are present in brain areas related to cognition, e.g., hippocampus and cortex, the cellular localization of the receptors that might modulate acetylcholine release is unknown at present. We have analyzed, using dual label in situ hybridization, the cellular localization of 5-HT4 receptor mRNA in identified neuronal populations of the rat basal forebrain, which is the source of the cholinergic innervation to cortex and hippocampus. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was visualized with isotopically labeled oligonucleotide probes, whereas cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and parvalbumin-synthesizing neurons were identified with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was not detected in the basal forebrain cholinergic cell population. In contrast, basal forebrain GABAergic, parvalbumin synthesizing, and glutamatergic cells contained 5-HT4 receptor mRNA. Hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic neurons also express this receptor. These results indicate that 5-HT4 receptors are not synthesized by cholinergic cells, and thus would be absent from cholinergic terminals. In contrast, several non-cholinergic cell populations within the basal forebrain and its target hippocampal and cortical areas express these receptors and are thus likely to mediate the enhancement of acetylcholine release elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. PMID:25183542

  4. Loss of neurons in the rat basal forebrain cholinergic projection system after prolonged intake of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Arendt, T; Henning, D; Gray, J A; Marchbanks, R

    1988-10-01

    A reduction in the number of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-positive neurons in the basal nucleus of Meynert complex (NbM, Ch 1 to Ch4) to 83% of control values was observed in rat after ethanol intake (20% v/v) for 12 weeks. Activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and AChE in the basal forebrain was simultaneously reduced to 74% and 81% and content of acetylcholine (ACh) to 56% of control values respectively. Neuronal loss showed a gradient over the rostro-caudal extension of the cholinergic projection system being most pronounced in the septal-diagonal band area and reaching 27% in the medial septum (Ch1). Number of AChE-positive neurons was insignificantly reduced in the pedunculopontine nucleus (Ch5) and unchanged in the laterodorsal tegmental gray of the periventricular area (Ch6). ACh content and activity of AChE was significantly reduced in target areas of the NbM such as cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, but changes were less pronounced than in the basal nucleus. The results indicate a neurotoxic effect of prolonged intake of ethanol on cholinergic neurons in the NbM leading to a partial cholinergic denervation of cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Chronic intake of ethanol in rat is suggested to represent an animal model suitable to test the cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction and to develop strategies for an amelioration of the impairment in memory and cognitive function in dementing disorders associated with a degeneration in the NbM such as postalcoholic dementia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:2850095

  5. Fast Modulation of Visual Perception by Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Estandian, Daniel; Xu, Min; Kwan, Alex C.; Lee, Seung-Hee; Harrison, Thomas C.; Feng, Guoping; Dan, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain provides the primary source of cholinergic input to the cortex, and it plays a crucial role in promoting wakefulness and arousal. However, whether rapid changes in basal forebrain neuron spiking in awake animals can dynamically influence sensory perception is unclear. Here we show that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons rapidly regulate cortical activity and visual perception in awake, behaving mice. Optogenetic activation of the cholinergic neurons or their V1 axon terminals improved performance of a visual discrimination task on a trial-by-trial basis. In V1, basal forebrain activation enhanced visual responses and desynchronized neuronal spiking, which could partly account for the behavioral improvement. Conversely, optogenetic basal forebrain inactivation decreased behavioral performance, synchronized cortical activity and impaired visual responses, indicating the importance of cholinergic activity in normal visual processing. These results underscore the causal role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in fast, bidirectional modulation of cortical processing and sensory perception. PMID:24162654

  6. Pain sensitivity following loss of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vierck, C J; Yezierski, R P; Wiley, R G

    2016-04-01

    Flexion/withdrawal reflexes are attenuated by spinal, intracerebroventricular (ICV) and systemic delivery of cholinergic agonists. In contrast, some affective reactions to pain are suppressed by systemic cholinergic antagonism. Attention to aversive stimulation can be impaired, as is classical conditioning of fear and anxiety to aversive stimuli and psychological activation of stress reactions that exacerbate pain. Thus, in contrast to the suppressive effects of cholinergic agonism on reflexes, pain sensitivity and affective reactions to pain could be attenuated by reduced cerebral cholinergic activation. This possibility was evaluated in the present study, using an operant test of escape from nociceptive thermal stimulation (10 °C and 44.5 °C) before and after destruction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. ICV injection of 192 IgG-saporin produced widespread loss of basal forebrain cholinergic innervation of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Post-injection, escape from thermal stimulation was decreased with no indication of recovery for upto 19 weeks. Also, the normal hyperalgesic effect of sound stress was absent after ICV 192-sap. Effects of cerebral cholinergic denervation or stress on nociceptive licking and guarding reflexes were not consistent with the effects on operant escape, highlighting the importance of evaluating pain sensitivity of laboratory animals with an operant behavioral test. These results reveal that basal forebrain cholinergic transmission participates in the cerebral processing of pain, which may be relevant to the pain sensitivity of patients with Alzheimer's disease who have prominent degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. PMID:26812034

  7. Maternal choline supplementation differentially alters the basal forebrain cholinergic system of young-adult Ts65Dn and disomic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Mufson, Elliott J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is a multifaceted condition marked by intellectual disability and early presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathological lesions including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) system. While DS is diagnosable during gestation, there is no treatment option for expectant mothers or DS individuals. Using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS that displays age-related degeneration of the BFCN system, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation on the BFCN system in adult Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates at 4.3–7.5 mos of age. Ts65Dn dams were maintained on a choline supplemented diet (5.1 g/kg choline chloride) or a control, unsupplemented diet with adequate amounts of choline (1 g/kg choline chloride) from conception until weaning of offspring; postweaning, offspring were fed the control diet. Mice were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde, brains were sectioned, and immunolabeled for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or p75-neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). BFCN number and size, the area of the regions, and the intensity of hippocampal labeling were determined. Ts65Dn unsupplemented mice displayed region- and immunolabel-dependent increased BFCN number, larger areas, smaller BFCNs, and overall increased hippocampal ChAT intensity compared with 2N unsupplemented mice. These effects were partially normalized by maternal choline supplementation. Taken together, the results suggest a developmental imbalance in the Ts65Dn BFCN system. Early maternal-diet choline supplementation attenuates some of the genotype-dependent alterations in the BFCN system, suggesting this naturally occurring nutrient as a treatment option for pregnant mothers with knowledge that their offspring is trisomy 21. PMID:24178831

  8. Distribution of secretagogin-containing neurons in the basal forebrain of mice, with special reference to the cholinergic corticopetal system

    PubMed Central

    Gyengesi, Erika; Andrews, Zane B.; Paxinos, George; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic and GABAergic corticopetal neurons in the basal forebrain play important roles in cortical activation, sensory processing, and attention. Cholinergic neurons are intermingled with peptidergic, and various calcium binding protein-containing cells, however, the functional role of these neurons is not well understood. In this study we examined the expression pattern of secretagogin (Scgn), a newly described calcium-binding protein, in neurons of the basal forebrain. We also assessed some of the corticopetal projections of Scgn neurons and their co-localization with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuropeptide-Y, and other calcium-binding proteins (i.e., calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin). Scgn is expressed in cell bodies of the medial and lateral septum, vertical and horizontal diagonal band nuclei, and of the extension of the amygdala but it is almost absent in the ventral pallidum. Scgn is co-localized with ChAT in neurons of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, extension of the amygdala, and interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure. Scgn was co-localized with calretinin in the accumbens nucleus, medial division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, the extension of the amygdala, and interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure. We have not found co-expression of Scgn with parvalbumin, calbindin, or neuropeptide-Y. Retrograde tracing studies using Fluoro Gold in combination with Scgn-specific immunohistochemistry revealed that Scgn neurons situated in the nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band project to retrosplenial and cingulate cortical areas. PMID:23376788

  9. Sexually dimorphic effects of the Lhx7 null mutation on forebrain cholinergic function.

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, A; Stamatakis, A; Zographos, E; Pachnis, V; Stylianopoulou, F

    2006-01-01

    It has been reported recently that mice lacking both alleles of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx7, display dramatically reduced number of forebrain cholinergic neurons. In the present study, we investigated whether the Lhx7 mutation affects male and female mice differently, given the fact that gender differences are consistently observed in forebrain cholinergic function. Our results show that in adult male as well as female Lhx7 homozygous mutants there is a dramatic loss of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive forebrain neurons, both projection and interneurons. The reduction of forebrain choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive neurons in Lhx7 homozygous mutants is accompanied by a decrease of acetylcholinesterase histochemical staining in all forebrain cholinergic neuron target areas of both male and female homozygous mutants. Furthermore, there was an increase of M1-, but not M2-, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding site density in the somatosensory cortex and basal ganglia of only the female homozygous mutant mice. Such an increase can be regarded as a mechanism acting to compensate for the dramatically reduced cholinergic input, raising the possibility that the forebrain cholinergic system in female mice may be more plastic and responsive to situations of limited neurotransmitter availability. Finally, our study provides additional data for the sexual dimorphism of the forebrain cholinergic system, as female mice appear to have a lower density of M1-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the striatal areas of the basal ganglia and a higher density of M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, in a number of cortical areas, as well as the striatal areas of the basal ganglia. PMID:16338089

  10. Understanding the cognitive impact of the contraceptive estrogen Ethinyl Estradiol: tonic and cyclic administration impairs memory, and performance correlates with basal forebrain cholinergic system integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mennenga, Sarah E.; Gerson, Julia E.; Koebele, Stephanie V.; Kingston, Melissa L.; Tsang, Candy W.S.; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Baxter, Leslie C.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Ethinyl estradiol (EE), a synthetic, orally bio-available estrogen, is the most commonly prescribed form of estrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in at least 30 different contraceptive formulations currently prescribed to women as well as hormone therapies prescribed to menopausal women. Thus, EE is prescribed clinically to women at ages ranging from puberty to reproductive senescence. Here, in two separate studies, the cognitive effects of cyclic or tonic EE administration following ovariectomy (Ovx) were evaluated in young female rats. Study I assessed the cognitive effects of low and high doses of EE, delivered tonically via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Study II evaluated the cognitive effects of low, medium, and high doses of EE administered via a daily subcutaneous injection, modeling the daily rise and fall of serum EE levels with oral regimens. Study II also investigated the impact of low, medium and high doses of EE on the basal forebrain cholinergic system. The low and medium doses utilized here correspond to the range of doses currently used in clinical formulations, and the high dose corresponds to doses prescribed to a generation of women between 1960 and 1970, when oral contraceptives first became available. Here, we evaluate cognition using a battery of maze tasks tapping several domains of spatial learning and memory and basal forebrain cholinergic integrity by using immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology to estimate the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-producing cells in the medial septum and vertical/diagonal bands. At the highest dose, EE treatment impaired multiple domains of spatial memory relative to vehicle treatment, regardless of administration method. When given cyclically at the low and medium doses, EE did not impact working memory, but transiently impaired reference memory during the learning phase of testing. Of the doses and regimens tested here, only EE at the highest dose impaired several domains of memory

  11. Role of prefrontal cortex and striatal output systems in short-term memory deficits associated with ageing, basal forebrain lesions, and cholinergic-rich grafts.

    PubMed

    Dunnett, S B

    1990-06-01

    The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction suggests (a) that basal forebrain lesions in animals should mimic cognitive and mnemonic impairments of human dementia and (b) that cholinergic grafts in the cortex and hippocampus may alleviate such impairments, whether induced by basal forebrain lesions or due to the intrinsic processes of ageing. Our own studies addressing these issues are reviewed. Although aged rats manifest impairments in short-term memory that are reversed by cholinergic grafts in the cortex and hippocampus, basal forebrain lesions have produced ambiguous results, which in part are attributable to nonspecific effects of the lesions. Acetylcholinesterase histochemistry and the topography of NBM-cortical connections indicate that basal forebrain lesions that include the NBM in general spare the cholinergic innervation of the prefrontal cortex, but can damage prefrontal cortical outflows via the globus pallidus. Two experiments are presented to indicate that the medial prefrontal cortex and its ventral striatal outputs provide a critical substrate for normal short-term memory performance in delayed matching and nonmatching tasks. These observations can resolve many of the discrepancies in previous lesion and graft studies. PMID:2383812

  12. Understanding the cognitive impact of the contraceptive estrogen Ethinyl Estradiol: tonic and cyclic administration impairs memory, and performance correlates with basal forebrain cholinergic system integrity.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Koebele, Stephanie V; Kingston, Melissa L; Tsang, Candy W S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Baxter, Leslie C; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-04-01

    Ethinyl Estradiol (EE), a synthetic, orally bio-available estrogen, is the most commonly prescribed form of estrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in at least 30 different contraceptive formulations currently prescribed to women as well as hormone therapies prescribed to menopausal women. Thus, EE is prescribed clinically to women at ages ranging from puberty to reproductive senescence. Here, in two separate studies, the cognitive effects of cyclic or tonic EE administration following ovariectomy (Ovx) were evaluated in young female rats. Study I assessed the cognitive effects of low and high doses of EE, delivered tonically via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Study II evaluated the cognitive effects of low, medium, and high doses of EE administered via a daily subcutaneous injection, modeling the daily rise and fall of serum EE levels with oral regimens. Study II also investigated the impact of low, medium and high doses of EE on the basal forebrain cholinergic system. The low and medium doses utilized here correspond to the range of doses currently used in clinical formulations, and the high dose corresponds to doses prescribed to a generation of women between 1960 and 1970, when oral contraceptives first became available. We evaluate cognition using a battery of maze tasks tapping several domains of spatial learning and memory as well as basal forebrain cholinergic integrity using immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology to estimate the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-producing cells in the medial septum and vertical/diagonal bands. At the highest dose, EE treatment impaired multiple domains of spatial memory relative to vehicle treatment, regardless of administration method. When given cyclically at the low and medium doses, EE did not impact working memory, but transiently impaired reference memory during the learning phase of testing. Of the doses and regimens tested here, only EE at the highest dose impaired several domains of memory

  13. Higher sensitivity to cadmium induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: a cholinesterase dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Garbriela; Anadon, María José; Capo, Miguel Andrés; Díaz, María Jesús; García, Jimena; Frejo, María Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant, which is a cause of concern because it can be greatly concentrated in the organism causing severe damage to a variety of organs including the nervous system which is one of the most affected. Cadmium has been reported to produce learning and memory dysfunctions and Alzheimer like symptoms, though the mechanism is unknown. On the other hand, cholinergic system in central nervous system (CNS) is implicated on learning and memory regulation, and it has been reported that cadmium can affect cholinergic transmission and it can also induce selective toxicity on cholinergic system at peripheral level, producing cholinergic neurons loss, which may explain cadmium effects on learning and memory processes if produced on central level. The present study is aimed at researching the selective neurotoxicity induced by cadmium on cholinergic system in CNS. For this purpose we evaluated, in basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability and the cholinergic mechanisms related to it on NS56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line. This study proves that cadmium induces a more pronounced, but not selective, cell death on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on cholinergic neurons. Moreover, MTT and LDH assays showed a dose dependent decrease of cell viability in NS56 cells. The ACh treatment of SN56 cells did not revert cell viability reduction induced by cadmium, but siRNA transfection against AChE partially reduced it. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on the function and viability of neurons, and the possible relevance of cadmium in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25201352

  14. Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H.S.; Hains, J.M.; Laramee, G.R.; Rosenthal, A.; Winslow, J.W. )

    1990-10-12

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are homologs of the well-known neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor. The three members of this family display distinct patterns of target specificity. To examine the distribution in brain of messenger RNA for these molecules, in situ hybridization was performed. Cells hybridizing intensely to antisense BDNF probe were located throughout the major targets of the rat basal forebrain cholinergic system, that is, the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex. Strongly hybridizing cells were also observed in structures associated with the olfactory system. The distribution of NT3 mRNA in forebrain was much more limited. Within the hippocampus, labeled cells were restricted to CA2, the most medial portion of CA1, and the dentate gyrus. In human hippocampus, cells expressing BDNF and mRNA are distributed in a fashion similar to that observed in the rat. These findings point to both basal forebrain cholinergic cells and olfactory pathways as potential central targets for BDNF.

  15. Acute and long-term exposure to chlorpyrifos induces cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons through AChE variants alteration.

    PubMed

    del Pino, Javier; Moyano, Paula; Anadon, María José; García, José Manuel; Díaz, María Jesús; García, Jimena; Frejo, María Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphates insecticides that has been reported to induce cognitive disorders both after acute and repeated administration similar to those induced in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms through which it induces these effects are unknown. On the other hand, the cholinergic system, mainly basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, is involved in learning and memory regulation, and an alteration of cholinergic transmission or/and cholinergic cell loss could induce these effects. In this regard, it has been reported that CPF can affect cholinergic transmission, and alter AChE variants, which have been shown to be related with basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal loss. According to these data, we hypothesized that CPF could induce basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal loss through cholinergic transmission and AChE variants alteration. To prove this hypothesis, we evaluated in septal SN56 basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the CPF toxic effects after 24h and 14 days exposure on neuronal viability and the cholinergic mechanisms related to it. This study shows that CPF impaired cholinergic transmission, induced AChE inhibition and, only after long-term exposure, increased CHT expression, which suggests that acetylcholine levels alteration could be mediated by these actions. Moreover, CPF induces, after acute and long-term exposure, cell death in cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and this effect is independent of AChE inhibition and acetylcholine alteration, but was mediated partially by AChE variants alteration. Our present results provide a new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of CPF on neuronal function and viability, and the possible relevance of CPF in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26210949

  16. Does age matter? Behavioral and neuro-anatomical effects of neonatal and adult basal forebrain cholinergic lesions.

    PubMed

    De Bartolo, Paola; Cutuli, Debora; Ricceri, Laura; Gelfo, Francesca; Foti, Francesca; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Calamandrei, Gemma; Petrosini, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The "cholinergic hypothesis" of dementia posits that the progressive loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and the consequent decrease of acetylcholine levels in the deafferented projection sites are correlated with degree of cognitive decline in dementia. It has also been proposed that early dysfunction of the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system may be a risk factor for subsequent cognitive decline and possibly dementia. To characterize how age when BF cholinergic system is lesioned affects behavioral performances and morphology of neocortical neurons, seven-day-old rats were bilaterally i.c.v. injected with 192 IgG-saporin. In adulthood, these animals were subjected to spatial and associative tests. Subsequently, the morphology of parietal pyramidal neurons was assessed. The same behavioral and morphological evaluations were made in 80-day-old rats tested three weeks after bilateral i.c.v. injections of 192 IgG-saporin. The behavioral consequences of both cholinergic depletions were markedly similar. While both groups of lesioned animals exhibited very subtle deficits in the Morris water maze, they were significantly impaired in spatial discrimination in the open field and the radial maze. Paralleling behavioral data, the results of the morphological analysis revealed comparable increases in number and density of spines in apical and basal dendrites in layer-III parietal pyramidal neurons following both neonatal and adult cholinergic depletions. The present results demonstrate that the consequences of abnormal maturation of the cholinergic system are not substantially different from those evoked by cholinergic dysfunction in adulthood and provide a developmental psychobiological perspective of the neuronal foundations of the impaired cognitive functions. PMID:20164586

  17. Brain atrophy in primary progressive aphasia involves the cholinergic basal forebrain and Ayala’s nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Teipel, Stefan J.; Flatz, Wilhelm; Ackl, Nibal; Grothe, Michel; Kilimann, Ingo; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; Kljajevic, Vanja; Alho, Eduardo; Knels, Christina; Ebert, Anne; Heinsen, Helmut; Danek, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by left hemispheric frontotemporal cortical atrophy. Evidence from anatomical studies suggests that the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP), a subnucleus of the cholinergic basal forebrain, may be involved in the pathological process of PPA. Therefore, we studied the pattern of cortical and basal forebrain atrophy in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA and 18 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined the cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei according to Mesulam’s nomenclature and the NSP in MRI reference space based on histological sections and the MRI scan of a post-mortem brain in cranio. Using voxel-based analysis, we found left hemispheric cortical atrophy in PPA patients compared with controls, including prefrontal, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobe areas. We detected cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy in left predominant localizations of Ch4p, Ch4am, Ch4al, Ch3 and NSP. For the first time, we have described the pattern of basal forebrain atrophy in PPA and confirmed the involvement of NSP that had been predicted based on theoretical considerations. Our findings may enhance understanding of the role of cholinergic degeneration for the regional specificity of the cortical destruction leading to the syndrome of PPA. PMID:24434193

  18. GABAergic Terminals Are a Source of Galanin to Modulate Cholinergic Neuron Development in the Neonatal Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Keimpema, Erik; Zheng, Kang; Barde, Swapnali Shantaram; Berghuis, Paul; Dobszay, Márton B.; Schnell, Robert; Mulder, Jan; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Xu, Zhiqing David; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Lu, Bai; Hökfelt, Tomas; Harkany, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and (patho-)physiological role of neuropeptides in the adult and aging brain have been extensively studied. Galanin is an inhibitory neuropeptide that can coexist with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the adult forebrain. However, galanin's expression sites, mode of signaling, impact on neuronal morphology, and colocalization with amino acid neurotransmitters during brain development are less well understood. Here, we show that galaninergic innervation of cholinergic projection neurons, which preferentially express galanin receptor 2 (GalR2) in the neonatal mouse basal forebrain, develops by birth. Nerve growth factor (NGF), known to modulate cholinergic morphogenesis, increases GalR2 expression. GalR2 antagonism (M871) in neonates reduces the in vivo expression and axonal targeting of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), indispensable for cholinergic neurotransmission. During cholinergic neuritogenesis in vitro, GalR2 can recruit Rho-family GTPases to induce the extension of a VAChT-containing primary neurite, the prospective axon. In doing so, GalR2 signaling dose-dependently modulates directional filopodial growth and antagonizes NGF-induced growth cone differentiation. Galanin accumulates in GABA-containing nerve terminals in the neonatal basal forebrain, suggesting its contribution to activity-driven cholinergic development during the perinatal period. Overall, our data define the cellular specificity and molecular complexity of galanin action in the developing basal forebrain. PMID:23897649

  19. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  20. ESC-Derived Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Ameliorate the Cognitive Symptoms Associated with Alzheimer's Disease in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wei; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Man; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Min; Sheng, Nengyin; Feng, Su; Tang, Ke; Yu, Xiang; Shu, Yousheng; Yue, Chunmei; Jing, Naihe

    2015-11-10

    Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) is associated with cognitive impairments of Alzheimer's disease (AD), implying that BFCNs hold potentials in exploring stem cell-based replacement therapy for AD. However, studies on derivation of BFCNs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are limited, and the application of ESC-derived BFCNs remains to be determined. Here, we report on differentiation approaches for directing both mouse and human ESCs into mature BFCNs. These ESC-derived BFCNs exhibit features similar to those of their in vivo counterparts and acquire appropriate functional properties. After transplantation into the basal forebrain of AD model mice, ESC-derived BFCN progenitors predominantly differentiate into mature cholinergic neurons that functionally integrate into the endogenous basal forebrain cholinergic projection system. The AD mice grafted with mouse or human BFCNs exhibit improvements in learning and memory performances. Our findings suggest a promising perspective of ESC-derived BFCNs in the development of stem cell-based therapies for treatment of AD. PMID:26489896

  1. GPR30 is Positioned to Mediate Estrogen Effects on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, R.; Gibbs, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of estrogen therapy on cognitive performance diminish with age and time following the loss of ovarian function. This has led to the ‘Window of Opportunity’ hypothesis, which states that estrogen therapy must be administered within a limited period of time following menopause in order to be effective. Effects of estrogen therapy on cognitive performance are due, at least in part, to effects on cholinergic afferents innervating the hippocampus and cortex, and it has been suggested that the loss of estrogen effect with age and time following menopause is due to a substantial reduction in the function of these projections. The mechanisms that underlie the effects are not clear. GPR30 is a novel G-protein coupled estrogen receptor that is expressed in brain and other tissues. Our recent studies show that GPR30 is expressed in areas of the brain important for spatial learning, memory, and attention. In addition, GPR30 in expressed by the vast majority of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, and appears to be an important regulator of basal forebrain cholinergic function. We hypothesize that GPR30 plays an important role in mediating direct effects of estradiol on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, with corresponding effects on cognitive performance. Hence, GPR30 may be an important target for developing new therapies that can enhance or restore estrogen effects on cognitive performance in older women. Here we briefly review the cholinergic hypothesis and summarize our findings to date showing effects of a GPR30 agonist and antagonist on basal forebrain cholinergic function and cognitive performance. PMID:21138734

  2. The cholinergic basal forebrain in the ferret and its inputs to the auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Victoria M; Leach, Nicholas D; Cordery, Patricia M; Nodal, Fernando R; King, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs to the auditory cortex can modulate sensory processing and regulate stimulus-specific plasticity according to the behavioural state of the subject. In order to understand how acetylcholine achieves this, it is essential to elucidate the circuitry by which cholinergic inputs influence the cortex. In this study, we described the distribution of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and their inputs to the auditory cortex of the ferret, a species used increasingly in studies of auditory learning and plasticity. Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, visualized by choline acetyltransferase and p75 neurotrophin receptor immunocytochemistry, were distributed through the medial septum, diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Epipial tracer deposits and injections of the immunotoxin ME20.4-SAP (monoclonal antibody specific for the p75 neurotrophin receptor conjugated to saporin) in the auditory cortex showed that cholinergic inputs originate almost exclusively in the ipsilateral nucleus basalis. Moreover, tracer injections in the nucleus basalis revealed a pattern of labelled fibres and terminal fields that resembled acetylcholinesterase fibre staining in the auditory cortex, with the heaviest labelling in layers II/III and in the infragranular layers. Labelled fibres with small en-passant varicosities and simple terminal swellings were observed throughout all auditory cortical regions. The widespread distribution of cholinergic inputs from the nucleus basalis to both primary and higher level areas of the auditory cortex suggests that acetylcholine is likely to be involved in modulating many aspects of auditory processing. PMID:24945075

  3. Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Structure Influences the Reconfiguration of White Matter Connections to Support Residual Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Nicola J.; Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Khondoker, Mizanur R.; Grothe, Michel J.; Teipel, Stefan; Wright, Paul; Heinsen, Helmut; Jones, Derek K.; Aggleton, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The fornix and hippocampus are critical to recollection in the healthy human brain. Fornix degeneration is a feature of aging and Alzheimer's disease. In the presence of fornix damage in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a recognized prodrome of Alzheimer's disease, recall shows greater dependence on other tracts, notably the parahippocampal cingulum (PHC). The current aims were to determine whether this shift is adaptive and to probe its relationship to cholinergic signaling, which is also compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-five human participants with MCI and 20 matched healthy volunteers underwent diffusion MRI, behavioral assessment, and volumetric measurement of the basal forebrain. In a regression model for recall, there was a significant group × fornix interaction, indicating that the association between recall and fornix structure was weaker in patients. The opposite trend was present for the left PHC. To further investigate this pattern, two regression models were generated to account for recall performance: one based on fornix microstructure and the other on both fornix and left PHC. The realignment to PHC was positively correlated with free recall but not non-memory measures, implying a reconfiguration that is beneficial to residual memory. There was a positive relationship between realignment to PHC and basal forebrain gray matter volume despite this region demonstrating atrophy at a group level, i.e., the cognitive realignment to left PHC was most apparent when cholinergic areas were relatively spared. Therefore, cholinergic systems appear to enable adaptation to injury even as they degenerate, which has implications for functional restoration. PMID:25589767

  4. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in fear and extinction memory.

    PubMed

    Knox, Dayan

    2016-09-01

    Cholinergic input to the neocortex, dorsal hippocampus (dHipp), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for neural function and synaptic plasticity in these brain regions. Synaptic plasticity in the neocortex, dHipp, ventral Hipp (vHipp), and BLA has also been implicated in fear and extinction memory. This finding raises the possibility that basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons, the predominant source of acetylcholine in these brain regions, have an important role in mediating fear and extinction memory. While empirical studies support this hypothesis, there are interesting inconsistencies among these studies that raise questions about how best to define the role of BF cholinergic neurons in fear and extinction memory. Nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) cholinergic neurons that project to the BLA are critical for fear memory and contextual fear extinction memory. NBM cholinergic neurons that project to the neocortex are critical for cued and contextual fear conditioned suppression, but are not critical for fear memory in other behavioral paradigms and in the inhibitory avoidance paradigm may even inhibit contextual fear memory formation. Medial septum and diagonal band of Broca cholinergic neurons are critical for contextual fear memory and acquisition of cued fear extinction. Thus, even though the results of previous studies suggest BF cholinergic neurons modulate fear and extinction memory, inconsistent findings among these studies necessitates more research to better define the neural circuits and molecular processes through which BF cholinergic neurons modulate fear and extinction memory. Furthermore, studies determining if BF cholinergic neurons can be manipulated in such a manner so as to treat excessive fear in anxiety disorders are needed. PMID:27264248

  5. Adult mouse basal forebrain harbors two distinct cholinergic populations defined by their electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Cagri T.; Golowasch, Jorge P.; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    We performed whole-cell recordings from basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons in transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the choline acetyltransferase promoter. BF cholinergic neurons can be differentiated into two electrophysiologically identifiable subtypes: early and late firing neurons. Early firing neurons (∼70%) are more excitable, show prominent spike frequency adaptation and are more susceptible to depolarization blockade, a phenomenon characterized by complete silencing of the neuron following initial action potentials. Late firing neurons (∼30%), albeit being less excitable, could maintain a tonic discharge at low frequencies. In voltage clamp analysis, we have shown that early firing neurons have a higher density of low voltage activated (LVA) calcium currents. These two cholinergic cell populations might be involved in distinct functions: the early firing group being more suitable for phasic changes in cortical acetylcholine release associated with attention while the late firing neurons could support general arousal by maintaining tonic acetylcholine levels. PMID:22586380

  6. Dynamic changes in GABAA receptors on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons following sleep deprivation and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Modirrousta, Mandana; Mainville, Lynda; Jones, Barbara E

    2007-01-01

    Background The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons play an important role in cortical activation and arousal and are active in association with cortical activation of waking and inactive in association with cortical slow wave activity of sleep. In view of findings that GABAA receptors (Rs) and inhibitory transmission undergo dynamic changes as a function of prior activity, we investigated whether the GABAARs on cholinergic cells might undergo such changes as a function of their prior activity during waking vs. sleep. Results In the brains of rats under sleep control (SC), sleep deprivation (SD) or sleep recovery (SR) conditions in the 3 hours prior to sacrifice, we examined immunofluorescent staining for β2–3 subunit GABAARs on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunopositive (+) cells in the magnocellular BF. In sections also stained for c-Fos, β2–3 GABAARs were present on ChAT+ neurons which expressed c-Fos in the SD group alone and were variable or undetectable on other ChAT+ cells across groups. In dual-immunostained sections, the luminance of β2–3 GABAARs over the membrane of ChAT+ cells was found to vary significantly across conditions and to be significantly higher in SD than SC or SR groups. Conclusion We conclude that membrane GABAARs increase on cholinergic cells as a result of activity during sustained waking and reciprocally decrease as a result of inactivity during sleep. These changes in membrane GABAARs would be associated with increased GABA-mediated inhibition of cholinergic cells following prolonged waking and diminished inhibition following sleep and could thus reflect a homeostatic process regulating cholinergic cell activity and thereby indirectly cortical activity across the sleep-waking cycle. PMID:17316437

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL CHEMOARCHITECTURE OF THE BASAL FOREBRAIN: SPATIALLY SPECIFIC ASSOCIATION OF CHOLINERGIC AND CALCIUM BINDING PROTEIN-CONTAINING NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    ZABORSZKY, L.; BUHL, D. L.; POBALASHINGHAM, S.; BJAALIE, J. G.; NADASDY, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The basal forebrain refers to heterogeneous structures located close to the medial and ventral surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres. It contains diverse populations of neurons, including the cholinergic cortically projecting cells that show severe loss in Alzheimer’s and related neurodegenerative diseases. The basal forebrain does not display any cytoarchitectural or other structural features that make it easy to demarcate functional boundaries, a problem that allowed different investigators to propose different organizational schemes. The present paper uses novel three-dimensional reconstructions and numerical analyses for studying the spatial organization of four major basal forebrain cell populations, the cholinergic, parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin containing neurons in the rat. Our analyses suggest that the distribution of these four cell populations is not random but displays a general pattern of association. Within the cholinergic space (i.e. the volume occupied by the cortically projecting cholinergic cell bodies) the three other cell types form twisted bands along the longitudinal axis of a central dense core of cholinergic cells traversing the traditionally defined basal forebrain regions, (i.e. the medial septum, diagonal bands, the substantia innominata, pallidal regions and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis). At a smaller scale, the different cell types within the cholinergic space occupy overlapping high-density cell clusters that are either chemically uniform or mixed. However, the cell composition of these high-density clusters is regionally specific. The proposed scheme of basal forebrain organization, using cell density or density relations as criteria, offers a new perspective on structure–function relationship, unconstrained by traditional region boundaries. PMID:16344145

  8. Distinct roles of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in spatial and object recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kana; Nishizawa, Kayo; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Sakata, Shogo; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Recognition memory requires processing of various types of information such as objects and locations. Impairment in recognition memory is a prominent feature of amnesia and a symptom of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contain two major groups, one localized in the medial septum (MS)/vertical diagonal band of Broca (vDB), and the other in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). The roles of these cell groups in recognition memory have been debated, and it remains unclear how they contribute to it. We use a genetic cell targeting technique to selectively eliminate cholinergic cell groups and then test spatial and object recognition memory through different behavioural tasks. Eliminating MS/vDB neurons impairs spatial but not object recognition memory in the reference and working memory tasks, whereas NBM elimination undermines only object recognition memory in the working memory task. These impairments are restored by treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, anti-dementia drugs for AD. Our results highlight that MS/vDB and NBM cholinergic neurons are not only implicated in recognition memory but also have essential roles in different types of recognition memory. PMID:26246157

  9. Age-related changes in rostral basal forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic projection neurons: Relationship with spatial impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, C.; LaSarge, C. L.; McQuail, J. A.; Hartman, J. J.; Gilbert, R. J.; Ormerod, B. K.; Bizon, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Both cholinergic and GABAergic projections from the rostral basal forebrain have been implicated in hippocampal function and mnemonic abilities. While dysfunction of cholinergic neurons has been heavily implicated in age-related memory decline, significantly less is known regarding how age-related changes in co-distributed GABAergic projection neurons contribute to a decline in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning. In the current study, confocal stereology was used to quantify cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunopositive) neurons, GABAergic projection (glutamic decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) immunopositive) neurons, and total (NeuN immunopositive) neurons in the rostral basal forebrain of young and aged rats that were first characterized on a spatial learning task. ChAT immunopositive neurons were significantly but modestly reduced in aged rats. Although ChAT immunopositive neuron number was strongly correlated with spatial learning abilities among young rats, the reduction of ChAT immunopositive neurons was not associated with impaired spatial learning in aged rats. In contrast, the number of GAD67 immunopositive neurons was robustly and selectively elevated in aged rats that exhibited impaired spatial learning. Interestingly, the total number of rostral basal forebrain neurons was comparable in young and aged rats, regardless of their cognitive status. These data demonstrate differential effects of age on phenotypically distinct rostral basal forebrain projection neurons, and implicate dysregulated cholinergic and GABAergic septohippocampal circuitry in age-related mnemonic decline. PMID:22817834

  10. GRK5 Deficiency Leads to Selective Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    He, Minchao; Singh, Prabhakar; Cheng, Shaowu; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Wei; Ding, XueFeng; Li, Longxuan; Liu, Jun; Premont, Richard T.; Morgan, Dave; Burns, Jeffery M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Suo, William Z.

    2016-01-01

    Why certain diseases primarily affect one specific neuronal subtype rather than another is a puzzle whose solution underlies the development of specific therapies. Selective basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurodegeneration participates in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report the first recapitulation of the selective BFC neuronal loss that is typical of human AD in a mouse model termed GAP. We created GAP mice by crossing Tg2576 mice that over-express the Swedish mutant human β-amyloid precursor protein gene with G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) knockout mice. This doubly defective mouse displayed significant BFC neuronal loss at 18 months of age, which was not observed in either of the singly defective parent strains or in the wild type. Along with other supporting evidence, we propose that GRK5 deficiency selectively renders BFC neurons more vulnerable to degeneration. PMID:27193825

  11. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    PubMed

    Swartzwelder, H Scott; Acheson, Shawn K; Miller, Kelsey M; Sexton, Hannah G; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T; Risher, Mary-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE) are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30) received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g.) or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR) test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE. PMID:26529506

  12. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Acheson, Shawn K.; Miller, Kelsey M.; Sexton, Hannah G.; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T.; Risher, Mary-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE) are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30) received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g.) or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR) test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE. PMID:26529506

  13. Antagonist of the amylin receptor blocks beta-amyloid toxicity in rat cholinergic basal forebrain neurons.

    PubMed

    Jhamandas, Jack H; MacTavish, David

    2004-06-16

    Salvage of cholinergic neurons in the brain through a blockade of the neurotoxic effects of amyloidbeta protein (Abeta) is one of the major, but still elusive, therapeutic goals of current research in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, no receptor has been unequivocally identified for Abeta. Human amylin, which acts via a receptor composed of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and a receptor-associated membrane protein, possesses amyloidogenic properties and has a profile of neurotoxicity that is strikingly similar to Abeta. In this study, using primary cultures of rat cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, we show that acetyl-[Asn30, Tyr32] sCT(8-37) (AC187), an amylin receptor antagonist, blocks Abeta-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment of cultures with AC187 before exposure to Abeta results in significantly improved neuronal survival as judged by MTT and live-dead cell assays. Quantitative measures of Abeta-evoked apoptotic cell death, using Hoechst and phosphotidylserine staining, confirm neuroprotective effects of AC187. We also demonstrate that AC187 attenuates the activation of initiator and effector caspases that mediate Abeta-induced apoptotic cell death. These data are the first to show that expression of Abeta toxicity may occur through the amylin receptor and suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. PMID:15201330

  14. Alzheimer's Disease: Targeting the Cholinergic System

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H.; Guimaraes, Isabella M.; Silva, Flavia R.; Ribeiro, Fabiola M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) has a crucial role in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is responsible for synthesizing ACh from acetyl-CoA and choline in the cytoplasm and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) uptakes the neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles. Following depolarization, ACh undergoes exocytosis reaching the synaptic cleft, where it can bind its receptors, including muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ACh present at the synaptic cleft is promptly hydrolyzed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), forming acetate and choline, which is recycled into the presynaptic nerve terminal by the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1). Cholinergic neurons located in the basal forebrain, including the neurons that form the nucleus basalis of Meynert, are severely lost in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is the most ordinary cause of dementia affecting 25 million people worldwide. The hallmarks of the disease are the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. However, there is no real correlation between levels of cortical plaques and AD-related cognitive impairment. Nevertheless, synaptic loss is the principal correlate of disease progression and loss of cholinergic neurons contributes to memory and attention deficits. Thus, drugs that act on the cholinergic system represent a promising option to treat AD patients. PMID:26813123

  15. Rescue of NGF-deficient mice II: basal forebrain cholinergic projections require NGF for target innervation but not guidance.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Heidi S; Nishimura, Merry; Armanini, Mark P; Chen, Karen; Albers, Kathryn M; Davis, Brian M

    2004-04-29

    Basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurons are an important substrate of cognitive function and are hypothesized to require the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF) for survival and target innervation. NGF-deficient mice develop BFC neurons that extend projections into telencephalic targets, but the mice perish before innervation is fully established. Rescue of NGF-deficient mice by transgenic expression of NGF under the keratin promoter yields viable mice with disrupted CNS expression of NGF. In the current study, rescued NGF-deficient mice contain normal numbers of septal cholinergic neurons yet reveal severe compromise of cholinergic innervation of both cortex and hippocampus. Surprisingly, intracerebroventricular infusion of NGF into juvenile mice can induce an essentially normal pattern of cholinergic innervation of the hippocampus. These results indicate that NGF is required for induction of proper innervation by BFC neurons, but that the cellular pattern of expression of this factor is not critical for specifying the distribution of axon terminals. PMID:15093680

  16. Dopamine systems in the forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Cave, John W.; Baker, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    The brain contains a number of distinct regions that share expression of dopamine (DA) and its requisite biosynthetic machinery, but otherwise encompass a diverse array of features and functions. Across the vertebrate family, the olfactory bulb (OB) contains the major DA system in the forebrain. OB DA cells are primarily periglomerular interneurons that define the glomerular structures in which they receive innervation from olfactory receptor neurons as well as mitral and tufted cells, the primary OB output neurons. The OB DA cells are necessary for both discrimination and the dynamic range over which odorant sensory information can be detected. In the embryo, OB DA neurons are derived from the ventricular area of the evaginating telencephalon, the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence, and the septum. However, most OB DA interneurons are generated post-natally and continue to be produced throughout adult life from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and rostral migratory stream. Adult born OB DA neurons are capable of integrating into existing circuits and do not appear to degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Several genes have been identified that regulate the differentiation of OB DA interneurons from neural stem cells. These include transcription factors that modify the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the first enzyme in the DA biosynthetic pathway and a reliable marker of the DA phenotype. Elucidation of the molecular genetic pathways of OB DA differentiation may advance the development of strategies to treat neurological disease. PMID:19731547

  17. Selective activation of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons induces immediate sleep-wake transitions.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Shi, Yu-feng; Xi, Wang; Zhou, Rui; Tan, Zhi-bing; Wang, Hao; Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Zhong; Feng, Guoping; Luo, Minmin; Huang, Zhi-li; Duan, Shumin; Yu, Yan-qin

    2014-03-17

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays a crucial role in cortical activation [1, 2]. However, the exact role of cholinergic BF (ch-BF) neurons in the sleep-wake cycle remains unclear [3, 4]. We demonstrated that photostimulation of ch-BF neurons genetically targeted with channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) was sufficient to induce an immediate transition to waking or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep from slow-wave sleep (SWS). Light stimulation was most likely to induce behavioral arousal during SWS, but not during REM sleep, a result in contrast to the previously reported photostimulation of noradrenergic or hypocretin neurons that induces wake transitions from both SWS and REM sleep. Furthermore, the ratio of light-induced transitions from SWS to wakefulness or to REM sleep did not significantly differ from that of natural transitions, suggesting that activation of ch-BF neurons facilitates the transition from SWS but does not change the direction of the transition. Excitation of ch-BF neurons during wakefulness or REM sleep sustained the cortical activation. Stimulation of these neurons for 1 hr induced a delayed increase in the duration of wakefulness in the subsequent inactive period. Our results suggest that activation of ch-BF neurons alone is sufficient to suppress SWS and promote wakefulness and REM sleep. PMID:24613308

  18. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Primarily Contribute to Inhibition of Electroencephalogram Delta Activity, Rather Than Inducing Behavioral Wakefulness in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yin, Dou; Wang, Tian-Xiao; Guo, Wei; Dong, Hui; Xu, Qi; Luo, Yan-Jia; Cherasse, Yoan; Lazarus, Michael; Qiu, Zi-Long; Lu, Jun; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2016-07-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons have long been thought to be involved in behavioral wakefulness and cortical activation. However, owing to the heterogeneity of BF neurons and poor selectivity of traditional methods, the precise role of BF cholinergic neurons in regulating the sleep-wake cycle remains unclear. We investigated the effects of cell-selective manipulation of BF cholinergic neurons on the sleep-wake behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum using the pharmacogenetic technique, the 'designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD)' approach, and ChAT-IRES-Cre mice. Our results showed that activation of BF cholinergic neurons expressing hM3Dq receptors significantly and lastingly decreased the EEG delta power spectrum, produced low-delta non-rapid eye movement sleep, and slightly increased wakefulness in both light and dark phases, whereas inhibition of BF cholinergic neurons expressing hM4Di receptors significantly increased EEG delta power spectrum and slightly decreased wakefulness. Next, the projections of BF cholinergic neurons were traced by humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP). Abundant and highly dense hrGFP-positive fibers were observed in the secondary motor cortex and cingulate cortex, and sparse hrGFP-positive fibers were observed in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, a known sleep-related structure. Finally, we found that activation of BF cholinergic neurons significantly increased c-Fos expression in the secondary motor cortex and cingulate cortex, but decreased c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these findings reveal that the primary function of BF cholinergic neurons is to inhibit EEG delta activity through the activation of cerebral cortex, rather than to induce behavioral wakefulness. PMID:26797244

  19. Immunization Against Specific Fragments of Neurotrophin p75 Receptor Protects Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons in the Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bobkova, Natalia; Vorobyov, Vasily; Medvinskaya, Natalia; Nesterova, Inna; Tatarnikova, Olga; Nekrasov, Pavel; Samokhin, Alexander; Deev, Alexander; Sengpiel, Frank; Koroev, Dmitry; Volpina, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment associated with marked cholinergic neuron loss and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brain. The cytotoxicity in AD is mediated, at least in part, by Aβ binding with the extracellular domain of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), localized predominantly in the membranes of acetylcholine-producing neurons in the basal forebrain. Hypothesizing that an open unstructured loop of p75NTR might be the effective site for Aβ binding, we have immunized both olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) and sham-operated (SO) mice (n = 82 and 49, respectively) with synthetic peptides, structurally similar to different parts of the loops, aiming to block them by specific antibodies. OBX-mice have been shown in previous studies, and confirmed in the present one, to be characterized by typical behavioral, morphological, and biochemical AD hallmarks, including cholinergic deficits in forebrain neurons. Immunization of OBX- or SO-mice with KLH conjugated fragments of p75NTR induced high titers of specific serum antibodies for each of nine chosen fragments. However, maximal protective effects on spatial memory, evaluated in a Morris water maze, and on activity of choline acetyltransferase in forebrain neurons, detected by immunoreactivity to specific antibodies, were revealed only for peptides with amino acid residue sequences of 155–164 and 167–176. We conclude that the approach based on immunological blockade of specific p75NTR sites, linked with the cytotoxicity, is a useful and effective tool for study of AD-associated mechanisms and for development of highly selective therapy of cholinergic malfunctioning in AD patients. PMID:27163825

  20. Forebrain deletion of the dystonia protein torsinA causes dystonic-like movements and loss of striatal cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Samuel S; Darr, Katherine; Holley, Sandra M; Cepeda, Carlos; Mabrouk, Omar S; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; LeWitt, Tessa M; Paudel, Reema; Houlden, Henry; Kennedy, Robert T; Levine, Michael S; Dauer, William T

    2015-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction plays an important role in dystonia, but the striatal cell types that contribute to abnormal movements are poorly defined. We demonstrate that conditional deletion of the DYT1 dystonia protein torsinA in embryonic progenitors of forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons causes dystonic-like twisting movements that emerge during juvenile CNS maturation. The onset of these movements coincides with selective degeneration of dorsal striatal large cholinergic interneurons (LCI), and surviving LCI exhibit morphological, electrophysiological, and connectivity abnormalities. Consistent with the importance of this LCI pathology, murine dystonic-like movements are reduced significantly with an antimuscarinic agent used clinically, and we identify cholinergic abnormalities in postmortem striatal tissue from DYT1 dystonia patients. These findings demonstrate that dorsal LCI have a unique requirement for torsinA function during striatal maturation, and link abnormalities of these cells to dystonic-like movements in an overtly symptomatic animal model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08352.001 PMID:26052670

  1. Cholinergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martijn L T M; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2013-09-01

    There is increasing interest in the clinical effects of cholinergic basal forebrain and tegmental pedunculopontine complex (PPN) projection degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent evidence supports an expanded role beyond cognitive impairment, including effects on olfaction, mood, REM sleep behavior disorder, and motor functions. Cholinergic denervation is variable in PD without dementia and may contribute to clinical symptom heterogeneity. Early in vivo imaging evidence that impaired cholinergic integrity of the PPN associates with frequent falling in PD is now confirmed by human post-mortem evidence. Brainstem cholinergic lesioning studies in primates confirm the role of the PPN in mobility impairment. Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic projections correlates with decreased walking speed. Cumulatively, these findings provide evidence for a new paradigm to explain dopamine-resistant features of mobility impairments in PD. Recognition of the increased clinical role of cholinergic system degeneration may motivate new research to expand indications for cholinergic therapy in PD. PMID:23943367

  2. Treatment of beta amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42)-induced basal forebrain cholinergic damage by a non-classical estrogen signaling activator in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Potapov, Kyoko; Kim, SooHyun; Peppercorn, Katie; Tate, Warren P.; Ábrahám, István M.

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there is a loss in cholinergic innervation targets of basal forebrain which has been implicated in substantial cognitive decline. Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ1–42) accumulates in AD that is highly toxic for basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurons. Although the gonadal steroid estradiol is neuroprotective, the administration is associated with risk of off-target effects. Previous findings suggested that non-classical estradiol action on intracellular signaling pathways has ameliorative potential without estrogenic side effects. After Aβ1–42 injection into mouse basal forebrain, a single dose of 4-estren-3α, 17β-diol (estren), the non-classical estradiol pathway activator, restored loss of cholinergic cortical projections and also attenuated the Aβ1–42-induced learning deficits. Estren rapidly and directly phosphorylates c-AMP-response–element-binding-protein and extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1/2 in BFC neurons and restores the cholinergic fibers via estrogen receptor-α. These findings indicated that selective activation of non-classical intracellular estrogen signaling has a potential to treat the damage of cholinergic neurons in AD. PMID:26879842

  3. [The role of the basal forebrain cholinergic dysfunction in pathogenesis of declarative memory disorder in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Mukhin, V N

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of the declarative memory disorder: 30-40% cases of dementia among all of age groups, and 50-60% among the people older 65 years. In addition, disorder of declarative memory is the genuine symptom of the disease, which certainly appears on early stage of the disease and it is an obligate diagnostic symptom. Proponents of the "cholinergic theory" of pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease suggest that the basis disorder of declarative memory is cholinergic dysfunction. Several neurodynamic mechanisms associated with declarative memory depend on the level of acetylcholine in hippocampus and neocortex. It is believed that dysfunction of the basal cholinergic system in Alzheimer's disease leads to the impairment of these mechanisms. In this review, we summarize available literature data concerning the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24459876

  4. Therapeutic potential of CERE-110 (AAV2-NGF): Targeted, stable, and sustained NGF delivery and trophic activity on rodent basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Kathie M.; Hofer, Eva K.; Mehta, Arpesh; Ramirez, Anthony; Sun, Liangwu; Tuszynski, Mark; Bartus, Raymond T.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of degenerating basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with nerve growth factor (NGF) in Alzheimer’s disease has long been contemplated, but an effective and safe delivery method has been lacking. Towards achieving this goal, we are currently developing CERE-110, an adeno-associated virus-based gene delivery vector that encodes for human NGF, for stereotactic surgical delivery to the human nucleus basalis of Meynert. Results indicate that NGF transgene delivery to the targeted brain region via CERE-110 is reliable and accurate, that NGF transgene distribution can be controlled by altering CERE-110 dose, and that it is possible to achieve restricted NGF expression limited to but covering the target brain region. Results from animals examined at longer time periods of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after CERE-110 delivery indicate that NGF transgene expression is stable and sustained at all time points, with no loss or build-up of protein over the long-term. In addition, results from a series of experiments indicate that CERE-110 is neuroprotective and neurorestorative to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the rat fimbria-fornix lesion and aged rat models, and has bioactive effects on young rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. These findings, as well as those from several additional non-clinical experiments conducted in both rats and monkeys, led to the initiation of a Phase I clinical study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CERE-110 in Alzheimer’s disease subjects, which is currently ongoing. PMID:18439998

  5. Central cholinergic neurons are rapidly recruited by reinforcement feedback

    PubMed Central

    Hangya, Balázs; Ranade, Sachin P.; Lorenc, Maja; Kepecs, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Summary Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a major neuromodulatory system implicated in normal cognition and neurodegenerative dementias. Cholinergic projections densely innervate neocortex, releasing acetylcholine to regulate arousal, attention and learning. However, their precise behavioral function is poorly understood because identified cholinergic neurons have never been recorded during behavior. To determine which aspects of cognition their activity might support we recorded cholinergic neurons using optogenetic identification in mice performing an auditory detection task requiring sustained attention. We found that a non-cholinergic basal forebrain population — but not cholinergic neurons — were correlated with trial-to-trial measures of attention. Surprisingly, cholinergic neurons responded to reward and punishment with unusual speed and precision (18±3ms). Cholinergic responses were scaled by the unexpectedness of reinforcement and were highly similar across neurons and two nuclei innervating distinct cortical areas. These results reveal that the cholinergic system broadcasts a rapid and precisely timed reinforcement signal supporting fast cortical activation and plasticity. PMID:26317475

  6. Selective septohippocampal- but not forebrain amygdalar- cholinergic dysfunction in diencephalic amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Lisa M.; Roland, Jessica; Klintsova, Anna

    2007-01-01

    A rodent model of diencephalic amnesia, pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD), was used to investigate diencephalic-limbic interactions. In-vivo acetylcholine (ACh) efflux, a marker of memory-related activation, was measured in the hippocampus and the amygdala of PTD-treated and pair-fed (PF) control rats while they were tested on a spontaneous alternation task. During behavioral testing, all animals displayed increases in ACh efflux in both the hippocampus and amygdala. However, during spontaneous alternation testing ACh efflux in the hippocampus and the alternation scores were higher in PF rats relative to PTD-treated rats. In contrast, ACh efflux in the amygdala was not suppressed in PTD treated rats, relative to PF rats, prior to or during behavioral testing. In addition, unbiased stereological estimates of the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunopositive neurons in the medial septal/diagonal band (MS/DB) and nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) also reveal a selective cholinergic dysfunction: In PTD-treated rats a significant loss of ChAT-immunopositive cells was found only in the MS/DB, but not in the NBM. Significantly, these results demonstrate that thiamine deficiency causes selective cholinergic dysfunction in the septohippocampal pathway. PMID:17289001

  7. Cadmium-induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons mediated by muscarinic M1 receptor blockade, increase in GSK-3β enzyme, β-amyloid and tau protein levels.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Gabriela; Anadón, María José; Moyano, Paula; Díaz, María Jesús; García, José Manuel; Frejo, María Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium is a neurotoxic compound which induces cognitive alterations similar to those produced by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism through which cadmium induces this effect remains unknown. In this regard, we described in a previous work that cadmium blocks cholinergic transmission and induces a more pronounced cell death on cholinergic neurons from basal forebrain which is partially mediated by AChE overexpression. Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, as happens in AD, results in memory deficits attributable to the loss of cholinergic modulation of hippocampal synaptic circuits. Moreover, cadmium has been described to activate GSK-3β, induce Aβ protein production and tau filament formation, which have been related to a selective loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and development of AD. The present study is aimed at researching the mechanisms of cell death induced by cadmium on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. For this purpose, we evaluated, in SN56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line from basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability through muscarinic M1 receptor, AChE splice variants, GSK-3β enzyme, Aβ and tau proteins. This study proves that cadmium induces cell death on cholinergic neurons through blockade of M1 receptor, overexpression of AChE-S and GSK-3β, down-regulation of AChE-R and increase in Aβ and total and phosphorylated tau protein levels. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on cholinergic neurons and suggest that cadmium could mediate these mechanisms by M1R blockade through AChE splices altered expression. PMID:26026611

  8. Novel AAV-Based Rat Model of Forebrain Synucleinopathy Shows Extensive Pathologies and Progressive Loss of Cholinergic Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Aldrin-Kirk, Patrick; Davidsson, Marcus; Holmqvist, Staffan; Li, Jia-Yi; Björklund, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Synucleinopathies, characterized by intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein protein, share a number of features in pathology and disease progression. However, the vulnerable cell population differs significantly between the disorders, despite being caused by the same protein. While the vulnerability of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra to α-synuclein over-expression, and its link to Parkinson's disease, is well studied, animal models recapitulating the cortical degeneration in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB) are much less mature. The aim of this study was to develop a first rat model of widespread progressive synucleinopathy throughout the forebrain using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector mediated gene delivery. Through bilateral injection of an AAV6 vector expressing human wild-type α-synuclein into the forebrain of neonatal rats, we were able to achieve widespread, robust α-synuclein expression with preferential expression in the frontal cortex. These animals displayed a progressive emergence of hyper-locomotion and dysregulated response to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The animals receiving the α-synuclein vector displayed significant α-synuclein pathology including intra-cellular inclusion bodies, axonal pathology and elevated levels of phosphorylated α-synuclein, accompanied by significant loss of cortical neurons and a progressive reduction in both cortical and striatal ChAT positive interneurons. Furthermore, we found evidence of α-synuclein sequestered by IBA-1 positive microglia, which was coupled with a distinct change in morphology. In areas of most prominent pathology, the total α-synuclein levels were increased to, on average, two-fold, which is similar to the levels observed in patients with SNCA gene triplication, associated with cortical Lewy body pathology. This study provides a novel rat model of progressive cortical synucleinopathy, showing for the first time that cholinergic interneurons are vulnerable to

  9. Substitution of natural sensory input by artificial neurostimulation of an amputated trigeminal nerve does not prevent the degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic circuits projecting to the somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Rincon, Celia; Panetsos, Fivos

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral deafferentation downregulates acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis in sensory cortices. However, the responsible neural circuits and processes are not known. We irreversibly transected the rat infraorbital nerve and implanted neuroprosthetic microdevices for proximal stump stimulation, and assessed cytochrome-oxidase and choline- acetyl-transferase (ChAT) in somatosensory, auditory and visual cortices; estimated the number and density of ACh-neurons in the magnocellular basal nucleus (MBN); and localized down-regulated ACh-neurons in basal forebrain using retrograde labeling from deafferented cortices. Here we show that nerve transection, causes down regulation of MBN cholinergic neurons. Stimulation of the cut nerve reverses the metabolic decline but does not affect the decrease in cholinergic fibers in cortex or cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain. Artifical stimulation of the nerve also has no affect of ACh-innervation of other cortices. Cortical ChAT depletion is due to loss of corticopetal MBN ChAT-expressing neurons. MBN ChAT downregulation is not due to a decrease of afferent activity or to a failure of trophic support. Basalocortical ACh circuits are sensory specific, ACh is provided to each sensory cortex “on demand” by dedicated circuits. Our data support the existence of a modality-specific cortex-MBN-cortex circuit for cognitive information processing. PMID:25452715

  10. Cholinergic regulation of the vasopressin neuroendocrine system

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the physical and functional relationship between the cholinergic system, and the neurodocrine cells of the supraoptic nucleus, a combination of experiments on receptor binding, localization and function were carried out. The putative nicotinic receptor probe (/sup 125/I)alpha bungarotoxin ((/sup 125/I)alpha BTX) bound with high affinity and specificity to the vasopressin and oxytocin magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus, nucleus circularis, and paraventricular nucleus. Binding of (/sup 125/I)alpha BTX within the neural lobe was very low. In contrast, the muscarinic cholinergic receptor probe (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) did not bind to magnocellular vasopressin and oxytocin cell groups. The median eminence, which contains the neurosecretory axons, and the neural lobe of the pituitary contain low levels of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding. The physiological significance of these cholinergic receptors in regulation of vasopressin release was tested using an in vitro preparation of the supraoptic - neural lobe system.

  11. The role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in adenosine-mediated homeostatic control of sleep: lessons from 192 IgG-saporin lesions.

    PubMed

    Kalinchuk, A V; McCarley, R W; Stenberg, D; Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Basheer, R

    2008-11-11

    A topic of high current interest and controversy is the basis of the homeostatic sleep response, the increase in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and NREM-delta activity following sleep deprivation (SD). Adenosine, which accumulates in the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) during SD, has been proposed as one of the important homeostatic sleep factors. It is suggested that sleep-inducing effects of adenosine are mediated by inhibiting the wake-active neurons of the BF, including cholinergic neurons. Here we examined the association between SD-induced adenosine release, the homeostatic sleep response and the survival of cholinergic neurons in the BF after injections of the immunotoxin 192 immunoglobulin G (IgG)-saporin (saporin) in rats. We correlated SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and the homeostatic sleep response with the cholinergic cell loss 2 weeks after local saporin injections into the BF, as well as 2 and 3 weeks after i.c.v. saporin injections. Two weeks after local saporin injection there was an 88% cholinergic cell loss, coupled with nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF, the homeostatic sleep response, and the sleep-inducing effects of BF adenosine infusion. Two weeks after i.c.v. saporin injection there was a 59% cholinergic cell loss, correlated with significant increase in SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and an intact sleep response. Three weeks after i.c.v. saporin injection there was an 87% cholinergic cell loss, nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF and the homeostatic response, implying that the time course of i.c.v. saporin lesions is a key variable in interpreting experimental results. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that cholinergic neurons in the BF are important for the SD-induced increase in adenosine as well as for its sleep-inducing effects and play a major, although not exclusive, role in sleep homeostasis. PMID:18805464

  12. Lhx2 Regulates the Development of the Forebrain Hem System

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Achira; Gonzalez-Gomez, Miriam; Pierani, Alessandra; Meyer, Gundela; Tole, Shubha

    2014-01-01

    Early brain development is regulated by the coordinated actions of multiple signaling centers at key boundaries between compartments. Three telencephalic midline structures are in a position to play such roles in forebrain patterning: The cortical hem, the septum, and the thalamic eminence at the diencephalic–telencephalic boundary. These structures express unique complements of signaling molecules, and they also produce distinct populations of Cajal–Retzius cells, which are thought to act as “mobile patterning units,” migrating tangentially to cover the telencephalic surface. We show that these 3 structures require the transcription factor Lhx2 to delimit their extent. In the absence of Lhx2 function, all 3 structures are greatly expanded, and the Cajal–Retzius cell population is dramatically increased. We propose that the hem, septum, and thalamic eminence together form a “forebrain hem system” that defines and regulates the formation of the telencephalic midline. Disruptions in the forebrain hem system may be implicated in severe brain malformations such as holoprosencephaly. Lhx2 functions as a central regulator of this system's development. Since all components of the forebrain hem system have been identified across several vertebrate species, the mechanisms that regulate them may have played a fundamental role in driving key aspects of forebrain evolution. PMID:23307637

  13. Effects of amyloid-beta on cholinergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive cells in cultured basal forebrain neurons of embryonic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Peter; Papp, Henrietta; Kasa, Peter; Pakaski, Magdolna; Balaspiri, Lajos

    2004-02-13

    The neurotoxic effects of amyloid-beta(1-42) and amyloid-beta(25-35) (A beta) on cholinergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons were investigated in primary cultures derived from embryonic 18-day-old rat basal forebrain. After various time intervals, the cultures were treated with 1, 5, 10 or 20 microM A beta for different time periods. The cholinergic neurons and their axon terminals were revealed by vesicular acetylcholine transporter immunohistochemistry and the cholinoceptive cells by acetylcholinesterase histochemical staining. To assess the toxic effects of these A beta peptides on the cholinergic neurons, image analysis was applied for quantitative determination of the numbers of axon varicosities/terminals and cells. The results demonstrate that, following treatment with 1 or 5 microM A beta for 5, 10, 30, 60 or 120 min, no changes in vesicular acetylcholine transporter immunohistochemical staining were observed. However, after treatment for 30 min with 10 or 20 microM A beta, the number of stained axon varicosities was reduced, and treatment for 2 h they had disappeared. In contrast, vesicular acetylcholine transporter-positivity could be seen in some of the neuronal perikarya even after 3 days after treatment. The acetylcholinesterase staining was homogeneously distributed in the control neurons. After A beta treatment, the histochemical reaction end-product was detected in some of the neuronal perikarya or in the dendritic processes near to the soma. It is concluded that the neurotoxic effects of A beta appear more rapidly in the cholinergic axon terminals than in the cholinergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive neuronal perikarya. PMID:14725970

  14. Combined damage to entorhinal cortex and cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, two early neurodegenerative features accompanying Alzheimer's disease: effects on locomotor activity and memory functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Traissard, Natalia; Herbeaux, Karine; Cosquer, Brigitte; Jeltsch, Hélène; Ferry, Barbara; Galani, Rodrigue; Pernon, Anne; Majchrzak, Monique; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2007-04-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive decline is linked to cholinergic dysfunctions in the basal forebrain (BF), although the earliest neuronal damage is described in the entorhinal cortex (EC). In rats, selective cholinergic BF lesions or fiber-sparing EC lesions may induce memory deficits, but most often of weak magnitude. This study investigated, in adult rats, the effects on activity and memory of both lesions, alone or in combination, using 192 IgG-saporin (OX7-saporin as a control) and L-N-methyl-D-aspartate to destroy BF and EC neurons, respectively. Rats were tested for locomotor activity in their home cage and for working- and/or reference-memory in various tasks (water maze, Hebb-Williams maze, radial maze). Only rats with combined lesions showed diurnal and nocturnal hyperactivity. EC lesions impaired working memory and induced anterograde memory deficits in almost all tasks. Lesions of BF cholinergic neurons induced more limited deficits: reference memory was impaired in the probe trial of the water-maze task and in the radial maze. When both lesions were combined, performance never improved in the water maze and the number of errors in the Hebb-Williams and the radial mazes was always larger than in any other group. These results (i) indicate synergistic implications of BF and EC in memory function, (ii) suggest that combined BF cholinergic and fiber-sparing EC lesions may model aspects of anterograde memory deficits and restlessness as seen in AD, (iii) challenge the cholinergic hypothesis of cognitive dysfunctions in AD, and (iv) contribute to open theoretical views on AD-related memory dysfunctions going beyond the latter hypothesis. PMID:16760925

  15. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  16. Serotonin 5-HT1B receptor-mediated calcium influx-independent presynaptic inhibition of GABA release onto rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Nishijo, Takuma; Momiyama, Toshihiko

    2016-07-01

    Modulatory roles of serotonin (5-HT) in GABAergic transmission onto basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were investigated, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique in the rat brain slices. GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were evoked by focal stimulation. Bath application of 5-HT (0.1-300 μm) reversibly suppressed the amplitude of evoked IPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of a 5-HT1B receptor agonist, CP93129, also suppressed the evoked IPSCs, whereas a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT had little effect on the evoked IPSCs amplitude. In the presence of NAS-181, a 5-HT1B receptor antagonist, 5-HT-induced suppression of evoked IPSCs was antagonised, whereas NAN-190, a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist did not antagonise the 5-HT-induced suppression of evoked IPSCs. Bath application of 5-HT reduced the frequency of spontaneous miniature IPSCs without changing their amplitude distribution. The effect of 5-HT on miniature IPSCs remained unchanged when extracellular Ca(2+) was replaced by Mg(2+) . The paired-pulse ratio was increased by CP93129. In the presence of ω-CgTX, the N-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, ω-Aga-TK, the P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, or SNX-482, the R-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, 5-HT could still inhibit the evoked IPSCs. 4-AP, a K(+) channel blocker, enhanced the evoked IPSCs, and CP93129 had no longer inhibitory effect in the presence of 4-AP. CP93129 increased the number of action potentials elicited by depolarising current pulses. These results suggest that activation of presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors on the terminals of GABAergic afferents to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons inhibits GABA release in Ca(2+) influx-independent manner by modulation of K(+) channels, leading to enhancement of neuronal activities. PMID:27177433

  17. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  18. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  19. Probing peripheral and central cholinergic system responses.

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, C A; Fourie, J; Herrmann, N; Lanctôt, K L; Birt, C; Yau, K K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pharmacological response to drugs that act on the cholinergic system of the iris has been used to predict deficits in central cholinergic functioning due to diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, yet correlations between central and peripheral responses have not been properly studied. This study assessed the effect of normal aging on (1) the tropicamide-induced increase in pupil diameter, and (2) the reversal of this effect with pilocarpine. Scopolamine was used as a positive control to detect age-dependent changes in central cholinergic functioning in the elderly. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy elderly (mean age 70) and 9 young (mean age 33) volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Pupil diameter was monitored using a computerized infrared pupillometer over 4 hours. The study involved 4 sessions. In 1 session, tropicamide (20 microL, 0.01%) was administered to one eye and placebo to the other. In another session, tropicamide (20 microL, 0.01%) was administered to both eyes, followed 23 minutes later by the application of pilocarpine (20 microL, 0.1%) to one eye and placebo to the other. All eye drops were given in a randomized order. In 2 separate sessions, a single dose of scopolamine (0.5 mg, intravenously) or placebo was administered, and the effects on word recall were measured using the Buschke Selective Reminding Test over 2 hours. OUTCOME MEASURES: Pupil size at time points after administration of tropicamide and pilocarpine; scopolamine-induced impairment in word recall. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between elderly and young volunteers in pupillary response to tropicamide at any time point (p > 0.05). The elderly group had a significantly greater pilocarpine-induced net decrease in pupil size 85, 125, 165 and 215 minutes after administration, compared with the young group (p < 0.05). Compared with the young group, the elderly group had greater scopolamine-induced impairment in word recall 60, 90

  20. EFFECTS OF SUSTAINED PRONGF BLOCKADE ON ATTENTIONAL CAPACITIES IN AGED RATS WITH COMPROMISED CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    YEGLA, BRITTNEY; PARIKH, VINAY

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling via trkA receptors compromises the integrity of the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system, yielding cognitive, specifically attentional, impairments in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although normal aging is considered a risk factor for AD, the mechanisms underlying the selective vulnerability of the aging cholinergic system to trkA disruption is not clear. The levels of proNGF, a proneurotrophin that possesses higher affinity for p75 receptors, increase in aging. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that cholinergic and attentional dysfunction in aged rats with reduced BF trkA receptors occurs due to the overactivation of endogenous proNGF signaling. We employed a viral vector that produced trkA shRNA to suppress trkA receptors in the corticopetal cholinergic neurons of aged rats. BF trkA suppression impaired animals’ performance on signal trials in both the sustained attention task (SAT) and the cognitively-taxing distractor version of SAT (dSAT) and these deficits were normalized by chronic intracerebroventricular administration of proNGF antibody. Moreover, depolarization-evoked ACh release and the density of cortical cholinergic fibers were partially restored in these animals. However, SAT/dSAT scores reflecting overall performance did not improve following proNGF blockade in trkA knockdown rats due to impaired performance in non-signal trials. Sustained proNGF blockade alone did not alter baseline attentional performance but produced moderate impairments during challenging conditions. Collectively, our findings indicate that barring proNGF-p75 signaling may exert some beneficial effects on attentional capacities specifically when BF trkA signaling is abrogated. However, endogenous proNGF may also possess neurotrophic effects and blockade of this proneurotrophin may not completely ameliorate attentional impairments in AD and potentially hinder performance during periods of high cognitive load

  1. D1-like dopamine receptors selectively block P/Q-type calcium channels to reduce glutamate release onto cholinergic basal forebrain neurones of immature rats

    PubMed Central

    Momiyama, Toshihiko; Fukazawa, Yugo

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of non-NMDA glutamatergic EPSCs were made from identified cholinergic neurones in slices of basal forebrain (BF) of young rats (P13–P18), to investigate the subtypes of calcium channels involved in dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of the EPSCs. The BF cholinergic neurones were pre-labelled by intracerebroventricular injection of a fluorescent marker, Cy3-192IgG. A D1-like receptor agonist, SKF 81297 (30 μm) suppressed the EPSCs reversibly by about 30%, and this inhibition was reproducible. Calcium channel subtypes involved in the glutamatergic transmission were elucidated using selective Ca2+ channel blockers. The N-type Ca2+ channel blocker ω-conotoxin (ω-CgTX, 3 μm) suppressed the EPSCs by 57.5%, whereas the P/Q-type channel selective blocker ω-agatoxin-TK (ω-Aga-TK, 200 nm) suppressed the EPSCs by 68.9%. Simultaneous application of both blockers suppressed the EPSCs by 96.1%. The R-type Ca2+ channel blocker SNX-482 (300 nm) suppressed the EPSCs by 18.4%, whereas nifedipine, the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker (10 μm), had little effect. In the presence of ω-Aga-TK, SKF 81297, a dopamine D1-like receptor agonist, had no effect on the EPSCs. On the other hand, SKF 81297 could still inhibit the EPSCs in the presence of either ω-CgTX, SNX-482 or nifedipine. SKF 81297 had no further effect on the EPSCs when external Ca2+ concentration was raised to 7.2 mm in the presence of ω-Aga-TK, but could still inhibit the EPSCs in high Ca2+ solution after ω-CgTX application. Forskolin (FK, 10 μm), an activator of adenylyl cyclase pathway, suppressed the EPSCs, and the FK-induced effect was mostly blocked in the presence of ω-Aga-TK but not that of ω-CgTX. These results suggest that D1-like receptor activation selectively blocks P/Q-type calcium channels to reduce glutamate release onto BF cholinergic neurones. PMID:17234695

  2. Cholinergic system during the progression of Alzheimer's disease: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Mufson, Elliott J; Counts, Scott E; Perez, Sylvia E; Ginsberg, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive phenotypic downregulation of markers within cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons, frank CBF cell loss and reduced cortical choline acetyltransferase activity associated with cognitive decline. Delaying CBF neurodegeneration or minimizing its consequences is the mechanism of action for most currently available drug treatments for cognitive dysfunction in AD. Growing evidence suggests that imbalances in the expression of NGF, its precursor proNGF and the high (TrkA) and low (p75NTR) affinity NGF receptors are crucial factors underlying CBF dysfunction in AD. Drugs that maintain a homeostatic balance between TrkA and p75NTR may slow the onset of AD. A NGF gene therapy trial reduced cognitive decline and stimulated cholinergic fiber growth in humans with mild AD. Drugs treating the multiple pathologies and clinical symptoms in AD (e.g., M1 cholinoceptor and/or galaninergic drugs) should be considered for a more comprehensive treatment approach for cholinergic dysfunction. PMID:18986241

  3. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Jessica A.; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Strupp, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) lessens hippocampal dysfunction and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1 g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0 g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17 months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial learning and memory followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing powerful support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for the trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  4. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  5. Pyramidal cells and cytochrome P450 epoxygenase products in the neurovascular coupling response to basal forebrain cholinergic input.

    PubMed

    Lecrux, Clotilde; Kocharyan, Ara; Sandoe, Claire H; Tong, Xin-Kang; Hamel, Edith

    2012-05-01

    Activation of the basal forebrain (BF), the primary source of acetylcholine (ACh) in the cortex, broadly increases cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF), a response downstream to ACh release. Although endothelial nitric oxide and cholinoceptive GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) interneurons have been implicated, little is known about the role of pyramidal cells in this response and their possible interaction with astrocytes. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neuronal activation and laser-Doppler flowmetry, we measured changes in CBF evoked by BF stimulation following pharmacological blockade of c-Fos-identified excitatory pathways, astroglial metabolism, or vasoactive mediators. Pyramidal cells including those that express cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) displayed c-Fos upregulation. Glutamate acting via NMDA, AMPA, and mGlu receptors was involved in the evoked CBF response, NMDA receptors having the highest contribution (~33%). In contrast, nonselective and selective COX-2 inhibition did not affect the evoked CBF response (+0.4% to 6.9%, ns). The metabolic gliotoxins fluorocitrate and fluoroacetate, the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase inhibitor MS-PPOH and the selective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-EEZE) all blocked the evoked CBF response by ~50%. Together, the data demonstrate that the hyperemic response to BF stimulation is largely mediated by glutamate released from activated pyramidal cells and by vasoactive EETs, likely originating from activated astrocytes. PMID:22293985

  6. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  7. Characterization of Channelrhodopsin and Archaerhodopsin in Cholinergic Neurons of Cre-Lox Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Tristan; Danskin, Bethanny; Larsen, Rylan S.; Ollerenshaw, Doug; Groblewski, Peter; Valley, Matthew; Olsen, Shawn; Waters, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The study of cholinergic signaling in the mammalian CNS has been greatly facilitated by the advent of mouse lines that permit the expression of reporter proteins, such as opsins, in cholinergic neurons. However, the expression of opsins could potentially perturb the physiology of opsin-expressing cholinergic neurons or mouse behavior. Indeed, the published literature includes examples of cellular and behavioral perturbations in preparations designed to drive expression of opsins in cholinergic neurons. Here we investigate expression of opsins, cellular physiology of cholinergic neurons and behavior in two mouse lines, in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and archaerhodopsin (Arch) are expressed in cholinergic neurons using the Cre-lox system. The two mouse lines were generated by crossing ChAT-Cre mice with Cre-dependent reporter lines Ai32(ChR2-YFP) and Ai35(Arch-GFP). In most mice from these crosses, we observed expression of ChR2 and Arch in only cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and in other putative cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. In small numbers of mice, off-target expression occurred, in which fluorescence did not appear limited to cholinergic neurons. Whole-cell recordings from fluorescently-labeled basal forebrain neurons revealed that both proteins were functional, driving depolarization (ChR2) or hyperpolarization (Arch) upon illumination, with little effect on passive membrane properties, spiking pattern or spike waveform. Finally, performance on a behavioral discrimination task was comparable to that of wild-type mice. Our results indicate that ChAT-Cre x reporter line crosses provide a simple, effective resource for driving indicator and opsin expression in cholinergic neurons with few adverse consequences and are therefore an valuable resource for studying the cholinergic system. PMID:27243816

  8. Cholinergic Modulation of Visual Attention and Working Memory: Dissociable Effects of Basal Forebrain 192-IgG-Saporin Lesions and Intraprefrontal Infusions of Scopolamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudasama, Yogita; Dalley, Jeffrey W.; Nathwani, Falgyni; Bouger, Pascale; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of reductions in cortical cholinergic function on performance of a novel task that allowed for the simultaneous assessment of attention to a visual stimulus and memory for that stimulus over a variable delay within the same test session. In the first experiment, infusions of the muscarinic receptor antagonist…

  9. Continuous estrone treatment impairs spatial memory and does not impact number of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the surgically menopausal middle-aged rat

    PubMed Central

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Talboom, Joshua S.; Braden, B. Blair; Tsang, Candy W.S.; Mennenga, Sarah; Andrews, Madeline; Demers, Laurence M.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Premarin (conjugated equine estrogens) is the most widely prescribed estrogen-only menopausal hormone therapy in the United States, and is comprised of over 50% estrone (E1) sulfate. Following CEE administration, E1 is the principal circulating estrogen. However, the cognitive and neurobiological effects of E1 in a middle-aged rodent model have not yet been evaluated. We assessed cognitive effects of continuous E1 treatment in middle-aged surgically menopausal rats using a maze battery. We also quantified number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive (ChAT-IR) neurons in distinct basal forebrain regions known in earlier studies in to be impacted by the most potent naturally-circulating estrogen in rodents and women, 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), as well as CEE. On the spatial working memory delayed-match-to-sample water maze, the highest E1 dose impaired memory performance during acquisition and after delay challenge. E1 did not impact ChAT-IR neuron number in the medial septum (MS) or horizontal/vertical diagonal bands. In a comparison study, 17β-E2 increased MS ChAT-IR neuron number. Findings indicate that E1 negatively impacts spatial working memory and memory retention, but does not increase ChAT-IR neuron number in basal forebrain, as does 17β-E2. Thus, data from prior studies suggest that 17β-E2 and CEE can enhance cognition and increase number of ChAT-IR basal forebrain neurons, while here we show that E1 does not induce these effects. Findings from preclinical basic science studies can inform the design of specific combinations of estrogens that could be beneficial to the brain and cognition. Accumulating data suggest that E1 is not likely to be among these key beneficial estrogens. PMID:22522079

  10. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1989-05-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure.

  11. A cellular and regulatory map of the cholinergic nervous system of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Laura; Kratsios, Paschalis; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi E; Hall, David H; White, John G; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L Rene; Alon, Uri; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system maps are of critical importance for understanding how nervous systems develop and function. We systematically map here all cholinergic neuron types in the male and hermaphrodite C. elegans nervous system. We find that acetylcholine (ACh) is the most broadly used neurotransmitter and we analyze its usage relative to other neurotransmitters within the context of the entire connectome and within specific network motifs embedded in the connectome. We reveal several dynamic aspects of cholinergic neurotransmitter identity, including a sexually dimorphic glutamatergic to cholinergic neurotransmitter switch in a sex-shared interneuron. An expression pattern analysis of ACh-gated anion channels furthermore suggests that ACh may also operate very broadly as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. As a first application of this comprehensive neurotransmitter map, we identify transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control cholinergic neurotransmitter identity and cholinergic circuit assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12432.001 PMID:26705699

  12. Estrogen-Cholinergic Interactions: Implications for Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Paul; Dumas, Julie

    2015-01-01

    While many studies in humans have investigated the effects of estrogen and hormone therapy on cognition, potential neurobiological correlates of these effects have been less well studied. An important site of action for estrogen in the brain is the cholinergic system. Several decades of research support the critical role of CNS cholinergic systems in cognition in humans, particularly in learning and memory formation and attention. In humans, the cholinergic system has been implicated in many aspects of cognition including the partitioning of attentional resources, working memory, inhibition of irrelevant information, and improved performance on effort-demanding tasks. Studies support the hypothesis that estradiol helps to maintain aspects of attention and verbal and visual memory. Such cognitive domains are exactly those modulated by cholinergic systems and extensive basic and preclinical work over the past several decades has clearly shown that basal forebrain cholinergic systems are dependent on estradiol support for adequate functioning. This paper will review recent human studies from our laboratories and others that have extended preclinical research examining estrogen-cholinergic interactions to humans. Studies examined include estradiol and cholinergic antagonist reversal studies in normal older women, examinations of the neural representations of estrogen-cholinergic interactions using functional brain imaging, and studies of the ability of selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen to interact with cholinergic-mediated cognitive performance. We also discuss the implications of these studies for the underlying hypotheses of cholinergic-estrogen interactions and cognitive aging, and indications for prophylactic and therapeutic potential that may exploit these effects. PMID:26187712

  13. Estrogen-cholinergic interactions: Implications for cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Paul; Dumas, Julie

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". While many studies in humans have investigated the effects of estrogen and hormone therapy on cognition, potential neurobiological correlates of these effects have been less well studied. An important site of action for estrogen in the brain is the cholinergic system. Several decades of research support the critical role of CNS cholinergic systems in cognition in humans, particularly in learning and memory formation and attention. In humans, the cholinergic system has been implicated in many aspects of cognition including the partitioning of attentional resources, working memory, inhibition of irrelevant information, and improved performance on effort-demanding tasks. Studies support the hypothesis that estradiol helps to maintain aspects of attention and verbal and visual memory. Such cognitive domains are exactly those modulated by cholinergic systems and extensive basic and preclinical work over the past several decades has clearly shown that basal forebrain cholinergic systems are dependent on estradiol support for adequate functioning. This paper will review recent human studies from our laboratories and others that have extended preclinical research examining estrogen-cholinergic interactions to humans. Studies examined include estradiol and cholinergic antagonist reversal studies in normal older women, examinations of the neural representations of estrogen-cholinergic interactions using functional brain imaging, and studies of the ability of selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen to interact with cholinergic-mediated cognitive performance. We also discuss the implications of these studies for the underlying hypotheses of cholinergic-estrogen interactions and cognitive aging, and indications for prophylactic and therapeutic potential that may exploit these effects. PMID:26187712

  14. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  15. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S; Conner, James M; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. PMID:25505106

  16. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S.; Conner, James M.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. PMID:25505106

  17. Orexin Receptor Activation Generates Gamma Band Input to Cholinergic and Serotonergic Arousal System Neurons and Drives an Intrinsic Ca2+-Dependent Resonance in LDT and PPT Cholinergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Gumenchuk, Iryna; Kang, Bryan; Steger, Catherine; Lynn, Elizabeth; Molina, Nancy E.; Eisenberg, Leonard M.; Leonard, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of the waking state is a shift in EEG power to higher frequencies with epochs of synchronized intracortical gamma activity (30–60 Hz) – a process associated with high-level cognitive functions. The ascending arousal system, including cholinergic laterodorsal (LDT) and pedunculopontine (PPT) tegmental neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR) neurons, promotes this state. Recently, this system has been proposed as a gamma wave generator, in part, because some neurons produce high-threshold, Ca2+-dependent oscillations at gamma frequencies. However, it is not known whether arousal-related inputs to these neurons generate such oscillations, or whether such oscillations are ever transmitted to neuronal targets. Since key arousal input arises from hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin) neurons, we investigated whether the unusually noisy, depolarizing orexin current could provide significant gamma input to cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, and whether such input could drive Ca2+-dependent oscillations. Whole-cell recordings in brain slices were obtained from mice expressing Cre-induced fluorescence in cholinergic LDT and PPT, and serotonergic DR neurons. After first quantifying reporter expression accuracy in cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, we found that the orexin current produced significant high frequency, including gamma, input to both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Then, by using a dynamic clamp, we found that adding a noisy orexin conductance to cholinergic neurons induced a Ca2+-dependent resonance that peaked in the theta and alpha frequency range (4–14 Hz) and extended up to 100 Hz. We propose that this orexin current noise and the Ca2+ dependent resonance work synergistically to boost the encoding of high-frequency synaptic inputs into action potentials and to help ensure cholinergic neurons fire during EEG activation. This activity could reinforce thalamocortical states supporting arousal, REM sleep, and intracortical gamma. PMID

  18. The interaction between methylene blue and the cholinergic system

    PubMed Central

    Pfaffendorf, M; Bruning, T A; Batink, H D; van Zwieten, P A

    1997-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of methylene blue (MB) on different types of cholinesterases and [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) binding to muscarinic receptors were studied. Human plasma from young healthy male volunteers, purified human pseudocholinesterase and purified bovine true acetylcholinesterase were incubated with acetylcholine and increasing concentrations of MB (0.1–100 μmol l−1) in the presence of the pH-indicator m-nitrophenol for 30 min at 25°C. The amount of acetic acid produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylcholine was determined photometrically. Rat cardiac left ventricle homogenate was incubated with [3H]-NMS and with increasing concentrations of MB (0.1 nmol l−1–100 μmol l−1) at 37°C for 20 min. The binding of [3H]-NMS to the homogenate was quantified by a standard liquid scintillation technique. MB inhibited the esterase activity of human plasma, human pseudocholinesterase and bovine acetylcholinesterase concentration-dependently with IC50 values of 1.05±0.05 μmol l−1, 5.32±0.36 μmol l−1 and 0.42±0.09 μmol l−1, respectively. MB induced complete inhibition of the esterase activity of human plasma and human pseudocholinesterase, whereas bovine acetylcholinesterase was maximally inhibited by 73±3.3%. MB was able to inhibit specific [3H]-NMS binding to rat cardiac left ventricle homogenate completely with an IC50 value of 0.77±0.03 μmol l−1, which resulted in a Ki value for MB of 0.58±0.02 μmol l−1. In conclusion, MB may be considered as a cholinesterase inhibitor with additional, relevant affinity for muscarinic binding sites at concentrations at which MB is used for investigations into the endothelial system. In our opinion these interactions between MB and the cholinergic system invalidate the use of MB as a tool for the investigation of the L-arginine-NO-pathway, in particular when muscarinic receptor stimulation is involved. PMID:9298533

  19. Cholinergic components of nervous system of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium (Digenea: Schistosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Reda, Enayat S; El-Shabasy, Eman A; Said, Ashraf E; Mansour, Mohamed F A; Saleh, Mai A

    2016-08-01

    A comparison has been made for the first time between the cholinergic components of the nervous system of important human digeneans namely Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium from infected hamster (Cricentus auratus) in Egypt. In each parasite, the central nervous system consists of two cerebral ganglia and three pairs of nerve cords (ventral, lateral, and dorsal) linked together by some transverse connectives and numerous ring commissures. Peripheral cholinergic innervation was detected in oral and ventral suckers and in some parts of female reproductive system in both species, but there were some differences. The possible functions of some of these nervous components are discussed. PMID:27130318

  20. Cholinergic signal activated renin angiotensin system associated with cardiovascular changes in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Chunsong; Mao, Caiping; Wu, Lei; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Rulu; Chen, Bingxin; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2010-01-01

    Aim Cholinergic regulation is important in the control of cardiovascular and endocrine responses. The mechanisms behind cardiovascular responses induced by cholinergic activation are explored by studying hormonal systems, including renin-angiotensin and vasopressin (VP). Results In chronically prepared fetal sheep, intravenous infusion of the cholinergic agonist carbachol increased fetal systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure accompanied with bradycardia at near-term. Although intravenous administration of carbachol had no effect on plasma VP concentrations, this agonist increased angiotensin I and angiotensin II levels in fetal plasma. Fetal blood values, including sodium, osmolality, nitric oxide, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were unchanged by intravenous carbachol. Conclusion Cholinergic activation by carbachol controls fetal blood pressure and heart rate in utero. An over-activated fetal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) is associated with changes in vascular pressure following intravenous administration of carbachol, indicating that the cholinergic stimulation-mediated hormonal mechanism in the fetus might play a critical role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. PMID:19921993

  1. Recent progress in revealing the biological and medical significance of the non-neuronal cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Grando, Sergei A; Kawashima, Koichiro; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Kummer, Wolfgang; Wessler, Ignaz

    2015-11-01

    This special issue of International Immunopharmacology is the proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Non-neuronal Acetylcholine that was held on August 28-30, 2014 at the Justus Liebig University of Giessen in Germany. It contains original contributions of meeting participants covering the significant progress in understanding of the biological and medical significance of the non-neuronal cholinergic system extending from exciting insights into molecular mechanisms regulating this system via miRNAs over the discovery of novel cholinergic cellular signaling circuitries to clinical implications in cancer, wound healing, immunity and inflammation, cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases. PMID:26362206

  2. Dynamics of cholinergic function

    SciTech Connect

    Hanin, I.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics; cholinergic pathways - anatomy of the central nervous system; aging, DSAT and other clinical conditions; cholinergic pre- and post-synaptic receptors; acetylcholine release; cholinesterases, anticholinesterases and reactivators; acetylcholine synthesis, metabolism and precursors; second messenger messenger mechanisms; interaction of acetylcholine with other neurotransmitter systems; cholinergic mechanisms in physiological function, including cardiovascular events; and neurotoxic agents and false transmitters.

  3. Organization of the cholinergic systems in the brain of two lungfishes, Protopterus dolloi and Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    López, Jesús M; Domínguez, Laura; Morona, Ruth; Northcutt, R Glenn; González, Agustín

    2012-04-01

    Lungfishes (dipnoans) are currently considered the closest living relatives of tetrapods. The organization of the cholinergic systems in the brain has been carefully analyzed in most vertebrate groups, and major shared characteristics have been described, although traits particular to each vertebrate class have also been found. In the present study, we provide the first detailed information on the distribution of cholinergic cell bodies and fibers in the central nervous system in two representative species of lungfishes, the African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi) and the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri), as revealed by immunohistochemistry against the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Distinct groups of ChAT immunoreactive (ChAT-ir) cells were observed in the basal telencephalon, habenula, isthmic nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, cranial nerve motor nuclei, and the motor column of the spinal cord, and these groups seem to be highly conserved among vertebrates. In lungfishes, the presence of a cholinergic cell group in the thalamus and the absence of ChAT-ir cells in the tectum are variable traits, unique to this group and appearing several times during evolution. Other characters were observed exclusively in Neoceratodus, such as the presence of cholinergic cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the pretectal region and the superior raphe nucleus. Cholinergic fibers were found in the medial pallium, basal telencephalon, thalamus and prethalamus, optic tectum and interpeduncular nucleus. Comparison of these results with those from other classes of vertebrates, including a segmental analysis to correlate cell populations, reveals that the cholinergic systems in lungfishes largely resemble those of amphibians and other tetrapods. PMID:21826455

  4. The Forebrain Song System Mediates Predictive Call Timing in Female and Male Zebra Finches.

    PubMed

    Benichov, Jonathan I; Benezra, Sam E; Vallentin, Daniela; Globerson, Eitan; Long, Michael A; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-02-01

    The dichotomy between vocal learners and non-learners is a fundamental distinction in the study of animal communication. Male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are vocal learners that acquire a song resembling their tutors', whereas females can only produce innate calls. The acoustic structure of short calls, produced by both males and females, is not learned. However, these calls can be precisely coordinated across individuals. To examine how birds learn to synchronize their calls, we developed a vocal robot that exchanges calls with a partner bird. Because birds answer the robot with stereotyped latencies, we could program it to disrupt each bird's responses by producing calls that are likely to coincide with the bird's. Within minutes, the birds learned to avoid this disruptive masking (jamming) by adjusting the timing of their responses. Notably, females exhibited greater adaptive timing plasticity than males. Further, when challenged with complex rhythms containing jamming elements, birds dynamically adjusted the timing of their calls in anticipation of jamming. Blocking the song system cortical output dramatically reduced the precision of birds' response timing and abolished their ability to avoid jamming. Surprisingly, we observed this effect in both males and females, indicating that the female song system is functional rather than vestigial. We suggest that descending forebrain projections, including the song-production pathway, function as a general-purpose sensorimotor communication system. In the case of calls, it enables plasticity in vocal timing to facilitate social interactions, whereas in the case of songs, plasticity extends to developmental changes in vocal structure. PMID:26774786

  5. A Cell Line Producing Recombinant Nerve Growth Factor Evokes Growth Responses in Intrinsic and Grafted Central Cholinergic Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernfors, Patrik; Ebendal, Ted; Olson, Lars; Mouton, Peter; Stromberg, Ingrid; Persson, Hakan

    1989-06-01

    The rat β nerve growth factor (NGF) gene was inserted into a mammalian expression vector and cotransfected with a plasmid conferring resistance to neomycin into mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. From this transfection a stable cell line was selected that contains several hundred copies of the rat NGF gene and produces excess levels of recombinant NGF. Such genetically modified cells were implanted into the rat brain as a probe for in vivo effects of NGF on central nervous system neurons. In a model of the cortical cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer disease, we demonstrate a marked increase in the survival of, and fiber outgrowth from, grafts of fetal basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, as well as stimulation of fiber formation by intact adult intrinsic cholinergic circuits in the cerebral cortex. Adult cholinergic interneurons in intact striatum also sprout vigorously toward implanted fibroblasts. Our results suggest that this model has implications for future treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Cholinergic receptors in the upper respiratory system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, A B; Kuijpers, W; Scheres, H M; Rodrigues de Miranda, J F; Beld, A J

    1986-04-01

    Radioligand receptor binding might give more detailed information on the innervation pattern of the nasal mucosa and the character of the various neuroreceptors involved. With respect to the cholinergic receptors, this technique reveals that specific binding of tritiated I-quinuclidinyl benzilate to rat nasal mucosa homogenates occurs to a homogeneous class of binding sites, with a dissociation constant of 0.06 +/- 0.02 nM and a receptor density of 8 +/- 2 pmole/g of tissue. Binding is stereoselectively inhibited by benzetimide hydrochloride enantiomers. Pirenzepine displacement (inhibition constant = 0.5 X 10(-6) M) classifies tritiated I-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites as M2-muscarinic receptors. Methylfurthrethonium inhibits tritiated I-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding at high concentrations, pointing to the presence of low-affinity agonist binding sites, probably admixed with a small proportion of high-affinity agonist binding sites. These data obtained in the rat open new perspectives for studying muscarinic receptors in the human nose to elucidate the supposed disturbance of autonomic nerve regulation in nasal hyperreactivity. PMID:3511926

  7. Interaction between the antioxidant activity of curcumin and cholinergic system on memory retention in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarlak, Zeynab; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Moghaddasi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The cholinergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. This study investigated the effects of curcumin (turmeric extract) and the cholinergic system and their interaction on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: At first, an injection cannula was implanted in right ventricles of the animals. One week after the surgery, the animals were trained with a shuttle box set up. Post-training, injections were performed in all experiments. Administration of curcumin increased memory retention. Also administrations of nicotine and pilocarpine, the cholinergic receptor agonists, increased memory retention, while it is decreased by succinylcholine and scopolamine, the cholinergic receptor antagonists. Then co-administration of curcumin and cholinergic drugs were performed. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections were applied for the curcumin and cholinergic drugs, respectively. Results: Co-administration of curcumin (45 mg/kg) with a low dose of nicotine (0.1 µg/rat) or pilocarpine (0.5 µg/rat) increased memory retention significantly. Effects of succinylcholine (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 µg/rat) or scopolamine (0.1, 1 and 5 µg/rat) were attenuated by curcumin markedly (45 mg/kg). Conclusion: The results suggest that curcumin has a close interaction with cholinergic system in memory retention process. PMID:26019804

  8. Optogenetic studies of nicotinic contributions to cholinergic signaling in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; López-Hernández, Gretchen Y.; Lederman, James; Talmage, David A.; Role, Lorna W.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular manipulations and targeted pharmacological studies provide a compelling picture of which nicotinic receptor subtypes are where in the central nervous system (CNS) and what happens if one activates or deletes them. However, understanding the physiological contribution of nicotinic receptors to endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) signaling in the CNS has proven a more difficult problem to solve. In this review, we provide a synopsis of the literature on the use of optogenetic approaches to control the excitability of cholinergic neurons and to examine the role of CNS nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs). As is often the case, this relatively new technology has answered some questions and raised others. Overall, we believe that optogenetic manipulation of cholinergic excitability in combination with some rigorous pharmacology will ultimately advance our understanding of the many functions of nAChRs in the brain. PMID:25051276

  9. Effects of diazinon on the lymphocytic cholinergic system of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz-Resendiz, K J G; Pavón-Romero, L; Rojas-García, A E; Medina-Díaz, I M; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-08-01

    Fish rearing under intensive farming conditions can be easily disturbed by pesticides, substances that have immunotoxic properties and may predispose to infections. Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are widely used in agricultural activities; however, the mechanism of immunotoxicity of these substances is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diazinon pesticides (OPs) on the cholinergic system of immune cells as a possible target of OP immunotoxicity. We evaluated ACh levels and cholinergic (nicotinic and muscarinic) receptor concentration. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated in mononuclear cells of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a freshwater fish mostly cultivated in tropical regions around the world. The obtained results indicate that acute exposure to diazinon induces an increase in ACh concentration and a decrease in nAChR and mAChR concentrations and AChE activity in fish immune cells, This suggests that the non-neuronal lymphocytic cholinergic system may be the main target in the mechanism of OP immunotoxicity. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of immunotoxicity of pollutants and may help to take actions for animal health improvement. PMID:27260186

  10. Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line Expressing zsGreen in Cholinergic Neurons Using CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Wang, Chencheng; Zhang, Kunshan; Wang, Yingying; Gong, Xi; Wang, Yanlu; Li, Siguang; Luo, Yuping

    2016-08-01

    Lineage specific human embryonic stem cell (hESC) reporter cell line is a versatile tool for biological studies on real time monitoring of differentiation, physiological and biochemical features of special cell types and pathological mechanism of disease. Here we report the generation of ChAT-zsGreen reporter hESC line that express zsGreen under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter using CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 system. We show that the ChAT-zsGreen hESC reporter cell lines retain the features of undifferentiated hESC. After cholinergic neuronal differentiation, cholinergic neurons were clearly labeled with green fluorescence protein (zsGreen). The ChAT-zsGreen reporter hESC lines are invaluable not only for the monitoring cholinergic neuronal differentiation but also for study physiological and biochemical hallmarks of cholinergic neurons. PMID:27113041

  11. Nuclear organization of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brain of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Patzke, Nina; Bertelsen, Mads F; Fuxe, Kjell; Manger, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the nuclear organization of four immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems (cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic) within the brains of three male Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii), which had a mean brain mass of 11.6g. We found that the nuclei generally observed for these systems in other mammalian brains were present in the brain of the Tasmanian devil. Despite this, specific differences in the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems appear to carry a phylogenetic signal. In the cholinergic system, only the dorsal hypothalamic cholinergic nucleus could be observed, while an extra dorsal subdivision of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and cholinergic neurons within the gelatinous layer of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus were observed. Within the catecholaminergic system the A4 nucleus of the locus coeruleus complex was absent, as was the caudal ventrolateral serotonergic group of the serotonergic system. The organization of the orexinergic system was similar to that seen in many mammals previously studied. Overall, while showing strong similarities to the organization of these systems in other mammals, the specific differences observed in the Tasmanian devil reveal either order specific, or class specific, features of these systems. Further studies will reveal the extent of change in the nuclear organization of these systems in marsupials and how these potential changes may affect functionality. PMID:25150966

  12. Biochemical pathology and treatment strategies in Alzheimer's disease: emphasis on the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Winblad, B; Messamore, E; O'Neill, C; Cowburn, R

    1993-01-01

    The neurochemical pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been consistently shown to involve cholinergic degeneration in the cerebral cortex. This together with evidence from experimental animal studies showing that cholinergic neurones play a role in learning and memory processes has formed the basis of the cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's dementia and the major rationale for neurotransmitter replacement therapy of the disorder. PMID:8128837

  13. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Ferrari, Loris L.; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E.; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  14. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms.

    PubMed

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P; Ferrari, Loris L; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  15. The cholinergic system in the olfactory center of the terrestrial slug Limax.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Ryota; Kobayashi, Suguru; Wakiya, Kyoko; Yamagishi, Miki; Fukuoka, Masayuki; Ito, Etsuro

    2014-09-01

    Acetylcholine plays various important roles in the central nervous system of invertebrates as well as vertebrates. In the olfactory center of the terrestrial slug Limax, the local field potential (LFP) oscillates, and the change in its oscillatory frequency is thought to correlate with the detection of odor that potentially changes an ongoing behavior of the animal. Acetylcholine is known to upregulate the frequency of the LFP oscillation, and is one of the candidates for the neurotransmitters that are involved in such higher cognitive functions. However, there have been no histological data on the cholinergic system in gastropods, nor are there data on the receptors that are responsible for the upregulation of the oscillatory frequency of LFP due to the lack of analytical tools (such as antibodies or cDNA sequence information on cholinergic system-related genes). Here we cloned the cDNAs of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and several nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and investigated their localization in the brain of Limax. We also generated a polyclonal antibody against ChAT to examine its localization, and investigated pharmacologically the involvement of nAChRs in the LFP oscillation. Our data showed: 1) dense distribution of the neurons expressing mRNAs of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the olfactory center; 2) spatially unique expression patterns of different nAChRs in the olfactory center; 3) involvement of nAChRs in the upregulation of the oscillation; 4) localization of ChAT protein in nerve fibers and/or terminals; and 5) the presence of cholinergic nerves in the tentacles. PMID:24523205

  16. Targeting the Cholinergic System for Neuroprotection and/or Enhancement of Functional Recovery Following Neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Huber, Kathleen B G; Uteshev, Victor V; Pauly, James R

    2016-01-01

    Development of novel pharmacotherapies for the treatment of traumatic injury to the nervous system has been ongoing for over 40 years. Despite many promising compounds discovered using animal models, no treatments have successfully translated into the clinic. The central dogma in this field is that brain trauma initiates a complex chain of biochemical events leading to secondary brain damage and sustained neurological deficits. The delayed secondary brain injury is likely to result from multiple insults including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, dysregulated release of glutamate, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and other mediators. However, therapies targeting these systems have generally met with failure in clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to summarize the models used for preclinical neurotrauma research, provide a brief overview of previous failed clinical trials in head and spinal cord injury, and finally, to review involvement of the cholinergic system and discuss implications for future research. Possibilities and pitfalls of targeting the cholinergic system for neuroprotection and/or enhancement of functional recovery are also discussed. PMID:26818862

  17. Preclinical Evidence for a Role of the Nicotinic Cholinergic System in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Perez, Xiomara A

    2015-12-01

    One of the primary deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficits that underlie the motor symptoms associated with the disease. A plethora of animal models have been developed over the years to uncover the molecular alterations that lead to PD development. These models have provided valuable information on neurotransmitter pathways and mechanisms involved. One such a system is the nicotinic cholinergic system. Numerous studies show that nigrostriatal damage affects nicotinic receptor-mediated dopaminergic signaling; therefore therapeutic modulation of the nicotinic cholinergic system may offer a novel approach to manage PD. In fact, there is evidence showing that nicotinic receptor drugs may be useful as neuroprotective agents to prevent Parkinson's disease progression. Additional preclinical studies also show that nicotinic receptor drugs may be beneficial for the treatment of L-dopa induced dyskinesias. Here, we review preclinical findings supporting the idea that nicotinic receptors are valuable therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:26553323

  18. Layer-specific cholinergic control of human and mouse cortical synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Verhoog, Matthijs B; Obermayer, Joshua; Kortleven, Christian A; Wilbers, René; Wester, Jordi; Baayen, Johannes C; De Kock, Christiaan P J; Meredith, Rhiannon M; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2016-01-01

    Individual cortical layers have distinct roles in information processing. All layers receive cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain (BF), which is crucial for cognition. Acetylcholinergic receptors are differentially distributed across cortical layers, and recent evidence suggests that different populations of BF cholinergic neurons may target specific prefrontal cortical (PFC) layers, raising the question of whether cholinergic control of the PFC is layer dependent. Here we address this issue and reveal dendritic mechanisms by which endogenous cholinergic modulation of synaptic plasticity is opposite in superficial and deep layers of both mouse and human neocortex. Our results show that in different cortical layers, spike timing-dependent plasticity is oppositely regulated by the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) either located on dendrites of principal neurons or on GABAergic interneurons. Thus, layer-specific nAChR expression allows functional layer-specific control of cortical processing and plasticity by the BF cholinergic system, which is evolutionarily conserved from mice to humans. PMID:27604129

  19. An invertebrate-specific miRNA targeted the ancient cholinergic neuroendocrine system of oyster.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Hao; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2016-08-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is the main neurotransmitter in the cholinergic neuroendocrine system and plays an indispensable role in modulating diverse immune responses. As important transporters in choline uptake, choline transporter-like proteins (CTLs) can control ACh synthesis and release indirectly in multiple organisms. In this study, cgi-miR-2d, an invertebrate-specific miRNA in oyster Crassostrea gigas, is proved to repress the synthesis/release of ACh by targeting CgCTL1 and choline uptake in haemocytes during the early stage of pathogen infection. In short, an opposite expression pattern between CgCTL1 and cgi-miR-2d is observed during Vibrio splendidus infection, accompanied by changes in haemolymph ACh. In addition, the expression level of CgCTL1 is found to be significantly repressed after cgi-miR-2d overexpression in vivo, while both haemocyte choline and haemolymph ACh are also decreased simultaneously, similar to the finding in CgCTL1 knock-down assay. As a result, the expression of two tumour necrosis factor-like proteins and the bacteriostatic activity of oyster haemocytes are found to be altered significantly by either gain-of-function cgi-miR-2d or knock-down of CgCTL1. To our knowledge, this is the first miRNA identified in invertebrates that can target the ancient cholinergic system and augment immune response during infection. PMID:27488375

  20. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system. PMID:23599398

  1. An invertebrate-specific miRNA targeted the ancient cholinergic neuroendocrine system of oyster

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Hao; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is the main neurotransmitter in the cholinergic neuroendocrine system and plays an indispensable role in modulating diverse immune responses. As important transporters in choline uptake, choline transporter-like proteins (CTLs) can control ACh synthesis and release indirectly in multiple organisms. In this study, cgi-miR-2d, an invertebrate-specific miRNA in oyster Crassostrea gigas, is proved to repress the synthesis/release of ACh by targeting CgCTL1 and choline uptake in haemocytes during the early stage of pathogen infection. In short, an opposite expression pattern between CgCTL1 and cgi-miR-2d is observed during Vibrio splendidus infection, accompanied by changes in haemolymph ACh. In addition, the expression level of CgCTL1 is found to be significantly repressed after cgi-miR-2d overexpression in vivo, while both haemocyte choline and haemolymph ACh are also decreased simultaneously, similar to the finding in CgCTL1 knock-down assay. As a result, the expression of two tumour necrosis factor-like proteins and the bacteriostatic activity of oyster haemocytes are found to be altered significantly by either gain-of-function cgi-miR-2d or knock-down of CgCTL1. To our knowledge, this is the first miRNA identified in invertebrates that can target the ancient cholinergic system and augment immune response during infection. PMID:27488375

  2. The distribution and morphological characteristics of cholinergic cells in the brain of monotremes as revealed by ChAT immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manger, P R; Fahringer, H M; Pettigrew, J D; Siegel, J M

    2002-01-01

    The present study employs choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry to identify the cholinergic neuronal population in the central nervous system of the monotremes. Two of the three extant species of monotreme were studied: the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). The distribution of cholinergic cells in the brain of these two species was virtually identical. Distinct groups of cholinergic cells were observed in the striatum, basal forebrain, habenula, pontomesencephalon, cranial nerve motor nuclei, and spinal cord. In contrast to other tetrapods studied with this technique, we failed to find evidence for cholinergic cells in the hypothalamus, the parabigeminal nucleus (or nucleus isthmus), or the cerebral cortex. The lack of hypothalamic cholinergic neurons creates a hiatus in the continuous antero-posterior aggregation of cholinergic neurons seen in other tetrapods. This hiatus might be functionally related to the phenomenology of monotreme sleep and to the ontogeny of sleep in mammals, as juvenile placental mammals exhibit a similar combination of sleep elements to that found in adult monotremes. PMID:12476054

  3. A ten fold reduction of nicotine yield in tobacco smoke does not spare the central cholinergic system in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Correa-Santos, Monique; Dutra-Tavares, Ana C; Paes-Branco, Danielle; Nunes-Freitas, Andre; Manhães, Alex C; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    The tobacco industry has gradually decreased nicotine content in cigarette smoke but the impact of this reduction on health is still controversial. Since the central cholinergic system is the primary site of action of nicotine, here, we investigated the effects of exposure of adolescent mice to tobacco smoke containing either high or low levels of nicotine on the central cholinergic system and the effects associated with cessation of exposure. From postnatal day (PN) 30 to 45, male and female Swiss mice were exposed to tobacco smoke (whole body exposure, 8h/day, 7 days/week) generated from 2R1F (HighNic group: 1.74mg nicotine/cigarette) or 4A1 (LowNic group: 0.14mg nicotine/cigarette) research cigarettes, whereas control mice were exposed to ambient air. Cholinergic biomarkers were assessed in the cerebral cortex and midbrain by the end of exposure (PN45), at short- (PN50) and long-term (PN75) deprivation. In the cortex, nicotinic cholinergic receptor upregulation was observed with either type of cigarette. In the midbrain, upregulation was detected only in HighNic mice and remained significant in females at short-term deprivation. The high-affinity choline transporter was reduced in the cortex: of HighNic mice by the end of exposure; of both HighNic and LowNic females at short-term deprivation; of LowNic mice at long-term deprivation. These decrements were separable from effects on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, suggesting cholinergic synaptic impairment. Here, we demonstrated central cholinergic alterations in an animal model of tobacco smoke exposure during adolescence. This system was sensitive even to tobacco smoke with very low nicotine content. PMID:27287270

  4. Basic and clinical aspects of non-neuronal acetylcholine: overview of non-neuronal cholinergic systems and their biological significance.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Koichiro; Fujii, Takeshi

    2008-02-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a phylogenetically ancient molecule involved in cell-to-cell signaling in almost all life-forms on earth. Cholinergic components, including ACh, choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively) have been identified in numerous non-neuronal cells and tissues, including keratinocytes, cancer cells, immune cells, urinary bladder, airway epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, and reproductive organs, among many others. Stimulation of the mAChRs and nAChRs elicits cell-specific functional and biochemical effects. These findings support the notion that non-neuronal cholinergic systems are expressed in certain cells and tissues and are involved in the regulation of their function and that cholinergic dysfunction is related to the pathophysiology of certain diseases. They also provide clues for development of drugs with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:18285657

  5. Fructus mume Ethanol Extract Prevents Inflammation and Normalizes the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Bang, Ji Hye; Lee, Jun; Han, Jung-Soo; Kang, Hyung Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fructus mume (F. mume), the unripe fruit of Prunus mume, has long been used in Asian countries to treat cough and chronic diarrhea. We previously reported that F. mume exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a key etiological factor of vascular dementia (VaD). The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of an ethanolic extract of F. mume on the inflammatory response and cholinergic dysfunction in a model of CCH induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) in Wistar rats. Rats were assigned to three treatment groups: sham plus vehicle, BCCAo plus vehicle, and BCCAo plus F. mume extract (200 mg/kg). F. mume was administered by oral gavage from days 21 to 42 following BCCAo. Glial cell numbers were measured in the white matter and hippocampus. The hippocampal expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, angiotensin-II (Ang-II), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) were also evaluated. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) levels in the hippocampus and basal forebrain were examined. Rats with BCCAo showed an increase in the number of glial cells and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, Ang-II, RAGE, and MAPKs, all of which were significantly attenuated by F. mume treatment. F. mume administration also restored ChAT expression in the basal forebrain and hippocampus following chronic BCCAo. These results suggest that F. mume is a potentially valuable drug or nutraceutical for the treatment of VaD. PMID:26714236

  6. A cholinergic hypothesis of the unconscious in affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vakalopoulos, Costa

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between distinct pharmacological systems are proposed as a key dynamic in the formation of unconscious memories underlying rumination and mood disorder, but also reflect the plastic capacity of neural networks that can aid recovery. An inverse and reciprocal relationship is postulated between cholinergic and monoaminergic receptor subtypes. M1-type muscarinic receptor transduction facilitates encoding of unconscious, prepotent behavioral repertoires at the core of affective disorders and ADHD. Behavioral adaptation to new contingencies is mediated by the classic prototype receptor: 5-HT1A (Gi/o) and its modulation of M1-plasticity. Reversal of learning is dependent on increased phasic activation of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei and is a function of hippocampal theta. Acquired hippocampal dysfunction due to abnormal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis predicts deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory and executive function and further impairments to cognitive inhibition. Encoding of explicit memories is mediated by Gq/11 and Gs signaling of monoamines only. A role is proposed for the phasic activation of the basal forebrain cholinergic nucleus by cortical projections from the complex consisting of the insula and claustrum. Although controversial, recent studies suggest a common ontogenetic origin of the two structures and a functional coupling. Lesions of the region result in loss of motivational behavior and familiarity based judgements. A major hypothesis of the paper is that these lost faculties result indirectly, from reduced cholinergic tone. PMID:24319409

  7. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cholinergic transmission in the aged brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cholinergic theory of aging states that dysfunction of cholinergic neurons arising from the basal forebrain and terminating in the cortex and hippocampus may be involved in the cognitive decline that occurs during aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Despite years of research, pharmacological interven...

  8. Disposed to distraction: genetic variation in the cholinergic system influences distractibility but not time-on-task effects.

    PubMed

    Berry, Anne S; Demeter, Elise; Sabhapathy, Surya; English, Brett A; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-09-01

    Both the passage of time and external distraction make it difficult to keep attention on the task at hand. We tested the hypothesis that time-on-task and external distraction pose independent challenges to attention and that the brain's cholinergic system selectively modulates our ability to resist distraction. Participants with a polymorphism limiting cholinergic capacity (Ile89Val variant [rs1013940] of the choline transporter gene SLC5A7) and matched controls completed self-report measures of attention and a laboratory task that measured decrements in sustained attention with and without distraction. We found evidence that distraction and time-on-task effects are independent and that the cholinergic system is strongly linked to greater vulnerability to distraction. Ile89Val participants reported more distraction during everyday life than controls, and their task performance was more severely impacted by the presence of an ecologically valid video distractor (similar to a television playing in the background). These results are the first to demonstrate a specific impairment in cognitive control associated with the Ile89Val polymorphism and add to behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies indicating the cholinergic system's critical role in overcoming distraction. PMID:24666128

  9. Neonicotinoid insecticides inhibit cholinergic neurotransmission in a molluscan (Lymnaea stagnalis) nervous system.

    PubMed

    Vehovszky, Á; Farkas, A; Ács, A; Stoliar, O; Székács, A; Mörtl, M; Győri, J

    2015-10-01

    Neonicotinoids are highly potent and selective systemic insecticides, but their widespread use also has a growing impact on non-target animals and contaminates the environment, including surface waters. We tested the neonicotinoid insecticides commercially available in Hungary (acetamiprid, Mospilan; imidacloprid, Kohinor; thiamethoxam, Actara; clothianidin, Apacs; thiacloprid, Calypso) on cholinergic synapses that exist between the VD4 and RPeD1 neurons in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In the concentration range used (0.01-1 mg/ml), neither chemical acted as an acetylcholine (ACh) agonist; instead, both displayed antagonist activity, inhibiting the cholinergic excitatory components of the VD4-RPeD1 connection. Thiacloprid (0.01 mg/ml) blocked almost 90% of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), while the less effective thiamethoxam (0.1 mg/ml) reduced the synaptic responses by about 15%. The ACh-evoked membrane responses of the RPeD1 neuron were similarly inhibited by the neonicotinoids, confirming that the same ACh receptor (AChR) target was involved. We conclude that neonicotinoids act on nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the snail CNS. This has been established previously in the insect CNS; however, our data indicate differences in the background mechanism or the nAChR binding site in the snail. Here, we provide the first results concerning neonicotinoid-related toxic effects on the neuronal connections in the molluscan nervous system. Aquatic animals, including molluscs, are at direct risk while facing contaminated surface waters, and snails may provide a suitable model for further studies of the behavioral/neuronal consequences of intoxication by neonicotinoids. PMID:26340121

  10. Non-neuronal cholinergic system in airways and lung cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Saracino, Laura; Zorzetto, Michele; Inghilleri, Simona; Pozzi, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In the airway tract acetylcholine (ACh) is known to be the mediator of the parasympathetic nervous system. However ACh is also synthesized by a large variety of non-neuronal cells. Strongest expression is documented in neuroendocrine and in epithelial cells (ciliated, basal and secretory elements). Growing evidence suggests that a cell-type specific Ach expression and release do exist and act with local autoparacrine loop in the non-neuronal airway compartment. Here we review the molecular mechanism by which Ach is involved in regulating various aspects of innate mucosal defense, including mucociliary clearance, regulation of macrophage activation as well as in promoting epithelial cells proliferation and conferring susceptibility to lung carcinoma onset. Importantly this non-neuronal cholinergic machinery is differently regulated than the neuronal one and could be specifically therapeutically targeted. PMID:25806244

  11. Cholinergic receptors as target for cancer therapy in a systems medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Del Bufalo, A; Milic, M; Salinaro, G; Fini, M; Cesario, A

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells not innervated by cholinergic neurons express nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChR, mAChR). nAChR and mAChR are components of the auto-/paracrine-regulatory loop of non-neuronal ACh release. The cholinergic control of non-neuronal cells may be mediated by different effects (synergistic, additive, or reciprocal) triggered by these receptors. The ionic events (Ca(+2) influx) are generated by the ACh-opening of nAChR channels, while the metabolic events by ACh-binding to G-proteincoupled mAChR. Effective inter- and intracellular signaling is crucial for valuable cancer cells proliferation and survival. Depending on cancer cell type, different AChR have been identified. The proliferation of airways epithelial cancer cells and pancreatic cancer cells may be under the control of α7-nAChR and M3-mAChR, while breast cancer cells and colon cancer cells are regulated by α9-nAChR, and M3-mAChR, respectively. In turn, these receptors may activate different pathways (Ras-Raf-1-Erk-AKT) as well as other receptors (β- adrenergicR). nAChR or mAChR antagonists may inhibit cancer growth. Inhibition of M3 by antisense or antagonists (Darifenacin, Tiotropium) reduces lung or colon cancer proliferation, as well as inhibition of α9- nAChR [polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate] diminishes breast cancer cells growth. α7-nAChR silencing inhibits lung cancer proliferation. Moreover, inhibition of the nAChR-β-adrenergicR pathway (β-blockers) could be also useful. This review will describe the future translational perspectives of cholinergic receptors druginhibition in a complex disease such as cancer that poses compelling treatment challenges. Cancer happens as consequence of disease-perturbed molecular networks in relevant organ cells that change during progression. The framework for approaching these challenges is a systems approach. PMID:25324001

  12. Post-Weaning, Forebrain-Specific Perturbation of the Oxytocin System Impairs Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Jerome H.; Lee, Heon-Jin; Young, W. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) and vasopressin (Avp) are important for a wide variety of behaviors and the use of transgenic mice lacking the peptides or their receptors, particularly when their loss is spatially and temporally manipulated, offers an opportunity to closely examine their role in a particular behavior. We used a cued fear conditioning paradigm to examine associative learning in three lines of transgenic mice: mice that constitutively lack vasopressin 1a (Avpr1a−/−) or Oxt receptors (Oxtr−/−) and mice that have oxytocin receptor loss restricted to the forebrain that begins post-weaning (OxtrFB/FB). Oxtr−/− and Avpr1a−/− mice have normal conditioned freezing. OxtrFB/FB mice have a reduction in freezing behavior during acquisition, as well as during context and cue retention. In addition to reduction of Oxtr in the central nucleus of the amygdala, in vitro receptor autoradiography revealed that the OxtrFB/FB mice have significantly reduced levels of Avpr1a only in that structure. Our results show that post-weaning alteration of the distribution of Oxtr receptors is critically important for fear behavior, an effect mirrored in the neural structures that mediate it. While constitutive knockouts of Oxtr and Avpr1a are useful for identifying the neural underpinnings of some behaviors, compensatory mechanisms within some circuits may obscure other behavioral roles. PMID:21668734

  13. Cholinergic neurons and terminal fields revealed by immunohistochemistry for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. II. The peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M K; Eiden, L E; Weihe, E

    1998-05-01

    The peripheral sympathetic and parasympathetic cholinergic innervation was investigated with antibodies directed against the C-terminus of the rat vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Immunohistochemistry for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter resulted in considerably more detailed visualization of cholinergic terminal fields in the peripheral nervous system than reported previously and was well suited to also identify cholinergic perikarya. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter immunoreactivity completely delineated the preganglionic sympathetic terminals in pre- and paravertebral sympathetic ganglia, and in the adrenal medulla as well as postganglionic cholinergic neurons in the paravertebral chain. Cholinergic terminals of sudomotor and vasomotor nerves of skeletal muscle were optimally visualized. Mixed peripheral ganglia, including periprostatic and uterovaginal ganglia, exhibited extensive preganglionic cholinergic innervation of both noradrenergic and cholinergic postganglionic principal neurons which were intermingled in these ganglia. Varicose vesicular acetylcholine transporter-positive fibres and terminals, representing the cranial parasympathetic innervation of the cerebral vasculature, of salivary and lacrimal glands, of the eye, of the respiratory tract and of the upper digestive tract innervated various target structures including seromucous gland epithelium and myoepithelium, respiratory epithelium, and smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree. The only macrovascular elements receiving vesicular acetylcholine transporter-positive innervation were the cerebral arteries. The microvasculature throughout the viscera, with the exception of lymphoid tissues, the liver and kidney, received vesicular acetylcholine transporter-positive innervation while the microvasculature of limb and trunk skeletal muscle appeared to be the only relevant somatic target of vesicular acetylcholine transporter innervation. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter

  14. Basal forebrain moderates the magnitude of task-dependent amygdala functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Knodt, Annchen R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that the amygdala promotes attention and emotional memory, in part, by driving activity in downstream target regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Prior work has demonstrated that the amygdala influences these regions directly through monosynaptic glutamatergic signaling, and indirectly by driving activity of the cholinergic basal forebrain and subsequent downstream acetylcholine release. Yet to date, no work has addressed the functional relevance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in facilitating signaling from the amygdala in humans. We set out to determine how blood oxygen level-dependent signal within the amygdala and cholinergic basal forebrain interact to predict neural responses within downstream targets. Here, we use functional connectivity analyses to demonstrate that the cholinergic basal forebrain moderates increased amygdala connectivity with both the PFC and the hippocampus during the processing of biologically salient stimuli in humans. We further demonstrate that functional variation within the choline transporter gene predicts the magnitude of this modulatory effect. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence for the importance of cholinergic signaling in modulating neural pathways supporting arousal, attention and memory in humans. Further, our results may shed light on prior association studies linking functional variation within the choline transporter gene and diagnoses of major depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24847112

  15. Involvement of the Nonneuronal Cholinergic System in Bone Remodeling in Rat Midpalatal Suture after Rapid Maxillary Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Wang, Lue; Miao, Cong; Ge, Lihua; Tian, Zhenchuan; Wang, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies sought to analyze the expression and function of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo due to the lack of suitable models. We established a rat maxilla expansion model in which the midline palatine suture of the rat was rapidly expanded under mechanical force application, inducing tissue remodeling and new bone formation, which could be a suitable model to investigate the role of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo. During the expansion, the expression pattern changes of the nonneuronal cholinergic system components and the mRNA levels of OPG/RANKL were detected by immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR. The value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly increased after 1 day of expansion, indicating dominant bone resorption induced by the mechanical stimulation; however after 3 days of expansion, the value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly decreased, suggesting a dominant role of the subsequent bone formation process. Increasing expression of Ach was detected after 3 days of expansion which indicated that ACh might play a role in bone formation. The mRNA expression levels of other components also showed observable changes during the expansion which confirmed the involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in the process of bone remodeling in vivo. Further researches are still needed to figure out the detailed functions of the nonneuronal cholinergic system and its components. PMID:27478838

  16. Stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the magnocellular cell groups in human basal forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Zaborszky, L.; Hoemke, L.; Mohlberg, H.; Schleicher, A.; Amunts, K.; Zilles, K.

    2008-01-01

    The basal forebrain contains several interdigitating anatomical structures, including the diagonal band of Broca, the basal nucleus of Meynert, the ventral striatum, and also cell groups underneath the globus pallidus that bridge the centromedial amygdala to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Among the cell populations, the magnocellular, cholinergic corticopetal projection neurons have received particular attention due to their loss in Alzheimer’s disease. In MRI images, the precise delineation of these structures is difficult due to limited spatial resolution and contrast. Here, using microscopic delineations in ten human postmortem brains, we present stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the basal forebrain areas containing the magnocellular cell groups. Cytoarchitectonic mapping was performed in silver stained histological serial sections. The positions and the extent of the magnocellular cell groups within the septum (Ch1-2), the horizontal limb of the diagonal band (Ch3), and in the sublenticular part of the basal forebrain (Ch4) were traced in high-resolution digitized histological sections, 3D reconstructed, and warped to the reference space of the MNI single subject brain. The superposition of the cytoarchitectonic maps in the MNI brain shows the intersubject variability of the various Ch compartments and their stereotaxic position relative to other brain structures. Both the right and left Ch4 regions showed significantly smaller volumes when age was considered as a covariate. Probabilistic maps of compartments of the basal forebrain magnocellular system are now available as an open source reference for correlation with fMRI, PET, and structural MRI data of the living human brain. PMID:18585468

  17. [Examination of ontogenetic-morphologic growth of cholinergic receptor system in isolated preparation of human trachea in vitro].

    PubMed

    Islami, Hilmi; Sukalo, Aziz; Shabani, R; Disha, M; Kutllovci, S

    2006-01-01

    Morphologic growth of cholinergic bronchial respiratory system was examined at live and dead newborns. Tracheal smooth musculature was examined at 18 experimental preparations taken by the autopsy after exiting from different factors. Samples were divided into three groups based on gestational weeks. First group: from 23-29 gestational weeks (immature, N=5); second group: from 30-37 gestational weeks (premature, N=7); third group: from 38-41 gestational weeks (mature, N=6). Based on morphological examination of isolated preparations human trachea fingings are the following: in 23-29 week are found nerve endings with axo-axonal synapses mainly at ramification phase of lungs blood vessels net, without trachea bronchial innervations with axo-axonal synapses, and with perichondrial localization. In 30-37 gestational weeks axo-xonal synapses are found in between glands acinus's and vessels net, and also emphatic choline reactivity at lung ganglions: this suggests existing of cholinergic system at alive newborns. At 38-41 gestational weeks exists a wealthy nerve neuromuscular net in smooth tracheal musculature with different vesicles. Choline reactivity is emphasized peri and intrachondrial at lamina propria, at most around sensory glands and in smooth musculature. This suggests that there is no choline reactivity at epithelium and of existence of cholinergic system in tracheal bronchial smooth musculature. PMID:16425526

  18. The Role of Gut Microflora and the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Neuroendocrine System in Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Parth J; Nayi, Vipul R; Johnson, David A; Vinik, Aaron I

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Paralleling this epidemic is the incidence of diabetes mellitus, with a notable shift toward a much younger age of onset. While central to the pathogenesis of diabetes associated with obesity is the role of inflammation attributed to "adiposopathy." Emerging data suggest that changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance regulated by the brain precede changes in the inflammatory cascade. It has now been established that the gut microflora contributes significantly to the activation and inhibition of autonomic control and impact the set of the neuroinflammatory inhibitory reflex mediated by the cholinergic nervous system. There has been a paradigm shift toward further investigating commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus and its complications, as dysbiosis is thought to play a pivotal role in diabetic-associated disorders. This paper is intended to evaluate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and examine the potential for restoration of balance via use of probiotics. PMID:27375553

  19. The Role of Gut Microflora and the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Neuroendocrine System in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Parth J.; Nayi, Vipul R.; Johnson, David A.; Vinik, Aaron I.

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Paralleling this epidemic is the incidence of diabetes mellitus, with a notable shift toward a much younger age of onset. While central to the pathogenesis of diabetes associated with obesity is the role of inflammation attributed to “adiposopathy.” Emerging data suggest that changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance regulated by the brain precede changes in the inflammatory cascade. It has now been established that the gut microflora contributes significantly to the activation and inhibition of autonomic control and impact the set of the neuroinflammatory inhibitory reflex mediated by the cholinergic nervous system. There has been a paradigm shift toward further investigating commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus and its complications, as dysbiosis is thought to play a pivotal role in diabetic-associated disorders. This paper is intended to evaluate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and examine the potential for restoration of balance via use of probiotics. PMID:27375553

  20. Involvement of Cholinergic and Opioid System in γ-Terpinene-Mediated Antinociception

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Flávia Franceli de Brito; Lopes, Everton Moraes; de Araújo, Jonas Moura; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Veras, Leiz Maria C.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Almeida, Fernanda Regina de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The literature shows that the monoterpenes are great candidates for the development of new drugs for the treatment of various pathological processes, including painful conditions. The gamma terpinene (γ-TPN) is a monoterpene present in plant species that have multiple pharmacological properties and has structural similarity to antinociceptive monoterpenes, such as limonene and alpha-phellandrene. The γ-TPN molecular mass was evaluated by mass spectrometry and showed a pseudomolecular ion with m/z 137.0 Da. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity at 2 g/kg, p.o. γ-TPN (1.562 to 50 mg/kg, p.o.) showed an antinociceptive effect in the formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests. γ-TPN has antinociceptive action when administered by others routes in glutamate test. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of γ-TPN, the open field and rota-rod test were conducted and the γ-TPN did not show muscle relaxant activity or central depressant effect. To investigate the mechanisms of action, the animals were pretreated with naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, mecamylamine, or L-arginine in the glutamate test. γ-TPN antinociception was inhibited in the presence of naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, and mecamylamine. The results suggest that the γ-TPN (p.o.) produced antinociceptive effect in models of chemical nociception through the cholinergic and opioid systems involvement. PMID:26170885

  1. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  2. An In Vivo Pharmacological Screen Identifies Cholinergic Signaling as a Therapeutic Target in Glial-Based Nervous System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L.; Messing, Albee

    2016-01-01

    The role that glia play in neurological disease is poorly understood but increasingly acknowledged to be critical in a diverse group of disorders. Here we use a simple genetic model of Alexander disease, a progressive and severe human degenerative nervous system disease caused by a primary astroglial abnormality, to perform an in vivo screen of 1987 compounds, including many FDA-approved drugs and natural products. We identify four compounds capable of dose-dependent inhibition of nervous system toxicity. Focusing on one of these hits, glycopyrrolate, we confirm the role for muscarinic cholinergic signaling in pathogenesis using additional pharmacologic reagents and genetic approaches. We further demonstrate that muscarinic cholinergic signaling works through downstream Gαq to control oxidative stress and death of neurons and glia. Importantly, we document increased muscarinic cholinergic receptor expression in Alexander disease model mice and in postmortem brain tissue from Alexander disease patients, and that blocking muscarinic receptors in Alexander disease model mice reduces oxidative stress, emphasizing the translational significance of our findings. We have therefore identified glial muscarinic signaling as a potential therapeutic target in Alexander disease, and possibly in other gliopathic disorders as well. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the urgent need for better treatments for neurological diseases, drug development for these devastating disorders has been challenging. The effectiveness of traditional large-scale in vitro screens may be limited by the lack of the appropriate molecular, cellular, and structural environment. Using a simple Drosophila model of Alexander disease, we performed a moderate throughput chemical screen of FDA-approved drugs and natural compounds, and found that reducing muscarinic cholinergic signaling ameliorated clinical symptoms and oxidative stress in Alexander disease model flies and mice. Our work demonstrates that small

  3. The placental cholinergic system: localization to the cytotrophoblast and modulation of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, Md Badiul; Murad, Ferid; Fant, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    Background The human placenta, a non-neuronal tissue, contains an active cholinergic system comprised of acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and high affinity muscarinic receptors. The cell(s) of origin of placental ACh and its role in trophoblast function has not been defined. These studies were performed to define the cellular location of ACh synthesis (ChAT) in the human placenta and to begin studying its functional role. Results Using immunohistochemical techniques, ChAT was observed primarily within the cytotrophoblasts of preterm placentae as well as some mesenchymal elements. Similar intense immunostaining of the cytotrophoblast was observed for endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) suggesting that ACh may interact with nitric oxide (NO)-dependent signaling pathways. The ability of carbamylcholine (CCh), an ACh analogue, to stimulate a rise in intracellular Ca++ and NO production in trophoblasts was therefore tested using the BeWob30 choriocarcinoma cell as a model system. First, CCh significantly increased intracellular calcium as assessed by fluorescence microscopy. We then examined the ability of CCh to stimulate NO production by measuring total nitrite/nitrate production in conditioned media using chemiluminescence-based analysis. CCh, alone, had no effect on NO production. However, CCh increased measurable NO approximately 100% in the presence of 10 nM estradiol. This stimulatory effect was inhibited by 1 (micro)M scopolamine suggesting mediation via muscarinic receptors. Estradiol, alone, had no effect on total NO or eNOS protein or mRNA. Conclusion These data demonstrate that placental ChAT localizes to the cytotrophoblast and some mesenchymal cells in human placenta. It further suggests that ACh acts via muscarinic receptors on the trophoblast cell membrane to modulate NO in an estrogen-dependent manner. PMID:16686954

  4. [Syndrome of partial cholinergic deafferentation of the cortical mantle--a concept for describing the brain-behavior relationship in dementia diseases].

    PubMed

    Arendt, T

    1991-03-01

    The identification of morphological and biochemical changes in neurodegenerative disorders with both common and different patterns of neuropsychological dysfunction may help to define the neurobiological substrate of amnesic and dementing disorders, and, furthermore, will give some insight into the neuronal organisation of memory processes. The concept of "subcortical and cortical dementia" and the "cholinergic hypothesis of memory dysfunction" reflect two different theoretical approaches which relate psychopathological disturbances in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Korsakoff's psychosis and related conditions either to structurally or to chemically defined systems of the brain. In order to overcome limitations arising from this dichotomy of structural and chemical approaches to the brain-behaviour-relationship, the concept of a "syndrome of partial cholinergic deafferentation of the cortical mantle" is suggested in the present paper. This concept is supported by evidence derived from the biochemical, morphological and behavioural sequelae of acute and chronic experimental interference with the cholinergic afferentation of the cortical mantle by the application of neurotoxins, by pharmacological intervention and by neurotransplantation in rat. Regarding the cholinergic projection neurons of the basal forebrain and upper brainstem as components of the reticular activating system, the involvement of the cholinergic afferentation of the cortical mantle in the mediation of memory processes and their dysfunction under the conditions of neurodegenerative disorders can be explained on the basis of the "Hippocampal Memory Indexing Theory" of Teyler and DiScenna. PMID:2050315

  5. Zebra Finch Mates Use Their Forebrain Song System in Unlearned Call Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ter Maat, Andries; Trost, Lisa; Sagunsky, Hannes; Seltmann, Susanne; Gahr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Unlearned calls are produced by all birds whereas learned songs are only found in three avian taxa, most notably in songbirds. The neural basis for song learning and production is formed by interconnected song nuclei: the song control system. In addition to song, zebra finches produce large numbers of soft, unlearned calls, among which “stack” calls are uttered frequently. To determine unequivocally the calls produced by each member of a group, we mounted miniature wireless microphones on each zebra finch. We find that group living paired males and females communicate using bilateral stack calling. To investigate the role of the song control system in call-based male female communication, we recorded the electrical activity in a premotor nucleus of the song control system in freely behaving male birds. The unique combination of acoustic monitoring together with wireless brain recording of individual zebra finches in groups shows that the neuronal activity of the song system correlates with the production of unlearned stack calls. The results suggest that the song system evolved from a brain circuit controlling simple unlearned calls to a system capable of producing acoustically rich, learned vocalizations. PMID:25313846

  6. Subregional Basal Forebrain Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Kilimann, Ingo; Grothe, Michel; Heinsen, Helmut; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopez; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; dos Santos, Gláucia Aparecida Bento; da Silva, Rafael Emídio; Mitchell, Alex J.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Filippi, Massimo; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Teipel, Stefan J.

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggest severe and region-specific neurodegeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Here, we studied the between-center reliability and diagnostic accuracy of MRI-based BFCS volumetry in a large multicenter data set, including participants with prodromal (n = 41) or clinically manifest AD (n = 134) and 148 cognitively healthy controls. Atrophy was determined using voxel-based and region-of-interest based analyses of high-dimensionally normalized MRI scans using a newly created map of the BFCS based on postmortem in cranio MRI and histology. The AD group showed significant volume reductions of all subregions of the BFCS, which were most pronounced in the posterior nucleus basalis Meynert (NbM). The mild cognitive impairment-AD group showed pronounced volume reductions in the posterior NbM, but preserved volumes of anterior-medial regions. Diagnostic accuracy of posterior NbM volume was superior to hippocampus volume in both groups, despite higher multicenter variability of the BFCS measurements. The data of our study suggest that BFCS morphometry may provide an emerging biomarker in AD. PMID:24503619

  7. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke Directed Toward Cholinergic and Serotonergic Systems: More Than Just Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Stadler, Ashley; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-09-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of compounds in addition to nicotine, a known neuroteratogen. We evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of tobacco smoke extract (TSE) administered to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week. We simulated nicotine concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers, and compared TSE with an equivalent dose of nicotine alone, and to a 10-fold higher nicotine dose. We conducted longitudinal evaluations in multiple brain regions, starting in adolescence (postnatal day 30) and continued to full adulthood (day 150). TSE exposure impaired presynaptic cholinergic activity, exacerbated by a decrement in nicotinic cholinergic receptor concentrations. Although both nicotine doses produced presynaptic cholinergic deficits, these were partially compensated by hyperinnervation and receptor upregulation, effects that were absent with TSE. TSE also produced deficits in serotonin receptors in females that were not seen with nicotine. Regression analysis showed a profound sex difference in the degree to which nicotine could account for overall TSE effects: whereas the 2 nicotine doses accounted for 36%-46% of TSE effects in males, it accounted for only 7%-13% in females. Our results show that the adverse effects of TSE on neurodevelopment exceed those that can be attributed to just the nicotine present in the mixture, and further, that the sensitivity extends down to levels commensurate with second-hand smoke exposure. Because nicotine itself evoked deficits at low exposures, "harm reduction" nicotine products do not eliminate the potential for neurodevelopmental damage. PMID:26085346

  8. Effects of Maternal Choline Supplementation on the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christy M; Ash, Jessica A; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Alldred, Melissa J; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Strupp, Barbara J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology including hippocampal cholinergic projection system degeneration. Here we determined the effects of age and maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on hippocampal cholinergic deficits in Ts65Dn mice compared to 2N mice sacrificed at 6-8 and 14-18 months of age. Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates sacrificed at ages 6-8 and 14-18 mos were used for an aging study and Ts65Dn and 2N mice derived from Ts65Dn dams were maintained on either a choline-supplemented or a choline-controlled diet (conception to weaning) and examined at 14-18 mos for MCS studies. In the latter, mice were behaviorally tested on the radial arm Morris water maze (RAWM) and hippocampal tissue was examined for intensity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. Hippocampal ChAT activity was evaluated in a separate cohort. ChAT-positive fiber innervation was significantly higher in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus in Ts65Dn mice compared with 2N mice, independent of age or maternal diet. Similarly, hippocampal ChAT activity was significantly elevated in Ts65Dn mice compared to 2N mice, independent of maternal diet. A significant increase with age was seen in hippocampal cholinergic innervation of 2N mice, but not Ts65Dn mice. Degree of ChAT intensity correlated negatively with spatial memory ability in unsupplemented 2N and Ts65Dn mice, but positively in MCS 2N mice. The increased innervation produced by MCS appears to improve hippocampal function, making this a therapy that may be exploited for future translational approaches in human DS. PMID:26391045

  9. Cellular and molecular basis of cholinergic function

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdall, M.J.; Hawthorne, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 105 selections. Some of the titles are: Functional correlates of brain nicotine receptors; Muscarinic receptor subclasses; Cholinergic innervation and levels of nerve growth factor and its mRNA in the central nervous system; Developmentally regulated neurontrophic activities of Torpedo electric organ tissue; and Association of a regulatory peptide with cholinergic neurons.

  10. Shotgun proteomics implicates extracellular matrix proteins and protease systems in neuronal development induced by astrocyte cholinergic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nadia H.; Costa, Lucio G.; Shaffer, Scott A; Goodlett, David R.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in neuronal development through the release of soluble factors that affect neuronal maturation. Shotgun proteomics followed by Gene Ontology analysis was used in this study to identify proteins present in the conditioned medium of primary rat astrocytes. 133 secreted proteins were identified, the majority of which were never before reported to be produced by astrocytes. Extracellular proteins were classified based on their biological and molecular functions; most of the identified proteins were involved in neuronal development. Semi-quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify changes in the levels of proteins released by astrocytes after stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol, as we have previously reported that carbachol-treated astrocytes elicit neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons through the release of soluble factors. Carbachol up-regulated the secretion of 15 proteins and down-regulated the release of 17 proteins. Changes in the levels of four proteins involved in neuronal differentiation (thrombospondin-1, fibronectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase) were verified by Western blot or ELISA. In conclusion, this study identified a large number of proteins involved in neuronal development in the astrocyte secretome and implicated extracellular matrix proteins and protease systems in neuronal development induced by astrocyte cholinergic stimulation. PMID:19077055

  11. Optogenetic Dissection of the Basal Forebrain Neuromodulatory Control of Cortical Activation, Plasticity, and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G.; Petersen, Carl C.H.; Kepecs, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) houses major ascending projections to the entire neocortex that have long been implicated in arousal, learning, and attention. The disruption of the BF has been linked with major neurological disorders, such as coma and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in normal cognitive aging. Although it is best known for its cholinergic neurons, the BF is in fact an anatomically and neurochemically complex structure. Recent studies using transgenic mouse lines to target specific BF cell types have led to a renaissance in the study of the BF and are beginning to yield new insights about cell-type-specific circuit mechanisms during behavior. These approaches enable us to determine the behavioral conditions under which cholinergic and noncholinergic BF neurons are activated and how they control cortical processing to influence behavior. Here we discuss recent advances that have expanded our knowledge about this poorly understood brain region and laid the foundation for future cell-type-specific manipulations to modulate arousal, attention, and cortical plasticity in neurological disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the basal forebrain is best known for, and often equated with, acetylcholine-containing neurons that provide most of the cholinergic innervation of the neocortex, it is in fact an anatomically and neurochemically complex structure. Recent studies using transgenic mouse lines to target specific cell types in the basal forebrain have led to a renaissance in this field and are beginning to dissect circuit mechanisms in the basal forebrain during behavior. This review discusses recent advances in the roles of basal forebrain cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in cognition via their dynamic modulation of cortical activity. PMID:26468190

  12. Adaptive processes of the central and autonomic cholinergic neurotransmitter system: Age-related differences

    SciTech Connect

    Fortuna, S.; Pintor, A.; Michalek, H. )

    1991-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the response of the ileum strip longitudinal and circular muscle to repeated treatment with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The response was measured in terms of both biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase-AChE inhibition, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites-mAChRs, choline acetyltransferase-ChAT) and functional responsiveness (contractility of the isolated ileum stimulated by cholinergic agonists). The biochemical data were compared with those obtained for the cerebral cortex. In the ileum strip of control rats there was a significant age-related decline of AChE, maximal density of {sup 3}H-QNB binding sites (Bmax) and ChAT. During the first week of DFP treatment the cholinergic syndrome was more pronounced in aged than in young rats, resulting in 35% and 10% mortality, respectively; subsequently the syndrome attenuated. At the end of DFP treatment ileal AChE were inhibited by about 30%; the down-regulation of mAChRs was about 50% in young and 35% in aged rats. No significant differences in the recovery rate of AChE were noted between young and aged rats. On the contrary, mAChRs normalized within 5 weeks in young and 3 weeks in aged rats.

  13. Fetal chlorpyrifos exposure: adverse effects on brain cell development and cholinergic biomarkers emerge postnatally and continue into adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Dan; Seidler, Frederic J; Tate, Charlotte A; Cousins, Mandy M; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2003-01-01

    Fetal and childhood exposures to widely used organophosphate pesticides, especially chlorpyrifos (CPF), have raised concerns about developmental neurotoxicity. Previously, biomarkers for brain cell number, cell packing density, and cell size indicated that neonatal rats were more sensitive to CPF than were fetal rats, yet animals exposed prenatally still developed behavioral deficits in adolescence and adulthood. In the present study, we administered CPF to pregnant rats on gestational days 17-20, using regimens devoid of overt fetal toxicity. We then examined subsequent development of acetylcholine systems in forebrain regions involved in cognitive function and compared the effects with those on general biomarkers of cell development. Choline acetyltransferase, a constitutive marker for cholinergic nerve terminals, showed only minor CPF-induced changes during the period of rapid synaptogenesis. In contrast, hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter, which is responsive to nerve impulse activity, displayed marked suppression in the animals exposed to CPF; despite a return to nearly normal values by weaning, deficits were again apparent in adolescence and adulthood. There was no compensatory up-regulation of cholinergic receptors, as m2-muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding was unchanged. CPF also elicited delayed-onset alterations in biomarkers for general aspects of cell integrity, with reductions in cell packing density, increases in relative cell size, and contraction of neuritic extensions; however, neither the magnitude nor timing of these changes was predictive of the cholinergic defects. The present findings indicate a wide window of vulnerability of cholinergic systems to CPF, extending from prenatal through postnatal periods, occurring independently of adverse effects on general cellular neurotoxicity. PMID:12676612

  14. Where attention falls: Increased risk of falls from the converging impact of cortical cholinergic and midbrain dopamine loss on striatal function.

    PubMed

    Sarter, Martin; Albin, Roger L; Kucinski, Aaron; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a major source of hospitalization, long-term institutionalization, and death in older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Limited attentional resources are a major risk factor for falls. In this review, we specify cognitive-behavioral mechanisms that produce falls and map these mechanisms onto a model of multi-system degeneration. Results from PET studies in PD fallers and findings from a recently developed animal model support the hypothesis that falls result from interactions between loss of basal forebrain cholinergic projections to the cortex and striatal dopamine loss. Striatal dopamine loss produces inefficient, low-vigor gait, posture control, and movement. Cortical cholinergic deafferentation impairs a wide range of attentional processes, including monitoring of gait, posture and complex movements. Cholinergic cell loss reveals the full impact of striatal dopamine loss on motor performance, reflecting loss of compensatory attentional supervision of movement. Dysregulation of dorsomedial striatal circuitry is an essential, albeit not exclusive, mediator of falls in this dual-system model. Because cholinergic neuromodulatory activity influences cortical circuitry primarily via stimulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and because agonists at these receptors are known to benefit attentional processes in animals and humans, treating PD fallers with such agonists, as an adjunct to dopaminergic treatment, is predicted to reduce falls. Falls are an informative behavioral endpoint to study attentional-motor integration by striatal circuitry. PMID:24805070

  15. Investigation into the role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced damage in the rat liver and ileum

    PubMed Central

    Özyurt, Hazan; Özden, A. Sevgi; Çevİk, Özge; Özgen, Zerrin; ÇadIrcI, Selin; Elmas, Merve Açıkel; Ercan, Feriha; Şener, Göksel; Gören, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously shown that acetylcholine (ACh) may affect pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced inflammatory responses and tissue damage remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the radio-protective properties of the cholinergic system in the ileum and the liver of rats. Rats were exposed to 8-Gy single-fraction whole-abdominal irradiation and were then decapitated at either 36 h or 10 d post-irradiation. The rats were treated either with intraperitoneal physiological saline (1 ml/kg), physostigmine (80 µg/kg) or atropine (50 μg/kg) twice daily for 36 h or 10 d. Cardiac blood samples and liver and ileal tissues were obtained in which TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels were assayed using ELISA. In the liver and ileal homogenates, caspase-3 immunoblots were performed and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was analyzed. Plasma levels of IL-1β and TNF-α increased significantly following radiation (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) as compared with non-irradiated controls, and physostigmine treatment prevented the increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Plasma IL-10 levels were not found to be significantly changed following radiation, whereas physostigmine augmented IL-10 levels during the late phase (P < 0.01). In the liver and ileum homogenates, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were also elevated following radiation, and this effect was inhibited by physostigmine treatment but not by atropine. Similarly, physostigmine also reversed the changes in MPO activity and in the caspase-3 levels in the liver and ileum. Histological examination revealed related changes. Physostigmine experiments suggested that ACh has a radio-protective effect not involving the muscarinic receptors. PMID:24914105

  16. Role of the cholinergic system in the modulation of ventricular arrhythmias induced by subepicardial epinephrine in the dog.

    PubMed

    Das, P K; Bhattacharya, T K; Gambhir, S S

    1985-01-01

    The modulating role of the cholinergic system in epinephrine (EP)-induced ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) was studied in anesthetized (alpha-chloralose and pentobarbitone sodium) dogs. Unifocal VAs were produced by subepicardial infusion of EP (4 X 10(-3)M) in 2.5 X 10(-3) M CaCl2-0.9% NaCl at a rate of 10 microliter/min for a maximum period of 10 min at a time. One of the interacting drugs acetylcholine Cl (ACh), carbachol Cl (CCh), physostigmine salicylate (PHY), DL-propranolol HC1 (PROP), quindine HC1 (QD), lidocaine HC1 (LD), and atropine sulfate (AT) was given in an equimolar concentration (4 X 10(-3)M) along with EP. The effects of bilateral vagotomy (VT) were also studied. The time of onset, frequency, and duration of VAs were recorded. Reproducible cognizable VAs (less than 10%) were produced by EP in 38 of 43 experimental dogs. Focal infusion of the cholinomimetic agent ACh or CCh marketedly inhibited the arrhythmogenic activity of EP at the focal site. The effect of the anticholinesterase agent PHY was similar. These experiments showed that exogenous administration of a cholinomimetic agent or focal facilitation of endogenous cholinergic influence had an antiarrhythmic activity against EP. On the other hand, bilateral VT or focal infusion of AT markedly potentiated the arrhythmogenic potentiality of EP. Thus, it appeared that removal of endogenous influence facilitated EP-induced arrhythmias. The antiarrhythmic activities of the beta-adrenoceptor-blocking agent PROP and the membrane-stabilizing agents LD and QD against EP were confirmed using the subepicardial infusion technique. These studies show that the presence of cardiovagal tone or its facilitation inhibits, and its blockade increases, the propensity to VAs in situations in which the adrenergic system may be involved primarily or otherwise. The receptors involved appear to be muscarinic in nature. PMID:2581298

  17. Unbiased expression mapping identifies a link between the complement and cholinergic systems in the rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Rickard P F; Ström, Mikael; Heinig, Matthias; Al Nimer, Faiez; Aeinehband, Shahin; Berg, Alexander; Dominguez, Cecilia A; Vijayaraghavan, Swetha; Zhang, Xing-Mei; Harnesk, Karin; Zelano, Johan; Hübner, Norbert; Cullheim, Staffan; Darreh-Shori, Taher; Diez, Margarita; Piehl, Fredrik

    2014-02-01

    The complement system is activated in a wide spectrum of CNS diseases and is suggested to play a role in degenerative phenomena such as elimination of synaptic terminals. Still, little is known of mechanisms regulating complement activation in the CNS. Loss of synaptic terminals in the spinal cord after an experimental nerve injury is increased in the inbred DA strain compared with the PVG strain and is associated with expression of the upstream complement components C1q and C3, in the absence of membrane attack complex activation and neutrophil infiltration. To further dissect pathways regulating complement expression, we performed genome-wide expression profiling and linkage analysis in a large F2(DA × PVG) intercross, which identified quantitative trait loci regulating expression of C1qa, C1qb, C3, and C9. Unlike C1qa, C1qb, and C9, which all displayed distinct coregulation with different cis-regulated C-type lectins, C3 was regulated in a coexpression network immediately downstream of butyrylcholinesterase. Butyrylcholinesterase hydrolyses acetylcholine, which exerts immunoregulatory effects partly through TNF-α pathways. Accordingly, increased C3, but not C1q, expression was demonstrated in rat and mouse glia following TNF-α stimulation, which was abrogated in a dose-dependent manner by acetylcholine. These findings demonstrate new pathways regulating CNS complement expression using unbiased mapping in an experimental in vivo system. A direct link between cholinergic activity and complement activation is supported by in vitro experiments. The identification of distinct pathways subjected to regulation by naturally occurring genetic variability is of relevance for the understanding of disease mechanisms in neurologic conditions characterized by neuronal injury and complement activation. PMID:24353269

  18. Electrophysiological and pharmacological evaluation of the nicotinic cholinergic system in chagasic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two theories attempt to explain the changes observed in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in chagasic cardiomyopathy. The neurogenic theory proposes that receptor changes are due to loss of intracardiac ganglia parasympathetic neurons. The immunogenic theory proposes that the nAChRs changes are the result of autoantibodies against these receptors. Both theories agreed that nAChRs functional expression could be impaired in Chagas disease. Methods We evaluated nAChRs functional integrity in 54 Sprague Dawley rats, divided in two groups: healthy and chronic chagasic rats. Rats were subjected to electrocardiographic studies in the whole animal under pentobarbital anesthesia, by isolation and stimulation of vagus nerves and in isolated beating hearts (Langendorff’s preparation). Results Nicotine, 10 μM, induced a significant bradycardia in both groups. However, rats that had previously received reserpine did not respond to nicotine stimulation. β-adrenergic stimulation, followed by nicotine treatment, induced tachycardia in chagasic rats; while inducing bradycardia in healthy rats. Bilateral vagus nerve stimulation induced a significantly higher level of bradycardia in healthy rats, compared to chagasic rats; physostigmine potentiated the bradycardic response to vagal stimulation in both experimental groups. Electric stimulation (e.g., ≥ 2 Hz), in the presence of physostigmine, produced a comparable vagal response in both groups. In isolated beating-heart preparations 1 μM nicotine induced sustained bradycardia in healthy hearts while inducing tachycardia in chagasic hearts. Higher nicotine doses (e.g.,10 – 100 uM) promoted the characteristic biphasic response (i.e., bradycardia followed by tachycardia) in both groups. 10 nM DHβE antagonized the effect of 10 μM nicotine, unmasking the cholinergic bradycardic effect in healthy rats only. 1 nM α-BGT alone induced bradycardia in healthy hearts but antagonized the 10 μM nicotine

  19. 1-Pyrene-butyrylcholine: a fluorescent probe for the cholinergic system.

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, F J; Sakmann, B; Bonner, R; Eibl, H; Jovin, T M

    1975-01-01

    The action of 1-pyrene-butyrylcholine, a new cholinergic fluorescent probe, has been studied at the cellular level using electrophysiological and fluorescence techniques. The spectroscopic properties of the probe were found to be similar to those pf pyrene-butyric acid, the excited-state lifetime in air-saturated aqueous solutions being 92 nsec. At micromolar concentrations the probe was found to exert a nondepolarizing, reversible blocking action at the neuromuscular junction of the frog. The same cholinolytic effect was observed in hypersensitive denervated muscles. The synaptic localization of the probe could be observed with fluorescence microscopy using sub- and micromolar concentrations. Treatment of the nerve-muscle preparations with proteolytic enzymes, resulting in the separation of the nerve ending from the muscle end-plate, enabled a distinction to be made between the fluorescence arising from these two parts of the synapse. Intense presynaptic fluorescence was observed, and was not altered by micromolar concentrations of alpha-bungarotoxin, d-tubocurarine, hemicholinium, or cholinesterase inhibitors. Faint reversible staining of the end-plate region was observed in enzymically treated muscles and was inhibited by prior treatment with alpha-bungarotoxin. Fluorescent alpha-toxin revealed similar patterns of fluorescence in the end-plate of enzyme-treated muscles. The postsynaptic localization of the fluorescent probe is therefore tentatively identified as the one producing the cholinolytic effect upon binding to acetylcholine receptor sites. Images PMID:1081227

  20. Analysis of cholinergic markers, biogenic amines, and amino acids in the CNS of two APP overexpression mouse models.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, Debby; Marescau, Bart; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Cremers, Thomas; Mulder, Jan; Staufenbiel, Matthias; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2005-04-01

    Two transgenic mouse models expressing mutated human amyloid precursor protein and previously found to display cognitive and behavioural alterations, reminiscent of Alzheimer patients' symptomatology, were scrutinised for putative brain region-specific changes in neurochemical parameters. Brains of NSE-hAPP751m-57, APP23 and wild-type mice were microdissected to perform brain region-specific neurochemical analyses. Impairment of cholinergic transmission, the prominent neurochemical deficit in Alzheimer brain, was examined; acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase activity levels were determined as markers of the cholinergic system. Since Alzheimer neurodegeneration is not restricted to the cholinergic system, brain levels of biogenic amines and metabolites, and amino acidergic neurotransmitters and systemic amino acids were analysed as well. Cholinergic dysfunction, reflected in reduced enzymatic activity in the basal forebrain nuclei, was restricted to the APP23 model, which also exhibited more outspoken and more widespread changes in other neurotransmitter systems. Significant changes in compounds of the noradrenergic and serotonergic system were observed, as well as alterations in levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine and systemic amino acids. These observations were clearly in occurrence with the more pronounced histopathological and behavioural phenotype of the APP23 model. As transgenic models often do not represent an end-stage of the disease, some discrepancies with results from post-mortem human Alzheimer brain analyses were apparent; in particular, no significant alterations in excitatory amino acid levels were detected. Our findings of brain region-specific alterations in compound levels indicate disturbed neurotransmission pathways, and greatly add to the validity of APP23 mice as a model for Alzheimer's disease. Transgenic mouse models may be employed as a tool to study early-stage neurochemical changes, which are often not

  1. Influence of the Cholinergic System on the Immune Response of Teleost Fishes: Potential Model in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Ibarra, G. A.; Rojas-Mayorquín, A. E.; Girón-Pérez, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Fishes are the phylogenetically oldest vertebrate group, which includes more than one-half of the vertebrates on the planet; additionally, many species have ecological and economic importance. Fish are the first evolved group of organisms with adaptive immune mechanisms; consequently, they are an important link in the evolution of the immune system, thus a potential model for understanding the mechanisms of immunoregulation. Currently, the influence of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) on the cells of the immune system is widely studied in mammalian models, which have provided evidence on ACh production by immune cells (the noncholinergic neuronal system); however, these neuroimmunomodulation mechanisms in fish and lower vertebrates are poorly studied. Therefore, the objective of this review paper was to analyze the influence of the cholinergic system on the immune response of teleost fish, which could provide information concerning the possibility of bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems in these organisms and provide data for a better understanding of basic issues in neuroimmunology in lower vertebrates, such as bony fishes. Thus, the use of fish as a model in biomedical research may contribute to a better understanding of human diseases and diseases in other animals. PMID:24324508

  2. Neurochemical effects of minaprine, a novel psychotropic drug, on the central cholinergic system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Garattini, S; Forloni, G L; Tirelli, S; Ladinsky, H; Consolo, S

    1984-01-01

    Minaprine, a novel psychotropic drug with antidepressant, anticataleptic and antiaggressive properties, produced an increase in rat brain regional acetylcholine content at a subconvulsant dose of 30 mg/kg IP. The greatest increase (60%) was produced in the striatum, whereas an increase of about 35% was obtained in the hippocampus and the rest of the cortex. A small but significant increase of 14% was also found in the midbrain-hindbrain region. Minaprine decreased choline content only in the striatum. No tolerance to acute challenge was observed after 10-day chronic treatment. In vitro, the drug had no effect on striatal choline acetyltransferase activity up to a concentration of 160 microM and only weakly displaced (3H) dexetimide from its specific muscarinic receptor binding sites in striatum (IC50, 2 X 10(-4) M). After in vivo administration the drug did not affect sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake by a hippocampal homogenate. On the other hand, the drug inhibited both striatal and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase activity at high (40-160 microM) concentrations in vitro. In vivo the drug produced a brief (5 min), small (18%) decrease in the enzymic activity which corresponded in time to the peak drug level attained in the brain, but was not concomitant with a change in striatal acetylcholine content. By contrast, the increase in striatal acetylcholine appeared after 30 min when there was no longer inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and when the level of minaprine in brain was reduced by 78%. Blockade of dopamine receptors by pimozide pretreatment partially prevented the increase in striatal acetylcholine produced by minaprine, whereas interference with cholinergic or serontonergic neurotransmission was without effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6425901

  3. Architecture of the mammalian pituitary cholinergic system with observations on a putative blood acetylcholine sensor.

    PubMed

    Caffe, A R

    1996-04-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in pituitary gland function. Little is known, however, about the source and trajectory of pituitary ACh, the location of pituitary cholinergic receptors, and the pathways along which the release of pituitary ACh is controlled. Therefore choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) immunoreactive profiles have been investigated in the rat median eminence and pituitary. Furthermore, both muscarinic- (mAChRp-L) and nicotinic receptor proteinlike (nAChRp-L) immunoreactivity have been examined in the rat, rabbit, and cat pituitary. The results have demonstrated that the rat pituitary ChAT network is composed of neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and a great number of terminals in the median eminence. In the pituitary, ChAT immunolabeled profiles were virtually absent. This suggests that much of the ACh acting on pituitary cells is released as a humoral factor from the median eminence. All the examined animals expressed mAChRp-L immunostained endocrine cells in the intermediate lobe. Apart from this, marked species differences in AChRp-L immunolabeled profiles have been found. In addition, strong mAChRp-L immunoreactive rod to cone-shaped bodies were detected associated with blood vessels of the anterior and intermediate lobes in the rat and rabbit, but not in the cat. The immunolabeling was present in particles on the body plasma membrane. These characteristics suggest that the function of these structures might be to sense pituitary blood ACh levels. Consequently the name blood acetylcholine reading bodies (BARBs) was adopted to indicate these structures. It is proposed that the BARBs may play a role in the feedback control of ACh release from the median eminence. PMID:8861775

  4. Cholinergic connectivity: it's implications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew S.; Neo, Jaclyn; Udawela, Madhara; Dean, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focusing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system. PMID:23653591

  5. Calcium Imaging of Basal Forebrain Activity during Innate and Learned Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Thomas C.; Pinto, Lucas; Brock, Julien R.; Dan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays crucial roles in arousal, attention, and memory, and its impairment is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits. The BF consists of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Electrical or optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons enhances cortical processing and behavioral performance, but the natural activity of these cells during behavior is only beginning to be characterized. Even less is known about GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Here, we performed microendoscopic calcium imaging of BF neurons as mice engaged in spontaneous behaviors in their home cages (innate) or performed a go/no-go auditory discrimination task (learned). Cholinergic neurons were consistently excited during movement, including running and licking, but GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons exhibited diverse responses. All cell types were activated by overt punishment, either inside or outside of the discrimination task. These findings reveal functional similarities and distinctions between BF cell types during both spontaneous and task-related behaviors. PMID:27242444

  6. The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bartus, R T; Dean, R L; Beer, B; Lippa, A S

    1982-07-30

    Biochemical, electrophysiological, and pharmacological evidence supporting a role for cholinergic dysfunction in age-related memory disturbances is critically reviewed. An attempt has been made to identify pseudoissues, resolve certain controversies, and clarify misconceptions that have occurred in the literature. Significant cholinergic dysfunctions occur in the aged and demented central nervous system, relationships between these changes and loss of memory exist, similar memory deficits can be artificially induced by blocking cholinergic mechanisms in young subjects, and under certain tightly controlled conditions reliable memory improvements in aged subjects can be achieved after cholinergic stimulation. Conventional attempts to reduce memory impairments in clinical trials hav not been therapeutically successful, however. Possible explanations for these disappointments are given and directions for future laboratory and clinical studies are suggested. PMID:7046051

  7. Cholinergic influences on feature binding.

    PubMed

    Botly, Leigh C P; De Rosa, Eve

    2007-04-01

    The binding problem refers to the fundamental challenge of the central nervous system to integrate sensory information registered by multiple brain regions to form a unified neural representation of a stimulus. Human behavioral, neuropsychological, and functional neuroimaging evidence suggests a fundamental role for attention in feature binding; however, its neurochemical basis is currently unknown. This study examined whether acetylcholine (ACh), a neuromodulator that has been implicated in attentional processes, plays a critical role in feature binding. Using a within-subjects pharmacological design and the cholinergic muscarinic antagonist scopolamine, the present experiments demonstrate, in a rat model, a critical role for the cortical muscarinic cholinergic system in feature binding. Specifically, ACh and the attentional resources that it supports are essential for the initial feature binding process but are not required to maintain neural representations of bound stimuli. PMID:17469916

  8. Learning to Ignore: A Modeling Study of a Decremental Cholinergic Pathway and Its Influence on Attention and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oros, Nicolas; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli is essential to achieving efficient and fluid attention, and serves as the complement to increasing attention to relevant stimuli. The different cholinergic (ACh) subsystems within the basal forebrain regulate attention in distinct but complementary ways. ACh projections from the substantia innominata/nucleus…

  9. [Role of rennin-angiotensin system in cholinergic agonist carbachol-induced cardiovascular responses in ovine fetus].

    PubMed

    Geng, Chun-Song; Wan, Zhen; Feng, Ya-Hong; Fan, Yi-Sun

    2012-06-25

    To investigate the mechanisms underlying the cholinergic agonist carbachol-induced cardiovascular responses, changes of renin-angiotensin system were examined in fetal hormonal systems. In the ovine fetal model under stressless condition, the cardiovascular function was recorded. Blood samples were collected before (during baseline period) and after the intravenous administration of carbachol. Simultaneously, the levels of angiotensin I (Ang I), angiotensin II (Ang II) and vasopressin in the fetal plasma were detected by immunoradiological method. Also, blood gas, plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations were analyzed in blood samples. Results showed that in chronically prepared ovine fetus, intravenous infusion of carbachol led to a significant decrease of heart rate (P < 0.05), and a transient decrease followed by an increase of blood pressure (P < 0.05) within 30 min. After the intravenous infusion of carbachol, blood concentrations of Ang I and Ang II in near-term ovine fetus were both significantly increased (P < 0.05); however, blood concentration of vasopressin, values of blood gas, electrolytes and plasma osmolality in near-term ovine fetus were not significantly changed (P > 0.05). Blood levels of Ang I and Ang II in the atropine (M receptor antagonist) + carbachol intravenous administration group was lower than those in the carbachol group without atropine administration (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study indicates that the near-term changes of cardiovascular system induced by intravenous administration of carbachol in ovine fetus, such as blood pressure and heart rate, are associated with the changes of hormones of circulatory renin-angiotensin system. PMID:22717634

  10. Beyond the cholinergic hypothesis: do current drugs work in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Martorana, Alessandro; Esposito, Zaira; Koch, Giacomo

    2010-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory and cognitive loss, and represents the leading cause of dementia in elderly people. Besides the complex biochemical processes involved in the neuronal degeneration (formation of senile plaques containing Abeta peptides, and development of neurofibrillary tangles), other molecular and neurochemical alterations, like cholinergic deficit due to basal forebrain degeneration, also occur. Because acetylcholine has been demonstrated to be involved in cognitive processes, the idea to increase acetylcholine levels to restore cognitive deficits has gained interest (the so-called cholinergic hypothesis). This has led to the development of drugs able to prevent acetylcholine hydrolysis (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). However, the analysis of clinical efficacy of these drugs in alleviating symptoms of dementia showed unsatisfactory results. Despite such critical opinions on the efficacy of these drugs, it should be said that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and for some aspects memantine also, improve memory and other cognitive functions throughout most of the duration of the disease. The pharmacological activity of these drugs suggests an effect beyond the mere increase of acetylcholine levels. These considerations are in agreement with the idea that cognitive decline is the result of a complex and not fully elucidated interplay among different neurotransmitters. The role of each of the neurotransmitters implicated has to be related to a cognitive process and as a consequence to its decline. The current review aims to highlight the positive role of cholinergic drugs in alleviating cognitive deficits during wake as well as sleep. Moreover, we suggest that future therapeutic approaches have to be developed to restore the complex interplay between acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, or glutamate, that are likely involved in the progressive

  11. Gene regulation in the rat prefrontal cortex after learning with or without cholinergic insult.

    PubMed

    Paban, Véronique; Chambon, Caroline; Farioli, Fernand; Alescio-Lautier, Béatrice

    2011-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex is essential for a wide variety of higher functions, including attention and memory. Cholinergic neurons are thought to be of prime importance in the modulation of these processes. Degeneration of forebrain cholinergic neurons has been linked to several neurological disorders. The present study was designed to identify genes and networks in rat prefrontal cortex that are associated with learning and cholinergic-loss-memory deficit. Affymetrix microarray technology was used to screen gene expression changes in rats submitted or not to 192 IgG-saporin immunolesion of cholinergic basal forebrain and trained in spatial/object novelty tasks. Results showed learning processes were associated with significant expression of genes, which were organized in several clusters of highly correlated genes and would be involved in biological processes such as intracellular signaling process, transcription regulation, and filament organization and axon guidance. Memory loss following cortical cholinergic deafferentation was associated with significant expression of genes belonging to only one clearly delineated cluster and would be involved in biological processes related to cytoskeleton organization and proliferation, and glial and vascular remodeling, i.e., in processes associated with brain repair after injury. PMID:21345373

  12. Evolution of vertebrate forebrain development: how many different mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    FOLEY, ANN C.; STERN, CLAUDIO D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 50 years and more, many models have been proposed to explain how the nervous system is initially induced and how it becomes subdivided into gross regions such as forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and spinal cord. Among these models is the 2-signal model of Nieuwkoop & Nigtevecht (1954), who suggested that an initial signal (‘activation’) from the organiser both neuralises and specifies the forebrain, while later signals (‘transformation’) from the same region progressively caudalise portions of this initial territory. An opposing idea emerged from the work of Otto Mangold (1933) and other members of the Spemann laboratory: 2 or more distinct organisers, emitting different signals, were proposed to be responsible for inducing the head, trunk and tail regions. Since then, evidence has accumulated that supports one or the other model, but it has been very difficult to distinguish between them. Recently, a considerable body of work from mouse embryos has been interpreted as favouring the latter model, and as suggesting that a ‘head organiser’, required for the induction of the forebrain, is spatially separate from the classic organiser (Hensen's node). An extraembryonic tissue, the ‘anterior visceral endoderm’ (AVE), was proposed to be the source of forebrain-inducing signals. It is difficult to find tissues that are directly equivalent embryologically or functionally to the AVE in other vertebrates, which led some (e.g. Kessel, 1998) to propose that mammals have evolved a new way of patterning the head. We will present evidence from the chick embryo showing that the hypoblast is embryologically and functionally equivalent to the mouse AVE. Like the latter, the hypoblast also plays a role in head development. However, it does not act like a true organiser. It induces pre-neural and pre-forebrain markers, but only transiently. Further development of neural and forebrain phenotypes requires additional signals not provided by the hypoblast. In

  13. Basal forebrain motivational salience signal enhances cortical processing and decision speed

    PubMed Central

    Raver, Sylvina M.; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) contains major projections to the cerebral cortex, and plays a well-documented role in arousal, attention, decision-making, and in modulating cortical activity. BF neuronal degeneration is an early event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementias, and occurs in normal cognitive aging. While the BF is best known for its population of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, the region is anatomically and neurochemically diverse, and also contains prominent populations of non-cholinergic projection neurons. In recent years, increasing attention has been dedicated to these non-cholinergic BF neurons in order to better understand how non-cholinergic BF circuits control cortical processing and behavioral performance. In this review, we focus on a unique population of putative non-cholinergic BF neurons that encodes the motivational salience of stimuli with a robust ensemble bursting response. We review recent studies that describe the specific physiological and functional characteristics of these BF salience-encoding neurons in behaving animals. These studies support the unifying hypothesis whereby BF salience-encoding neurons act as a gain modulation mechanism of the decision-making process to enhance cortical processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli, and thereby facilitate faster and more precise behavioral responses. This function of BF salience-encoding neurons represents a critical component in determining which incoming stimuli warrant an animal’s attention, and is therefore a fundamental and early requirement of behavioral flexibility. PMID:26528157

  14. Basal forebrain motivational salience signal enhances cortical processing and decision speed.

    PubMed

    Raver, Sylvina M; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) contains major projections to the cerebral cortex, and plays a well-documented role in arousal, attention, decision-making, and in modulating cortical activity. BF neuronal degeneration is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementias, and occurs in normal cognitive aging. While the BF is best known for its population of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, the region is anatomically and neurochemically diverse, and also contains prominent populations of non-cholinergic projection neurons. In recent years, increasing attention has been dedicated to these non-cholinergic BF neurons in order to better understand how non-cholinergic BF circuits control cortical processing and behavioral performance. In this review, we focus on a unique population of putative non-cholinergic BF neurons that encodes the motivational salience of stimuli with a robust ensemble bursting response. We review recent studies that describe the specific physiological and functional characteristics of these BF salience-encoding neurons in behaving animals. These studies support the unifying hypothesis whereby BF salience-encoding neurons act as a gain modulation mechanism of the decision-making process to enhance cortical processing of behaviorally relevant stimuli, and thereby facilitate faster and more precise behavioral responses. This function of BF salience-encoding neurons represents a critical component in determining which incoming stimuli warrant an animal's attention, and is therefore a fundamental and early requirement of behavioral flexibility. PMID:26528157

  15. EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO HEPTACHLOR ON THE CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heptachlor is an environmentally persistent cyclodiene pesticide which is a known antagonist of the -aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor. Since GABA is a trophic factor for the development of other neurotransmitter systems (Lauder et al., Perspectives in Developmental Neurobiolog...

  16. Diminished trkA receptor signaling reveals cholinergic-attentional vulnerability of aging

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vinay; Howe, William M.; Welchko, Ryan M.; Naughton, Sean X.; D'Amore, Drew E.; Han, Daniel H.; Deo, Monika; Turner, David L.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying the exceptional vulnerability of the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons during pathological aging have remained elusive. Here we employed an adeno-associated viral vector-based RNA interference (AAV-RNAi) strategy to suppress the expression of trkA receptors by cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert/ substantia innominata (nMB/SI) of adult and aged rats. Suppression of trkA receptor expression impaired attentional performance selectively in aged rats. Performance correlated with trkA levels in the nMB/SI. TrkA knockdown neither affected nMB/SI cholinergic cell counts nor the decrease in cholinergic cell size observed in aged rats. However, trkA suppression augmented an age-related decrease in the density of cortical cholinergic processes and attenuated the capacity of cholinergic neurons to release ACh. The capacity of cortical synapses to release acetylcholine (ACh) in vivo was also lower in aged/trkA-AAV-infused rats than in aged or young controls, and it correlated with their attentional performance. Furthermore, age-related increases in cortical proNGF and p75 receptor levels interacted with the vector-induced loss of trkA receptors to shift NGF signaling toward p75-mediated suppression of the cholinergic phenotype, thereby attenuating cholinergic function and impairing attentional performance. These effects model the abnormal trophic regulation of cholinergic neurons and cognitive impairments in patients with early Alzheimer's disease. This rat model is useful for identifying the mechanisms rendering aging cholinergic neurons vulnerable as well as for studying the neuropathological mechanisms that are triggered by disrupted trophic signaling. PMID:23228124

  17. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems of mouse brain are modulated by LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Laura; Esteban, Gerard; Giralt, Mercedes; Valente, Tony; Bolea, Irene; Solé, Montse; Sun, Ping; Benítez, Susana; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Hidalgo, Juan; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    The possible modulatory effect of the functional LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition decline during aging has been studied. 129S1/SvlmJ mice were fed for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days with either LMN or control diets. The enzymes involved in catecholaminergic and cholinergic metabolism were determined by both immunohistological and western blot analyses. Noradrenalin, dopamine and other metabolites were quantified by HPLC analysis. Theobromine, present in cocoa, the main LMN diet component, was analysed in parallel using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines. An enhanced modulatory effect on both cholinergic and catecholaminergic transmissions was observed on 20 day fed mice. Similar effect was observed with theobromine, besides its antioxidant capacity inducing SOD-1 and GPx expression. The enhancing effect of the LMN diet and theobromine on the levels of acetylcholine-related enzymes, dopamine and specially noradrenalin confirms the beneficial role of this diet on the "cognitive reserve" and hence a possible reducing effect on cognitive decline underlying aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25756794

  18. Brain Region–Specific Alterations in the Gene Expression of Cytokines, Immune Cell Markers and Cholinergic System Components during Peripheral Endotoxin–Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Harold A; Dancho, Meghan; Regnier-Golanov, Angelique; Nasim, Mansoor; Ochani, Mahendar; Olofsson, Peder S; Ahmed, Mohamed; Miller, Edmund J; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Golanov, Eugene; Metz, Christine N; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions characterized by excessive peripheral immune responses are associated with diverse alterations in brain function, and brain-derived neural pathways regulate peripheral inflammation. Important aspects of this bidirectional peripheral immune–brain communication, including the impact of peripheral inflammation on brain region–specific cytokine responses, and brain cholinergic signaling (which plays a role in controlling peripheral cytokine levels), remain unclear. To provide insight, we studied gene expression of cytokines, immune cell markers and brain cholinergic system components in the cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum and thalamus in mice after an intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection. Endotoxemia was accompanied by elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and other cytokines and brain region–specific increases in Il1b (the highest increase, relative to basal level, was in cortex; the lowest increase was in cerebellum) and Il6 (highest increase in cerebellum; lowest increase in striatum) mRNA expression. Gene expression of brain Gfap (astrocyte marker) was also differentially increased. However, Iba1 (microglia marker) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and other brain regions in parallel with morphological changes, indicating microglia activation. Brain choline acetyltransferase (Chat ) mRNA expression was decreased in the striatum, acetylcholinesterase (Ache) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and increased in the hippocampus, and M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (Chrm1) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and the brainstem. These results reveal a previously unrecognized regional specificity in brain immunoregulatory and cholinergic system gene expression in the context of peripheral inflammation and are of interest for designing future antiinflammatory approaches. PMID:25299421

  19. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on central cholinergic systems of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1993-03-15

    The authors studied the effects of an acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field on sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake in the brain of the rat. Decreases in uptake were observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus after the animals were exposed to a magnetic field at flux densities [>=] 0.75 mT. These effects of the magnetic field were blocked by pretreating the animals with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone, but not by the peripheral opioid antagonist, naloxone methiodide. These data indicate that the magnetic-field-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain were mediated by endogenous opioids in the central nervous systems.

  20. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, John F.; Latendresse, John R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were <= 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  1. Age-dependent loss of cholinergic neurons in learning and memory-related brain regions and impaired learning in SAMP8 mice with trigeminal nerve damage.

    PubMed

    He, Yifan; Zhu, Jihong; Huang, Fang; Qin, Liu; Fan, Wenguo; He, Hongwen

    2014-11-15

    The tooth belongs to the trigeminal sensory pathway. Dental damage has been associated with impairments in the central nervous system that may be mediated by injury to the trigeminal nerve. In the present study, we investigated the effects of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve, an important peripheral nerve in the trigeminal sensory pathway, on learning and memory behaviors and structural changes in related brain regions, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Inferior alveolar nerve transection or sham surgery was performed in middle-aged (4-month-old) or elderly (7-month-old) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. When the middle-aged mice reached 8 months (middle-aged group 1) or 11 months (middle-aged group 2), and the elderly group reached 11 months, step-down passive avoidance and Y-maze tests of learning and memory were performed, and the cholinergic system was examined in the hippocampus (Nissl staining and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry) and basal forebrain (choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry). In the elderly group, animals that underwent nerve transection had fewer pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, fewer cholinergic fibers in the CA1 and dentate gyrus, and fewer cholinergic neurons in the medial septal nucleus and vertical limb of the diagonal band, compared with sham-operated animals, as well as showing impairments in learning and memory. Conversely, no significant differences in histology or behavior were observed between middle-aged group 1 or group 2 transected mice and age-matched sham-operated mice. The present findings suggest that trigeminal nerve damage in old age, but not middle age, can induce degeneration of the septal-hippocampal cholinergic system and loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and ultimately impair learning ability. Our results highlight the importance of active treatment of trigeminal nerve damage in elderly patients and those with Alzheimer's disease, and indicate that

  2. Age-dependent loss of cholinergic neurons in learning and memory-related brain regions and impaired learning in SAMP8 mice with trigeminal nerve damage

    PubMed Central

    He, Yifan; Zhu, Jihong; Huang, Fang; Qin, Liu; Fan, Wenguo; He, Hongwen

    2014-01-01

    The tooth belongs to the trigeminal sensory pathway. Dental damage has been associated with impairments in the central nervous system that may be mediated by injury to the trigeminal nerve. In the present study, we investigated the effects of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve, an important peripheral nerve in the trigeminal sensory pathway, on learning and memory behaviors and structural changes in related brain regions, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Inferior alveolar nerve transection or sham surgery was performed in middle-aged (4-month-old) or elderly (7-month-old) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. When the middle-aged mice reached 8 months (middle-aged group 1) or 11 months (middle-aged group 2), and the elderly group reached 11 months, step-down passive avoidance and Y-maze tests of learning and memory were performed, and the cholinergic system was examined in the hippocampus (Nissl staining and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry) and basal forebrain (choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry). In the elderly group, animals that underwent nerve transection had fewer pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, fewer cholinergic fibers in the CA1 and dentate gyrus, and fewer cholinergic neurons in the medial septal nucleus and vertical limb of the diagonal band, compared with sham-operated animals, as well as showing impairments in learning and memory. Conversely, no significant differences in histology or behavior were observed between middle-aged group 1 or group 2 transected mice and age-matched sham-operated mice. The present findings suggest that trigeminal nerve damage in old age, but not middle age, can induce degeneration of the septal-hippocampal cholinergic system and loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and ultimately impair learning ability. Our results highlight the importance of active treatment of trigeminal nerve damage in elderly patients and those with Alzheimer's disease, and indicate that

  3. Antidepressant-like Potentials of Buchholzia Coriacea Seed Extract: Involvement of Monoaminergic and Cholinergic Systems, and Neuronal Density in the Hippocampus of Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Onasanwo, S A; Faborode, S O; Ilenre, K O

    2016-01-01

    Buchholzia coriacea, taken by elderly, has phytochemicals that have neuro-active metabolites, and the folkloredocumented its use in neuro-behavioral despairs. Previous study in our laboratory shows that methanol extracts of Buchholziacoriacea (MEBC) seeds possess antidepressant-like potentials in laboratory rodents. This present study was conducted toinvestigate the probable mechanism(s) of action by which MEBC potentiates its effects using laboratory rodents.Involvements of serotonergic, cholinergic and adrenergic systems were studied using Forced Swimming Test (FST) and TailSuspension Test (TST) models of behavioral despair. Antagonists which including: Prazosin, an alpha-1-adrenergic receptorblocker (62.5 μg/kg, i.p.), metergoline, a 5HT2 receptor blocker (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and atropine, a -muscarinic cholinergicreceptor blocker (1mg/kg i.p.) were administered before effective dose of MEBC (50mg/kg). Also, the hippocampi of theanimals were studied for changes in neuronal density using Nissl Staining. Our findings showed that mobility was reversedin animals pre-treated with atropine, prazosin, and metergoline significantly (P˂0.05), showing a possible involvement ofthe corresponding systems. However, there was a significant reduction in immobility time (P<0.001) during FST afterchronic administration of the MEBC. The hippocampus showed no significant changes (P<0.05) in neuronal density. Inconclusion, MEBC probably potentiates its antidepressant-like potentials via the cholinergic, adrenergic and partly byserotonergic systems. PMID:27574770

  4. Genetic Risk For Nicotine Dependence in the Cholinergic System and Activation of the Brain Reward System in Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Lourdusamy, A; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Steiner, S; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Loth, E; Mann, K; Artiges, E; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Smolka, M N; Struve, M; Schumann, G; Rietschel, M; Flor, H

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation in a genomic region on chromosome 15q25.1, which encodes the alpha5, alpha3, and beta4 subunits of the cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes, confers risk to smoking and nicotine dependence (ND). Neural reward-related responses have previously been identified as important factors in the development of drug dependence involving ND. Applying an imaging genetics approach in two cohorts (N=487; N=478) of healthy non-smoking adolescents, we aimed to elucidate the impact of genome-wide significant smoking-associated variants in the CHRNA5–CHRNA3–CHRNB4 gene cluster on reward-related neural responses in central regions such as the striatum, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and personality traits related to addiction. In both samples, carriers of the rs578776 GG compared with AG/AA genotype showed a significantly lower neural response to reward outcomes in the right ventral and dorsal ACC but not the striatum or the orbitofrontal cortex. Rs578776 was unrelated to neural reward anticipation or reward magnitude. Significantly higher scores of anxiety sensitivity in GG compared with AG/AA carriers were found only in sample 1. Associations with other personality traits were not observed. Our findings suggest that the rs578776 risk variant influences susceptibility to ND by dampening the response of the ACC to reward feedback, without recruiting the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex during feedback or anticipation. Thus, it seems to have a major role in the processing of and behavioral adaptation to changing reward outcomes. PMID:23689675

  5. Genetic risk for nicotine dependence in the cholinergic system and activation of the brain reward system in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Lourdusamy, A; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Steiner, S; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Loth, E; Mann, K; Artiges, E; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Smolka, M N; Struve, M; Schumann, G; Rietschel, M; Flor, H

    2013-10-01

    Genetic variation in a genomic region on chromosome 15q25.1, which encodes the alpha5, alpha3, and beta4 subunits of the cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes, confers risk to smoking and nicotine dependence (ND). Neural reward-related responses have previously been identified as important factors in the development of drug dependence involving ND. Applying an imaging genetics approach in two cohorts (N=487; N=478) of healthy non-smoking adolescents, we aimed to elucidate the impact of genome-wide significant smoking-associated variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster on reward-related neural responses in central regions such as the striatum, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and personality traits related to addiction. In both samples, carriers of the rs578776 GG compared with AG/AA genotype showed a significantly lower neural response to reward outcomes in the right ventral and dorsal ACC but not the striatum or the orbitofrontal cortex. Rs578776 was unrelated to neural reward anticipation or reward magnitude. Significantly higher scores of anxiety sensitivity in GG compared with AG/AA carriers were found only in sample 1. Associations with other personality traits were not observed. Our findings suggest that the rs578776 risk variant influences susceptibility to ND by dampening the response of the ACC to reward feedback, without recruiting the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex during feedback or anticipation. Thus, it seems to have a major role in the processing of and behavioral adaptation to changing reward outcomes. PMID:23689675

  6. Reduced density of neuropeptide Y neurons in the somatosensory cortex of old male and female rats: relation to cholinergic depletion and recovery after nerve growth factor treatment.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, A; Paula-Barbosa, M M; Lukoyanov, N V

    2006-02-01

    Synthesis of neuropeptide Y in the neocortex and activity of the basalocortical cholinergic system are both reduced in the aging brain. We hypothesized that, by stimulating the activity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, nerve growth factor might also be capable of restoring the synthesis of neuropeptide Y in cortical neurons. Old male and female rats were intraventricularly infused with nerve growth factor for 14 days and their brains were analyzed in order to quantify the densities of neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons and of fiber varicosities stained for vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein in layers II/III, V and VI of the primary somatosensory barrel-field cortex. The areal densities of neuropeptide Y neurons and of vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein varicosities in all cortical laminae were found to be dramatically decreased in old rats when compared with young rats. However, infusions of nerve growth factor, known to exert a powerful trophic effect upon cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, have led to considerable recovery of vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein-positive terminal fields, which was paralleled by complete restoration of function in neuropeptide Y-producing neurons. With respect to the gender differences, although the density of cortical neuropeptide Y neurons was found to be significantly higher in young females than in young males and the opposite was true for vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein-positive varicosities, the general pattern of age- and treatment-related changes in these neurochemical markers was similar in both sexes. Overall, the age- and treatment-related variations in the density of cortical neuropeptide Y cells were found to correlate with those observed in the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein varicosities. These results lend support to the idea that there is a causal relationship between age-related changes in cortical cholinergic and neuropeptide Y

  7. Cholinergic neuronal lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca induce contextual fear memory generalization and impair acquisition of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Knox, Dayan; Keller, Samantha M

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (Hipp) are critical for extinction memory. Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic input to the vmPFC and Hipp is critical for neural function in these substrates, which suggests BF cholinergic neurons may be critical for extinction memory. In order to test this hypothesis, we applied cholinergic lesions to different regions of the BF and observed the effects these lesions had on extinction memory. Complete BF cholinergic lesions induced contextual fear memory generalization, and this generalized fear was resistant to extinction. Animals with complete BF cholinergic lesions could not acquire cued fear extinction. Restricted cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) mimicked the effects that BF cholinergic lesions had on contextual fear memory generalization and acquisition of fear extinction. Cholinergic lesions in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca and nucleus basalis (hDBB/NBM) induced a small deficit in extinction of generalized contextual fear memory with no accompanying deficits in cued fear extinction. The results of this study reveal that MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons are critical for inhibition and extinction of generalized contextual fear memory, and via this process, may be critical for acquisition of cued fear extinction. Further studies delineating neural circuits and mechanisms through which MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons facilitate these emotional memory processes are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26606423

  8. Cholinergic and perfusion brain networks in Parkinson disease dementia

    PubMed Central

    McKeith, Ian G.; Burn, David J.; Wyper, David J.; O'Brien, John T.; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate muscarinic M1/M4 cholinergic networks in Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and their association with changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) after 12 weeks of treatment with donepezil. Methods: Forty-nine participants (25 PDD and 24 elderly controls) underwent 123I-QNB and 99mTc-exametazime SPECT scanning. We implemented voxel principal components (PC) analysis, producing a series of PC images of patterns of interrelated voxels across individuals. Linear regression analyses derived specific M1/M4 and perfusion spatial covariance patterns (SCPs). Results: We found an M1/M4 SCP of relative decreased binding in basal forebrain, temporal, striatum, insula, and anterior cingulate (F1,47 = 31.9, p < 0.001) in cholinesterase inhibitor–naive patients with PDD, implicating limbic-paralimbic and salience cholinergic networks. The corresponding regional cerebral blood flow SCP showed relative decreased uptake in temporoparietal and prefrontal areas (F1,47 = 177.5, p < 0.001) and nodes of the frontoparietal and default mode networks (DMN). The M1/M4 pattern that correlated with an improvement in MMSE (r = 0.58, p = 0.005) revealed relatively preserved/increased pre/medial/orbitofrontal, parietal, and posterior cingulate areas coinciding with the DMN and frontoparietal networks. Conclusion: Dysfunctional limbic-paralimbic and salience cholinergic networks were associated with PDD. Established cholinergic maintenance of the DMN and frontoparietal networks may be prerequisite for cognitive remediation following cholinergic treatment in this condition. PMID:27306636

  9. Basic and modern concepts on cholinergic receptor: A review

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Prashant; Dwivedi, Shubhangi; Singh, Mukesh Pratap; Mishra, Rahul; Chandy, Anish

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic system is an important system and a branch of the autonomic nervous system which plays an important role in memory, digestion, control of heart beat, blood pressure, movement and many other functions. This article serves as both structural and functional sources of information regarding cholinergic receptors and provides a detailed understanding of the determinants governing specificity of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor to researchers. The study helps to give overall information about the fundamentals of the cholinergic system, its receptors and ongoing research in this field.

  10. Action of cholinergic poisons on the central nervous system and effectiveness of potential antidotes. Annual report 1 Jul 81-30 Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, F.; Nelson, S.

    1982-11-01

    The research aim was to determine the effects of soman, related organophosphate toxins and potential antidotes on brain regional functions in rats: The (/sup 14/C)-2-deoxyglucose procedure (2-DG) was used for mapping brain regional glucose use. Quantitative autoradiography was used for muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The 2-DG procedure gives a quantitative measure of glucose utilization in brain regions and is in index of the 'functional activity' in brain regions and systems. Values were determined in controls, rats with soman induced seizures, seizures induced by convulsants (DFP, strychnine, picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol, penicillin) and soman pretreated with TAB. Brain regional cholinergic receptor maps were prepared and some regional muscarinic and nicotinic receptor densities have been quantified. Soman (112 micrograms/kg i.m.) causes strong, continuous seizures and a dramatic (2-6 fold) increase in the rate of glucose use in 10 major brain regions. Most intense increases were in septum, substants nigra reticularis and outer layer of hippcampal dendata gyrus. The overt seizures of rats induced by convulsants DFP, strychnine, picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol and penicillin (in hippocampus) were strikingly different from that of rats with soman seizures. High doses (2X LD50) of soman in rats protected with TAB caused a 50% depression of glucose use in most brain regions. The effects of repeated soman exposure on muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are under study.

  11. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  12. Topographic organization of the basal forebrain projections to the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideki; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies have shown that the basal forebrain (BF) modulates cortical activation via its projections to the entire cortical mantle. However, the organization of these projections is only partially understood or, for certain areas, unknown. In this study, we examined the topographic organization of cholinergic and noncholinergic projections from the BF to the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortex by using retrograde tracing combined with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry in rats. The perirhinal and postrhinal cortex receives major cholinergic and noncholinergic input from the caudal BF, including the caudal globus pallidus and substantia innominata and moderate input from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band, whereas the entorhinal cortex receives major input from the rostral BF, including the medial septum and the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band. In the perirhinal cases, cholinergic projection neurons are distributed more caudally in the caudal globus pallidus than noncholinergic projection neurons. Compared with the perirhinal cases, the distribution of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons projecting to the postrhinal cortex shifts slightly caudally in the caudal globus pallidus. The distribution of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons projecting to the lateral entorhinal cortex extends more caudally in the BF than to the medial entorhinal cortex. The ratio of ChAT-positive projection neurons to total projection neurons is higher in the perirhinal/postrhinal cases (26-48%) than in the entorhinal cases (13-30%). These results indicate that the organization of cholinergic and noncholinergic projections from the BF to the parahippocampal cortex is more complex than previously described. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2503-2515, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780730

  13. [Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Xun; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Fen; Yu, Kang-Ying; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-25

    The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) is an important approach for regulating arterial blood pressure homeostasis instantaneously and physiologically. Activation of the central histaminergic or cholinergic systems results in CSR functional inhibitory resetting. However, it is unclear whether two systems at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) level display cross interaction to regulate the CSR or not. In the present study, the left or right carotid sinus region was isolated from the systemic circulation in Sprague-Dawley rats (sinus nerve was reserved) anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Respective intubation was conducted into one side isolated carotid sinus and into the femoral artery for recording the intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) simultaneously with pressure transducers connection in vivo. ISP was set at the level of 0 mmHg to eliminate the effect of initial internal pressure of the carotid sinus on the CSR function. To trigger CSR, the ISP was quickly elevated from 0 mmHg to 280 mmHg in a stepwise manner (40 mmHg) which was added at every step for over 4 s, and then ISP returned to 0 mmHg in similar steps. The original data of ISP and corresponding MAP were fitted to a modified logistic equation with five parameters to obtain the ISP-MAP, ISP-Gain relationship curves and the CSR characteristic parameters, which were statistically compared and analyzed separately. Under the precondition of no influence on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, the effects and potential regulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different cholinoceptor antagonists, the selective cholinergic M1 receptor antagonist, i.e., pirenzepine (PRZ), the M2 receptor antagonist, i.e., methoctramine (MTR) or the N1 receptor antagonist, i.e., hexamethonium (HEX) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR induced by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of histamine (HA) in rats were observed. Meanwhile, the actions and

  14. Task-phase-specific dynamics of basal forebrain neuronal ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Tingley, David; Alexander, Andrew S.; Kolbu, Sean; de Sa, Virginia R.; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons play a critical role in learning and attention, and their degeneration accompanies age-related impairments in cognition. Despite the impressive anatomical and cell-type complexity of this system, currently available data suggest that basal forebrain neurons lack complexity in their response fields, with activity primarily reflecting only macro-level brain states such as sleep and wake, onset of relevant stimuli and/or reward obtainment. The current study examined the spiking activity of basal forebrain neuron populations across multiple phases of a selective attention task, addressing, in particular, the issue of complexity in ensemble firing patterns across time. Clustering techniques applied to the full population revealed a large number of distinct categories of task-phase-specific activity patterns. Unique population firing-rate vectors defined each task phase and most categories of task-phase-specific firing had counterparts with opposing firing patterns. An analogous set of task-phase-specific firing patterns was also observed in a population of posterior parietal cortex neurons. Thus, consistent with the known anatomical complexity, basal forebrain population dynamics are capable of differentially modulating their cortical targets according to the unique sets of environmental stimuli, motor requirements, and cognitive processes associated with different task phases. PMID:25309352

  15. Analgesic and Antineuropathic Drugs Acting Through Central Cholinergic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Alessandro; Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo Di; Ghelardini, Carla

    2011-01-01

    The role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in analgesia and neuropathic pain relief is relatively unknown. This review describes how such drugs induce analgesia or alleviate neuropathic pain by acting on the central cholinergic system. Several pharmacological strategies are discussed which increase synthesis and release of acetylcholine (ACh) from cholinergic neurons. The effects of their acute and chronic administration are described. The pharmacological strategies which facilitate the physiological functions of the cholinergic system without altering the normal modulation of cholinergic signals are highlighted. It is proposed that full agonists of muscarinic or nicotinic receptors should be avoided. Their activation is too intense and un-physiological because neuronal signals are distorted when these receptors are constantly activated. Good results can be achieved by using agents that are able to a) increase ACh synthesis, b) partially inhibit cholinesterase activity c) selectively block the autoreceptor or heteroreceptor feedback mechanisms. Activation of M1 subtype muscarinic receptors induces analgesia. Chronic stimulation of nicotinic (N1) receptors has neuronal protective effects. Recent experimental results indicate a relationship between repeated cholinergic stimulation and neurotrophic activation of the glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family. At least 9 patents covering novel chemicals for cholinergic system modulation and pain control are discussed. PMID:21585331

  16. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios

    2016-07-01

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [(11)C]MP4A and [(11)C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [(123)I]5IA SPECT for the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [(123)I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. PMID:26984612

  17. Developmental alterations of the septohippocampal cholinergic projection in a lissencephalic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Pombero, Ana; Dominguez, Eduardo; Geijo-Barrientos, Emilio; Martinez, Salvador

    2015-09-01

    LIS1 is one of principal genes related with Type I lissencephaly, a severe human brain malformation characterized by abnormal neuronal migration in the cortex. The LIS1 gene encodes a brain-specific 45kDa non-catalytic subunit of platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase-1b (PAFAH1b), an enzyme that inactivates the PAF. We have studied the role of Lis1 using a Lis1/sLis1 murine model, which has deleted the first coding exon from Lis1 gene. Homozygous mice are not viable but heterozygous have shown a delayed corticogenesis and neuronal dysplasia, with enhanced cortical excitability. Lis1/sLis1 embryos also exhibited a delay of cortical innervation by the thalamocortical fibers. We have explored in Lis1/sLis1 mice anomalies in forebrain cholinergic neuron development, which migrate from pallium to subpallium, and functionally represent the main cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex, modulating cortical activity and facilitating attention, learning, and memory. We hypothesized that primary migration anomalies and/or disorganized cortex could affect cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain and septum in Lis1/sLis1 mouse. To accomplish our objective we have first studied basal forebrain neurons in Lis1/sLis1 mice during development, and described structural and hodological differences between wild-type and Lis1/sLis1 embryos. In addition, septohippocampal projections showed altered development in mutant embryos. Basal forebrain abnormalities could contribute to hippocampal excitability anomalies secondary to Lis1 mutations and may explain the cognitive symptoms associated to cortical displasia-related mental diseases and epileptogenic syndromes. PMID:26079645

  18. Differential effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade on Pavlovian incentive motivation and goal-directed action selection.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-05-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing-used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value--we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values. PMID:24370780

  19. Forebrain Mechanisms of Nociception and Pain: Analysis through Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Kenneth L.

    1999-07-01

    Pain is a unified experience composed of interacting discriminative, affective-motivational, and cognitive components, each of which is mediated and modulated through forebrain mechanisms acting at spinal, brainstem, and cerebral levels. The size of the human forebrain in relation to the spinal cord gives anatomical emphasis to forebrain control over nociceptive processing. Human forebrain pathology can cause pain without the activation of nociceptors. Functional imaging of the normal human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) shows synaptically induced increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in several regions specifically during pain. We have examined the variables of gender, type of noxious stimulus, and the origin of nociceptive input as potential determinants of the pattern and intensity of rCBF responses. The structures most consistently activated across genders and during contact heat pain, cold pain, cutaneous laser pain or intramuscular pain were the contralateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex, the bilateral thalamus and premotor cortex, and the cerebellar vermis. These regions are commonly activated in PET studies of pain conducted by other investigators, and the intensity of the brain rCBF response correlates parametrically with perceived pain intensity. To complement the human studies, we developed an animal model for investigating stimulus-induced rCBF responses in the rat. In accord with behavioral measures and the results of human PET, there is a progressive and selective activation of somatosensory and limbic system structures in the brain and brainstem following the subcutaneous injection of formalin. The animal model and human PET studies should be mutually reinforcing and thus facilitate progress in understanding forebrain mechanisms of normal and pathological pain.

  20. The Cholinergic Signaling Responsible for the Expression of a Memory-Related Protein in Primary Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsan-Ju; Chen, Shun-Sheng; Wang, Dean-Chuan; Hung, Hui-Shan

    2016-11-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction in the brain is closely related to cognitive impairment including memory loss. In addition to the degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, deficits in the cholinergic receptor signaling may also play an important role. In the present study, to examine the cholinergic signaling pathways responsible for the induction of a memory-related postsynaptic protein, a cholinergic agonist carbachol was used to induce the expression of activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) in primary rat cortical neurons. After pretreating neurons with various antagonists or inhibitors, the levels of carbachol-induced Arc protein expression were detected by Western blot analysis. The results show that carbachol induces Arc protein expression mainly through activating M1 acetylcholine receptors and the downstream phospholipase C pathway, which may lead to the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Importantly, carbachol-mediated M2 receptor activation exerts negative effects on Arc protein expression and thus counteracts the enhanced effects of M1 activation. Furthermore, it is suggested for the first time that M1-mediated enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) responses, leading to Ca(2+) entry through NMDARs, contributes to carbachol-induced Arc protein expression. These findings reveal a more complete cholinergic signaling that is responsible for carbachol-induced Arc protein expression, and thus provide more information for developing treatments that can modulate cholinergic signaling and consequently alleviate cognitive impairment. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2428-2438, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26895748

  1. Long-term changes in brain cholinergic system and behavior in rats following gestational exposure to lead: protective effect of calcium supplement

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Chand D.

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb) caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca) supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water) from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6–21) of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure. Male offspring treated with Pb showed marginal alterations in developmental landmarks such as unfolding of pinnae, lower and upper incisor eruption, fur development, eye slit formation and eye opening on postnatal day (PND) 1, whereas significant alterations were found in the righting reflex (PNDs 4–7), slant board behavior (PNDs 8–10) and forelimb hang performance (PNDs 12–16). Biochemical analysis showed decrease in synaptosomal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and an increase in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus on PND 14, PND 21, PND 28 and in the four-month age group of rats following Pb exposure. Significant deficits were also observed in total locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and open field behavior in selected age groups of Pb-exposed rats. These alterations were found to be maximal on PND 28, corresponding with the greater blood lead levels observed on PND 28. Addition of 0.02% Ca to Pb reversed the Pb-induced impairments in the cholinergic system as well as in behavioral parameters of rats. In conclusion, these data suggest that gestational exposure to Pb is able to induce long-term changes in neurological functions of offspring. Maternal Ca administration reversed these neurological effects of Pb later in life, suggesting a protective effect of calcium

  2. Long-term changes in brain cholinergic system and behavior in rats following gestational exposure to lead: protective effect of calcium supplement.

    PubMed

    Basha, Chand D; Reddy, Rajarami G

    2015-12-01

    Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb) caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca) supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water) from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6-21) of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure. Male offspring treated with Pb showed marginal alterations in developmental landmarks such as unfolding of pinnae, lower and upper incisor eruption, fur development, eye slit formation and eye opening on postnatal day (PND) 1, whereas significant alterations were found in the righting reflex (PNDs 4-7), slant board behavior (PNDs 8-10) and forelimb hang performance (PNDs 12-16). Biochemical analysis showed decrease in synaptosomal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and an increase in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus on PND 14, PND 21, PND 28 and in the four-month age group of rats following Pb exposure. Significant deficits were also observed in total locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and open field behavior in selected age groups of Pb-exposed rats. These alterations were found to be maximal on PND 28, corresponding with the greater blood lead levels observed on PND 28. Addition of 0.02% Ca to Pb reversed the Pb-induced impairments in the cholinergic system as well as in behavioral parameters of rats. In conclusion, these data suggest that gestational exposure to Pb is able to induce long-term changes in neurological functions of offspring. Maternal Ca administration reversed these neurological effects of Pb later in life, suggesting a protective effect of calcium in Pb

  3. Distinct neuronal populations in the basal forebrain encode motivational salience and movement

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Irene; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Basal forebrain (BF) is one of the largest cortically-projecting neuromodulatory systems in the mammalian brain, and plays a key role in attention, arousal, learning and memory. The cortically projecting BF neurons, comprised of mainly magnocellular cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, are widely distributed across several brain regions that spatially overlap with the ventral striatopallidal system at the ventral pallidum (VP). As a first step toward untangling the respective functions of spatially overlapping BF and VP systems, the goal of this study was to comprehensively characterize the behavioral correlates and physiological properties of heterogeneous neuronal populations in the BF region. We found that, while rats performed a reward-biased simple reaction time task, distinct neuronal populations encode either motivational salience or movement information. The motivational salience of attended stimuli is encoded by phasic bursting activity of a large population of slow-firing neurons that have large, broad, and complex action potential waveforms. In contrast, two other separate groups of neurons encode movement-related information, and respectively increase and decrease firing rates while rats maintained fixation. These two groups of neurons mostly have higher firing rates and small, narrow action potential waveforms. These results support the conclusion that multiple neurophysiologically distinct neuronal populations in the BF region operate independently of each other as parallel functional circuits. These observations also caution against interpreting neuronal activity in this region as a homogeneous population reflecting the function of either BF or VP alone. We suggest that salience- and movement-related neuronal populations likely correspond to BF corticopetal neurons and VP neurons, respectively. PMID:25538586

  4. Genetically Induced Cholinergic Hyper-Innervation Enhances Taste Learning

    PubMed Central

    Neseliler, Selin; Narayanan, Darshana; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Katz, Donald B.; Birren, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Acute inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to impair many forms of simple learning, and notably conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The most adhered-to theory that has emerged as a result of this work – that ACh increases a taste’s perceived novelty, and thereby its associability – would be further strengthened by evidence showing that enhanced cholinergic function improves learning above normal levels. Experimental testing of this corollary hypothesis has been limited, however, by side-effects of pharmacological ACh agonism and by the absence of a model that achieves long-term increases in cholinergic signaling. Here, we present this further test of the ACh hypothesis, making use of mice lacking the p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor gene, which show a resultant over-abundance of cholinergic neurons in sub-regions of the basal forebrain (BF). We first demonstrate that the p75−/− abnormality directly affects portions of the CTA circuit, locating mouse gustatory cortex (GC) using a functional assay and then using immunohistochemisty to demonstrate cholinergic hyper-innervation of GC in the mutant mice – hyper-innervation that is unaccompanied by changes in cell numbers or compensatory changes in muscarinic receptor densities. We then demonstrate that both p75−/− and wild-type (WT) mice learn robust CTAs, which extinguish more slowly in the mutants. Further testing to distinguish effects on learning from alterations in memory retention demonstrate that p75−/− mice do in fact learn stronger CTAs than WT mice. These data provide novel evidence for the hypothesis linking ACh and taste learning. PMID:22144949

  5. N-palmitoyl serotonin alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment via regulation of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and expression of BDNF and p-CREB in mice.

    PubMed

    Min, A Young; Doo, Choon Nan; Son, Eun Jung; Sung, Nak Yun; Lee, Kun Jong; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2015-12-01

    N-Palmitoyl-5-hydroxytryptamines (Pal-5HT), a cannabinoid, has recently been reported to express anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory actions in RBL-2H3 cells, and ameliorate glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT-22 cells. In this study, we examined the effect of Pal-5HT on deficits of learning and memory induced by scopolamine in mice. Memory performance was evaluated using Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), level of oxidative stress markers, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) were determined. Loss of neuronal cells in hippocampus was evaluated by histological examinations. Pal-5HT significantly improved the amnesia in the behavioral assessment. Pal-5HT regulated cholinergic function by inhibiting scopolamine-induced elevation of AChE activity and decline of ChAT activity. Pal-5HT suppressed oxidative stress by increasing activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) or NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) and lowering MDA level. Additionally, it prevented against scopolamine-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2. Moreover, Pal-5HT suppressed the death of neuronal cells in CA1 and CA3 regions, while it restored expression of p-CREB and BDNF in hippocampus. Taken together, Pal-5HT is suggested to ameliorate deficits of memory and learning through regulation of cholinergic function, activation of antioxidant systems as well as restoration of BDNF and p-CREB expression. From these, Pal-5HT may be a potential candidate to prevent against neurodegeneration related to the memory deficit. PMID:26408985

  6. Cholinergic mechanisms in spinal locomotion-potential target for rehabilitation approaches.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Larry M; McVagh, J R; Noga, B R; Cabaj, A M; Majczyński, H; Sławińska, Urszula; Provencher, J; Leblond, H; Rossignol, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Previous experiments implicate cholinergic brainstem and spinal systems in the control of locomotion. Our results demonstrate that the endogenous cholinergic propriospinal system, acting via M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors, is capable of consistently producing well-coordinated locomotor activity in the in vitro neonatal preparation, placing it in a position to contribute to normal locomotion and to provide a basis for recovery of locomotor capability in the absence of descending pathways. Tests of these suggestions, however, reveal that the spinal cholinergic system plays little if any role in the induction of locomotion, because MLR-evoked locomotion in decerebrate cats is not prevented by cholinergic antagonists. Furthermore, it is not required for the development of stepping movements after spinal cord injury, because cholinergic agonists do not facilitate the appearance of locomotion after spinal cord injury, unlike the dramatic locomotion-promoting effects of clonidine, a noradrenergic α-2 agonist. Furthermore, cholinergic antagonists actually improve locomotor activity after spinal cord injury, suggesting that plastic changes in the spinal cholinergic system interfere with locomotion rather than facilitating it. Changes that have been observed in the cholinergic innervation of motoneurons after spinal cord injury do not decrease motoneuron excitability, as expected. Instead, the development of a "hyper-cholinergic" state after spinal cord injury appears to enhance motoneuron output and suppress locomotion. A cholinergic suppression of afferent input from the limb after spinal cord injury is also evident from our data, and this may contribute to the ability of cholinergic antagonists to improve locomotion. Not only is a role for the spinal cholinergic system in suppressing locomotion after SCI suggested by our results, but an obligatory contribution of a brainstem cholinergic relay to reticulospinal locomotor command systems is not confirmed by our experiments

  7. Postnatal development of nestin positive neurons in rat basal forebrain: different onset and topography with choline acetyltransferase and parvalbumin expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai-Hua; Li, Dong-Pei; Gu, Huai-Yu; Jie-Xu; Yao, Zhi-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Our previous studies identified a sub-population of cholinergic neurons which express nestin in the rostral part of the basal forebrain (BF) in normal adult rats. In the present study, the postnatal developmental patterns of nestin, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) positive neurons were explored by means of immunohistochemistry combined with immunofluorescence double label methods. Compared with early onset of ChAT expression (from P1) and delayed onset of PV expression (from P16), nestin positive activity was detected in the BF from P9 and co-expressed by parts of the ChAT positive neurons within the same region during the whole postnatal development process. However, ChAT and PV were not coexpressed by the neurons within the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) of BF. These results might imply a composite of separate development patterns displayed by different subpopulations of cholinergic neurons (nestin positive cholinergic neurons and nestin negative cholinergic neurons) within this region. Moreover, the topographic distribution of nestin, ChAT and PV positive neurons also showed different characteristics. In summary, our present study revealed a remarkable timing and topographic difference on the postnatal development of the nestin expression within the MS-DBB of BF compared with ChAT and PV expression. It is further suggested that nestin is re-expressed by cholinergic neurons in the BF after differentiation but not persisted from neuronal precursor cells. PMID:24657285

  8. A two-layer biophysical model of cholinergic neuromodulation in olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoshi; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain regulate multiple olfactory bulb (OB) functions including odor discrimination, perceptual learning, and short term memory. Previous studies have shown that nicotinic cholinergic receptor activation sharpens mitral cell chemoreceptive fields, likely via intraglomerular circuitry. Muscarinic cholinergic activation is less well understood, though muscarinic receptors are implicated in olfactory learning and in the regulation of synchronized oscillatory dynamics in hippocampus and cortex. To understand the mechanisms underlying cholinergic neuromodulation in OB, we developed a biophysical model of the OB neuronal network including both glomerular layer and external plexiform layer (EPL) computations and incorporating both nicotinic and muscarinic neuromodulatory effects. Our simulations show how nicotinic activation within glomerular circuits sharpens mitral cell chemoreceptive fields, even in the absence of EPL circuitry, but does not facilitate intrinsic oscillations or spike synchronization. In contrast, muscarinic receptor activation increases mitral cell spike synchronization and field oscillatory power by potentiating granule cell excitability and lateral inhibitory interactions within the EPL, but has little effect on mitral cell firing rates and hence will not sharpen olfactory representations under a rate metric. These results are consistent with the theory that EPL interactions regulate the timing, rather than the existence, of mitral cell action potentials, and perform their computations with respect to a spike timing-based metric. This general model suggests that the roles of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in olfactory bulb are both distinct and complementary to one another, together regulating the effects of ascending cholinergic inputs on olfactory bulb transformations. PMID:23407960

  9. Age-associated leukoaraiosis and cortical cholinergic deafferentation

    PubMed Central

    Bohnen, N I.; Müller, M L.T.M.; Kuwabara, H; Constantine, G M.; Studenski, S A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between age-associated MRI leukoaraiosis or white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cortical acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Background: One possible mechanism of cognitive decline in elderly individuals with leukoaraiosis is disruption of cholinergic fibers by strategically located white matter lesions. Periventricular lesions may have a higher chance of disrupting cholinergic projections compared with more superficial nonperiventricular white matter lesions because of anatomic proximity to the major cholinergic axonal projection bundles that originate from the basal forebrain. Methods: Community-dwelling, middle-aged and elderly subjects without dementia (mean age 71.0 ± 9.2 years; 55–84 years; n = 18) underwent brain MRI and AChE PET imaging. The severity of periventricular and nonperiventricular WMH on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI images was scored using the semiquantitative rating scale of Scheltens et al. [11C]methyl-4-piperidinyl propionate AChE PET imaging was used to assess cortical AChE activity. Age-corrected Spearman partial rank correlation coefficients were calculated. Results: The severity of periventricular (R = −0.52, p = 0.04) but not nonperiventricular (R = −0.20, not significant) WMH was inversely related to global cortical AChE activity. Regional cortical cholinergic effects of periventricular WMH were most significant for the occipital lobe (R = −0.58, p = 0.02). Conclusions: The presence of periventricular but not nonperiventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is significantly associated with lower cortical cholinergic activity. These findings support a regionally specific disruption of cholinergic projection fibers by WMH. GLOSSARY AChE = acetylcholinesterase; AD = Alzheimer disease; CADASIL = cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy; CPT-RT = Conners continuous performance test reaction time; CPT-SE = Conners

  10. The effect of prefrontal stimulation on the firing of basal forebrain neurons in urethane anesthetized rat

    PubMed Central

    Gyengési, Erika; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Détári, László

    2008-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) contains a heterogeneous population of cholinergic and non-cholinergic corticopetal neurons and interneurons. Neurons firing at a higher rate during fast cortical EEG activity (f > 16Hz) were called F-cells, while neurons that increase their firing rate during high-amplitude slow-cortical waves (f < 4Hz) were categorized as S-cells. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) projects heavily to the BF, although little is know how it affects the firing of BF units. In this study, we investigated the effect of stimulation of the medial PFC on the firing rate of BF neurons (n=57) that were subsequently labeled by biocytin using juxtacellular filling (n=22). BF units were categorized in relation to tail-pinch induced and spontaneous EEG changes. Electrical stimulation of the medial PFC led to responses in 28 out of 41 F cells and in 8 out of 9 S cells. Within the sample of responsive F cells, 57% showed excitation (n=8) or excitation followed by inhibitory period (n=8). The remaining F cells expressed a short (n=6) or long inhibitory (n=6) response. In contrast, 75% of the recorded S cells (n=9) reduced their firing after prefrontal stimulation. Among the F-cells, we recovered one cholinergic neuron and one parvalbumin-containing neuron using juxtacellular filling and subsequent immunocytochemistry. While the PV cell displayed short latency facilitation, the cholinergic cell showed significant inhibition with much longer latency in response to the prefrontal stimulus. This is in agreement with previous anatomical data showing that prefrontal projections directly target mostly non-cholinergic cells, including GABAergic neurons. PMID:18355633

  11. Neurodevelopment Genes in Lampreys Reveal Trends for Forebrain Evolution in Craniates

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Adèle; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Marrakchi, Emna; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Mazan, Sylvie; Rétaux, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    The forebrain is the brain region which has undergone the most dramatic changes through vertebrate evolution. Analyses conducted in lampreys are essential to gain insight into the broad ancestral characteristics of the forebrain at the dawn of vertebrates, and to understand the molecular basis for the diversifications that have taken place in cyclostomes and gnathostomes following their splitting. Here, we report the embryonic expression patterns of 43 lamprey genes, coding for transcription factors or signaling molecules known to be involved in cell proliferation, stemcellness, neurogenesis, patterning and regionalization in the developing forebrain. Systematic expression patterns comparisons with model organisms highlight conservations likely to reflect shared features present in the vertebrate ancestors. They also point to changes in signaling systems –pathways which control the growth and patterning of the neuroepithelium-, which may have been crucial in the evolution of forebrain anatomy at the origin of vertebrates. PMID:19399187

  12. Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain

    SciTech Connect

    Le Moine, C.; Normand, E.; Guitteny, A.F.; Fouque, B.; Teoule, R.; Bloch, B. )

    1990-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons.

  13. Cholinergic Circuit Control of Postnatal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Asrican, Brent; Paez-Gonzalez, Patricia; Erb, Joshua; Kuo, Chay T.

    2016-01-01

    New neuron addition via continued neurogenesis in the postnatal/adult mammalian brain presents a distinct form of nervous system plasticity. During embryonic development, precise temporal and spatial patterns of neurogenesis are necessary to create the nervous system architecture. Similar between embryonic and postnatal stages, neurogenic proliferation is regulated by neural stem cell (NSC)-intrinsic mechanisms layered upon cues from their local microenvironmental niche. Following developmental assembly, it remains relatively unclear what may be the key driving forces that sustain continued production of neurons in the postnatal/adult brain. Recent experimental evidence suggests that patterned activity from specific neural circuits can also directly govern postnatal/adult neurogenesis. Here, we review experimental findings that revealed cholinergic modulation, and how patterns of neuronal activity and acetylcholine release may differentially or synergistically activate downstream signaling in NSCs. Higher-order excitatory and inhibitory inputs regulating cholinergic neuron firing, and their implications in neurogenesis control are also considered. PMID:27468423

  14. Targeting the Nicotinic Cholinergic System to Treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Rationale and Progress to Date

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Alexandra S.; Schaubhut, Geoffrey; Shipman, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common, chronic neurobehavioral disorder related to clinically significant levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. ADHD begins in childhood and symptoms persist into adulthood for the majority of those with the disorder. Associated features of ADHD include emotion dysregulation and cognitive impairments which contribute to the considerable functional impairments in this disorder. Current approved treatments are reasonably effective however a significant need remains for new pharmacotherapies, both for individuals who do not achieve a full therapeutic response and for symptoms that are under-treated including cognition and emotion regulation. The striking relationship between ADHD and cigarette smoking and the known effects of nicotine on cognition has spurred research into the therapeutic potential of nicotinic agents for ADHD. Although there are no approved medications for ADHD that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, results from many trials of nicotinic drugs are available and reviewed in this article. ADHD symptoms were reduced in the majority of published studies of nicotine and novel α4β2 nicotinic agonists in adult ADHD. The drugs were generally well tolerated, with mild to moderate side effects reported, which were largely consistent with cholinergic stimulation and included nausea, dizziness, and gastrointestinal distress. Within-subject crossover study designs were used in the majority of positive studies. This design may be particularly useful in ADHD trials because it minimizes variability in this notoriously heterogeneous diagnostic group. In addition, many studies found evidence for a beneficial effect of nicotinic stimulation on cognitive and emotional domains. Thus, targeting nAChRs in ADHD appears to have modest clinical benefit in adult ADHD. Continued refinement of nAChR agonists with greater specificity and fewer side effects may lead to even more

  15. Primary cilia and forebrain development.

    PubMed

    Willaredt, Marc August; Tasouri, Evangelia; Tucker, Kerry L

    2013-01-01

    With a microtubule-based axoneme supporting its plasma membrane-ensheathed projection from the basal body of almost all cell types in the human body, and present in only one copy per cell, the primary cilium can be considered an organelle sui generis. Although it was first observed and recorded in histological studies from the late 19th century, the tiny structure was essentially forgotten for many decades. In the past ten years, however, scientists have turned their eyes once again upon primary cilia and realized that they are very important for the development of almost all organs in the mammalian body, especially those dependent upon the signaling from members Hedgehog family, such as Indian and Sonic hedgehog. In this review, we outline the roles that primary cilia play in forebrain development, not just in the crucial transduction of Sonic hedgehog signaling, but also new results showing that cilia are important for cell cycle progression in proliferating neural precursors. We will focus upon cerebral cortex development but will also discuss the importance of cilia for the embryonic hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and diencephalon. PMID:23085524

  16. Loss of medial septum cholinergic neurons in THY-Tau22 mouse model: what links with tau pathology?

    PubMed

    Belarbi, K; Burnouf, S; Fernandez-Gomez, F-J; Desmercières, J; Troquier, L; Brouillette, J; Tsambou, L; Grosjean, M-E; Caillierez, R; Demeyer, D; Hamdane, M; Schindowski, K; Blum, D; Buée, L

    2011-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder histologically defined by the cerebral accumulation of amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is another hallmark of the disease thought to contribute to the cognitive dysfunctions. To this date, the mechanisms underlying cholinergic neurons degeneration remain uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between neurofibrillary degeneration and cholinergic defects in AD using THY-Tau22 transgenic mouse model exhibiting a major hippocampal AD-like tau pathology and hyperphosphorylated tau species in the septohippocampal pathway. Here, we report that at a time THY-Tau22 mice display strong reference memory alterations, the retrograde transport of fluorogold through the septohippocampal pathway is altered. This impairment is associated with a significant reduction in the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive cholinergic neurons in the medial septum. Analysis of nerve growth factor (NGF) levels supports an accumulation of the mature neurotrophin in the hippocampus of THY-Tau22 mice, consistent with a decrease of its uptake or retrograde transport by cholinergic terminals. Finally, our data strongly support that tau pathology could be instrumental in the cholinergic neuronal loss observed in AD. PMID:21605043

  17. Roof plate mediated morphogenesis of the forebrain: New players join the game.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep; Sen, Jonaki

    2016-05-15

    The roof plate is a crucial signaling center located at the dorsal midline of the developing central nervous system (CNS) along its rostro-caudal axis. By virtue of secreting multiple signaling molecules, it regulates diverse processes such as specification of dorsal fate, proliferation and axon guidance. In the forebrain, the roof plate is not only involved in patterning but is also involved in the division of the single forebrain vesicle into the two cerebral hemispheres, the failure of which leads to certain forms of holoprosencephaly. Although several molecular players such as Fgfs, BMPs, Wnts and Shh have been identified as crucial regulators of development of the forebrain, little is known about how they interact to bring about the morphological changes associated with the division of the forebrain vesicle into the cerebral hemispheres. Recent studies have now identified the dorsal mesenchyme as an additional source of signaling cues, which is likely to influence the division of the forebrain vesicle into cerebral hemispheres. In this review, we discuss the current understanding about the molecular mechanisms of roof plate mediated patterning and morphogenesis of the forebrain including some recently identified factors that influence this process and also highlight the gaps in our knowledge that remain. PMID:27012761

  18. Cerebrolysin modulates pronerve growth factor/nerve growth factor ratio and ameliorates the cholinergic deficit in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ubhi, Kiren; Rockenstein, Edward; Vazquez-Roque, Ruben; Mante, Michael; Inglis, Chandra; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Fahnestock, Margaret; Doppler, Edith; Novak, Philip; Moessler, Herbert; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by degeneration of neocortex, limbic system, and basal forebrain, accompanied by accumulation of amyloid-β and tangle formation. Cerebrolysin (CBL), a peptide mixture with neurotrophic-like effects, is reported to improve cognition and activities of daily living in patients with AD. Likewise, CBL reduces synaptic and behavioral deficits in transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP). The neuroprotective effects of CBL may involve multiple mechanisms, including signaling regulation, control of APP metabolism, and expression of neurotrophic factors. We investigate the effects of CBL in the hAPP tg model of AD on levels of neurotrophic factors, including pro-nerve growth factor (NGF), NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotropin (NT)-3, NT4, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that levels of pro-NGF were increased in saline-treated hAPP tg mice. In contrast, CBL-treated hAPP tg mice showed levels of pro-NGF comparable to control and increased levels of mature NGF. Consistently with these results, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated increased NGF immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of CBL-treated hAPP tg mice. Protein levels of other neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, NT3, NT4, and CNTF, were unchanged. mRNA levels of NGF and other neurotrophins were also unchanged. Analysis of neurotrophin receptors showed preservation of the levels of TrKA and p75(NTR) immunoreactivity per cell in the nucleus basalis. Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis were reduced in the saline-treated hAPP tg mice, and treatment with CBL reduced these cholinergic deficits. These results suggest that the neurotrophic effects of CBL might involve modulation of the pro-NGF/NGF balance and a concomitant protection of cholinergic neurons. PMID:23152192

  19. Cholinergic innervation and receptors in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, D; Ruigrok, T J; Caffé, R; Cozzari, C; Levey, A I; Mugnaini, E; Voogd, J

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the source and ultrastructural characteristics of ChAT-immunoreactive fibers in the cerebellum of the rat, and the distribution of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the cerebellum of the rat, rabbit, cat and monkey, in order to define which of the cerebellar afferents may use ACh as a neurotransmitter, what target structures are they, and which cholinergic receptor mediate the actions of these pathways. Our data confirm and extend previous observations that cholinergic markers occur at relatively low density in the cerebellum and show not only interspecies variability, but also heterogeneity between cerebellar lobules in the same species. As previously demonstrated by Barmack et al. (1992a,b), the predominant fiber system in the cerebellum that might use ACh as a transmitter or a co-transmitter is formed by mossy fibers originating in the vestibular nuclei and innervating the nodulus and ventral uvula. Our results show that these fibers innervate both granule cells and unipolar brush cells, and that the presumed cholinergic action of these fibers most likely is mediated by nicotinic receptors. In addition to cholinergic mossy fibers, the rat cerebellum is innervated by beaded ChAT-immunoreactive fibers. We have demonstrated that these fibers originate in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi), and to a lesser extent in various raphe nuclei. In both the cerebellar cortex and the cerebellar nuclei these fibers make asymmetric synaptic junctions with small and medium-sized dendritic profiles. Both muscarinic and nicotinic receptor could mediate the action of these diffuse beaded fibers. In the cerebellar nuclei the beaded cholinergic fibers form a moderately dense network, and could in principle have a significant effect on neuronal activity. For instance, the cholinergic fibers arising in the PPTg may modulate the excitability of the cerebellonuclear neurons in relation to sleep and arousal (e

  20. Modified expression of peripheral blood lymphocyte muscarinic cholinergic receptors in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Emanuela; Tabbì, Luca; Scozzi, Davide; Mariotta, Salvatore; Galli, Elena; Carello, Rossella; Avitabile, Simona; Tayebati, Seyed Koshrow; Amenta, Francesco; De Vitis, Claudia; Mancini, Rita; Ricci, Alberto

    2015-07-15

    Lymphocytes possess an independent cholinergic system. We assessed the expression of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in lymphocytes from 49 asthmatic children and 10 age matched controls using Western blot. We demonstrated that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressed M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors which density were significantly increased in asthmatic children in comparison with controls. M2 and M4 receptor increase was strictly related with IgE and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements and with impairment in objective measurements of airway obstruction. Increased lymphocyte muscarinic cholinergic receptor expression may concur with lung cholinergic dysfunction and with inflammatory molecular framework in asthma. PMID:26025056

  1. A Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Abeta42 and Pro-oxidative Substances Exhibits Cognitive Deficit and Alterations in Glutamatergic and Cholinergic Neurotransmitter Systems

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Tomas; Skurlova, Martina; Maleninska, Kristyna; Vojtechova, Iveta; Kristofikova, Zdena; Matuskova, Hana; Sirova, Jana; Vales, Karel; Ripova, Daniela; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most serious human, medical, and socioeconomic burdens. Here we tested the hypothesis that a rat model of AD (Samaritan; Taconic Pharmaceuticals, USA) based on the application of amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) and the pro-oxidative substances ferrous sulfate heptahydrate and L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, will exhibit cognitive deficits and disruption of the glutamatergic and cholinergic systems in the brain. Behavioral methods included the Morris water maze (MWM; long-term memory version) and the active allothetic place avoidance (AAPA) task (acquisition and reversal), testing spatial memory and different aspects of hippocampal function. Neurochemical methods included testing of the NR1/NR2A/NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors in the frontal cortex and CHT1 transporters in the hippocampus, in both cases in the right and left hemisphere separately. Our results show that Samaritan rats™ exhibit marked impairment in both the MWM and active place avoidance tasks, suggesting a deficit of spatial learning and memory. Moreover, Samaritan rats exhibited significant changes in NR2A expression and CHT1 activity compared to controls rats, mimicking the situation in patients with early stage AD. Taken together, our results corroborate the hypothesis that Samaritan rats are a promising model of AD in its early stages. PMID:27148049

  2. Brain cholinergic impairment in liver failure.

    PubMed

    García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Cauli, Omar; Silveyra, María-Ximena; Rodrigo, Regina; Candela, Asunción; Compañ, Antonio; Jover, Rodrigo; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel; Martínez, Salvador; Felipo, Vicente; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2008-11-01

    The cholinergic system is involved in specific behavioural responses and cognitive processes. Here, we examined potential alterations in the brain levels of key cholinergic enzymes in cirrhotic patients and animal models with liver failure. An increase (~30%) in the activity of the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is observed in the brain cortex from patients deceased from hepatic coma, while the activity of the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, remains unaffected. In agreement with the human data, AChE activity in brain cortical extracts of bile duct ligated (BDL) rats was increased (~20%) compared to controls. A hyperammonemic diet did not result in any further increase of AChE levels in the BDL model, and no change was observed in hyperammonemic diet rats without liver disease. Portacaval shunted rats which display increased levels of cerebral ammonia did not show any brain cholinergic abnormalities, confirming that high ammonia levels do not play a role in brain AChE changes. A selective increase of tetrameric AChE, the major AChE species involved in hydrolysis of acetylcholine in the brain, was detected in both cirrhotic humans and BDL rats. Histological examination of BDL and non-ligated rat brains shows that the subcellular localization of both AChE and choline acetyltransferase, and thus the accessibility to their substrates, appears unaltered by the pathological condition. The BDL-induced increase in AChE activity was not parallelled by an increase in mRNA levels. Increased AChE in BDL cirrhotic rats leads to a pronounced decrease (~50-60%) in the levels of acetylcholine. Finally, we demonstrate that the AChE inhibitor rivastigmine is able to improve memory deficits in BDL rats. One week treatment with rivastigmine (0.6 mg/kg; once a day, orally, for a week) resulted in a 25% of inhibition in the enzymatic activity of AChE with no change in protein composition, as assessed by sucrose density gradient

  3. Brain cholinergic impairment in liver failure

    PubMed Central

    García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Cauli, Omar; Silveyra, María-Ximena; Rodrigo, Regina; Candela, Asunción; Compañ, Antonio; Jover, Rodrigo; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel; Martínez, Salvador; Felipo, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The cholinergic system is involved in specific behavioural responses and cognitive processes. Here, we examined potential alterations in the brain levels of key cholinergic enzymes in cirrhotic patients and animal models with liver failure. An increase (∼30%) in the activity of the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is observed in the brain cortex from patients deceased from hepatic coma, while the activity of the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, remains unaffected. In agreement with the human data, AChE activity in brain cortical extracts of bile duct ligated (BDL) rats was increased (∼20%) compared to controls. A hyperammonemic diet did not result in any further increase of AChE levels in the BDL model, and no change was observed in hyperammonemic diet rats without liver disease. Portacaval shunted rats which display increased levels of cerebral ammonia did not show any brain cholinergic abnormalities, confirming that high ammonia levels do not play a role in brain AChE changes. A selective increase of tetrameric AChE, the major AChE species involved in hydrolysis of acetylcholine in the brain, was detected in both cirrhotic humans and BDL rats. Histological examination of BDL and non-ligated rat brains shows that the subcellular localization of both AChE and choline acetyltransferase, and thus the accessibility to their substrates, appears unaltered by the pathological condition. The BDL-induced increase in AChE activity was not parallelled by an increase in mRNA levels. Increased AChE in BDL cirrhotic rats leads to a pronounced decrease (∼50–60%) in the levels of acetylcholine. Finally, we demonstrate that the AChE inhibitor rivastigmine is able to improve memory deficits in BDL rats. One week treatment with rivastigmine (0.6 mg/kg; once a day, orally, for a week) resulted in a 25% of inhibition in the enzymatic activity of AChE with no change in protein composition, as assessed by sucrose density

  4. Extrinsic Sources of Cholinergic Innervation of the Striatal Complex: A Whole-Brain Mapping Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dautan, Daniel; Hacioğlu Bay, Husniye; Bolam, J. Paul; Gerdjikov, Todor V.; Mena-Segovia, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine in the striatal complex plays an important role in normal behavior and is affected in a number of neurological disorders. Although early studies suggested that acetylcholine in the striatum (STR) is derived almost exclusively from cholinergic interneurons (CIN), recent axonal mapping studies using conditional anterograde tracing have revealed the existence of a prominent direct cholinergic pathway from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei to the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. The identification of the importance of this pathway is essential for creating a complete model of cholinergic modulation in the striatum, and it opens the question as to whether other populations of cholinergic neurons may also contribute to such modulation. Here, using novel viral tracing technologies based on phenotype-specific fluorescent reporter expression in combination with retrograde tracing, we aimed to define other sources of cholinergic innervation of the striatum. Systematic mapping of the projections of all cholinergic structures in the brain (Ch1 to Ch8) by means of conditional tracing of cholinergic axons, revealed that the only extrinsic source of cholinergic innervation arises in the brainstem pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei. Our results thus place the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal nuclei in a key and exclusive position to provide extrinsic cholinergic modulation of the activity of the striatal systems. PMID:26834571

  5. Antidepressant-like effects of the cannabinoid receptor ligands in the forced swimming test in mice: mechanism of action and possible interactions with cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Michalak, Agnieszka; Biala, Grazyna

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to explore the role of the endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid (CB) receptor ligands, nicotine and scopolamine, in the depression-related responses using the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results revealed that acute injection of oleamide (10 and 20 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor agonist, caused antidepressant-like effect in the FST, while AM 251 (0.25-3 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor antagonist, did not provoke any effect in this test. Moreover, acute administration of both CB2 receptor agonist, JWH 133 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and CB2 receptor antagonist, AM 630 (0.5 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant action. Antidepressant effects of oleamide and JWH 133 were attenuated by acute injection of both non-effective dose of AM 251, as well as AM 630. Among the all CB compounds used, only the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg) with non-effective dose of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg) caused an antidepressant effect. However, none of the CB receptor ligands, had influence on the antidepressant effects provoked by nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) injection. In turn, the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg); JWH (2 mg/kg) or AM 630 (2 mg/kg), but not of AM 251 (0.25 mg/kg), with non-effective dose of scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant properties. Indeed, all of the CB compounds used, intensified the antidepressant-like effects induced by an acute injection of scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg). Our results provide clear evidence that the endocannabinoid system participates in the depression-related behavior and through interactions with cholinergic system modulate these kind of responses. PMID:25660201

  6. Endogenous Cholinergic Neurotransmission Contributes to Behavioral Sensitization to Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Dusica; Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Spalding, Allegra L.; Berde, Charles B.; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system is critical for behavioral adaptations associated with opioid reward and addiction. These processes may be influenced by cholinergic transmission arising from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg), a main source of acetylcholine to mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. To examine this possibility we asked if chronic systemic morphine administration affects expression of genes in ventral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray at the level of the LDTg using rtPCR. Specifically, we examined gene expression changes in the area of interest using Neurotransmitters and Receptors PCR array between chronic morphine and saline control groups. Analysis suggested that chronic morphine administration led to changes in expression of genes associated, in part, with cholinergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, using a quantitative immunofluorescent technique, we found that chronic morphine treatment produced a significant increase in immunolabeling of the cholinergic marker (vesicular acetylcholine transporter) in neurons of the LDTg. Finally, systemic administration of the nonselective and noncompetitive neuronal nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (0.5 or 2 mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked the expression, and to a lesser extent the development, of locomotor sensitization. The same treatment had no effect on acute morphine antinociception, antinociceptive tolerance or dependence to chronic morphine. Taken together, the results suggest that endogenous nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission selectively contributes to behavioral sensitization to morphine and this process may, in part, involve cholinergic neurons within the LDTg. PMID:25647082

  7. Cholinergic Functioning in Stimulant Addiction: Implications for Medications Development

    PubMed Central

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Mooney, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), the first neurotransmitter discovered, participates in many CNS functions including sensory and motor processing, sleep, nociception, mood, stress response, attention, arousal, memory, motivation and reward. These diverse cholinergic effects are mediated by nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic (mAChR) type cholinergic receptors. The goal of this review is to synthesize a growing literature that supports the potential role of ACh as a treatment target for stimulant addiction. ACh interacts with the dopaminergic reward system in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the VTA, both nAChR and mAChR stimulate the dopaminergic system. In the NAc, cholinergic interneurons integrate cortical and subcortical information related to reward. In the PFC, the cholinergic system contributes to the cognitive aspects of addiction. Preclinical studies support a facilitative role of nicotinic agonists in the development of stimulant addiction. Muscarinic agonists seem to have an inhibitory role depending on the subtype of mAChR. In human studies acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors, which increase synaptic ACh levels, have shown promise for the treatment of stimulant addiction. Further studies testing the efficacy of cholinergic medications for stimulant addiction are warranted. PMID:19845415

  8. Physical urticarias and cholinergic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Abajian, Marina; Schoepke, Nicole; Altrichter, Sabine; Zuberbier, Torsten; Zuberbier, H C Torsten; Maurer, Marcus

    2014-02-01

    Physical urticarias are a unique subgroup of chronic urticaria in which urticarial responses can be reproducibly induced by different specific physical stimuli acting on the skin. These conditions include urticaria factitia/symptomatic dermographism, delayed pressure urticaria, cold contact urticaria, heat contact urticaria, solar urticaria, and vibratory urticaria/angioedema. Physical urticarias and cholinergic urticarias are diagnosed based on the patients' history and provocation tests including trigger threshold testing where possible. Treatment is mainly symptomatic. Many patients benefit from avoiding eliciting triggers, and desensitization to these triggers can be helpful in some physical urticarias and in cholinergic urticaria. PMID:24262690

  9. COLCHICINE INDUCED DEAFFERENTATION OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS SELECTIVELY DISRUPTS CHOLINERGIC RHYTHMICAL SLOW WAVE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been proposed that hippocampal theta rhythm (RSA)is generated by the cholinergic septo-hippocampal system. Although ablations of the septum or its projections to the hippocampus disrupt hippocampal RSA, such non-selective lesions damage both cholinergic and noncholinergic ...

  10. Effect of Ginger and Turmeric Rhizomes on Inflammatory Cytokines Levels and Enzyme Activities of Cholinergic and Purinergic Systems in Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; Morsch, Vera Maria; Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Goularte, Jeferson Ferraz; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Akindahunsi, Akintunde Afolabi; Oboh, Ganiyu; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation exerts a crucial pathogenic role in the development of hypertension. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) on enzyme activities of purinergic and cholinergic systems as well as inflammatory cytokine levels in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-induced hypertensive rats. The rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10); groups 1-3 included normotensive control rats, hypertensive (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats, and hypertensive control rats treated with atenolol (an antihypertensive drug), while groups 4 and 5 included normotensive and hypertensive (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats treated with 4 % supplementation of turmeric, respectively, and groups 6 and 7 included normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4 % supplementation of ginger, respectively. The animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, 40 mg/kg body weight. The results revealed a significant increase in ATP and ADP hydrolysis, adenosine deaminase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in lymphocytes from Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats when compared with the control rats. In addition, an increase in serum butyrylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 and - 6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α) with a concomitant decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10) was observed in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation of both rhizomes was efficient in preventing these alterations in hypertensive rats by decreasing ATP hydrolysis, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertensive rats. Thus, these activities could suggest a possible insight about the protective

  11. On the effect of minocycline on the depressive-like behavior of mice repeatedly exposed to malathion: interaction between nitric oxide and cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil; Amirkhanloo, Roya; Arefidoust, Alireza; Yaftian, Rahele; Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Sobhan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of minocycline in mice exposed to organophosphate pesticide malathion and possible involvement of nitric oxide/cGMP pathway in this paradigm. Mice were administered specific doses of malathion once daily for 7 consecutive days. After induction of depression, different doses of minocycline were daily injected alone or combined with non-specific NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, specific inducible NOS inhibitor, AG, NO precursor, L-arginine, and PDE5I, sildenafil. After locomotion assessment in open-field test, immobility times were recorded in the FST and TST. Moreover, hippocampal nitrite concentrations and acetylcholinesterase activity were measured. The results showed that repeated exposure to malathion induces depressive-like behavior at dose of 250 mg/kg. Minocycline (160 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility times in FST and TST (P < 0.001). Combination of sub-effective doses of minocycline (80 mg/kg) with either L-NAME (3 mg/kg) or AG (25 mg/kg) significantly exerted a robust antidepressant-like effect in FST and TST (P < 0.001). Furthermore, minocycline at the same dose which has antidepressant-like effect, significantly reduced hippocampal nitrite concentration. The investigation indicates the essential role for NO/cGMP pathway in malathion-induced depressive-like behavior and antidepressant-like effect of minocycline. Moreover, the interaction between nitrergic and cholinergic systems are suggested to be involved in malathion-induced depression. PMID:26581675

  12. Cholinergic modulation of food and drug satiety and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro V

    2012-06-01

    Although they comprise only a small portion of the neurons in the region, cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum appear to play an important role in the regulation of various appetitive behaviors, in part, through their interactions with mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems. In this review, we describe studies that suggest that the activity of cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and cholinergic projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) affect feeding behavior. In vivo microdialysis studies in rats have revealed that the cessation of a meal is associated with a rise in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the NAc. ACh activation will suppress feeding, and this is also associated with an increase in synaptic accumulation of ACh. Further, we discuss how, in addition to their role in the ending of a meal, cholinergic interneurons in the NAc play an integral role in the cessation of drug use. Another cholinergic system involved in different aspects of appetitive behavior is the projection from the pedunculpontine nuclei directly to the VTA. Activation of this system enhances behaviors through activation of the mesolimbic DA system, and antagonism of ACh receptors in the VTA can reduce drug self-administration. Finally, we discuss the role of accumbens ACh in both drug and palatable food withdrawal. Studies reveal that accumbens ACh is increased during withdrawal from several different drugs of abuse (including cocaine, nicotine and morphine). This rise in extracellular levels of ACh, coupled with a decrease in extracellular levels of DA, is believed to contribute to an aversive state, which can manifest as behaviors associated with drug withdrawal. This theory has also been applied to studies of overeating and/or "food addiction," and the findings suggest a similar imbalance in DA/ACh levels, which is associated with behavioral indications of drug-like withdrawal. In summary, cholinergic neurons play an important role in the modulation of both

  13. Down regulation of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor of the rat prostate following castration

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Miller, A.R.; Lepor, H.

    1985-07-01

    Prostatic secretion is dependent upon the integrity of the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems and is dramatically influenced by muscarinic cholinergic analogs. In this study, the authors have used radioligand receptor binding methods on whole tissue homogenates and slide mounted tissue sections of rat prostate to determine whether androgens regulate the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the prostate. The muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding affinities (Kd) of (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine in prostatic homogenates obtained from intact, castrate, and castrate rats receiving testosterone replacement (castrate + T) were similar (0.07 to 0.10 nM). The muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding capacity decreased 73 per cent following castration. Testosterone administration restored the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in castrate rats to intact levels. In order to ensure that the loss of receptor density was not due to a decrease in the epithelial: stromal cell ratio, the number of muscarinic cholinergic receptors per unit area of epithelium was determined in the 3 treatment groups using autoradiography on slide mounted tissue sections. The density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in a unit area of epithelium was decreased 91 per cent following castration. Testosterone administration restored the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the castrate rats to intact levels. The modulation of neurotransmitter receptors by steroid hormones may be a mechanism by which sex steroids regulate biological responsiveness of target tissues.

  14. Local cholinergic and non-cholinergic neural pathways to the rat supraoptic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    An estimated two thirds of the input to the supraoptic nucleus of the rat hypothalamus (SON) including a functionally significant cholinergic innervation, arise from local sources of unknown origin. The sources of these inputs were identified utilizing Golgi-Cox, retrograde tracing, choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemistry and anterograde tracing methodologies. Multipolar Golgi impregnated neurons located dorsal and lateral to the SON extend spiney processes into the nucleus. Injections of the retrograde tracers, wheat germ agglutinin or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase, into the SON labeled cells bilaterally in the arcuate nucleus, and ipsilaterally in the lateral hypothalamus, anterior hypothalamus, nucleus of the diagonal band, subfornical organ, medial preoptic area, lateral preoptic area and in the region dorsolateral to the nucleus. Immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase revealed cells within the ventro-caudal portion of cholinergic cell group, Ch4, which cluster dorsolateral to the SON, and extend axon- and dendrite-like processes into the SON. Cells double-labeled by choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemistry and retrograde tracer injections into the SON are localized within the same cholinergic cell group dorsolateral to the SON. Injections of the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, deposited dorsolateral to the SON results in labeled pre-and post-synaptic processes within the SON. The identification and characterization of endogenous immunoglobulin within the SON and other neurons innervating areas lacking a blood-brain barrier established a novel and potentially important system for direct communication of the supraoptic cells with blood-borne constitutents.

  15. Cognitive Correlates of Basal Forebrain Atrophy and Associated Cortical Hypometabolism in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Grothe, Michel J; Heinsen, Helmut; Amaro, Edson; Grinberg, Lea T; Teipel, Stefan J

    2016-06-01

    Degeneration of basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic nuclei is associated with cognitive decline, and this effect is believed to be mediated by neuronal dysfunction in the denervated cortical areas. MRI-based measurements of BF atrophy are increasingly being used as in vivo surrogate markers for cholinergic degeneration, but the functional implications of reductions in BF volume are not well understood. We used high-resolution MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET), and neuropsychological test data of 132 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 177 cognitively normal controls to determine associations between BF atrophy, cortical hypometabolism, and cognitive deficits. BF atrophy in MCI correlated with both impaired memory function and attentional control deficits, whereas hippocampus volume was more specifically associated with memory deficits. BF atrophy was also associated with widespread cortical hypometabolism, and path analytic models indicated that hypometabolism in domain-specific cortical networks mediated the association between BF volume and cognitive dysfunction. The presence of cortical amyloid pathology, as assessed using AV45-PET, did not significantly interact with the observed associations. These data underline the potential of multimodal imaging markers to study structure-function-cognition relationships in the living human brain and provide important in vivo evidence for an involvement of the human BF in cortical activity and cognitive function. PMID:25840425

  16. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the river hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius): A most unusual cetartiodactyl species.

    PubMed

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Bertelsen, Mads F; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    This study provides the first systematic analysis of the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the river hippopotamus, one of the closest extant terrestrial relatives of the cetaceans. All nuclei involved in sleep regulation and control found in other mammals, including cetaceans, were present in the river hippopotamus, with no specific nuclei being absent, but novel features of the cholinergic system, including novel nuclei, were present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and orexinergic systems and is extended to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis reveals that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (259,578) and noradrenergic (127,752) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (68,398) are markedly higher than in other large-brained mammals. These features, along with novel cholinergic nuclei in the intralaminar nuclei of the dorsal thalamus and the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain, as well as a major expansion of the hypothalamic cholinergic nuclei and a large laterodorsal tegmental nucleus of the pons that has both parvocellular and magnocellular cholinergic neurons, indicates an unusual sleep phenomenology for the hippopotamus. Our observations indicate that the hippopotamus is likely to be a bihemispheric sleeper that expresses REM sleep. The novel features of the cholinergic system suggest the presence of an undescribed sleep state in the hippopotamus, as well as the possibility that this animal could, more rapidly than other mammals, switch cortical electroencephalographic activity from one state to another. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2036-2058, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26588600

  17. Attenuation of the blood flow response to physostigmine in the rat cortex deafferented from the basal forebrain.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, Philippe; Von Euw, Dominique; Corrèze, Jean-Loup; Lacombe, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    Previous functional investigations in rats failed to demonstrate that the classical cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine, can compensate for cortical cholinergic deficit induced by deafferentation from the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). As these studies were carried out shortly after NBM lesion (1-2 weeks), we sought to determine whether compensatory effects of physostigmine would appear at a longer postlesion time (3-5 weeks). Cerebral blood flow was used as a quantitative measure of brain function. At 3-5 weeks after unilateral NBM lesion, interhemispheric comparisons in resting conditions showed that the cortical cholinergic deficit was still present and that blood flow was lower in cortical areas on the lesion side, similarly to what was observed after 1-2 weeks, while basal blood flow in intact hemispheres remained unchanged. In contrast, under physostigmine, blood flow became significantly lower in deafferented cortical areas at 3-5 weeks postlesion time, whereas there were no significant interhemispheric differences in the short term. Comparisons with saline-infused rats showed reduced blood flow responses to physostigmine in forebrain regions, e.g. in the parietal cortex from 83% to 25% at 1-2 and 3-5 weeks postlesion, respectively. These changes cannot be ascribed to a global loss of reactivity, since responses in brainstem regions (medulla, cerebellum) remained unchanged statistically. The results demonstrate a reduced responsiveness to physostigmine at the longer postlesion time, and support the existence of a cholinosensitive mechanism antagonizing NBM influence. This mechanism may limit the activating effects of cholinergic agonists in the forebrain after NBM deafferentation. PMID:17303509

  18. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in social isolation-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditional fear memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, R; Fujiwara, H; Mizuki, D; Araki, R; Yabe, T; Matsumoto, K

    2015-07-23

    , when analyzed 30 min after the administration of the test drugs, tacrine significantly attenuated the SI-induced decrease in p-CaMKII, p-CREB, and Egr-1 in a manner reversible by scopolamine. Our results suggest that SI-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditioned fear memory were mediated by functional alterations to central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems, respectively. PMID:25943484

  19. Periadolescent ethanol exposure reduces adult forebrain ChAT+IR neurons: correlation with behavioral pathology.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, C L; Criado, J R; Wills, D N; Liu, W; Crews, F T

    2011-12-29

    Substance abuse typically begins in adolescence; therefore, the impact of alcohol during this critical time in brain development is of particular importance. Epidemiological data indicate that excessive alcohol consumption is prevalent among adolescents and may have lasting neurobehavioral consequences. Loss of cholinergic input to the forebrain has been demonstrated following fetal alcohol exposure and in adults with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. In the present study, immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was determined to assess forebrain cholinergic neurons (Ch1-4), and behavioral changes following periadolescent alcohol exposure. Wistar rats were exposed to intermittent ethanol vapor (14 h on/10 h off/day) for 35 days from postnatal day (PD) 22 to PD 57 (average blood alcohol concentration (BAC): 163 mg%). Rats were withdrawn from vapor and assessed for locomotor activity, startle response, conflict behavior in the open field, and immobility in the forced swim test, as adults. Rats were then sacrificed at day 71/72 and perfused for histochemical analyses. Ethanol vapor-exposed rats displayed: increased locomotor activity 8 h after the termination of vapor delivery for that 24 h period at day 10 and day 20 of alcohol vapor exposure, significant reductions in the amplitude of their responses to prepulse stimuli during the startle paradigm at 24 h withdrawal, and at 2 weeks following withdrawal, less anxiety-like and/or more "disinhibitory" behavior in the open field conflict, and more immobility in the forced swim test. Quantitative analyses of ChAT immunoreactivity revealed a significant reduction in cell counts in the Ch1-2 and Ch3-4 regions of the basal forebrain in ethanol vapor-exposed rats. This reduction in cell counts was significantly correlated with less anxiety-like and/or more "disinhibitory" behavior in the open field conflict test. These studies demonstrate that behavioral measures of arousal, affective state, disinhibitory

  20. Imidocarb dipropionate in the treatment of Anaplasma marginale in cattle: Effects on enzymes of the antioxidant, cholinergic, and adenosinergic systems.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Rovaina L; Fritzen, Alexandro; Bottari, Nathieli B; Alves, Mariana S; da Silva, Aniélen D; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Martins, João R; Santos, Julsan S; Machado, Gustavo; da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-08-01

    Anaplasmosis is a worldwide hemolytic disease in cattle caused by a gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium, characterized by anemia and jaundice. Among the treatments used for anaplasmosis is a drug called imidocarb dipropionate, also indicated as an immunomodulator agent. However, it causes side effects associated with increased levels of acetylcholine. In view of this, the effects of imidocarb dipropionate on the purinergic system, and antioxidant enzymes in animals naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale were evaluated. Young cattle (n = 22) infected by A. marginale were divided into two groups: the Group A consisted of 11 animals used as controls; and the Group B composed of 11 animals. Imidocarb dipropionate (5 mg/kg) was used subcutaneously to treat both groups (the Group A on day 6 and the Group B on day 0). The treatment reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, and increased the dismutase superoxide and catalase activities. No changes on lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) and BChE activities were noticed. These results suggest that imidocarb dipropionate used to treat A. marginale infection in cattle has effect on antioxidant enzymes, and significantly inhibits the enzymatic activities of ADA and AChE. PMID:27301742

  1. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory system in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Macdowell, Karina S; Guemes, Itziar; Rubio, Víctor; Carrasco, José L; Leza, Juan C

    2012-12-01

    A case-control study including patients (n = 20) with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and healthy controls (n = 33) was carried out. To avoid interferences of other clinical conditions on biological findings, patients were free of current major depressive episodes or substance dependence disorders, and had no life history of schizophrenia, bipolar or neuropsychiatric disorders. Patients were free of medication for at least two weeks at the time of the study. Studies carried out in peripheral mononuclear blood cells and plasma evidence a systemic inflammatory condition in unstable-impulsive BPD patients. Specifically, a significant increase in some intracellular components of two main pro-inflammatory pathways such as iNOS and COX-2, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL1β. Interestingly, patients have an increase in the protein expression of the anti-inflammatory subtype of nicotinic receptor α7nAChR. This finding may reflect a possible mechanism trying to maintain intracellular inflammation pathways under control. All together, these results describe an imbalanced, pro-inflammatory and oxidant phenotype in BPD patients independent of plasma cotinine levels. Although more scientific evidence is needed, the determination of multiple components of pro- and anti-inflammatory cellular pathways have interesting potential as biological markers for BPD and other generalized impulsive syndromes, specially data obtained with α7nAChR and its lack of correlation with plasma levels of nicotine metabolites. Their pharmacological modulation with receptor modulators can be a promising therapeutic target to take into account in mental health conditions associated with inflammatory or oxido/nitrosative consequences. Also, identifying at-risk individuals would be of importance for early detection and intervention in adolescent subjects before they present severe behavioural problems. PMID:23083519

  2. Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Is Associated with Increased Risky Choice and Decreased Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Neuron Markers in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence and may have effects on the adult brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure alters adult risky choice and prefrontal dopaminergic and forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker levels in male Wistar rats. Methods: Adolescent (postnatal day 28–53) rats were administered 5g/kg of 25% (vol/vol) ethanol 3 times/d in a 2-days–on/2-days–off exposure pattern. In adulthood, risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task with descending and ascending series of large reward probabilities and after acute ethanol challenge. Immunohistochemical analyses assessed tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of dopamine and norepinephrine in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, and choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the basal forebrain. Results: All of the rats preferred the large reward when it was delivered with high probability. When the large reward became unlikely, control rats preferred the smaller, safe reward, whereas adolescent intermittent ethanol-exposed rats continued to prefer the risky alternative. Acute ethanol had no effect on risky choice in either group of rats. Tyrosine hydroxylase (prelimbic cortex only) and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity levels were decreased in adolescent intermittent ethanol-exposed rats compared with controls. Risky choice was negatively correlated with choline acetyltransferase, implicating decreased forebrain cholinergic activity in risky choice. Conclusions: The decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity suggest that adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure has enduring neural effects that may lead to altered adult behaviors, such as increased risky decision making. In humans, increased risky decision making could lead to maladaptive, potentially harmful consequences. PMID:25612895

  3. Cholinergic modulation of hippocampal network function

    PubMed Central

    Teles-Grilo Ruivo, Leonor M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic septohippocampal projections from the medial septal area to the hippocampus are proposed to have important roles in cognition by modulating properties of the hippocampal network. However, the precise spatial and temporal profile of acetylcholine release in the hippocampus remains unclear making it difficult to define specific roles for cholinergic transmission in hippocampal dependent behaviors. This is partly due to a lack of tools enabling specific intervention in, and recording of, cholinergic transmission. Here, we review the organization of septohippocampal cholinergic projections and hippocampal acetylcholine receptors as well as the role of cholinergic transmission in modulating cellular excitability, synaptic plasticity, and rhythmic network oscillations. We point to a number of open questions that remain unanswered and discuss the potential for recently developed techniques to provide a radical reappraisal of the function of cholinergic inputs to the hippocampus. PMID:23908628

  4. New Etiology of Cholinergic Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic urticaria (CholU) is characterized by pinpoint-sized, highly pruritic wheals occurring upon sweating. Both direct and indirect theories in the interaction of acetylcholine (ACh) with mast cells have been put forward in the sweating-associated histamine release from mast cells. In the mechanism of indirect involvement of ACh, patients are hypersensitive to sweat antigen(s) and develop wheals in response to sweat substances leaking from the syringeal ducts to the dermis, possibly by obstruction of the ducts. Some patients with CholU exhibit a positive reaction to intradermal injection of their own diluted sweat, representing 'sweat allergy (hypersensitivity)'. Regarding the direct interaction theory between ACh and mast cells, we found that CholU with anhidrosis and hypohidrosis lacks cholinergic receptor M3 (CHRM3) expression in eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells. The expression of CHRM3 is completely absent in the anhidrotic areas and lowly expressed in the hypohidrotic areas. In the hypohidrotic area, where CholU occurs, it is hypothesized that ACh released from nerves cannot be completely trapped by cholinergic receptors of eccrine glands and overflows to the adjacent mast cells, leading to wheals. PMID:27584968

  5. Cholinergic modulation of event-related oscillations (ERO).

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Robledo, Patricia; Wills, Derek N; Havstad, James; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-22

    The cholinergic system in the brain modulates patterns of activity involved in general arousal, attention processing, memory and consciousness. In the present study we determined the effects of selective cholinergic lesions of the medial septum area (MS) or nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) on amplitude and phase characteristics of event related oscillations (EROs). A time-frequency based representation was used to determine ERO energy, phase synchronization across trials, recorded within a structure (phase lock index, PLI), and phase synchronization across trials, recorded between brain structures (phase difference lock index, PDLI), in the frontal cortex (Fctx), dorsal hippocampus (DHPC) and central amygdala (Amyg). Lesions in MS produced: (1) decreases in ERO energy in delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies in Amyg, (2) reductions in gamma ERO energy and PLI in Fctx, (3) decreases in PDLI between the Fctx-Amyg in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies, and (4) decreases in PDLI between the DHPC-Amyg and Fctx-DHPC in the theta frequency bands. Lesions in NBM resulted in: (1) increased ERO energy in delta and theta frequency bands in Fctx, (2) reduced gamma ERO energy in Fctx and Amyg, (3) reductions in PLI in the theta, beta and gamma frequency ranges in Fctx, (4) reductions in gamma PLI in DHPC and (5) reduced beta PLI in Amyg. These studies suggest that the MS cholinergic system can alter phase synchronization between brain areas whereas the NBM cholinergic system modifies phase synchronization/phase resetting within a brain area. PMID:24594019

  6. Cholinergic modulation of event-related oscillations (ERO)

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Robledo, Patricia; Wills, Derek N.; Havstad, James; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic system in the brain modulates patterns of activity involved in general arousal, attention processing, memory and consciousness. In the present study we determined the effects of selective cholinergic lesions of the medial septum area (MS) or nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) on amplitude and phase characteristics of event related oscillations (EROs). A time–frequency based representation was used to determine ERO energy, phase synchronization across trials, recorded within a structure (phase lock index, PLI), and phase synchronization across trials, recorded between brain structures (phase difference lock index, PDLI), in the frontal cortex (Fctx), dorsal hippocampus (DHPC) and central amygdala (Amyg). Lesions in MS produced: (1) decreases in ERO energy in delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies in Amyg, (2) reductions in gamma ERO energy and PLI in Fctx, (3) decreases in PDLI between the Fctx–Amyg in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequencies, and (4) decreases in PDLI between the DHPC–Amyg and Fctx–DHPC in the theta frequency bands. Lesions in NBM resulted in: (1) increased ERO energy in delta and theta frequency bands in Fctx, (2) reduced gamma ERO energy in Fctx and Amyg, (3) reductions in PLI in the theta, beta and gamma frequency ranges in Fctx, (4) reductions in gamma PLI in DHPC and (5) reduced beta PLI in Amyg. These studies suggest that the MS cholinergic system can alter phase synchronization between brain areas whereas the NBM cholinergic system modifies phase synchronization/phase resetting within a brain area. PMID:24594019

  7. Time to pay attention: attentional performance time-stamped prefrontal cholinergic activation, diurnality and performance

    PubMed Central

    Paolone, Giovanna; Lee, Theresa M.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Although the impairments in cognitive performance that result from shifting or disrupting daily rhythms have been demonstrated, the neuronal mechanisms that optimize fixed time daily performance are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that daily practice of a sustained attention task (SAT) evokes a diurnal activity pattern in rats. Here we report that SAT practice at a fixed time produced practice time-stamped increases in prefrontal cholinergic neurotransmission that persisted after SAT practice was terminated and in a different environment. SAT time-stamped cholinergic activation occurred irrespective of whether the SAT was practiced during the light or dark phase or in constant light conditions. In contrast, prior daily practice of an operant schedule of reinforcement, albeit generating more rewards and lever presses per session than the SAT, neither activated the cholinergic system nor affected the animals' nocturnal activity pattern. Likewise, food-restricted animals exhibited strong food anticipatory activity (FAA) and attenuated activity during the dark period but FAA was not associated with increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity. Removal of cholinergic neurons impaired SAT performance and facilitated the reemergence of nocturnality. Shifting SAT practice away from a fixed time resulted in significantly lower performance. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrated that fixed time, daily practice of a task assessing attention generates a precisely practice time-stamped activation of the cortical cholinergic input system. Time-stamped cholinergic activation benefits fixed time performance and, if practiced during the light phase, contributes to a diurnal activity pattern. PMID:22933795

  8. The catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis of bipolar disorder revisited

    PubMed Central

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Janowsky, David S; Olivier, Berend; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a unique illness characterized by fluctuations between mood states of depression and mania. Originally, an adrenergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis was postulated to underlie these different affective states. In this review, we update this hypothesis with recent findings from human and animal studies, suggesting that a catecholaminergic-cholinergic hypothesis may be more relevant. Evidence from neuroimaging studies, neuropharmacological interventions, and genetic associations support the notion that increased cholinergic functioning underlies depression, whereas increased activations of the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) underlie mania. Elevated functional acetylcholine during depression may affect both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a compensatory fashion. Increased functional dopamine and norepinephrine during mania on the other hand may affect receptor expression and functioning of dopamine reuptake transporters. Despite increasing evidence supporting this hypothesis, a relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems that could explain cycling between states of depression and mania is missing. Future studies should focus on the influence of environmental stimuli and genetic susceptibilities that may affect the catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance underlying cycling between the affective states. Overall, observations from recent studies add important data to this revised balance theory of bipolar disorder, renewing interest in this field of research. PMID:25107282

  9. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis of Cholinergic Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Woo, Young Jae; Chua, Streamson; Jo, Young-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The cholinoceptive system in the hypothalamus, in particular in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), plays a role in regulating food intake. Neurons in the ARC contain multiple neuropeptides, amines, and neurotransmitters. To study molecular and neurochemical heterogeneity of ARC neurons, we combine single-cell qRT-PCR and single-cell whole transcriptome amplification methods to analyze expression patterns of our hand-picked 60 genes in individual neurons in the ARC. Immunohistochemical and single-cell qRT-PCR analyses show choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-expressing neurons in the ARC. Gene expression patterns are remarkably distinct in each individual cholinergic neuron. Two-thirds of cholinergic neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) mRNA. A large subset of these Th-positive cholinergic neurons is GABAergic as they express the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase and vesicular GABA transporter transcripts. Some cholinergic neurons also express the vesicular glutamate transporter transcript gene. POMC and POMC-processing enzyme transcripts are found in a subpopulation of cholinergic neurons. Despite this heterogeneity, gene expression patterns in individual cholinergic cells appear to be highly regulated in a cell-specific manner. In fact, membrane receptor transcripts are clustered with their respective intracellular signaling and downstream targets. This novel population of cholinergic neurons may be part of the neural circuitries that detect homeostatic need for food and control the drive to eat. PMID:27611685

  10. Modulation of learning and memory by the targeted deletion of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in forebrain circuits.

    PubMed

    Snider, Kaitlin H; Dziema, Heather; Aten, Sydney; Loeser, Jacob; Norona, Frances E; Hoyt, Kari; Obrietan, Karl

    2016-07-15

    A large body of literature has shown that the disruption of circadian clock timing has profound effects on mood, memory and complex thinking. Central to this time keeping process is the master circadian pacemaker located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Of note, within the central nervous system, clock timing is not exclusive to the SCN, but rather, ancillary oscillatory capacity has been detected in a wide range of cell types and brain regions, including forebrain circuits that underlie complex cognitive processes. These observations raise questions about the hierarchical and functional relationship between the SCN and forebrain oscillators, and, relatedly, about the underlying clock-gated synaptic circuitry that modulates cognition. Here, we utilized a clock knockout strategy in which the essential circadian timing gene Bmal1 was selectively deleted from excitatory forebrain neurons, whilst the SCN clock remained intact, to test the role of forebrain clock timing in learning, memory, anxiety, and behavioral despair. With this model system, we observed numerous effects on hippocampus-dependent measures of cognition. Mice lacking forebrain Bmal1 exhibited deficits in both acquisition and recall on the Barnes maze. Notably, loss of forebrain Bmal1 abrogated time-of-day dependent novel object location memory. However, the loss of Bmal1 did not alter performance on the elevated plus maze, open field assay, and tail suspension test, indicating that this phenotype specifically impairs cognition but not affect. Together, these data suggest that forebrain clock timing plays a critical role in shaping the efficiency of learning and memory retrieval over the circadian day. PMID:27091299

  11. Genes involved in forebrain development in the zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Heisenberg, C P; Brand, M; Jiang, Y J; Warga, R M; Beuchle, D; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Kane, D A; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Nusslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    We identified four zebrafish mutants with defects in forebrain induction and patterning during embryogenesis. The four mutants define three genes: masterblind (mbl), silberblick (slb), and knollnase (kas). In mbl embryos, the anterior forebrain acquires posterior forebrain characteristics: anterior structures such as the eyes, olfactory placodes and the telencephalon are missing, whereas the epiphysis located in the posterior forebrain is expanded. In slb embryos, the extension of the embryonic axis is initially delayed and eventually followed by a partial fusion of the eyes. Finally, in kas embryos, separation of the telencephalic primordia is incomplete and dorsal midline cells fail to form a differentiated roof plate. Analysis of the mutant phenotypes indicates that we have identified genes essential for the specification of the anterior forebrain (mbl), positioning of the eyes (slb) and differentiation of the roof plate (kas). In an appendix to this study we list mutants showing alterations in the size of the eyes and abnormal differentiation of the lenses. PMID:9007240

  12. [Involvement and plasticity of brainstem cholinergic neurons in cocaine-induced addiction].

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Katsuyuki; Shinohara, Fumiya; Kurosawa, Ryo; Taoka, Naofumi; Ide, Soichiro; Minami, Masabumi

    2014-04-01

    Although the involvement and plasticity of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system in cocaine-induced addiction have been studied extensively, the role of the brainstem cholinergic system in cocaine addiction remains largely unexplored. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) contains cholinergic neurons that innervate the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is crucial for regulating the activity of VTA DA neurons, implying that LDT may also be associated with cocaine addiction. In this review, we summarize our recent findings showing that cholinergic transmission from the LDT to the VTA is involved in acquisition and expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and that, after repeated cocaine exposures, these neurons exhibit synaptic plasticity, which is dependent on NMDA receptor activation, nitric oxide production, and the activity of medial prefrontal cortex. The findings strongly suggest that LDT cholinergic neurons may critically contribute to developing cocaine-induced addiction. PMID:24946392

  13. Visualization of growth factor receptor sites in rat forebrain

    SciTech Connect

    Quirion, R.; Araujo, D.; Nair, N.P.; Chabot, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    It is now known that various growth factors may also act in the central nervous system. Among them, it has recently been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) may possess trophic effects in the mammalian brain. We report here on the respective autoradiographic distribution of (/sup 125/I)EGF and (/sup 125/I)IGF-I receptor binding sites in the rat brain, both during ontogeny and in adulthood. It appears that (/sup 125/I)EGF sites are mostly found in the rat forebrain during brain development. On the other hand, (/sup 125/I)IGF-I sites are more widely distributed both during ontogeny and in adulthood. These results reveal the plasticity of the expression of EGF and IGF-I receptor sites in the mammalian brain. This could be relevant for the respective role of these two growth factors in the development and maintenance of neuronal function.

  14. Cholinergic modulation of food and drug satiety and withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Avena, Nicole M.; Rada, Pedro V.

    2015-01-01

    Although they comprise only a small portion of the neurons in the region, cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum appear to play an important role in the regulation of various appetitive behaviors, in part, through their interactions with mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems. In this review, we describe studies that suggest that the activity of cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and cholinergic projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) affect feeding behavior. In vivo microdialysis studies in rats have revealed that the cessation of a meal is associated with a rise in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the NAc. ACh activation will suppress feeding, and this is also associated with an increase in synaptic accumulation of ACh. Further, we discuss how, in addition to their role in the ending of a meal, cholinergic interneurons in the NAc play an integral role in the cessation of drug use. Another cholinergic system involved in different aspects of appetitive behavior is the projection from the pedunculpontine nuclei directly to the VTA. Activation of this system enhances behaviors through activation of the mesolimbic DA system, and antagonism of ACh receptors in the VTA can reduce drug self-administration. Finally, we discuss the role of accumbens ACh in both drug and palatable food withdrawal. Studies reveal that accumbens ACh is increased during withdrawal from several different drugs of abuse (including cocaine, nicotine and morphine). This rise in extracellular levels of ACh, coupled with a decrease in extracellular levels of DA, is believed to contribute to an aversive state, which can manifest as behaviors associated with drug withdrawal. This theory has also been applied to studies of overeating and/or “food addiction,” and the findings suggest a similar imbalance in DA/ACh levels, which is associated with behavioral indications of drug-like withdrawal. In summary, cholinergic neurons play an important role in the modulation of

  15. Cholinergic inhibition of adrenergic neurosecretion in the rabbit iris-ciliary body

    SciTech Connect

    Jumblatt, J.E.; North, G.T.

    1988-04-01

    The prejunctional effects of cholinergic agents on release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve endings were investigated in the isolated, superfused rabbit iris-ciliary body. Stimulation-evoked release of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine was inhibited by the cholinergic agonists methacholine, oxotremorine, muscarine, carbamylcholine and acetylcholine (plus eserine), but was unmodified by pilocarpine or nicotine. Agonist-induced inhibition was antagonized selectively by atropine, indicating a muscarinic response. Atropine alone markedly enhanced norepinephrine release, revealing considerable tonic activation of prejunctional cholinergic receptors in this system. Prejunctional inhibition by carbamylcholine was found to completely override the facilitative action of forskolin or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on neurotransmitter release. Cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic effects on neurosecretion were non-additive, suggesting that the underlying receptors coexist at neurotransmitter release sites.

  16. Cholinergic Lesions Produce Task-Selective Effects on Delayed Matching to Position and Configural Association Learning Related to Response Pattern and Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, R. B.; Johnson, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    192 IgG-saporin (SAP) was used to selectively destroy cholinergic neurons in the rostral basal forebrain (e.g., medial septum (MS) and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (VDB)) and/or the caudal basal forebrain (e.g., nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM)) of ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of these lesions on two different cognitive tasks, a delayed matching to position (DMP) T-maze task, and a configural association (CA) operant conditioning task, were evaluated and compared. Injecting SAP into either the MS or NBM significantly impaired acquisition of the DMP task. Analysis showed that the effects were due largely to an affect on response patterns adopted by the rats during training, as opposed to an effect on working memory performance. Notably, the impairment in DMP acquisition did not correlate with the degree of cholinergic denervation of the hippocampus. Despite the deficit, most animals eventually learned the task and reached criterion; however by the end of training, controls and animals that received SAP into either the MS or NBM appeared more likely to use an allocentric place strategy to solve the task, whereas animals that received SAP into both the MS and NBM were more likely to use an egocentric response strategy. Cholinergic lesions also produced a small but significant affect on acquisition of the CA task, but only with respect to response time, and only in the SAP-NBM-treated animals. SAP-NBM lesions also produced small but significant impairments in both the number of responses and response time during the acquisition of simple associations, possibly reflecting an effect on alertness or attention. Notably, the effects on CA acquisition were small, and like the effects on DMP acquisition did not correlate with the degree of cholinergic denervation of the hippocampus. We conclude that selective basal forebrain cholinergic lesions produce learning deficits that are task specific, and that cholinergic denervation of either

  17. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, Sybren F; Mansvelder, Huibert D; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-10-15

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are found in most brain regions, many studies on addiction have focused on the mesolimbic system and its reported behavioral correlates such as reward processing and reinforcement learning. Profound modulatory cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmentum to dopaminergic midbrain nuclei as well as local cholinergic interneuron projections to dopamine neuron axons in the striatum may play a major role in the effects of nicotine. Moreover, an indirect mesocorticolimbic feedback loop involving the medial prefrontal cortex may be involved in behavioral characteristics of nicotine addiction. Therefore, this review will highlight current understanding of the effects of nicotine on the function of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine projections in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. PMID:26208783

  18. Thalamic reticular nucleus in Caiman crocodilus: forebrain connections.

    PubMed

    Pritz, Michael B

    2016-08-01

    Forebrain connections of the thalamic reticular nucleus associated with the lateral forebrain bundle were analyzed in Caiman crocodilus. Both the compact portion, the dorsal peduncular nucleus, and the diffuse part, the perireticular region, associated with the lateral forebrain bundle, were studied. A small tracer injection into the dorsal peduncular nucleus demonstrated reciprocal connections with a restricted portion of the dorsal thalamus. Tracer placements into this nucleus retrogradely labeled cells in a caudal portion of the ventrolateral area of the telencephalon. These results are compared with similar studies in other amniotes. PMID:27233216

  19. Genomic Perspectives of Transcriptional Regulation in Forebrain Development

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Alex S.; Pattabiraman, Kartik; Visel, Axel; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The forebrain is the seat of higher order brain functions, and many human neuropsychiatric disorders are due to genetic defects affecting forebrain development, making it imperative to understand the underlying genetic circuitry. Recent progress now makes it possible to begin fully elucidating the genomic regulatory mechanisms that control forebrain gene expression. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge of how transcription factors drive gene expression programs through their interactions with cis-acting genomic elements, such as enhancers; how analyses of chromatin and DNA modifications provide insights into gene expression states; and how these approaches yield insights into the evolution of the human brain. PMID:25569346

  20. Mental Stress in Atopic Dermatitis – Neuronal Plasticity and the Cholinergic System Are Affected in Atopic Dermatitis and in Response to Acute Experimental Mental Stress in a Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Eva Milena Johanne; Michenko, Anna; Kupfer, Jörg; Kummer, Wolfgang; Wiegand, Silke; Niemeier, Volker; Potekaev, Nikolay; Lvov, Andrey; Gieler, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Rationale In mouse models for atopic dermatitis (AD) hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction and neuropeptide-dependent neurogenic inflammation explain stress-aggravated flares to some extent. Lately, cholinergic signaling has emerged as a link between innate and adaptive immunity as well as stress responses in chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we aim to determine in humans the impact of acute stress on neuro-immune interaction as well as on the non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS). Methods Skin biopsies were obtained from 22 individuals (AD patients and matched healthy control subjects) before and after the Trier social stress test (TSST). To assess neuro-immune interaction, nerve fiber (NF)-density, NF-mast cell contacts and mast cell activation were determined by immunohistomorphometry. To evaluate NNCS effects, expression of secreted mammal Ly-6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-related protein (SLURP) 1 and 2 (endogenous nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands) and their main corresponding receptors were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results With respect to neuro-immune interaction we found higher numbers of NGF+ dermal NF in lesional compared to non-lesional AD but lower numbers of Gap43+ growing NF at baseline. Mast cell-NF contacts correlated with SCORAD and itch in lesional skin. With respect to the NNCS, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (α7nAChR) mRNA was significantly lower in lesional AD skin at baseline. After TSST, PGP 9.5+ NF numbers dropped in lesional AD as did their contacts with mast cells. NGF+ NF now correlated with SCORAD and mast cell-NF contacts with itch in non-lesional skin. At the same time, SLURP-2 levels increased in lesional AD skin. Conclusions In humans chronic inflammatory and highly acute psycho-emotional stress interact to modulate cutaneous neuro-immune communication and NNCS marker expression. These findings may have consequences for understanding and treatment of chronic inflammatory

  1. Further proof of the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon: Presence of the AChRα7 receptor in tendon cells and cells in the peritendinous tissue.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Sture; Alfredson, Håkan; Andersson, Gustav

    2015-11-01

    Human tendon cells have the capacity for acetylcholine (ACh) production. It is not known if the tendon cells also have the potential for ACh breakdown, nor if they show expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor AChRα7 (α7nAChR). Therefore, tendon tissue specimens from patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy/tendinosis and from normal midportion Achilles tendons were examined. Reaction for the degradative enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was found in some tenocytes in only a few tendinopathy tendons, and was never found in those of control tendons. Tenocytes displayed more regularly α7nAChR immunoreactivity. However, there was a marked heterogeneity in the degree of this reaction within and between the specimens. α7nAChR immunoreactivity was especially pronounced for tenocytes showing an oval/widened appearance. There was a tendency that the magnitude of α7nAChR immunoreactivity was higher in tendinopathy tendons as compared to control tendons. A stronger α7nAChR immunoreactivity than seen for tenocytes was observed for the cells in the peritendinous tissue. It is likely that the α7nAChR may be an important part of an auto-and paracrine loop of non-neuronal ACh that is released from the tendon cells. The effects may be related to proliferative and blood vessel regulatory functions as well as features related to collagen deposition. ACh can furthermore be of importance in leading to anti-inflammatory effects in the peritendinous tissue, a tissue nowadays considered to be of great relevance for the tendinopathy process. Overall, the findings show that tendon tissue, a tissue known to be devoid of cholinergic innervation, is a tissue in which there is a marked non-neuronal cholinergic system. PMID:25981114

  2. Distribution of sup 125 I-neurotensin binding sites in human forebrain: Comparison with the localization of acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Szigethy, E.; Quirion, R.; Beaudet, A. )

    1990-07-22

    The distribution of 125I-neurotensin binding sites was compared with that of acetylcholinesterase reactivity in the human basal forebrain by using combined light microscopic radioautography/histochemistry. High 125I-neurotensin binding densities were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, islands of Calleja, claustrum, olfactory tubercle, and central nucleus of the amygdala; lower levels were seen in the caudate, putamen, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert. Adjacent sections processed for cholinesterase histochemistry demonstrated a regional overlap between the distribution of labeled neurotensin binding sites and that of intense acetylcholinesterase staining in all of the above regions, except in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, claustrum, and central amygdaloid nucleus, where dense 125I-neurotensin labeling was detected over areas containing only weak to moderate cholinesterase staining. At higher magnification, 125I-neurotensin-labeled binding sites in the islands of Calleja, supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert were selectively associated with neuronal perikarya found to be cholinesterase-positive in adjacent sections. Moderate 125I-neurotensin binding was also apparent over the cholinesterase-reactive neuropil of these latter three regions. These data suggest that neurotensin (NT) may directly influence the activity of magnocellular cholinergic neurons in the human basal forebrain, and may be involved in the physiopathology of dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in which these neurons have been shown to be affected.

  3. Cholinergic regulation of epithelial ion transport in the mammalian intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, C L; McKay, D M

    2006-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is critical in controlling epithelial ion transport and hence water movements for gut hydration. Here we review the mechanism of cholinergic control of epithelial ion transport across the mammalian intestine. The cholinergic nervous system affects basal ion flux and can evoke increased active ion transport events. Most studies rely on measuring increases in short-circuit current (ISC = active ion transport) evoked by adding ACh or cholinomimetics to intestinal tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Despite subtle species and gut regional differences, most data indicate that, under normal circumstances, the effect of ACh on intestinal ion transport is mainly an increase in Cl- secretion due to interaction with epithelial M3 muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) and, to a lesser extent, neuronal M1 mAChRs; however, AChR pharmacology has been plagued by a lack of good receptor subtype-selective compounds. Mice lacking M3 mAChRs display intact cholinergically-mediated intestinal ion transport, suggesting a possible compensatory mechanism. Inflamed tissues often display perturbations in the enteric cholinergic system and reduced intestinal ion transport responses to cholinomimetics. The mechanism(s) underlying this hyporesponsiveness are not fully defined. Inflammation-evoked loss of mAChR-mediated control of epithelial ion transport in the mouse reveals a role for neuronal nicotinic AChRs, representing a hitherto unappreciated braking system to limit ACh-evoked Cl- secretion. We suggest that: i) pharmacological analyses should be supported by the use of more selective compounds and supplemented with molecular biology techniques targeting specific ACh receptors and signalling molecules, and ii) assessment of ion transport in normal tissue must be complemented with investigations of tissues from patients or animals with intestinal disease to reveal control mechanisms that may go undetected by focusing on healthy tissue only. PMID:16981004

  4. Cholinergic dysregulation produced by selective inactivation of the dystonia-associated protein TorsinA

    PubMed Central

    Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Hollis, Robert; Ball, Chelsea; Martella, Giuseppina; Tassone, Annalisa; Marshall, Andrea; Parsons, Dee; Li, Xinru; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Zhang, Lin; Li, Yuqing; Pisani, Antonio; Standaert, David G.

    2012-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia, a common and severe primary dystonia, is caused by a 3-bp deletion in TOR1A which encodes torsinA, a protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Several cellular functions are altered by the mutant protein, but at a systems level the link between these and the symptoms of the disease is unclear. The most effective known therapy for DYT1 dystonia is use of anticholinergic drugs. Previous studies have revealed that in mice, transgenic expression of human mutant torsinA under a non-selective promoter leads to abnormal function of striatal cholinergic neurons. To investigate what pathological role torsinA plays in cholinergic neurons, we created a mouse model in which the Dyt1 gene, the mouse homolog of TOR1A, is selectively deleted in cholinergic neurons (ChKO animals). These animals do not have overt dystonia, but do have subtle motor abnormalities. There is no change in the number or size of striatal cholinergic cells or striatal acetylcholine content, uptake, synthesis, or release in ChKO mice. There are, however, striking functional abnormalities of striatal cholinergic cells, with paradoxical excitation in response to D2 receptor activation and loss of muscarinic M2/M4 receptor inhibitory function. These effects are specific for cholinergic interneurons, as recordings from nigral dopaminergic neurons revealed normal responses. Amphetamine stimulated dopamine release was also unaltered. These results demonstrate a cell-autonomous effect of Dyt1 deletion on striatal cholinergic function. Therapies directed at modifying the function of cholinergic neurons may prove useful in the treatment of the human disorder. PMID:22579992

  5. Striatal cholinergic interneurons: birthdates predict compartmental localization.

    PubMed

    van Vulpen, E H; van der Kooy, D

    1998-07-01

    The striatal patch and matrix compartment neurons are born at different times during rat development. The majority of the early born neurons preferentially end up in the patch compartment, while the majority of the later born neurons end up in the matrix compartment. Although the cholinergic interneurons are all born early in neurogenesis (between embryonic day E12 and E17), and we would therefore expect them to be located mainly in the patches, they are relatively homogeneously distributed in the adult, with a preference for the matrix area just outside the patches (the intermediate zone). To ask if birthdate can predict the compartmental localization of cholinergic neurons in the striatum, we marked new postmitotic neurons in the embryo with a maternal injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on E13, E15 or E17 and labeled the patch compartment with an injection of the retrograde tracer True Blue into the substantia nigra on postnatal day (P) 1. The pups were sacrificed at P40 and the tissue was processed for BrdU, choline acetyltransferase, and True Blue triple labeling. Cholinergic neurons that became postmitotic at E13, had a higher chance of ending up in the patch compartment compared to either the intermediate zone or the rest of the matrix compartment. On the other hand cholinergic neurons that became postmitotic at E17 had a higher chance of ending up in the matrix compartment (including the intermediate zone). We conclude that birthdate can predict compartmental localization, with the cholinergic neurons in the intermediate zone following the same pattern as the cholinergic neurons in the rest of the matrix compartment. Cholinergic neurons show the same relative birthdate/compartment relationship as do other striatal neurons, although the absolute birthdates of cholinergic neurons are shifted earlier in neurogenesis. PMID:9706390

  6. Evaluating the Evidence Surrounding Pontine Cholinergic Involvement in REM Sleep Generation.

    PubMed

    Grace, Kevin P; Horner, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep - characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity - is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the "pontine REM sleep generator" by cholinergic inputs. Here, we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i) the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii) the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii) loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PTF is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv) cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail. PMID:26388832

  7. Evaluating the Evidence Surrounding Pontine Cholinergic Involvement in REM Sleep Generation

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Kevin P.; Horner, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep – characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity – is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the “pontine REM sleep generator” by cholinergic inputs. Here, we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i) the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii) the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii) loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PTF is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv) cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail. PMID:26388832

  8. Clinical Characteristics of Cholinergic Urticaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Eun, Young Sun; Park, Young Min; Park, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Dong Su; Kang, Hoon; Cho, Sang Hyun; Park, Chul Jong; Kim, Si Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinergic urticaria is a type of physical urticaria characterized by heat-associated wheals. Several reports are available about cholinergic urticaria; however, the clinical manifestations and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of cholinergic urticaria in Korea. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 92 patients with cholinergic urticaria who were contacted by phone and whose diagnoses were confirmed by the exercise provocation test among those who had visited The Catholic University of Korea, Catholic Medical Center from January 2001 to November 2010. Results All 92 patients were male, and their average age was 27.8 years (range, 17~51 years). Most of the patients had onset of the disease in their 20s and 30s. Non-follicular wheals were located on the trunk and upper extremities of many patients, and the symptoms were aggravated by exercise. Eight patients showed general urticaria symptoms and 15 had accompanying atopic disease. Forty-three patients complained of seasonal aggravation. Most patients were treated with first and second-generation antihistamines. Conclusion Dermatologists should consider these characteristics in patients with cholinergic urticaria. Further investigation and follow-up studies are necessary to better understand the epidemiological and clinical findings of cholinergic urticaria. PMID:24882973

  9. Striatal cholinergic neurotransmission requires VGLUT3.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Alexandra B; Bussert, Timothy G; Kreitzer, Anatol C; Seal, Rebecca P

    2014-06-25

    It is now clear that many neuronal populations release more than one classical neurotransmitter, yet in most cases the functional role of corelease is unknown. Striatal cholinergic interneurons release both glutamate and acetylcholine, and vesicular loading of glutamate has been shown to enhance acetylcholine content. Using a combination of optogenetics and whole-cell recordings in mice, we now provide physiological evidence that optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic interneurons triggers monosynaptic glutamate- and acetylcholine-mediated currents in striatal fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), both of which depend on the expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3). In contrast to corticostriatal glutamatergic inputs onto FSIs, which are mediated primarily by AMPA-type glutamate receptors, glutamate release by cholinergic interneurons activates both AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, suggesting a unique role for these inputs in the modulation of FSI activity. Importantly, we find that the loss of VGLUT3 not only markedly attenuates glutamatergic and cholinergic inputs on FSIs, but also significantly decreases disynaptic GABAergic input onto medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the major output neurons of the striatum. Our data demonstrate that VGLUT3 is required for normal cholinergic signaling onto FSIs, as well as for acetylcholine-dependent disynaptic inhibition of MSNs. Thus, by supporting fast glutamatergic transmission as well as by modulating the strength of cholinergic signaling, VGLUT3 has the capacity to exert widespread influence on the striatal network. PMID:24966377

  10. Striatal Cholinergic Neurotransmission Requires VGLUT3

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Bussert, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    It is now clear that many neuronal populations release more than one classical neurotransmitter, yet in most cases the functional role of corelease is unknown. Striatal cholinergic interneurons release both glutamate and acetylcholine, and vesicular loading of glutamate has been shown to enhance acetylcholine content. Using a combination of optogenetics and whole-cell recordings in mice, we now provide physiological evidence that optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic interneurons triggers monosynaptic glutamate- and acetylcholine-mediated currents in striatal fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), both of which depend on the expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3). In contrast to corticostriatal glutamatergic inputs onto FSIs, which are mediated primarily by AMPA-type glutamate receptors, glutamate release by cholinergic interneurons activates both AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, suggesting a unique role for these inputs in the modulation of FSI activity. Importantly, we find that the loss of VGLUT3 not only markedly attenuates glutamatergic and cholinergic inputs on FSIs, but also significantly decreases disynaptic GABAergic input onto medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the major output neurons of the striatum. Our data demonstrate that VGLUT3 is required for normal cholinergic signaling onto FSIs, as well as for acetylcholine-dependent disynaptic inhibition of MSNs. Thus, by supporting fast glutamatergic transmission as well as by modulating the strength of cholinergic signaling, VGLUT3 has the capacity to exert widespread influence on the striatal network. PMID:24966377